WorldWideScience

Sample records for frequency inkjet print

  1. Inkjet Printed Radio Frequency Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-12-01

    Inkjet printing is a mature technique for colourful graphic arts. It excels at customized, large area, high resolution, and small volume production. With the developments in conductive, and dielectric inks, there is potential for large area inkjet electronics fabrication. Passive radio frequency devices can benefit greatly from a printing process, since the size of these devices is defined by the frequency of operation. The large size of radio frequency passives means that they either take up expensive space “on chip” or that they are fabricated on a separate lower cost substrate and somehow bonded to the chips. This has hindered cost-sensitive high volume applications such as radio frequency identification tags. Substantial work has been undertaken on inkjet-printed conductors for passive antennas on microwave substrates and even paper, yet there has been little work on the printing of the dielectric materials aimed at radio frequency passives. Both the conductor and dielectric need to be integrated to create a multilayer inkjet printing process that is capable of making quality passives such as capacitors and inductors. Three inkjet printed dielectrics are investigated in this thesis: a ceramic (alumina), a thermal-cured polymer (poly 4 vinyl phenol), and a UV-cured polymer (acrylic based). For the conductor, both a silver nanoparticle ink as well as a custom in-house formulated particle-free silver ink are explored. The focus is on passives, mainly capacitors and inductors. Compared to low frequency electronics, radio frequency components have additional sensitivity regarding skin depth of the conductor and surface roughness, as well as dielectric constant and loss tangent of the dielectric. These concerns are investigated with the aim of making the highest quality components possible and to understand the current limitations of inkjet-fabricated radio frequency devices. An inkjet-printed alumina dielectric that provides quality factors of 200 and high

  2. 3D inkjet printed radio frequency inductors and capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2016-12-08

    Inkjet printing has emerged as an ideal method for the fabrication of low cost and efficient electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs at present utilize 2D inkjet printing of metallic inks on conventional substrates. In order to have fully printed RF components, the substrate must also be printed. 3D printing of polymers can be an ideal mechanism for printing substrates, however typically such materials cannot handle high sintering temperatures (>150 0C) required for nanoparticles based metallic inks. In this work, an all-inkjet printed process is demonstrated that utilizes 3D inkjet printing of a UV-cured dielectric material in combination with the printing of a particle free conductive silver organo-complex (SOC) ink for realization of inductors and capacitors. The processing temperature does not exceed 80 0C and still state of the art conductivity of 1×107 S/m is achieved. Both the conductive ink and dielectric have roughness values under 500 nm. The inductor and capacitor exhibit quality factors of 8 and 20 respectively in the high MHz and GHz regime.

  3. Digital Inkjet Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meichun

    2017-01-01

    Digital inkjet textile printing is an emerging technology developed with the rise of the digital world. It offers a possibility to print high-resolution images with unlimited color selection on fabrics. Digital inkjet printing brings a revolutionary chance for the textile printing industry. The history of textile printing shows the law how new technology replaces the traditional way of printing. This indicates the future of digital inkjet textile printing is relatively positive. Differen...

  4. Inkjet printing of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arapov, K.; Abbel, R.; De With, G.; Friedrich, H.

    2014-01-01

    The inkjet printing of graphene is a cost-effective, and versatile deposition technique for both transparent and non-transparent conductive films. Printing graphene on paper is aimed at low-end, high-volume applications, i.e.; in electromagnetic shielding, photovoltaics or, e.g.; as a replacement

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring the droplet frequency response of an ink-jet print head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhi-Ru; Lee, Ming-Ling; Lai, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Hung-Lien; Wang, Chiehwen

    2000-06-01

    To speed up the printing speed of an inkjet printer, the manufacturers normally focus on increasing the droplet frequency response. Hence, it has become a very important technique to measure the droplet frequency response of an inkjet printhead. A magneto-electric method is proposed to measure the droplet frequency response. The magneto-electric apparatus contains a metallic detecting plate and a magnetic ring with a gap of about 100 micrometers filled with a nonmagnetic insulating material. The magnetic ring itself is made of a high-permeability alloy consisting of about 78% nickel and 22% iron. When an ink drop jetted from a nozzle makes a contact with the metallic detecting plate, which is perpendicular to the nozzle plate of a printhead, a current is conducted through the detecting plate immediately, and detected as a portion of expected signal. The expected signal is then processed by a signal processing circuit for counting the number of jetted drops, and determining the maximum droplet frequency response of the inkjet printhead as a function of the driving frequency of an applied voltage across the printhead.

  6. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags: The interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaguera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices

  7. Wide frequency independently controlled dual-band inkjet-printed antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AbuTarboush, Hattan F.

    2014-01-08

    A low-cost inkjet-printed multiband monopole antenna is presented. The unique advantage of the proposed antenna is the freedom to adjust and set the dual-band of the antenna independently over a wide range (148.83%). To demonstrate the independent control feature, the 2.4 and 3.4 GHz bands for the wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications are selected as an example. The measured impedance bandwidths for the 2.4 and 3.4 GHz are 15.2 and 23.7%, respectively. These dual-bands have the ability to be controlled independently between 1.1 and 7.5 GHz without affecting the other band. In addition, the proposed antenna can be assigned for different mobile and wireless applications such as GPS, PCS, GSM 1800, 1900, UMTS, and up to 5-GHz WLAN and WiMAX applications. The mechanism of independent control of each radiator through dimensional variation is discussed in detail. The antenna has a compact size of 10 × 37.3 × 0.44 mm3, leaving enough space for the driving electronics on the paper substrate. The measured results from the prototype are in good agreement with the simulated results. Owing to inkjet printing on an ordinary paper, the design is extremely light weight and highly suitable for low cost and large volume manufacturing. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.

  8. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-01-30

    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  9. Inkjet printed wireless smart bandage

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-12-19

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and requires a major portion of health care budget for treatment. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage strip, which can send early warnings as well as record long term wound progression data. The smart bandage can communicate upto a distance of 60 m when worn on the body.

  10. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  11. Inkjet printing of magnetic materials with aligned anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Spencer, Jeremy; Jander, Albrecht; Nielsen, Jeffrey; Stasiak, James; Kasperchik, Vladek; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-01

    3-D printing processes, which use drop-on-demand inkjet printheads, have great potential in designing and prototyping magnetic materials. Unlike conventional deposition and lithography, magnetic particles in the printing ink can be aligned by an external magnetic field to achieve both high permeability and low hysteresis losses, enabling prototyping and development of novel magnetic composite materials and components, e.g., for inductor and antennae applications. In this work, we report an inkjet printing technique with magnetic alignment capability. Magnetic films with and without particle alignment are printed, and their magnetic properties are compared. In the alignment-induced hard axis direction, an increase in high frequency permeability and a decrease in hysteresis losses are observed. Our results suggest that unique magnetic structures with arbitrary controllable anisotropy, not feasible otherwise, may be fabricated via inkjet printing.

  12. Impact of variable frequency microwave and rapid thermal sintering on microstructure of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Yakoub, Abdelwahhab; Inal, Karim; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The effect of thermal profile on microstructure is studied in the frame of thin films deposited by inkjet-printing technology. The role of sintering temperature and thermal ramp is particularly investigated. Fast heating ramps exhibit coarse grains and pores, especially when a hybrid microwave curing is performed. This enhanced growth is attributed to the quick activation of densifying sintering regimes without undergoing thermal energy loss at low temperature. Microst...

  13. A Fully Inkjet Printed 3D Honeycomb Inspired Patch Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-07-16

    The ability to inkjet print three-dimensional objects with integrated conductive metal provides many opportunities for fabrication of radio frequency electronics and electronics in general. Both a plastic material and silver conductor are deposited by inkjet printing in this work. This is the first demonstration of a fully 3D Multijet printing process with integrated polymer and metal. A 2.4 GHz patch antenna is successfully fabricated with good performance proving the viability of the process. The inkjet printed plastic surface is very smooth, with less than 100 nm root mean square roughness. The printed silver nanoparticles are laser sintered to achieve adequate conductivity of 1e6 S/m while keeping the process below 80oC and avoiding damage to the polymer. The antenna is designed with a honeycomb substrate which minimizes material consumption. This reduces the weight, dielectric constant and dielectric loss which are all around beneficial. The antenna is entirely inkjet printed including the ground plane conductor and achieves an impressive 81% efficiency. The honeycomb substrate weighs twenty times less than a solid substrate. For comparison the honeycomb antenna provides an efficiency nearly 15% greater than a similarly fabricated antenna with a solid substrate.

  14. Modification of microneedles using inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Boehm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedles containing quantum dots were fabricated by means of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing. Nanoindentation was performed to obtain the hardness and the Young's modulus of the biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer. Imaging of quantum dots within porcine skin was accomplished by means of multiphoton microscopy. Our results suggest that the combination of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing enables fabrication of solid biodegradable microneedles with a wide range of geometries as well as a wide range of pharmacologic agent compositions.

  15. Inkjet printing technology for OPV applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, M.; Sweelssen, J.; Grossiord, N.; Gorter, H.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) at low cost is, still, a future concept thought to promote the market share of solar energy. Working towards the roll-to-roll production of OPVs, different compatible deposition techniques are investigated. Inkjet printing is a promising

  16. Adhesion Characterisation of Inkjet Printed Silver Tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, Ashok; van Dijk, D.J.; Akkerman, Remko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The ever-growing need for fast prototypes and reduced manufacturing throughput times in the electronics industry has lead to worldwide research aimed at developing novel techniques and process chains. Inkjet Printing is a versatile, flexible and relatively simple process that might fit

  17. Adhesion characterization of inkjet printed tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, Ashok; Akkerman, Remko; van Dijk, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The robustness and service life of inkjet printed electronic circuit structures are highly influenced by the state of the interface between these structures and the substrate. In the case of polymeric substrate materials, surface modification is necessary to realise a favourable interface, as these

  18. Review of Recent Inkjet-Printed Capacitive Tactile Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is an advanced printing technology that has been used to develop conducting layers, interconnects and other features on a variety of substrates. It is an additive manufacturing process that offers cost-effective, lightweight designs and simplifies the fabrication process with little effort. There is hardly sufficient research on tactile sensors and inkjet printing. Advancements in materials science and inkjet printing greatly facilitate the realization of sophisticated tactile sensors. Starting from the concept of capacitive sensing, a brief comparison of printing techniques, the essential requirements of inkjet-printing and the attractive features of state-of-the art inkjet-printed tactile sensors developed on diverse substrates (paper, polymer, glass and textile are presented in this comprehensive review. Recent trends in inkjet-printed wearable/flexible and foldable tactile sensors are evaluated, paving the way for future research.

  19. Review of Recent Inkjet-Printed Capacitive Tactile Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ahmed; Lim, Sungjoon

    2017-11-10

    Inkjet printing is an advanced printing technology that has been used to develop conducting layers, interconnects and other features on a variety of substrates. It is an additive manufacturing process that offers cost-effective, lightweight designs and simplifies the fabrication process with little effort. There is hardly sufficient research on tactile sensors and inkjet printing. Advancements in materials science and inkjet printing greatly facilitate the realization of sophisticated tactile sensors. Starting from the concept of capacitive sensing, a brief comparison of printing techniques, the essential requirements of inkjet-printing and the attractive features of state-of-the art inkjet-printed tactile sensors developed on diverse substrates (paper, polymer, glass and textile) are presented in this comprehensive review. Recent trends in inkjet-printed wearable/flexible and foldable tactile sensors are evaluated, paving the way for future research.

  20. Fabrication of Fully Inkjet-Printed Vias and SIW Structures on Thick Polymer Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sangkil

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, a novel fully inkjet-printed via fabrication technology and various inkjet-printed substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) structures on thick polymer substrates are presented. The electrical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are thoroughly studied up to 8 GHz utilizing the T-resonator method, and inkjet-printable silver nanoparticle ink on PMMA is characterized. A long via fabrication process up to 1 mm utilizing inkjet-printing technology is demonstrated, and its characteristics are presented for the first time. The inkjet-printed vias on 0.8-mm-thick substrate have a resistance of ∼ 0.2~ Ω . An equivalent circuit model of the inkjet-printed stepped vias is also discussed. An inkjet-printed microstrip-to-SIW interconnect and an SIW cavity resonator utilizing the proposed inkjet-printed via fabrication process are also presented. The design of the components and the fabrication steps are discussed, and the measured performances over the microwave frequency range of the prototypes are presented.

  1. Inkjet Printing of 3D Metallic Silver Complex Microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Sridhar, Ashok; Dimitrov, D.

    2010-01-01

    To broaden the scope of inkjet printing, this paper focuses on printing of an organic silver complex ink on glass substrates towards the fabrication of metallic 3D microstructures. The droplet formation sequence of the inkjet printer is optimised to print continuous layers of metal. A brief

  2. Ink-jet printing of silver metallization for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the ink-jet printing program at Purdue University is described. The drop-on-demand printing system was modified to use metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) inks. Also, an IBM AT computer was integrated into the ink-jet printer system to provide operational functions and contact pattern configuration. The integration of the ink-jet printing system, problems encountered, and solutions derived were described in detail. The status of ink-jet printing using a MOD ink was discussed. The ink contained silver neodecanate and bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in toluene; the MOD ink decomposition products being 99 wt% AG, and 1 wt% Bi.

  3. Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on corrugated cardboards for packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Göthel, Frank [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Zichner, Ralf [Department Printed Functionalities, Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany); Baumann, Reinhard R. [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Department Printed Functionalities, Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on cardboard substrates. • Development of primer layer to compensate the absorptiveness of the cardboard and the rough surface. • Manufacturing of UHF antennas in a fully digital manner for packaging applications. - Abstract: In this study, a method based on inkjet printing has been established to develop UHF antennas on a corrugated cardboard for packaging applications. The use of such a standardized, paper-based packaging substrate as material for printing electronics is challenging in terms of its high surface roughness and high ink absorption rate, especially when depositing very thin films with inkjet printing technology. However, we could obtain well-defined silver layers on the cardboard substrates due to a primer layer approach. The primer layer is based on a UV-curable ink formulation and deposited as well as the silver ink with inkjet printing technology. Industrial relevant printheads were chosen for the deposition of the materials. The usage of inkjet printing allows highest flexibility in terms of pattern design. The primer layer was proven to optimize the surface characteristics of the substrate, mainly reducing the surface roughness and water absorptiveness. Thanks to the primer layer approach, ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) antennas were deposited by inkjet printing on the corrugated cardboards. Along with the characterization and interpretation of electrical properties of the established conductive antenna patterns, the performance of the printed antennas were analyzed in detail by measuring the scattering parameter S{sub 11} and the antenna gain.

  4. Inkjet-printed Polyvinyl Alcohol Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaoru, Iulia; Zhou, Zuoxin; Morris, Peter; Gibbons, Gregory J

    2017-05-11

    Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability. The wettability of the ink on different substrates was investigated, and glass was identified as the most suitable substrate in this particular case. A proprietary 3D inkjet printer was employed to manufacture polymer multilayer structures. The morphology, surface profile, and thickness uniformity of inkjet-printed multilayers were evaluated via optical microscopy.

  5. Inkjet-printed silver tracks on different paper substrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, T-H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is a widely used patterning method in industrial and scientific applications, and has also drawn attention in the field of printed electronics in recent years [1]. In this work, conductive silver tracks were achieved by inkjet...

  6. Friction Properties of Inkjet and Flexographic Prints on Different Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grigaliūnienė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction between different papers, inkjet and flexographic prints has been experimentally investigated. Flexographic prints have been made using an anilox roller, and inkjet prints have been produced covering paper with one and four toner layers. Static (SCOF and kinetic (KCOF friction coefficients between paper and paper, paper and prints, prints and prints have been determined. Friction properties have been discovered to be different in flexographic and laser prints. The dependence of SCOF and KCOF on pressure (both decrease together with roughness measurements enables to conclude that the friction of prints is mainly governed by adhesion forces.

  7. Properties and Printability of Inkjet and Screen-Printed Silver Patterns for RFID Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, José F.; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Briand, Danick; Ruan, Jason J.; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Carvajal, Miguel A.; Capitán-Vallvey, L. F.; de Rooij, Nico F.; Palma, Alberto J.

    2014-02-01

    We report the modeling, and geometrical and electrical characterization, of inkjet and screen-printed patterns on different polymeric substrates for use as antennas in radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. We compared the physical and electrical characteristics of two silver nanoparticle-based commercial inkjet-printable inks and one screen-printable silver paste, when deposited on polyimide (PI), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyetherimide (PEI) substrates. First, the thickness of the inkjet-printed patterns was predicted by use of an analytical model based on printing conditions and ink composition. The predicted thickness was confirmed experimentally, and geometrical characterization of the lines was completed by measuring the root-mean-square roughness of the patterns. Second, direct-current electrical characterization was performed to identify the printing conditions yielding the lowest resistivity and sheet resistance. The minimum resistivity for the inkjet-printing method was 8.6 ± 0.8 μΩ cm, obtained by printing four stacked layers of one of the commercial inks on PEI, whereas minimum resistivity of 44 ± 7 μΩ cm and 39 ± 4 μΩ cm were obtained for a single layer of screen-printed ink on polyimide (PI) with 140 threads/cm mesh and 90 threads/cm mesh, respectively. In every case, these minimum values of resistivity were obtained for the largest tested thickness. Coplanar waveguide transmission lines were then designed and characterized to analyze the radio-frequency (RF) performance of the printed patterns; minimum transmission losses of 0.0022 ± 0.0012 dB/mm and 0.0016 ± 0.0012 dB/mm measured at 13.56 MHz, in the high-frequency (HF) band, were achieved by inkjet printing on PEI and screen printing on PI, respectively. At 868 MHz, in the ultra-high-frequency band, the minimum values of transmission loss were 0.0130 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for inkjet printing on PEI and 0.0100 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for screen printing on PI. Although the

  8. Inkjet4Tex: Creative implications of 3D inkjet printing technologies for textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This project expands future applied-design capabilities for textiles as a function of inkjet deposition technology. The project investigates 3D inkjet rapid-production tools’ potential, focusing on creative gaps in the developing technology in its application to the textile design process. As such, the research investigates future design possibilities for inkjet printing technology in the creation of 3D textile structures and surfaces. The research “demonstrates how tacit knowledge can be emp...

  9. Dynamics of wetting explored with inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völkel Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An inkjet printer head, which is capable of depositing liquid droplets with a resolution of 22 picoliters and high repeatability, is employed to investigate the wetting dynamics of drops printed on a horizontal plane as well as on a granular monolayer. For a sessile drop on a horizontal plane, we characterize the contact angle hysteresis, drop volume and contact line dynamics from side view images. We show that the evaporation rate scales with the dimension of the contact line instead of the surface area of the drop. We demonstrate that the system evolves into a closed cycle upon repeating the depositing-evaporating process, owing to the high repeatability of the printing facility. Finally, we extend the investigation to a granular monolayer in order to explore the interplay between liquid deposition and granular particles.

  10. An MRI receiver coil produced by inkjet printing directly on to a flexible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Dario; Peter, Andreas; Tin, Laura Del; Fischer, Elmar; Smith, Patrick J; Hennig, Jürgen; Korvink, Jan G

    2010-02-01

    Inkjet printing has been used to produce resonant radio frequency coils that are comparable to those produced by conventional printed circuit board (PCB) methods. The coils, which consist of a conductive loop and in-series capacitors, form part of a receiver circuit that is used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resonant circuit is selective at the predetermined frequency of 400 MHz. The required electrical components (resistor, capacitor, and inductor) were produced by inkjet printing, with scaling experiments for resistor and capacitor performed before the complete loops with integrated capacitors were printed. Numerical simulation was used to determine the required values for the components. The inkjet printed circuit was combined with a small tuning and matching board before being connected to a network analyzer and the MRI hardware. With a matching of - 38 dB at 400 MHz the achieved results were comparable to those from standard PCB techniques. The performance of the inkjet printed component as a receiver device for nuclear magnetic resonance and MRI was verified by imaging reference phantoms and a whole kiwifruit; it compares favorably to standard MRI devices. Inkjet printing can, therefore, be considered a feasible technique for producing MRI receiver circuits on flexible substrates.

  11. Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on corrugated cardboards for packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowade, Enrico; Göthel, Frank; Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a method based on inkjet printing has been established to develop UHF antennas on a corrugated cardboard for packaging applications. The use of such a standardized, paper-based packaging substrate as material for printing electronics is challenging in terms of its high surface roughness and high ink absorption rate, especially when depositing very thin films with inkjet printing technology. However, we could obtain well-defined silver layers on the cardboard substrates due to a primer layer approach. The primer layer is based on a UV-curable ink formulation and deposited as well as the silver ink with inkjet printing technology. Industrial relevant printheads were chosen for the deposition of the materials. The usage of inkjet printing allows highest flexibility in terms of pattern design. The primer layer was proven to optimize the surface characteristics of the substrate, mainly reducing the surface roughness and water absorptiveness. Thanks to the primer layer approach, ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) antennas were deposited by inkjet printing on the corrugated cardboards. Along with the characterization and interpretation of electrical properties of the established conductive antenna patterns, the performance of the printed antennas were analyzed in detail by measuring the scattering parameter S11 and the antenna gain.

  12. Paper-based inkjet-printed microfluidic analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Henares, Terence G; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2015-04-27

    Rapid, precise, and reproducible deposition of a broad variety of functional materials, including analytical assay reagents and biomolecules, has made inkjet printing an effective tool for the fabrication of microanalytical devices. A ubiquitous office device as simple as a standard desktop printer with its multiple ink cartridges can be used for this purpose. This Review discusses the combination of inkjet printing technology with paper as a printing substrate for the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), which have developed into a fast-growing new field in analytical chemistry. After introducing the fundamentals of μPADs and inkjet printing, it touches on topics such as the microfluidic patterning of paper, tailored arrangement of materials, and functionalities achievable exclusively by the inkjet deposition of analytical assay components, before concluding with an outlook on future perspectives. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Xiaolei; Wang Hong; Zou Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. ► A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. ► Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. ► Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. ► Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  14. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn

    2013-01-01

    employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...... in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly...... is compared with evaporation in the processing of back electrode. Laser beam induced current (LBIC) imaging is used to investigate the impact of the processing techniques on the current collection in the devices. We report that inkjet printing of back electrode delivers devices having photovoltaic performance...

  15. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  16. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaiyet Iftekharul Haque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D printing and two-dimensional (2D printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  17. Fabrication of capacitive acoustic resonators combining 3D printing and 2D inkjet printing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-10-14

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  18. Inkjet-Printed Ultra Wide Band Fractal Antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-05-01

    In this work, Paper-based inkjet-printed Ultra-wide band (UWB) fractal antennas are presented. Three new designs, a combined UWB fractal monopole based on the fourth order Koch Snowflake fractal which utilizes a Sierpinski Gasket fractal for ink reduction, a Cantor-based fractal antenna which performs a larger bandwidth compared to previously published UWB Cantor fractal monopole antenna, and a 3D loop fractal antenna which attains miniaturization, impedance matching and multiband characteristics. It is shown that fractals prove to be a successful method of reducing fabrication cost in inkjet printed antennas while retaining or enhancing printed antenna performance.

  19. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance

  20. Inkjet printing of multifilamentary YBCO for low AC loss coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, S. C.; Joseph, D.; Mitchell-Williams, T. B.; Calleja, A.; Vlad, V. R.; Vilardell, M.; Ricart, S.; Granados, X.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Usoskin, A.; Falter, M.; Bäcker, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Considerable progress has been made with the development of REBCO coated conductors in recent years, and high performance conductors are available commercially. For many applications, however, the cost remains prohibitive, and AC losses discourage their selection for higher frequency applications. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) methods are attractive for low-cost, scalable preparation of buffer and superconductor layers, and in many respects inkjet printing is the method of choice, permitting non-contact deposition with minimal materials wastage and excellent control of coating thickness. Highly textured coatings of YBCO and Gd-doped CeO2 have previously been reported on buffered metal substrates. Inkjet printing also introduces the possibility of patterning - directly depositing two and three dimensional structures without subtractive processing - offering a low-cost route to coated conductors with reduced AC losses. In this contribution, the inkjet deposition of superconducting YBCO tracks is reported on industrially relevant buffered metal substrates both by direct printing and an inverse patterning approach. In the latter approach, ceria tracks were printed reported, which are a candidate both for resistive filament spacers and buffer layers. TFA-based precursor solutions have been printed on SS/ABAD-YSZ/CeO2 and Ni-W/LZO/CeO2 RABiTS substrates, and the resulting multifilamentary samples characterised by microscopy and scanning Hall probe measurements. The prospects for future inkjet-printed low AC loss coated conductors are discussed, including control of interfilamentary resistivity and bridging, transposed filamentary structures and stabilisation material.

  1. In situ synthesis of nanoparticles on substrates by inkjet printing

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-12-23

    Nanoparticles may be formed on a substrate by mixing precursor solutions deposited by an inkjet printer. A first solution is deposited on a substrate from a first inkjet print cartridge. Then, a second solution is deposited on the substrate from a second inkjet print cartridge. The solutions may be printed in an array of droplets on the substrate. Nanoparticles form when droplets of the first solution overlap with droplets of the second solution. In one example, the nanoparticles may be gold nanoparticles formed from mixing a first solution of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and oleylamine and a second solution of gold chloride trihydrite and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The nanoparticles may be incorporated into optoelectronic devices.

  2. Evaluation of different substrates for inkjet printing of rasagiline mesylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Janßen, Eva Maria; Breitenbach, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to evaluate applicability of the different model substrates, namely orodispersible films (ODFs), porous copy paper sheets, and water impermeable transparency films (TFs) in preparation of the inkjet-printed drug-delivery systems. Rasagiline mesylate (RM......) was used as a low-dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Flexible doses of the drug in a single unit were obtained by printing several subsequent layers on top of the already printed ones, using an off-the-shelf consumer thermal inkjet (TIJ) printer. The produced drug-delivery systems were subjected...... to microscopic and chemical analysis together with solid-state characterization and content uniformity studies. The results revealed that RM recrystallized on the surface of ODFs and TFs, and the printed crystals were arranged in lines. No drug crystals were detected after printing on the surface of the copy...

  3. Inkjet Printing of Functional Materials for Optical and Photonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alamán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing, traditionally used in graphics, has been widely investigated as a valuable tool in the preparation of functional surfaces and devices. This review focuses on the use of inkjet printing technology for the manufacturing of different optical elements and photonic devices. The presented overview mainly surveys work done in the fabrication of micro-optical components such as microlenses, waveguides and integrated lasers; the manufacturing of large area light emitting diodes displays, liquid crystal displays and solar cells; as well as the preparation of liquid crystal and colloidal crystal based photonic devices working as lasers or optical sensors. Special emphasis is placed on reviewing the materials employed as well as in the relevance of inkjet in the manufacturing of the different devices showing in each of the revised technologies, main achievements, applications and challenges.

  4. Inkjet printing and inkjet infiltration of functional coatings for SOFCs fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomov Rumen I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing fabrication and modification of electrodes and electrolytes of SOFCs were studied. Electromagnetic print-heads were utilized to reproducibly dispense droplets of inks at rates of several kHz on demand. Printing parameters including pressure, nozzle opening time and drop spreading were studied in order to optimize the inks jetting and delivery. Scanning electron microscopy revealed highly conformal ~ 6-10 μm thick dense electrolyte layers routinely produced on cermet and metal porous supports. Open circuit voltages ranging from 0.95 to 1.01 V, and a maximum power density of ~180 mW.cm−2 were measured at 750 °C on Ni-8YSZ/YSZ/LSM single cell 50×50 mm in size. The effect of anode and cathode microstructures on the electrochemical performance was investigated. Two - step fabrication of the electrodes using inkjet printing infiltration was implemented. In the first step the porous electrode scaffold was created printing suspension composite inks. During the second step inkjet printing infiltration was utilized for controllable loading of active elements and a formation of nano-grid decorations on the scaffolds radically reducing the activation polarization losses of both electrodes. Symmetrical cells of both types were characterized by impedance spectroscopy in order to reveal the relation between the microstructure and the electrochemical performance.

  5. The fluid transport in inkjet-printed liquid rivulets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, Timothy; Liu, Liang; Sun, Xiaoze; Pei, Yunheng; Microfluidic; Interfacial Transport Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing holds significant potential for the controlled deposition of solution-processed functional materials spanning applications from microelectronics to biomedical sciences. Although theoretical and experimental investigations addressing the stability criteria of the inkjet-printed liquid rivulets have been discussed in the literature, the associated transport phenomena have received little attention. This study focuses on the experimental investigation of printed rivulets, stable with respect to Rayleigh-Plateau, but exhibiting bulge instability. The morphological evolution and the depth-resolved flow field of the rivulets were assessed via high-speed imaging in conjunction with micro-PIV. We discuss in detail effects of repetitive wave motion induced by periodic drop impact at the leading edge and the associated pulsatile flow, as well as the persistent nonuniform mass distribution in the ridge region of the rivulet. The results provide an experimental foundation for more detailed theoretical modelling of printed rivulet flows.

  6. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-10-24

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S levels which are important for early warnings of two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial gas leaks. The temperature sensor has TCR of -0.018/°, the highest of any inkjet-printed sensor and the H2S sensor can detect as low as 3 ppm of gas. These sensors and an antenna have been realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing have been combined in order to realize a unique low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node. Field tests show that these sensor nodes can wirelessly communicate up to a distance of over 100m. Our proposed sensor node can be a part of internet of things with the aim of providing a better and safe living.

  7. 3D inkjet printed flexible and wearable antenna systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2017-12-22

    With the advent of wearable sensors and internet of things (IoT), there is a new focus on electronics which can be bent so that they can be worn or mounted on non-planar objects. Moreover, there is a requirement that these electronics become extremely low cost, to the extent that they become disposable. The flexible and low cost aspects can be addressed by adapting additive manufacturing technologies such as inkjet printing and 3D printing. This paper presents inkjet printing as an emerging new technique to realize low cost, flexible and wearable antenna systems. The ability of inkjet printing to realize electronics on unconventional mediums such as plastics, papers, and textiles has opened up a plethora of new applications. A variety of antennas such as wide-band, multiband, and wearable, etc, which have been realized through additive manufacturing techniques are shown. Many system level examples are also shown, primarily for wireless sensing applications. The promising results of these designs indicate that the day when electronics can be printed like newspapers and magazines through roll-to-roll and reel-to-reel printing is not far away.

  8. 3D printing of tablets using inkjet with UV photoinitiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elizabeth A; Alexander, Morgan R; Irvine, Derek J; Roberts, Clive J; Wallace, Martin J; Sharpe, Sonja; Yoo, Jae; Hague, Richard J M; Tuck, Chris J; Wildman, Ricky D

    2017-08-30

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers significant potential benefits in the field of drug delivery and pharmaceutical/medical device manufacture. Of AM processes, 3D inkjet printing enables precise deposition of a formulation, whilst offering the potential for significant scale up or scale out as a manufacturing platform. This work hypothesizes that suitable solvent based ink formulations can be developed that allow the production of solid dosage forms that meet the standards required for pharmaceutical tablets, whilst offering a platform for flexible and personalized manufacture. We demonstrate this using piezo-activated inkjetting to 3D print ropinirole hydrochloride. The tablets produced consist of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEGDA) hydrogel matrix containing the drug, photoinitiated in a low oxygen environment using an aqueous solution of Irgacure 2959. At a Ropinirole HCl loading of 0.41mg, drug release from the tablet is shown to be Fickian. Raman and IR spectroscopy indicate a high degree of cross-linking and formation of an amorphous solid dispersion. This is the first publication of a UV inkjet 3D printed tablet. Consequently, this work opens the possibility for the translation of scalable, high precision and bespoke ink-jet based additive manufacturing to the pharmaceutical sector. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Current Trends on Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Inkjet Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoutaris, Nicolaos; Ross, Steven; Douroumis, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Inkjet printing is an attractive material deposition and patterning technology that has received significant attention in the recent years. It has been exploited for novel applications including high throughput screening, pharmaceutical formulations, medical devices and implants. Moreover, inkjet printing has been implemented in cutting-edge 3D-printing healthcare areas such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent inkjet advances enabled 3D printing of artificial cartilage and skin, or cell constructs for transplantation therapies. In the coming years inkjet printing is anticipated to revolutionize personalized medicine and push the innovation portfolio by offering new paths in patient - specific treatments.

  10. Tunable inkjet-printed slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2015-04-13

    In this work an inkjet-printed frequency-tunable slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate is reported. Unlike the typical substrate integrated waveguide approach with via holes, a true 3D rectangular waveguide is realized by inkjet-printing of nano-particle based conductive ink on the broad faces as well as on sides of the substrate. The operating frequency of the antenna can be tuned by applying a variable static bias magnetic field that controls the permeability of the host ferrite substrate. The antenna operates about a center frequency of approximately 14 GHz with an instantaneous impedance bandwidth of 75 MHz. A fabricated prototype has demonstrated a tuning range of 10% (1.5 GHz) using an applied bias magnetic field of 3 kOe yielding it especially attractive for tunable and reconfigurable yet low cost microwave systems.

  11. Flexible electroluminescent device with inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoubel, Suzanna; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2012-08-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNTs) inks may provide an effective route for producing flexible electronic devices by digital printing. In this paper we report on the formulation of highly concentrated aqueous CNT inks and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible electroluminescent (EL) devices by inkjet printing combined with wet coating. We also report, for the first time, on the formation of flexible EL devices in which all the electrodes are formed by inkjet printing of low-cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Several flexible EL devices were fabricated by using different materials for the production of back and counter electrodes: ITO/MWCNT and MWCNT/MWCNT. Transparent electrodes were obtained either by coating a thin layer of the CNTs or by inkjet printing a grid which is composed of empty cells surrounded by MWCNTs. It was found that the conductivity and transparency of the electrodes are mainly controlled by the MWCNT film thickness, and that the dominant factor in the luminance intensity is the transparency of the electrode.

  12. An inkjet-printed UWB antenna on paper substrate utilizing a novel fractal matching network

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the smallest reported inkjet-printed UWB antenna is proposed that utilizes a fractal matching network to increase the performance of a UWB microstrip monopole. The antenna is inkjet-printed on a paper substrate to demonstrate the ability to produce small and low-cost UWB antennas with inkjet-printing technology which can enable compact, low-cost, and environmentally friendly wireless sensor network. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Fully inkjet printed RF inductors and capacitors using polymer dielectric and silver conductive ink with through vias

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, fully inkjet printed multilayer capacitors and inductors are fabricated and characterized using poly 4-vinylphenol (PVP) ink as the dielectric layer and silver nanoparticle ink as the conductor. Inkjet printed through vias, created with a novel dissolving method are used to make RF structures in a multilayer inkjet printing process. The vias have been realized in a 350-nm PVP film and exhibit resistance better than 0.1 Ω. Spiral inductors from 10 to 75 nH have been realized with maximum quality factors around five. The 10-nH inductor exhibits a self-resonant frequency slightly below 1 GHz. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors are realized with densities of 50 pF/mm-2. These capacitors demonstrate values ranging from 16 to 50 pF. The 16-pF capacitor shows a self-resonant frequency over 1.5 GHz. The successful implementation of inductors and capacitors in an all inkjet printed multilayer process with vias is an important step toward fully inkjet-printed large area and flexible RF systems.

  14. Inkjet printing of insulin microneedles for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven; Scoutaris, Nicolaos; Lamprou, Dimitrios; Mallinson, David; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Inkjet printing technology was used to apply insulin polymeric layers on metal microneedles for transdermal delivery. A range of various polymers such as gelatin (GLN), polyvinyl caprolactame-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol (SOL), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (POX) and trehalose (THL) were assessed for their capacity to form thin uniform and homogeneous layers that preserve insulin intact. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed homogeneous insulin-polymer layers without any phase separation while SOL demonstrated the best performance. Circular discroism (CD) analysis of rehydrated films showed that insulin's alpha helices and β-sheet were well preserved for THL and SOL. In contrast, GLN and POX insulin layers revealed small band shifts indicating possible conformational changes. Insulin release in Franz diffusion cells from MNs inserted into porcine skin showed rapid release rates for POX and GLN within the first 20 min. Inkjet printing was proved an effective approach for transdermal delivery of insulin in solid state.

  15. Aqueous biological graphene based formulations for ink-jet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybowska-Sarapuk Łucja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce heterophasic graphene nanoplatelets based formulation designed for ink-jet printing and biomedical applications. The compositions should meet two conditions: should be cytocompatible and have the rheological properties that allow to apply it with ink-jet printing technique. In view of the above conditions, the selection of suspensions components, such as binder, solvent and surfactants was performed. In the first stage of the research the homogeneity of the dispersion of nanoplatelets and their sedimentation behaviour in diverse solutions were tested. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of each ink on human mesenchymal stem cells was examined using the Alamar Blue Test. At the same time the rheology of the resulting suspensions was tested. As a result of these tests the best ink composition was elaborated: water, polyethylene glycol, graphene nanoplatelets and the surfactant from DuPont company.

  16. All inkjet printed 3D microwave capacitors and inductors with vias

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2013-06-01

    For the first time we present a method to create all inkjet printed multilayer RF passive components including vias. Although there has been previous work on multilayer RF components, they are not fully inkjet printed and involve complicated processing techniques such as laser cutting, conductive epoxy, or reactive ion etching This work demonstrates a truly all inkjet printed solution with a novel dissolving method for vias realization. A major issue with inkjet printing is often surface roughness, however by processing these materials at low temperature surface roughness <20nm RMS has been obtained which allows for high quality components to be fabricated and allows for stacked multilayer designs. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Highly sensitive and flexible inkjet printed SERS sensors on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Eric P; Yu, Wei W; White, Ian M

    2013-10-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has the potential to be utilized for the detection of a broad range of chemicals in trace quantities. However, because of the cost and complexity of SERS devices, the technology has been unable to fill the needs of many practical applications, in particular the need for rapid, portable, on-site detection in the field. In this work, we review a new methodology for trace chemical detection using inkjet-printed SERS substrates on paper. The detection performance of the inkjet-printed SERS devices is demonstrated by detecting 1,2-Bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) at a concentration as low as 1.8 ppb. We then illustrate the primary advantages of paper SERS substrates as compared to conventional SERS substrates. By leveraging lateral flow concentration, the detection limit of paper SERS substrates can be further improved. Two real-world applications are demonstrated. First, the inkjet-printed SERS substrates are used as "dipsticks" for detecting the fungicide malachite green in water. Then, the flexible paper-based SERS devices are used as swabs to collect and detect trace residues of the fungicide thiram from a surface. We predict that the combination of ultra-low-cost fabrication with the advantages of easy-to-use dipsticks and swabs and the option of lateral flow concentration position ink-jet printed SERS substrates as a technology which will enable the application of SERS in solving critical problems for chemical detection in the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A flexible inkjet printed antenna for wearable electronics applications

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-11-02

    Wearable electronics has gained enormous attention since past few years because it is a promising technology to enhance the human experience. This paper shows a modified inverted-F antenna (IFA), inkjet printed directly on the fabric. A flexible and UV curable interface layer has been used to reduce the surface roughness of the fabric to realize the antenna on top of fabric with fine features. Flexibility tests of the prototype confirm the viability of the design for the wearable applications.

  19. A flexible inkjet printed inverted-F antenna on textile

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-12-19

    This is an era of wearable gadgets which demands flexible and wearer friendly wireless components. This paper presents a modified inverted-F antenna (IFA) which has seamlessly been integrated with the fabric through inkjet printing. Surface roughness of the textile has been reduced using a rapid UV curable flexible interface layer. Smooth interface layer helps achieving very fine features which may be required for complicated antenna and circuit traces.

  20. Crystal morphology variation in inkjet-printed organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnen, Andrew C.; Petrock, Anne M.; Chou, Tsengming; Samuels, Phillip J.; Fuchs, Brian E.; Lee, Woo Y.

    2011-11-01

    The recent commercialization of piezoelectric-based drop-on-demand inkjet printers provides an additive processing platform for producing and micropatterning organic crystal structures. We report an inkjet printing approach where macro- and nano-scale energetic composites composed of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) crystals dispersed in a cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) matrix are produced by direct phase transformation from organic solvent-based all-liquid inks. The characterization of printed composites illustrates distinct morphological changes dependent on ink deposition parameters. When 10 pL ink droplets rapidly formed a liquid pool, a coffee ring structure containing dendritic RDX crystals was produced. By increasing the substrate temperature, and consequently the evaporation rate of the pooled ink, the coffee ring structure was mitigated and shorter dendrites from up to ∼1 to 0.2 mm with closer arm spacing from ∼15 to 1 μm were produced. When the nucleation and growth of RDX and CAB were confined within the evaporating droplets, a granular structure containing nanoscale RDX crystals was produced. The results suggest that evaporation rate and microfluidic droplet confinement can effectively be used to tailor the morphology of inkjet-printed energetic composites.

  1. Flexible Inkjet-Printed Multielectrode Arrays for Neuromuscular Cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothée; De Graaf, Jozina B; Nicol, Caroline; Hervé, Thierry; Fiocchi, Michel; Sanaur, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    Flexible Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) conductive-polymer multielectrode arrays (MEAs) are fabricated without etching or aggressive lift-off processes, only by additive solution processes. Inkjet printing technology has several advantages, such as a customized design and a rapid realization time, adaptability to different patients and to different applications. In particular, inkjet printing technology, as additive and "contactless" technology, can be easily inserted into various technological fabrication steps on different substrates at low cost. In vivo electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements show the time stability of such MEAs. An equivalent circuit model is established for such flexible cutaneous MEAs. It is shown that the charge transfer resistance remains the same, even two months after fabrication. Surface electromyography and electrocardiography measurements show that the PSS MEAs record electrophysiological activity signals that are comparable to those obtained with unitary Ag/AgCl commercial electrodes. Additionally, such MEAs offer parallel and simultaneous recordings on multiple locations at high surface density. It also proves its suitability to reconstruct an innervation zone map and opens new perspectives for a better control of amputee's myoelectric prostheses. The employment of additive technologies such as inkjet printing suggests that the integration of multifunctional sensors can improve the performances of ultraflexible brain-computer interfaces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparison of filters: Inkjet printed on PEN substrate versus a laser-etched on LCP substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, microstrip-based bandpass filters on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and liquid crystal polymers (LCP) are presented to investigate the performance of filters on ultra-thin substrates. PEN (with a thickness of 120 μm) has been characterized and used for a filter for the first time. In addition to being low cost and transparent, it demonstrates comparable RF performance to LCP. The conductor losses are compared by fabricating filters with inkjet printed lines as well as laser etched copper clad LCP sheets. With 5 layers of inkjet printing, and a curing temperature below 200°C, a final silver thickness of 2 μm and conductivity of 9.6 × 106 S/m are achieved. The designs are investigated at two frequencies, 24 GHz as well as 5 GHz to assess their performance at high and low frequencies respectively. The 24 GHz inkjet printed filter shows an insertion loss of 2 dB, while the 5 GHz design gives an insertion loss of 8 dB. We find that thin substrates have a strong effect on the insertion loss of filters especially as the frequency is reduced. The same design, realized on LCP (thickness of 100 μm) through laser etching, demonstrates a very similar performance, thus verifying this finding. © 2014 European Microwave Association.

  3. A half mode inkjet printed tunable ferrite isolator

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2017-10-24

    A novel half mode waveguide based ferrite isolator design is presented in this work. For the first time, tunability of the isolation band is demonstrated for a ferrite isolator. Instead of using the conventional antisymmetric bias the isolator requires a single direction of the magnetic bias field due to the half mode operation. Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) is used as the substrate for the device. The metallic walls of the waveguide are realized using inkjet printing. The magnetic biasing applied to the waveguide causes the RF waves to experience negative permeability in one direction of propagation hence providing isolation for this direction. For an applied bias of 3000 Oe, the device provides a maximum isolation figure of merit of 76.7 dB at 7.5 GHz. The isolation band can be controlled by changing the applied magnetostatic bias. As the bias is varied from 1500 Oe to 3500 Oe the center frequency of the isolation band varies from 4.45 GHz to 9 GHz. The measured response of the isolator shows that it can be integrated in any RF system requiring lower cost and good isolation.

  4. Inkjet printing of novel wideband and high gain antennas on low-cost paper substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2012-09-01

    A complete characterization of the inkjet printing process using metallic nanoparticle inks on a paper substrate for microwave frequencies up to 12.5 GHz as well as its application to low-cost, high gain and wideband antenna design are demonstrated in this work. Laser and heat sintering of metallic nanoparticles are compared on paper substrate for the first time which demonstrate immense cost and time benefits of laser sintering. The antennas fabricated using the characterized process include a Vivaldi for the UWB band which exhibits a significantly higher gain of up to 8 dBi as compared to the currently published inkjet printed antennas, and a novel slow-wave log periodic dipole array which employs a new miniaturization technique to show 20% width reduction. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  5. Inkjet printing of metal-oxide-based transparent thin-film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavž, A.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the inkjet printing of transparent, thin-film capacitors (TTFCs) composed of indium-zinc-oxide electrodes and a tantalum-oxide-based dielectric on glass substrates. The printing parameters were adapted for the sequential deposition of functional layers, resulting in approximately 100-nm-thick transparent capacitors with a uniform thickness. The relatively high electrical resistivity of the electrodes is reflected in the frequency dispersive dielectric behaviour, which is explained in terms of an equivalent circuit. The resistivity of the electrode strongly decreases with the number of printing passes; consequently, any misalignment of the printed layers is detected in the measured response. At low frequency, the TTFCs show a stable intrinsic dielectric response and a high capacitance density of ˜280 nF/cm2. The good dielectric performance as well as the low leakage-current density (8 × 10-7 A/cm2 at 1 MV cm-1) of our capacitors indicates that inkjet printing can be used to produce all-printed, high-quality electrical devices.

  6. Air Entrapment and Drop Formation in Piezo Inkjet Printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Piezo drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printers are used in an increasing number of applications for their reliable deposition of droplets onto a substrate. Droplets of a few picoliters are ejected from an ink jet nozzle at a frequency of up to 50 kHz. However, entrapment of an air microbubble into the

  7. Improvement of dissolution rate of indomethacin by inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickström, Henrika; Palo, Mirja; Rijckaert, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare printable inks of the poorly water soluble drug indomethacin (IMC), fabricate printed systems with flexible doses and investigate the effect of ink excipients on the printability, dissolution rate and the solid state properties of the drug. A piezoelectric...... inkjet printer was used to print 1×1cm2 squares onto a paper substrate and an impermeable transparency film. l-arginine (ARG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as additional formulation excipients. Accurately dosed samples were generated as a result of the ink and droplet formation optimization....... Increased dissolution rate was obtained for all formulations. The formulation with IMC and ARG printed on transparency film resulted in a co-amorphous system. The solid state characteristics of the printed drug on porous paper substrates were not possible to determine due to strong interference from...

  8. Additive Manufacture of Ceramics Components by Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Derby

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a ceramic component by inkjet printing, the object must be fabricated through the interaction and solidification of drops, typically in the range of 10−100 pL. In order to achieve this goal, stable ceramic inks must be developed. These inks should satisfy specific rheological conditions that can be illustrated within a parameter space defined by the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Printed drops initially deform on impact with a surface by dynamic dissipative processes, but then spread to an equilibrium shape defined by capillarity. We can identify the processes by which these drops interact to form linear features during printing, but there is a poorer level of understanding as to how 2D and 3D structures form. The stability of 2D sheets of ink appears to be possible over a more limited range of process conditions that is seen with the formation of lines. In most cases, the ink solidifies through evaporation and there is a need to control the drying process to eliminate the: “coffee ring” defect. Despite these uncertainties, there have been a large number of reports on the successful use of inkjet printing for the manufacture of small ceramic components from a number of different ceramics. This technique offers good prospects as a future manufacturing technique. This review identifies potential areas for future research to improve our understanding of this manufacturing method.

  9. Inkjet-printed vertically emitting solid-state organic lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhibik, Oussama; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers - Equipe Photonique Organique, Université PARIS 13 et CNRS (UMR 7538), 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Defranoux, Christophe [SEMILAB Semiconductor Physics Laboratory Co., Ltd., Prielle Kornelia u.2., H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Sanaur, Sébastien, E-mail: sanaur@emse.fr [Département of Bioelectronics, Centre Microélectronique de Provence, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, 880, route de Mimet, 13541 Gardanne (France)

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we show that Inkjet Printing can be successfully applied to external-cavity vertically emitting thin-film organic lasers and can be used to generate a diffraction-limited output beam with an output energy as high as 33.6 μJ with a slope efficiency S of 34%. Laser emission shows to be continuously tunable from 570 to 670 nm using an intracavity polymer-based Fabry-Perot etalon. High-optical quality films with several μm thicknesses are realized, thanks to ink-jet printing. We introduce a new optical material where EMD6415 commercial ink constitutes the optical host matrix and exhibits a refractive index of 1.5 and an absorption coefficient of 0.66 cm{sup −1} at 550–680 nm. Standard laser dyes like Pyrromethene 597 and Rhodamine 640 are incorporated in solution to the EMD6415 ink. Such large size “printed pixels” of 50 mm{sup 2} present uniform and flat surfaces, with roughness measured as low as 1.5 nm in different locations of a 50 μm × 50 μm AFM scan. Finally, as the gain capsules fabricated by Inkjet printing are simple and do not incorporate any tuning or cavity element, they are simple to make, have a negligible fabrication cost, and can be used as fully disposable items. This work opens the way towards the fabrication of really low-cost tunable visible lasers with an affordable technology that has the potential to be widely disseminated.

  10. Paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband fractal antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband (UWB) fractal antennas are presented. Two new designs, a miniaturised UWB monopole, which utilises a fractal matching network and is the smallest reported inkjet-printed UWB printed antenna to date, and a fourth-order Koch Snowflake monopole, which utilises a Sierpinski gasket fractal for ink reduction, are demonstrated. It is shown that fractals prove to be a successful method of reducing fabrication costs in inkjet-printed antennas, while retaining or enhancing printed antenna performance. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  11. High efficiency, fully inkjet printed organic solar cells with freedom of design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Galagan, Y.O.; Biezemans, A.F.K.V.; Slaats,T.M.W.L.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Kommeren, S.; Shanmugam, S.; Teunissen, J.P.; Hadipour, A.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Coenen, M.J.J.; Gilot, J.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The organic photovoltaics field is maturing and reaching a technology readiness level where the focus is on developing large scale fabrication methods. In this light, fully inkjet printed organic solar cells were demonstrated. Inkjet printing allows direct patterning of all the layers, including the

  12. Low temperature sintering of inkjet printed metal precursor inks for organic electronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelaer, J.; Wunscher, S.; Franziska, M.W.; Abbel, R.; Grouchko, M.; Magdassi, S.; Ulrich, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    As a nascent technology that developed during the last decades from only printing text and graphics into an important scientific research tool for R&D, inkjet printers are nowadays used as a highly reproducible non-contact patterning tool. In contrast to non-digital patterning tools, inkjet printing

  13. Tailoring controlled-release oral dosage forms by combining inkjet and flexographic printing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela; Vakili, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    We combined conventional inkjet printing technology with flexographic printing to fabricate drug delivery systems with accurate doses and tailored drug release. Riboflavin sodium phosphate (RSP) and propranolol hydrochloride (PH) were used as water-soluble model drugs. Three different paper...

  14. INKJET PRINTING OF ALUMOOXIDE SOL FOR DEPOSITION OF ANTIREFLECTING COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Eremeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. This work describes for the first time the formation of antireflective coating on the base of boehmite phase of AlOOH with low refractive index (1.35 by inkjet printing on the nonporous substrate. This method gives the possibility to increase the contrast of colorful interfering images by 32% obtaining by inkjet printing of titanium dioxide sol. The usage of this technology enables to obtain patterns with wide viewing angle and makes them highly stable. Methods. Traditional sol-gel method with peptizing agents and heating for 90oC was applied for sol synthesis. Then the mixture was under sonic treatment for the obtaining of viscous sol. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and the surface tension by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Aluminum oxide ink was deposited on polished slides (26×76 mm2, Paul Marienfeld, Germany, over titanium oxide layer. To print titania ink, we use a desktop office printer Canon Pixma IP 2840 and Dimatix DMP-2831. The thickness of an inkjet AlOOH layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 150 nm with an RI not less than 1.35 in the entire visible range. Results. The stable colloidal ink was obtained for the first time on the base of aluminum oxide matrix with neutral pH. The rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel method in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The controllable coalesce of drops enables to apply antireflection coating within the thickness accuracy of 10 nm. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopes. Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach to obtain colorful, interference patterns using two types of high refractive inks with different refractive indexes. The inkjet printing method opens new opportunities for

  15. A wearable tracking device inkjet-printed on textile

    KAUST Repository

    Krykpayev, Bauyrzhan

    2017-05-20

    Despite the abundance of localization applications, the tracking devices have never been truly realized in E-textiles. Standard printed circuit board (PCB)-based devices are obtrusive and rigid and hence not suitable for textile based implementations. An attractive option would be direct printing of circuit layout on the textile itself, negating the use of rigid PCB materials. However, high surface roughness and porosity of textiles prevents efficient and reliable printing of electronics on textile. In this work, by printing an interface layer on the textile first, a complete localization circuit integrated with an antenna has been inkjet-printed on the textile for the first time. Printed conductive traces were optimized in terms of conductivity and resolution by controlling the number of over-printed layers. The tracking device determines the wearer\\'s position using WiFi and this information can be displayed on any internet-enabled device, such as smart phone. The device is compact (55mm×45mm) and lightweight (22g with 500mAh battery) for people to comfortably wear it and can be easily concealed in case discretion is required. The device operates at 2.4GHz communicated up to a distance of 55m, with localization accuracy of up to 8m.

  16. Inkjet-Printed Flexible Graphene-Based Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, Matthew H.; Le, Linh T.; Lee, Woo Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible, inkjet-printed, graphene-based supercapacitor has been demonstrated with a graphene specific capacitance of up to 192 F/g. • Repeated bending of the device for hundreds of cycles resulted in a loss of capacitance of less than 5%. • The permeability of the Kapton packaging materials is a problem for the common aqueous and organic electrolytes, but ionic liquids appear to be well contained. - Abstract: A flexible supercapacitor is being developed for integrating with and powering flexible electronics for military and commercial applications. Graphene oxide dispersed in water was used as an ink for inkjet printing the electrode active material onto metal film on Kapton current collectors. After printing, the graphene oxide was thermally reduced at 200 °C to produce conductive graphene electrodes. These electrodes were heat sealed together with added electrolyte and separator, and the assembled supercapacitor performance was evaluated. The specific capacitance of the graphene is good, and the overall performance of the packaged device serves as a proof of concept. But in the future, thicker graphene electrodes and further package optimization will be required to obtain good device-level performance. A number of issues associated with using Kapton for packaging these devices are identified and discussed

  17. Direct inkjet printing of dental prostheses made of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, J; Ozkol, E; Zeichner, A; Uibel, K; Weiss, O; Koops, U; Telle, R; Fischer, H

    2009-07-01

    CAD/CAM milling systems provide a rapid and individual method for the manufacturing of zirconia dental restorations. However, the disadvantages of these systems include limited accuracy, possible introduction of microscopic cracks, and a waste of material due to the principle of the 'subtractive process'. The hypothesis of this study was that these issues can be overcome by a novel generative manufacturing technique, direct inkjet printing. A tailored zirconia-based ceramic suspension with 27 vol% solid content was synthesized. The suspension was printed on a conventional, but modified, drop-on-demand inkjet printer. A cleaning unit and a drying device allowed for the build-up of dense components of the size of a posterior crown. A characteristic strength of 763 MPa and a mean fracture toughness of 6.7 MPam(0.5) were determined on 3D-printed and subsequently sintered specimens. The novel technique has great potential to produce, cost-efficiently, all-ceramic dental restorations at high accuracy and with a minimum of materials consumption.

  18. Inkjet-Printed Organic Transistors Based on Organic Semiconductor/Insulating Polymer Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Yeong Don; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-08-02

    Recent advances in inkjet-printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are reviewed in this article. Organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are attractive ink candidates for enhancing the jetting properties, inducing uniform film morphologies, and/or controlling crystallization behaviors of organic semiconductors. Representative studies using soluble acene/insulating polymer blends as an inkjet-printed active layer in OFETs are introduced with special attention paid to the phase separation characteristics of such blended films. In addition, inkjet-printed semiconducting/insulating polymer blends for fabricating high performance printed OFETs are reviewed.

  19. Inkjet-Printed Organic Transistors Based on Organic Semiconductor/Insulating Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Jung Kwon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in inkjet-printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs based on organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are reviewed in this article. Organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are attractive ink candidates for enhancing the jetting properties, inducing uniform film morphologies, and/or controlling crystallization behaviors of organic semiconductors. Representative studies using soluble acene/insulating polymer blends as an inkjet-printed active layer in OFETs are introduced with special attention paid to the phase separation characteristics of such blended films. In addition, inkjet-printed semiconducting/insulating polymer blends for fabricating high performance printed OFETs are reviewed.

  20. Inkjet Printing of Paper-Based Wideband and High Gain Antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin

    2011-12-07

    This thesis represents a major contribution to wideband and high gain inkjet-printed antennas on paper. This work includes the complete characterization of the inkjet printing process for passive microwave devices on paper substrate as well as several ultra-wideband and high gain antenna designs. The characterization work includes the electrical characterization of the permittivity and loss tangent for paper substrate through 10 GHz, ink conductivity data for variable sintering conditions, and minimum feature sizes obtainable by today’s current inkjet processes for metallic nanoparticles. For the first time ever, inkjet-printed antennas are demonstrated that operate over the entire UWB band and demonstrate gains up to 8dB. This work also presents the first fractal-based inkjet-printed antennas with enhanced bandwidth and reduced production costs, and a novel slow wave log periodic dipole array which shows minimizations of 20% in width over conventional log periodic antennas.

  1. Internet of ''printed'' Things: low-cost fabrication of autonomous sensing nodes by inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    ''What if electronics devices are printed using an inkjet printer even at home?'' ''What if those devices no longer need a battery?'' I will introduce two enabling technologies for the Internet of Things concept. 1. Instant Inkjet Circuits: A low cost, fast and accessible technology to support the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. We demonstrated that ''sintering-free'' silver nano particle ink with a commodity inkjet printer can be used to fabricate printed circuit board and high-frequency applications such as antennas and sensors. The technology is now commercialized by AgIC, Inc. 2. Wireless Power: Although large amounts of data can be exchanged over a wireless communication link, mobile devices are still tethered by power cables. We are trying to solve this problem by two different approaches: energy harvesting. A simple circuitry comprised of diodes and capacitor can convert ambient radio signals into DC current. Our research revealed the signals from TV tower located 6.5km apart could be used to feed 100 microwatts to power microcontrollers

  2. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, S; Hu, G; Howe, R C T; De Luca, A; Ali, S Z; Udrea, F; Gardner, J W; Ray, S K; Guha, P K; Hasan, T

    2015-11-30

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.

  3. A paper based inkjet printed real time location tracking TAG

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, an inkjet printed, wearable, low-cost, light weight and miniaturized real time locating TAG on an ordinary photo-paper. The 29 grams, 9 cm×8 cm×0.5 cm TAG integrates a GPS/GSM module, a microcontroller with on-paper GPS and GSM antennas. A novel monopole antenna with an L shaped slit is introduced to achieve the required circular polarization for the GPS band. Issues related to integration of active components (e.g. BGA chip) on inkjet-printed paper substrates are discussed. The system enables location tracking through a user-friendly interface accessible through all internet enabled devices. Field tests show an update interval of 15 sec, stationary position error of 6.2m and real time tracking error of 4.7m which is 4 times better than the state-of-the-art. Due to the flexible nature of the paper substrate, the TAG can be designed for different shapes such as a wrist band for child tracking or a collar band for pet tracking applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, S.; Hu, G.; Howe, R. C. T.; de Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Gardner, J. W.; Ray, S. K.; Guha, P. K.; Hasan, T.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.

  5. Inkjet printed highly transparent and flexible graphene micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollami Delekta, Szymon; Smith, Anderson D; Li, Jiantong; Östling, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    Modern energy storage devices for portable and wearable technologies must fulfill a number of requirements, such as small size, flexibility, thinness, reliability, transparency, manufacturing simplicity and performance, in order to be competitive in an ever expanding market. To this end, a comprehensive inkjet printing process is developed for the scalable and low-cost fabrication of transparent and flexible micro-supercapacitors. These solid-state devices, with printed thin films of graphene flakes as interdigitated electrodes, exhibit excellent performance versus transparency (ranging from a single-electrode areal capacitance of 16 μF cm -2 at transmittance of 90% to a capacitance of 99 μF cm -2 at transmittance of 71%). Also, transparent and flexible devices are fabricated, showing negligible capacitance degradation during bending. The ease of manufacturing coupled with their great capacitive properties opens up new potential applications for energy storage devices ranging from portable solar cells to wearable sensors.

  6. QR encoded smart oral dosage forms by inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Genina, Natalja

    2018-01-30

    The use of inkjet printing (IJP) technology enables the flexible manufacturing of personalized medicine with the doses tailored for each patient. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of IJP in the production of edible dosage forms in the pattern of a quick response (QR) code. This printed pattern contains the drug itself and encoded information relevant to the patient and/or healthcare professionals. IJP of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing ink in the pattern of QR code was performed onto a newly developed porous and flexible, but mechanically stable substrate with a good absorption capacity. The printing did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. The actual drug content of the printed dosage forms was in accordance with the encoded drug content. The QR encoded dosage forms had a good print definition without significant edge bleeding. They were readable by a smartphone even after storage in harsh conditions. This approach of efficient data incorporation and data storage combined with the use of smart devices can lead to safer and more patient-friendly drug products in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Injet4Tex: Creative Implications of 3D inkjet printing technologies for textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Britt, H.; Campbell, J. R.; Whittet, C.

    2008-01-01

    This project expands future applied-design capabilities for textiles as a function of inkjet deposition technology. The project investigates 3D inkjet rapid-production tools’ potential, focusing on creative gaps in the developing technology in its application to the textile design process. As such, the research investigates future design possibilities for inkjet printing technology in the creation of 3D textile structures and surfaces. The research “demonstrates how tacit knowledge can be emp...

  8. Digital power and performance analysis of inkjet printed ring oscillators based on electrolyte-gated oxide electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilha Marques, Gabriel; Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Dehm, Simone; Dasgupta, Subho; Hahn, Horst; Tahoori, Mehdi; Aghassi-Hagmann, Jasmin

    2017-09-01

    Printed electronic components offer certain technological advantages over their silicon based counterparts, like mechanical flexibility, low process temperatures, maskless and additive manufacturing possibilities. However, to be compatible to the fields of smart sensors, Internet of Things, and wearables, it is essential that devices operate at small supply voltages. In printed electronics, mostly silicon dioxide or organic dielectrics with low dielectric constants have been used as gate isolators, which in turn have resulted in high power transistors operable only at tens of volts. Here, we present inkjet printed circuits which are able to operate at supply voltages as low as ≤2 V. Our transistor technology is based on lithographically patterned drive electrodes, the dimensions of which are carefully kept well within the printing resolutions; the oxide semiconductor, the electrolytic insulator and the top-gate electrodes have been inkjet printed. Our inverters show a gain of ˜4 and 2.3 ms propagation delay time at 1 V supply voltage. Subsequently built 3-stage ring oscillators start to oscillate at a supply voltage of only 0.6 V with a frequency of ˜255 Hz and can reach frequencies up to ˜350 Hz at 2 V supply voltage. Furthermore, we have introduced a systematic methodology for characterizing ring oscillators in the printed electronics domain, which has been largely missing. Benefiting from this procedure, we are now able to predict the switching capacitance and driver capability at each stage, as well as the power consumption of our inkjet printed ring oscillators. These achievements will be essential for analyzing the performance and power characteristics of future inkjet printed digital circuits.

  9. Rayleigh Instability-Assisted Satellite Droplets Elimination in Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Yanan; Chen, Shuoran; Bao, Bin; Song, Yanlin

    2017-11-29

    Elimination of satellite droplets in inkjet printing has long been desired for high-resolution and precision printing of functional materials and tissues. Generally, the strategy to suppress satellite droplets is to control ink properties, such as viscosity or surface tension, to assist ink filaments in retracting into one drop. However, this strategy brings new restrictions to the ink, such as ink viscosity, surface tension, and concentration. Here, we report an alternative strategy that the satellite droplets are eliminated by enhancing Rayleigh instability of filament at the break point to accelerate pinch-off of the droplet from the nozzle. A superhydrophobic and ultralow adhesive nozzle with cone morphology exhibits the capability to eliminate satellite droplets by cutting the ink filament at breakup point effectively. As a result, the nozzles with different sizes (10-80 μm) are able to print more inks (1 satellite droplets. The finding presents a new way to remove satellite droplets via designing nozzles with super-ink-phobicity and ultralow adhesion rather than restricting the ink, which has promising applications in printing electronics and biotechnologies.

  10. Inkjet-printed, intrinsically stretchable conductors and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, U.; Molina-Lopez, F.; Zhu, C.; Wang, Y.; Bao, Z.; Murmann, B.

    2017-08-01

    In the future, a large variety of electronic devices will be wearable and operate in close contact with the skin. To accommodate deformations such as twisting and elongation, these devices should ideally be stretchable. One viable approach toward stretchable electronics is the development of intrinsically stretchable electronic materials, devices and circuits. Recently, the first intrinsically stretchable transistors have been demonstrated [1-7]. However, for the realization of stretchable circuits, stretchable interconnects are equally important. For the deployment of highly stretchable materials as interconnects and electrodes, patterning is crucial. Therefore, we developed a process for inkjet printing of intrinsically stretchable PEDOT:PSS-based interconnects and conductors. Ionic additives act as dopants and plasticisers in this approach [8]. A customized ink was printed on stretchable polymeric substrates (SEBS, styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) and optimized to achieve a smooth morphology of the printed features by adjusting the surface tension and suppressing the coffee stain effect. The printed interconnects have a conductivity of 700 S/cm, sustain strains above 100% and show good stability in 1000-cycle stretching experiments. In addition to morphology, electrical properties and stretchability, we also investigated bias-stress stability, long-term stability in ambient air and cycling stability.

  11. Cell patterning through inkjet printing of one cell per droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke; Ueno, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The inkjet ejection technology used in printers has been adopted and research has been conducted on manufacturing artificial tissue by patterning cells through micronozzle ejection of small droplets containing multiple cells. However, stable injection of cells has proven difficult, owing to the frequent occurrence of nozzle clogging. In this paper, a piezoelectric inkjet head constructed with a glass capillary that enabled viewing of the nozzle section was developed, the movement of cells ejected from the nozzle tip was analyzed, and a method for stably ejecting cells was verified. A pull–push ejection method was compared with a push–pull ejection method regarding the voltage waveform applied to the piezoelectric element of the head. The push–pull method was found to be more suitable for stable ejection. Further, ejection of one cell per droplet was realized by detecting the position of the cell in the nozzle section and utilizing these position data. Thus, a method for more precise patterning of viable cells at desired position and number was established. This method is very useful and promising not only for biofabrication, 3D tissue construction, cell printing, but also for a number of biomedical application, such as bioMEMS, lab on a chip research field. (paper)

  12. Direct synthesis and inkjetting of silver nanocrystals toward printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong Lee, Kwi; Jun, Byung Ho; Kim, Tae Hoon; Joung, Jaewoo

    2006-05-01

    Monolayer-protected silver nanoparticles were directly synthesized in a highly concentrated organic phase (>2 M) and then printed into conductive lines on polyimide by a drop-on-demand inkjet printer. The fully organic phase system contains silver nitrate as a silver precursor, n-butylamine as a media dissolving silver salt, dodecanoic acid as a capping molecule, toluene as a solvent, and sodium borohydride as a reducing reagent. Even using only generic chemicals, monodispersed silver nanocrystals with size of 7 nm were easily synthesized at the 100 g scale in a 1 litre reactor. Hydrocarbon monolayer-protected silver nanocrystal showed excellent dispersion stability even at metal content >70 wt%. The silver ink with metal content of 33 wt% had a viscosity of 5.4 cP and surface tension of 25 dyn cm-1. The silver ink was successfully inkjetted on variable substrates and then metallized at 250 °C. The metallized silver patterns exhibited very low specific electrical resistance (6 µΩ cm)

  13. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  14. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Martínez-Domingo, Carme [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Ramon, Eloi, E-mail: eloi.ramon@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Carrabina, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.carrabina@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gomes, Henrique Leonel, E-mail: hgomes@ualg.pt [Universidade do Algarve, Institute of Telecommunications, Faro (Portugal); Baumann, Reinhard R., E-mail: reinhard.baumann@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Department of Printed Functionalities, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  15. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as "Bridging Platform". This transfer to "Bridging Platform" from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  16. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit

  17. Metal nanoparticle direct inkjet printing for low-temperature 3D micro metal structure fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seung Hwan; Nam, Koo Hyun; Chung, Jaewon; Hotz, Nico; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2010-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional materials is a key technology toward ultra-low-cost, large-area electronics. We demonstrate low-temperature 3D micro metal structure fabrication by direct inkjet printing of metal nanoparticles (NPs) as a versatile, direct 3D metal structuring approach representing an alternative to conventional vacuum deposition and photolithographic methods. Metal NP ink was inkjet-printed to exploit the large melting temperature drop of the nanomaterial and the ease of the NP ink formulation. Parametric studies on the basic conditions for stable 3D inkjet printing of NP ink were carried out. Furthermore, diverse 3D metal microstructures, including micro metal pillar arrays, helices, zigzag and micro bridges were demonstrated and electrical characterization was performed. Since the process requires low temperature, it carries substantial potential for fabrication of electronics on a plastic substrate

  18. Integrating integrated circuit chips on paper substrates using inkjet printed electronics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, Petrone H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the integration of silicon and paper substrates using rapid prototyping inkjet printed electronics. Various Dimatix DMP-2831 material printer settings and adhesives are investigated. The aim is to robustly and effectively...

  19. Inkjet-printed conductive features for rapid integration of electronic circuits in centrifugal microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the properties of conductive circuits inkjet-printed onto the polycarbonate discs used in CD-based centrifugal microfluidics, contributing towards rapidly prototyped electronic systems in smart ubiquitous biosensors, which...

  20. Inkjet printed circularly polarized antennas for GPS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Two novel, inkjet printed circularly polarized antenna designs are presented for GPS applications. First antenna design comprises a planar monopole which has been made circularly polarized by the introduction of an L-shaped slit. The antenna shows a gain of 0.2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.8%. The second antenna design comprises a modified monopole in the form of an inverted L and has been termed as circularly polarized inverted L antenna (CILA). The antenna shows a gain of -2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 4.1%. Both the antenna designs are attractive for mobile applications.

  1. Ultralow friction of ink-jet printed graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, R; Gerbi, A; Uttiya, S; Bernini, C; Del Rio Castillo, A E; Palazon, F; Siri, A S; Pellegrini, V; Pellegrino, L; Bonaccorso, F

    2017-06-08

    We report the frictional response of few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes obtained by the liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of pristine graphite. To this end, we inkjet print FLG on bare and hexamethyldisilazane-terminated SiO 2 substrates, producing micrometric patterns with nanoscopic roughness that are investigated by atomic force microscopy. Normal force spectroscopy and atomically-resolved morphologies indicate reduced surface contamination by solvents after a vacuum annealing process. Notably, the printed FLG flakes show ultralow friction comparable to that of micromechanically exfoliated graphene flakes. Lubricity is retained on flakes with a lateral size of a few tens of nanometres, and with a thickness as small as ∼2 nm, confirming the high crystalline quality and low defects density in the FLG basal plane. Surface exposed step edges exhibit the highest friction values, representing the preferential sites for the origin of the secondary dissipative processes related to edge straining, wear or lateral displacement of the flakes. Our work demonstrates that LPE enables fundamental studies on graphene friction to the single-flake level. The capability to deliver ultralow-friction-graphene over technologically relevant substrates, using a scalable production route and a high-throughput, large-area printing technique, may also open up new opportunities in the lubrication of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems.

  2. Two-component additive manufacturing of nanothermite structures via reactive inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Allison K.; Isik, Tugba; Ortalan, Volkan; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven F.; Chiu, George T.-C.; Rhoads, Jeffrey F.

    2017-11-01

    With an eye towards improving the safety of the deposition of energetic materials while broadening the scope of materials compatible with inkjet printing, this work demonstrates the use of combinatorial inkjet printing for the deposition of energetic materials. Two largely inert colloidal suspensions of nanoaluminum and nanocopper (II) oxide in dimethylformamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone were sequentially deposited on a substrate using piezoelectric inkjet printing. The materials were deposited in such a way that the aluminum and copper (II) oxide droplets were adjacent, and overlapping, to allow for in situ mixing of the components. The alternating deposition was repeated to create a sample with multiple layers of energetic materials. Energetic performance was subsequently tested on samples printed with 3, 5, and 7 layers of materials using a spark igniter. This ignition event was observed with a high speed camera and compared to representative samples printed with pre-mixed nanothermite. High speed thermal imaging supported a conclusion that the maximum reaction temperature of comparable samples printed with the dual nozzle technique was nominally 200 K less than the samples printed with a single nozzle. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images confirmed a claim that the material constituents were comparably mixed with the single and dual nozzle techniques. This work proves the feasibility of reactive inkjet printing as a means for depositing energetic materials from two largely inert suspensions. In doing so, it opens the doors for safer material handling and the development of a wide array of energetic materials that were previously deemed incompatible with inkjet printing.

  3. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers. - Highlights: • Radiative transfer on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer is modeled. • Spectral reflectance of the printed samples are measured and calculated. • The hue changes with dot area rate because of the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks.

  4. Mod silver metallization: Screen printing and ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, R. W.; Vest, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Basic material efforts have proven to be very successful. Adherent and conductive films were achieved. A silver neodecanoate/bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate mixture has given the best results in both single and double layer applications. Another effort is continuing to examine the feasibility of applying metallo-organic deposition films by use of an ink jet printer. Direct line writing would result in a saving of process time and materials. So far, some well defined lines have been printed.

  5. Double-shot inkjet printing for high-conductivity polymer electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sejeong [The School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sunyoung; Kwon, Jimin; Park, Ju An [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sungjune, E-mail: sjjung@postech.ac.kr [The School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents a printing method to form a high-conductivity patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film. A modified PEDOT:PSS ink containing a secondary dopant (dimethyl sulfoxide) and fluorosurfactant (Zonyl FS-300) was inkjet-printed to form a uniform conducting layer, and the dimethyl sulfoxide, conductivity enhancer, was over-printed onto it to further enhance its conductivity. We achieved high-conductivity greater than 1000 S cm{sup −1} by only using inkjet-printing technique. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. The printing process for high-conductivity PEDOT:PSS was applied to pattern a transparent anode for the fabrication of an organic light emitting diode. - Highlights: • Demonstrated a double-shot inkjet printing process for high-conductivity electrodes • Achieved high-conductivity greater than 1000 S cm{sup −1} only by inkjet-printing • Fabricated OLEDs with high-conductivity inkjet-printed anodes.

  6. Analysis of laser and inkjet prints using spectroscopic methods for forensic identification of questioned documents

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Lukáš; Belovičová, Michaela; Oravec, Michal; Palková, Miroslava; Čeppan, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The spectral properties in UV-VIS-NIR and IR regions of laser and inkjet prints were studied for the purposes of forensic analysis of documents. The procedures of measurements and processing of spectra of printed documents using fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy in UV-VIS and NIR region, FTIR-ATR with diamond/ZnSe and germanium crystals were optimized. It was found that the shapes of spectra of various black laser jet prints and inkjet prints generally differ in the spectral regions...

  7. 3D micro-structures by piezoelectric inkjet printing of gold nanofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Kullmann, Carmen

    2012-04-18

    3D solid and pocketed micro-wires and micro-walls are needed for emerging applications that require fine-scale functional structures in three dimensions, including micro-heaters, micro-reactors and solar cells. To fulfill this demand, 3D micro-structures with high aspect ratios (>50:1) are developed on a low-cost basis that is applicable for mass production with high throughput, also enabling the printing of structures that cannot be manufactured by conventional techniques. Additively patterned 3D gold micro-walls and -wires are grown by piezoelectric inkjet printing of nanofluids, selectively combined with in situ simultaneous laser annealing that can be applied to large-scale bulk production. It is demonstrated how the results of 3D printing depend on the piezoelectric voltage pulse, the substrate heating temperature and the structure height, resulting in the identification of thermal regions of optimal printing for best printing results. Furthermore a parametric analysis of the applied substrate temperature during printing leads to proposed temperature ranges for solid and pocketed micro-wire and micro-wall growth for selected frequency and voltages. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Printability of papers recycled from toner and inkjet-printed papers after deinking and recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja

    2017-11-11

    In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.

  9. 3D Inkjet Printed Helical Antenna with Integrated Lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-08-30

    The gain of an antenna can be enhanced through the integration of a lens, although this technique has traditionally been restricted to planar antennas due to fabrication limitations of standard manufacturing processes. Here, through a unique combination of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a Fresnel lens enhances the gain of a 2-turn helix by around 4.6 dB, which provides a peak gain of about 12.9 dBi at 8.8 GHz. The 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of the antenna with the lens is 5.5%. This work also reports the complete characterization of this new process in terms of minimum features sizes and achievable conductivities. Due to monolithic integration of the lens through a fully printed process, this antenna configuration offers high gain performance by using a low cost and rapid fabrication technique. © 2016 IEEE.

  10. Development of Oromucosal Dosage Forms by Combining Electrospinning and Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, Mirja; Kogermann, Karin; Laidmäe, Ivo; Meos, Andres; Preis, Maren; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Sandler, Niklas

    2017-03-06

    Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharmaceuticals. In this study, the use of electrospun fibrous substrates in the fabrication of inkjet-printed dosage forms was investigated. A single-drug formulation with lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and a combination drug system containing LH and piroxicam (PRX) for oromucosal administration were prepared. The LH was deposited on the electrospun and cross-linked gelatin substrates by inkjet printing, whereas PRX was incorporated within the substrate fibers during electrospinning. The solid state analysis of the electrospun substrates showed that PRX was in an amorphous state within the fibers. Furthermore, the results indicated the entrapment and solidification of the dissolved LH within the fibrous gelatin matrix. The printed drug amount (2-3 mg) was in good correlation with the theoretical dose calculated based on the printing parameters. However, a noticeable degradation of the printed LH was detected after a few months. An immediate release (over 85% drug release after 8 min) of both drugs from the printed dosage forms was observed. In conclusion, the prepared electrospun gelatin scaffolds were shown to be suitable substrates for inkjet printing of oromucosal formulations. The combination of electrospinning and inkjet printing allowed the preparation of a dual drug system.

  11. Inkjet printed large-area flexible circuits: a simple methodology for optimizing the printing quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Wu, Youwei; Shen, Xiaoqin; Lai, Wenyong; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a simple methodology was developed to enhance the patterning resolution of inkjet printing, involving process optimization as well as substrate modification and treatment. The line width of the inkjet-printed silver lines was successfully reduced to 1/3 of the original value using this methodology. Large-area flexible circuits with delicate patterns and good morphology were thus fabricated. The resultant flexible circuits showed excellent electrical conductivity as low as 4.5 Ω/□ and strong tolerance to mechanical bending. The simple methodology is also applicable to substrates with various wettability, which suggests a general strategy to enhance the printing quality of inkjet printing for manufacturing high-performance large-area flexible electronics. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2014CB648300, 2017YFB0404501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21422402, 21674050), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20140060, BK20130037, BK20140865, BM2012010), the Program for Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professors (No. RK030STP15001), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-13-0872), the NUPT "1311 Project" and Scientific Foundation (Nos. NY213119, NY213169), the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), the Leading Talent of Technological Innovation of National Ten-Thousands Talents Program of China, the Excellent Scientific and Technological Innovative Teams of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (No. TJ217038), the Program for Graduate Students Research and Innovation of Jiangsu Province (No. KYZZ16-0253), and the 333 Project of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BRA2017402, BRA2015374).

  12. A thin-film microprocessor with inkjet print-programmable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myny, Kris; Smout, Steve; Rockelé, Maarten; Bhoolokam, Ajay; Ke, Tung Huei; Steudel, Soeren; Cobb, Brian; Gulati, Aashini; Rodriguez, Francisco Gonzalez; Obata, Koji; Marinkovic, Marko; Pham, Duy-Vu; Hoppe, Arne; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Genoe, Jan; Dehaene, Wim; Heremans, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The Internet of Things is driving extensive efforts to develop intelligent everyday objects. This requires seamless integration of relatively simple electronics, for example through `stick-on' electronics labels. We believe the future evolution of this technology will be governed by Wright's Law, which was first proposed in 1936 and states that the cost of a product decreases with cumulative production. This implies that a generic electronic device that can be tailored for application-specific requirements during downstream integration would be a cornerstone in the development of the Internet of Things. We present an 8-bit thin-film microprocessor with a write-once, read-many (WORM) instruction generator that can be programmed after manufacture via inkjet printing. The processor combines organic p-type and soluble oxide n-type thin-film transistors in a new flavor of the familiar complementary transistor technology with the potential to be manufactured on a very thin polyimide film, enabling low-cost flexible electronics. It operates at 6.5 V and reaches clock frequencies up to 2.1 kHz. An instruction set of 16 code lines, each line providing a 9 bit instruction, is defined by means of inkjet printing of conductive silver inks.

  13. Inkjet printed superparamagnetic polymer composite hemispheres with programmed magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeneman, Olgaç; Peters, Christian; Gullo, Maurizio R.; Jacot-Descombes, Loïc; Gervasoni, Simone; Özkale, Berna; Fatio, Philipe; Cadarso, Victor J.; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Pané, Salvador; Brugger, Jürgen; Hierold, Christofer; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of large arrays of inkjet-printed superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC) hemispherical microstructures. SPMPCs are appealing for applications in microsystems and nanorobotics due to the added functionality of polymers and the significant magnetic attributes of embedded nanostructures. SPMPC-based microarchitectures can be used to perform different functions wirelessly in various media (e.g. water, solvents) using external magnetic fields: handling and assembling small objects, delivering drugs or biomass, or sensing specific physical or chemical changes. In this work superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in SU-8 to form magnetic hemispheres. Magnetically anisotropic hemispheres as well as standard SPMPC hemispheres are fabricated. Magnetic anisotropy is programmed by applying a magnetic field during curing. The distribution of nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and magnetic characteristics of the SPMPC are investigated. Magnetic manipulation of hemispheres is demonstrated at liquid-liquid interfaces. Different assembly strategies to form lines or geometric shapes from hemispheres as well as their independent dynamic control are demonstrated. Finally, a two-interface assembly strategy is demonstrated to assemble hemispheres into complete spheres for advanced self-assembly tasks.We present the fabrication and characterization of large arrays of inkjet-printed superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC) hemispherical microstructures. SPMPCs are appealing for applications in microsystems and nanorobotics due to the added functionality of polymers and the significant magnetic attributes of embedded nanostructures. SPMPC-based microarchitectures can be used to perform different functions wirelessly in various media (e.g. water, solvents) using external magnetic fields: handling and assembling small objects, delivering drugs or biomass, or sensing specific physical or chemical changes. In this

  14. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  15. Experimental Study on Inkjet-Printed Passive UHF RFID Tags on Versatile Paper-Based Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the possibilities and challenges of passive UHF RFID tag antennas manufactured by inkjet printing silver nanoparticle ink on versatile paper-based substrates. The most efficient manufacturing parameters, such as the pattern resolution, were determined and the optimal number of printed layers was evaluated for each substrate material. Next, inkjet-printed passive UHF RFID tags were fabricated on each substrate with the optimized parameters and number of layers. According to our measurements, the tags on different paper substrates showed peak read ranges of 4–6.5 meters and the tags on different cardboard substrates exhibited peak read ranges of 2–6 meters. Based on their wireless performance, these inkjet-printed paper-based passive UHF RFID tags are sufficient for many future wireless applications and comparable to tags fabricated on more traditional substrates, such as polyimide.

  16. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy

    2016-12-13

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning method which can be used for deposition of solution-based or nanoparticle-based CIGS films with high throughput. XRD and Raman spectra indicate that no secondary phase is formed in the as-deposited CIGS film since quaternary chalcopyrite nanoparticles are used as the base solution for printing. Besides, CIGSe films with various Cu/(In + Ga) ratios could be obtained by finely tuning the composition of CIGS nanoparticles contained in the ink, which was found to strongly influence the devices performance and film morphology. To date, this is the first successful fabrication of a solar device by inkjet printing of CIGS nanoparticles.

  17. Inkjet-Printed Flexible MEMS Switches for Phased-Array Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Akter Monne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully inkjet-printed flexible MEMS switch for phased-array antennas. The physical structure of the printed MEMS switch consists of an anchor with a clamp-clamp beam, a sacrificial layer, and bottom transmission lines. 5-mil Kapton® polyimide film is used as a flexible substrate material. Two different types of conductive ink PEDOT : PSS from Sigma Aldrich and silver nanoparticle ink from NovaCentrix are used for the fabrication of different printed layers. Layer-by-layer fabrication process and material evaluation are illustrated. Layer characterization is done with respect to critical thickness and resistance using 2D/3D material analysis. Fujifilm Dimatix Material Printer (DMP-2800 is used for fabrication, and KLA-Tencor (P-7 profiler is used for 2D and 3D analysis of each layer. The MEMS switch has a low actuation voltage of 1.2 V, current capacity of 0.2195 mA, a current on-off ratio of 2195 : 1, and an RF insertion loss of 5 dB up to 13.5 GHz. Printed MEMS switch technology is a promising candidate for flexible and reconfigurable phased-array antennas and other radio frequency (RF and microwave frequency applications.

  18. Inkjet printing of UV-curable adhesive and dielectric inks for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, E M; Bilatto, S E R; Adly, N Y; Correa, D S; Wolfrum, B; Schöning, M J; Offenhäusser, A; Yakushenko, A

    2016-01-07

    Bonding of polymer-based microfluidics to polymer substrates still poses a challenge for Lab-On-a-Chip applications. Especially, when sensing elements are incorporated, patterned deposition of adhesives with curing at ambient conditions is required. Here, we demonstrate a fabrication method for fully printed microfluidic systems with sensing elements using inkjet and stereolithographic 3D-printing.

  19. Inkjet printed ferrite-filled rectangular waveguide X-band isolator

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, a rectangular waveguide (RWG) isolator realized through inkjet printing on a ferrite substrate is presented. Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate is used for the realization of the ferrite-filled isolator. Contrary to the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) approach, all four walls of the waveguide have been inkjet printed on the YIG substrate demonstrating the utility of inkjet printing process for realizing non-planar microwave components. The isolation is achieved by applying an anti-symmetrical DC magnetic bias to the ferrite-filled waveguide which then exhibits a unidirectional mode of operation. The isolator is fed by a microstrip to RWG transition and demonstrates an isolation figure-of-merit (IFM) of more than 51 dB in the operating band from 9.95 GHz to 11.73 GHz with a very high peak IFM of 69 dB. The minimum insertion loss in the operating band is 2.73 dB (including losses from the transitions). The isolator measures 33 mm × 8 mm × 0.4 mm. This work introduces an inkjet printed non-planar microwave device which is easy to fabricate showing the ability of inkjet printing for fabricating complex microwave systems. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Evaluation of ink-jet printed current collecting grids and bushbars for ITO-free organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E,W.C.; Sabik, S.; Gorter, H.H.; Barink, M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    ITO-free organic solar cells with ink-jet printed current collecting grids and high conducting PEDOT:PSS as composite anode are demonstrated. Inkjet printed current collecting grids with different cross-sectional are as have been investigated. The effect of the width and height of the gridlines and

  1. Influence of Pluronic F127 on the distribution and functionality of inkjet-printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawar, L.H.; Amerongen, van A.; Norde, W.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of inkjet-printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose substrates often results in a non-homogeneous spot morphology commonly referred to as 'doughnut-shaped' spots. We have studied the influence of Pluronic F127 (an amphiphilic surfactant) on the functionality of inkjet-printed

  2. Influence of Pluronic F127 on the distribution and functionality of inkjet-printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawar, Liyakat Hamid; van Amerongen, Aart; Norde, Willem

    The distribution of inkjet-printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose substrates often results in a non-homogeneous spot morphology commonly referred to as 'doughnut-shaped' spots. We have studied the influence of Pluronic F127 (an amphiphilic surfactant) on the functionality of inkjet-printed

  3. Narrow conductive structures with high aspect ratios through single-pass inkjet printing and evaporation-induced dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.; Teunissen, P.; Michels, J.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printed silver lines contract to widths below 20-μm during drying on an organic planarization coating. Aspect ratios previously unprecedented with single pass inkjet printing on isotropic homogeneous substrates are obtained. This effect is caused by the subsequent evaporation of solvents from

  4. Optimized circuit design for flexible 8-bit RFID transponders with active layer of ink-jet printed small molecule semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Myny, K.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We ink-jet print a blend of 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl)pentacene and polystyrene as the active layer for flexible circuits. The discrete ink-jet printed transistors exhibit a saturation mobility of 0.5 cm2 V -1 s-1. The relative spread in transistor characteristics can be very large. This

  5. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers.

  6. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Camarchia, Vittorio; Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco; Pandolfi, Paolo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  7. UHF electromagnetic structures inkjet printed on temperature sensitive substrates: A comparative study of conductive inks and sintering methods to enable low cost manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaauera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.J.; Zial, M.A.; Oyeka, D.; Turki, B.M.M.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of inkjet printing as a facile digital fabrication tool for the cost effective manufacture of UHF RFID transfer tattoo tags and Frequency Selective Surfaces on low-cost flexible and porous substrates. Electrical and morphological properties of conductive features

  8. Methodology and technological aspects of the flexible substrate preparation for ink-jet printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Marzecki, Michał

    2013-10-01

    The ink-jet printing technology becomes especially promising for wide volume of production of cheap sensors, consumable electronics and other dedicated applications of everyday life like smart packaging, smart textiles, smart labels, etc. To achieve this goal new materials compatible with ink-jet printing should be developed. Currently on the market there is a growing number of inks with different properties, but their use requires many tests related to its printability and their interaction with other materials. The paper presents technological problems that are encountered by people associated with fabrication of various devices with using of inkjet printing techniques. Results presented in the paper show the influence of surface preparation techniques on the quality of achieved shapes, the impact of other materials already deposited and the impact of another external factors. During carried out experiments the printer Dimatix DMP 2831 and several inks base on nanosilver or dielectric UV curable was used.

  9. Thermal bubble inkjet printing of water-based graphene oxide and graphene inks on heated substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Simin; Shen, Ruoxi; Qian, Bo; Li, Lingying; Wang, Wenhao; Lin, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Peng; Xie, Yonglin

    2018-04-01

    Stable-jetting water-based graphene oxide (GO) and graphene (GR) inks without any surfactant or stabilizer are prepared from an unstable-jetting water-based starting solvent, with many thermal bubble inkjet satellite drops, by simply increasing the material concentration. The concentration-dependent thermal bubble inkjet droplet generation process is studied in detail. To overcome the low concentration properties of water-based thermal bubble inkjet inks, the substrate temperature is tuned below 60 °C to achieve high-quality print lines. Due to the difference in hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the 2D materials, the printed GO lines show a different forming mechanism from that of the GR lines. The printed GO lines are reduced by thermal annealing and by ascorbic acid, respectively. The reduced GO lines exhibit electrical conductivity of the same order of magnitude as that of the GR lines.

  10. Low-Cost Inkjet Printing Technology for the Rapid Prototyping of Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Bruno; Baglio, Salvatore; Bulsara, Adi R; Emery, Teresa; Marletta, Vincenzo; Pistorio, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Recently, there has been an upsurge in efforts dedicated to developing low-cost flexible electronics by exploiting innovative materials and direct printing technologies. This interest is motivated by the need for low-cost mass-production, shapeable, and disposable devices, and the rapid prototyping of electronics and sensors. This review, following a short overview of main printing processes, reports examples of the development of flexible transducers through low-cost inkjet printing technology.

  11. Direct Fabrication of Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Film for Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Cheng-Lin; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Chang, Li-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Hu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inkjet-printed dielectric film that used a polymer-based SU-8 ink was fabricated for use in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor. Thermal treatment of the inkjet-printed SU-8 polymer film affected its surface morphology, chemical structure, and surface wettability. A 20-min soft-bake at 60°C was applied to eliminate inkjet-printed bubbles and ripples. The ultraviolet-exposed SU-8 polymer film was crosslinked at temperatures between 120°C and 220°C and became disordered at 270°C, demonstrated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A maximum SU-8 polymer film hard-bake temperature of 120°C was identified, and a printing process was subsequently employed because the appropriate water contact angle of the printed film was 79°. Under the appropriate inkjet printing conditions, the two-transmission-line method was used to extract the dielectric and electrical properties of the SU-8 polymer film, and the electrical behavior of the fabricated MIM capacitor was also characterized.

  12. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  13. Passive low-cost inkjet-printed smart skin sensor for structural health monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2012-11-20

    Monitoring fatigue cracking of large engineering structures is a costly and time-intensive process. The authors\\' present the first low-cost inkjet-printed patch antenna sensor that can passively detect crack formation, orientation and shape by means of resonant frequency shifts in the two resonant modes of the antenna. For the first time, the effect of non-linear crack shapes on the parallel and perpendicular resonant modes of a patch antenna is quantified with simulation and measurement. This study presents a step towards fully integrated, low-cost, conformal and environmentally friendly smart skins for real-time monitoring of large structures. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.

  14. 3.56-bits/cm Compact Inkjet Printed and Application Specific Chipless RFID Tag

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Munawar M.

    2015-10-26

    © 2002-2011 IEEE. In this letter, a 28.5-bit chipless RFID tag, based on paper substrate and realized using inkjet printing technique is presented. Operating within ultrawideband, the tag occupies a compact size of 2 × 4 cm2. Focusing on applications requiring time and date identification, a novel encoding technique is presented that allows efficient frequency band allocation based on the number of required instances of time and date variables. A figure of merit (FOM) relating coding capacity and tag dimensions coined as code density is also introduced. A systematic design process followed by simulations and verified through measurements reveal a high code density of 3.56 bits/cm2 for the presented chipless tag.

  15. Utilizing wideband AMC structures for high-gain inkjet-printed antennas on lossy paper substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2013-01-01

    Significant gain and bandwidth improvement of inkjet-printed antennas with integrated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is achieved by utilizing wideband ground-backed frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) to overcome the high losses of organic substrates such as paper. A microstrip-fed monopole mounted on an artificial magnetic conductor is demonstrated to improve the gain by 5 dB over previous works and exhibit much wider impedance bandwidth while maintaining a thin antenna profile and a 20% electrical size reduction. The effect of AMC bandwidth on substrate losses and the gain reduction caused by finite AMC array effects are investigated in an effort to produce high-gain, miniaturized, low-cost wearable and structure mount antennas. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. UV-Cured Inkjet-Printed Silver Gate Electrode with Low Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Honglong; Zhou, Yicong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Yao, Rihui; Tao, Ruiqiang; Chen, Jianqiu; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Zhennan; Yang, Caigui; Wei, Jinglin; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2017-09-01

    Inkjet-printed silver gate electrode with low electrical resistivity was fabricated by UV curing method. By adjusting the UV curing time and the distance between the samples and UV lamp, the effects of UV curing conditions on the electrical resistivity of the silver films were studied, and the lowest electrical resistivity of 6.69 × 10-8 Ω·m was obtained. Besides, the UV-cured silver films have good adhesion to the glass substrates, with adhesion strength of 4B (ASTM international standard). Our work offered an easy and low temperature approach to fabricate inkjet-printed silver electrodes with low electrical resistivity.

  17. Inkjet-printed transparent nanowire thin film features for UV photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shih Pin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and effective direct printing method was developed to print patterned nanowire thin films for UV detection. Inks containing silver or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were first formulated adequately to form stable suspension for inkjet printing applications. Sedimentation tests were also carried out to characterize the terminal velocity and dispersion stability of nanowires to avoid potential nozzle clogging problems. The well-dispersed silver nanowire ink was then inkjet printed on PET films to form patterned electrodes. Above the electrodes, another layer of TiO2 nanowires was also printed to create a highly transparent photodetector with >80% visible transmittance. The printed photodetector showed a fairly low dark current of 10-12-10-14 A with a high on/off ratio of 2000 to UV radiation. Under a bias voltage of 2 V, the detector showed fast responses to UV illumination with a rise time of 0.4 s and a recovery time of 0.1 s. More photo currents can also be collected with a larger printed electrode area. In summary, this study shows the feasibility of applying inkjet printing technology to create nanowire thin films with specific patterns, and can be further employed for photoelectric applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  18. Photometer for monitoring the thickness of inkjet printed films for organic electronic and sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jisun; Sengupta, Sandip K; Whitten, James E

    2010-03-01

    Inkjet printed organic thin films are being used for a variety of electronic and sensor applications with advantages that include ease of fabrication and reproducibility. Construction and use of a low-cost photometer based on a light-emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector are described. The photometer attaches to the exit of the printer with the transparent substrate onto which the film is printed passing between the LED and photodiode. By measuring the output voltage of the detector, the transmittance and absorbance of the inkjet printed film can be calculated in real-time. Since absorbance is linearly proportional to thickness in the Beer-Lambert regime, the thickness of the film may be monitored and controlled by varying the number of passes through the printer. Use of the photometer is demonstrated for inkjet printed films of monolayer-protected colloidal gold nanoparticles that function as chemical vapor sensors. The photometer may find applications in both research and quality control related to the manufacture of organic electronic devices and sensors and enables "feedback-controlled" inkjet printing.

  19. Method of making electric connections using inkjet printing painting on LTCC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, K.; Jakubowska, M.; Kozioł, G.; Araźna, A.; Janeczek, K.

    Hybrid microelectronics modules fabricated on LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic) substrates are most used in aerospace, automotive and medical industry. Microelectronics modules on LTCC substrates are common application for sensors in ABS or Air Bags systems. High scale of circuit integration and possibility to combine different types of elements and mounting techniques are factor which drags attention of Research Laboratories to develop new generations of hybrid microelectronics modules and new technologies of their fabrication. In the paper new method of fabrication hybrid microelectronic modules on LTCC substrates using Inkjet printing technique is describe. In particular latest achievements of Inkjet printed high resolutions circuits on unfired LTCC foil were presented. Paper also include unprecedented method of filing VIA (Vertical Electrical Connections) using developed in Tele & Radio Research Institute Inkjet printing System. Problems in fabrication hybrid microelectronic modules on LTCC substrates, in particular with screen printing electrical connections and VIA holes filing were discussed. Advantages of proposed new method of fabrication electric connections using Inkjet printing on LTCC substrates were given and possible areas of application were discussed.

  20. Voltage-Controlled Ring Oscillators Based on Inkjet Printed Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Tin Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjun; Park, Jaeyoung; Geier, Michael L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-06-10

    A voltage-controlled ring oscillator is implemented with double-gate complementary transistors where both the n- and p-channel semiconductors are deposited by inkjet printing. Top gates added to transistors in conventional ring oscillator circuits control not only threshold voltages of the constituent transistors but also the oscillation frequencies of the ring oscillators. The oscillation frequency increases or decreases linearly with applied top gate potential. The field-effect transistor materials system that yields such linear behavior has not been previously reported. In this work, we demonstrate details of a material system (gate insulator, p- and n-channel semiconductors) that results in very linear frequency changes with control gate potential. Our use of a double layer top dielectric consisting of a combination of solution processed P(VDF-TrFE) and Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition leads to low operating voltages and near-optimal device characteristics from a circuit standpoint. Such functional blocks will enable the realization of printed voltage-controlled oscillator-based analog-to-digital converters.

  1. Inkjet printing for biosensor fabrication: combining chemistry and technology for advanced manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Rossignol, Fabrice; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-06-21

    Inkjet printing is emerging at the forefront of biosensor fabrication technologies. Parallel advances in both ink chemistry and printers have led to a biosensor manufacturing approach that is simple, rapid, flexible, high resolution, low cost, efficient for mass production, and extends the capabilities of devices beyond other manufacturing technologies. Here we review for the first time the factors behind successful inkjet biosensor fabrication, including printers, inks, patterning methods, and matrix types. We discuss technical considerations that are important when moving beyond theoretical knowledge to practical implementation. We also highlight significant advances in biosensor functionality that have been realised through inkjet printing. Finally, we consider future possibilities for biosensors enabled by this novel combination of chemistry and technology.

  2. New Approach to a Practical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Utilizing an Inkjet Printing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fuchiwaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates a valuable approach to developing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor units inexpensively for reliable determination of analytes. This QCM sensor unit is constructed by inkjet printing equipment utilizing background noise removal techniques. Inkjet printing equipment was chosen as an alternative to an injection pump in conventional flow-mode systems to facilitate the commercial applicability of these practical devices. The results demonstrate minimization of fluctuations from external influences, determination of antigen-antibody interactions in an inkjet deposition, and quantification of C-reactive protein in the range of 50–1000 ng∙mL−1. We thus demonstrate a marketable application of an inexpensive and easily available QCM sensor system.

  3. Behavior of printable formulations of loperamide and caffeine on different substrates--effect of print density in inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela; Palo, Mirja

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the current work was to study the applicability of precision inkjet printing in fabrication of personalized doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) and caffeine (CAF) were used as model compounds. Different doses of the drugs in a single...

  4. Indirect X-ray Detectors Based on Inkjet-Printed Photodetectors with a Screen-Printed Scintillator Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana; Correia, Vitor; Sowade, Enrico; Etxebarria, Ikerne; Rodriguez, Raul D; Mitra, Kalyan Y; Baumann, Reinhard R; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

    2018-04-18

    Organic photodetectors (PDs) based on printing technologies will allow to expand the current field of PD applications toward large-area and flexible applications in areas such as medical imaging, security, and quality control, among others. Inkjet printing is a powerful digital tool for the deposition of smart and functional materials on various substrates, allowing the development of electronic devices such as PDs on various substrates. In this work, inkjet-printed PD arrays, based on the organic thin-film transistor architecture, have been developed and applied for the indirect detection of X-ray radiation using a scintillator ink as an X-ray absorber. The >90% increase of the photocurrent of the PDs under X-ray radiation, from about 53 nA without the scintillator film to about 102 nA with the scintillator located on top of the PD, proves the suitability of the developed printed device for X-ray detection applications.

  5. Ligament flow during drop-on-demand inkjet printing of bioink containing living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyun; Krishnamoorthy, Srikumar; Song, Hongtao; Zhang, Zhengyi; Xu, Changxue

    2017-03-01

    Organ printing utilizes tissue spheroids or filaments as building blocks to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues and organs based on a layer-by-layer manufacturing mechanism. These fabricated tissues and organs are envisioned as alternatives to replace the damaged human tissues and organs, which is emerging as a promising solution to solve the organ donor shortage problem being faced all over the world. Inkjetting, one of the key technologies in organ printing, has been widely developed because of its moderate fabrication cost, good process controllability, and scale-up potentials. There are several key steps towards inkjet-based organ printing: generation of droplets from bioink, fabrication of 3D cellular structures, and post-printing tissue fusion and maturation. The droplet formation process is the first step, affecting the overall feasibility of the envisioned organ printing technology. This paper focuses on the ligament flow of the droplet formation process during inkjet printing of bioink containing living cells and its corresponding effect on post-printing cell viability and cell distribution. It is found that (1) two types of ligament flow are observed: at 30 V (Type I), the ligament flow has two different directions at the locations near the nozzle orifice and the forming droplet; at 60 V (Type II), the ligament flow directions are the same at both locations; (2) compared to Type II, fewer cells are ejected into the primary droplets in Type I, because some cells move back into the nozzle driven by the ligament flow in the positive z direction; and (3) cell viability in both Type I and Type II is around 90% without a significant difference. The resulting knowledge will benefit precise control of printing dynamics during inkjet printing of viscoelastic bioink for 3D biofabrication applications.

  6. Ultrafast imaging method to measure surface tension and viscosity of inkjet-printed droplets in flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staat, Erik-Jan; van der Bos, Arjan; van den Berg, Marc; Reinten, Hans; Wijshoff, Herman; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    In modern drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the jetted droplets contain a mixture of solvents, pigments and surfactants. In order to accurately control the droplet formation process, its in-flight dynamics, and deposition characteristics upon impact at the underlying substrate, it is key to quantify

  7. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative

  8. Microwave flash sintering of inkjet-printed silver tracks on polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelaer, J.; Klokkenburg, M.; Hendriks, C.E.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave flash sintering of inkjet printed colloidal silver dispersions on thin polymer substrates was studied as a function of the antenna area and initial resistance. The presence of conductive antennae promotes nanoparticle sintering in predried ink lines. For dried nanoparticle inks connected

  9. Embedding of inkjet-printed Ag-grid/ITO hybrid transparent electrode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... Keywords. Solution process; inkjet; electrohydrodynamic printing; transparent electrode; flexible electrode. 1. Introduction. Transparent electrodes (TEs) are one of the most indispensable materials to fabricate rapidly emerging elec- tronic devices, including flexible displays, touch panels, photovoltaic cells ...

  10. Fabrication of interdigitated electrodes by inkjet printing technology for apllication in ammonia sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Duy Dam; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Nhien; Doan, Duc Chanh Tin; Dang, Thi My Dung; Dang, Mau Chien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper interdigitated electrodes for gas sensors were fabricated by inkjet printing technology. Silver electrodes were inkjet printed on Si/SiO 2 substrates instead of traditional photolithography method. The inkjet printing parameters to obtain desired dimensions, thickness of the electrodes and distance between the interdigitated electrodes were optimized in this study. The fabricated interdigitated silver electrodes were tested for application in ammonia gas sensors. Conductive polyaniline (PANI) layer was coated on the silver interdigitated electrodes by drop-coating. Ammonia detection of the PANI-coated chips was characterized with a gas measurement system in which humidity and ammonia concentrations were well-controlled. The electrical conductivity of the PANI films coated on the electrodes was measured when the PANI films were exposed to nitrogen and ammonia. The conductivity of the PANI films decreased significantly due to the deprotonation process of PANI upon ammonia expodure. The recovery time was about 15 min by heating up the polymer chip at 60 °C. The results showed that the silver electrodes fabricated by inkjet printing technique could be used as a sensor platform for ammonia detection. (paper)

  11. Infiltration of commercially available, anode supported SOFC’s via inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell-Williams, T.B.; Tomov, R.I.; Saadabadi, S.A.; Krauz, M.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Glowacki, B.A.; Kumar, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    Commercially available anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (NiO-8YSZ/8YSZ/LSCF- 20 mm in diameter) were anode infiltrated with gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) using a scalable drop-on-demand inkjet printing process. Cells were infiltrated with two different precursor solutions—water based or

  12. Generation of micro-sized conductive lines on glass fibre fabrics by inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balda Irurzun, Unai; Dutschk, Victoria; Calvimontes, Alfredo; Akkerman, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Micro-sized lines were inkjet printed on glass fibre fabrics using different droplet spacing. A conductive ink containing silver nanoparticles was used in this study. Glass fibre fabrics were differently pre-treated to avoid spontaneous spreading of the ink dispersion. The sample topography was

  13. Zirconia UV-curable colloids for additive manufacturing via hybrid inkjet printing-stereolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Massimo; Barou, C.; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Currently, additive manufacturing of ceramics by stereolithography (SLA) is limited to single materials and by a poor thickness resolution that strongly depends on the ceramic particles-UV light interaction. Combining selective laser curing with inkjet printing represents a novel strategy to over...

  14. Reliable inkjet-printed interconnections on foil-type Li-Ion Batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios-Aguilera, N.B.; Visser, H.A.; Sridhar, A.; Balda-Irurzun, U.; Vargas-Llona, L.D.; Zhou, J.; Akkerman, R.; French, P.J.; Bossche, A.

    2013-01-01

    Shapeable rechargeable Li-ion batteries are a good option for the power source of system-in-package devices; nevertheless, their size and temperature limitations are a constraint during the fabrication process. Inkjet-printed interconnections on top of the battery are proposed in order to reduce the

  15. Morphology and deposit of picoliter droplet tracks generated by inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Tai; Hung, Tzu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the morphological patterns of liquid tracks of droplets (~10 pl) wetting on a homogeneous surface were investigated analytically and experimentally. Using drop- on-demand inkjet printing, micro liquid tracks were formed from silver (Ag) nanoparticle suspension (~40 nm) ink under ambient environments. These liquid tracks in circular and polygonal shapes were intended to have different line widths (W) from 25 µm to 250 µm and droplet spacing (s) from 10 to 20 µm. The re-scaled ratio of volume (VR  =  V/W 3 ) and aspect ratio of length (AR  =  L i/L o) were calculated to construct one morphological diagram. The resulting morphological diagram generated from the inkjet printing formations clearly showed three distinct morphologies: the cap (C), bulge (B), and ring (R) phases. In other words, the morphological phase of the inkjet printing formations could be changed simply by varying the values of W and s. Also the looped liquid tracks clearly indicated that capillary (convective) flows were induced due to interfacial energy during the formation of nano-Ag deposits. Finally, we demonstrated the anchoring effect on suppression of bulges by the addition of one anchor in front of all segments. The findings in liquid track morphology here may be further developed for a variety of inkjet printing applications such as electric conductors and electrodes in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in the future.

  16. Pentacene-Based Thin Film Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Nanocomposite High-K Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposite gate insulating film of a pentacene-based thin film transistor was deposited by inkjet printing. In this study, utilizing the pearl miller to crumble the agglomerations and the dispersant to well stabilize the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles in the polymer matrix of the ink increases the dose concentration for pico-jetting, which could be as the gate dielectric film made by inkjet printing without the photography process. Finally, we realized top contact pentacene-TFTs and successfully accomplished the purpose of directly patternability and increase the performance of the device based on the nanocomposite by inkjet printing. These devices exhibited p-channel TFT characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (a saturation mobility of ̃0.58 cm2 V−1 s−1, a large current ratio (>103 and a low operation voltage (<6 V. Furthermore, we accorded the deposited mechanisms which caused the interface difference between of inkjet printing and spin coating. And we used XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy to help us analyze the transfer characteristics of pentacene films and the performance of OTFTs.

  17. Reliable inkjet-printed interconnections on foil-type li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios-Aguilera, N.B.; Visser, Roy; Sridhar, Ashok; Balda Irurzun, U.; Vargas-Llona, L.D.; Zhou, J.; Akkerman, Remko; French, P.J.; Bossche, A.

    2013-01-01

    Shapeable rechargeable Li-ion batteries are a good option for the power source of system-in-package devices; nevertheless, their size and temperature limitations are a constraint during the fabrication process. Inkjet-printed interconnections on top of the battery are proposed in order to reduce the

  18. Surfactant-induced delay of leveling of inkjet-printed patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyak, M.; Darhuber, A.A.; Ren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, inkjet printing has become a widespread technique for the non-contact deposition of liquids, solutions and melts on a variety of substrates with a lateral resolution down to about 10 μm. Because the patterns are formed via coalescence of many individual droplets, ripples and

  19. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Template-induced fabrication of nanopatterned polymeric films by inkjet printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qian, E-mail: qxu@abo.fi [Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3-5, 20500 Turku (Finland); Ihalainen, Petri; Smått, Jan-Henrik; Määttänen, Anni [Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3-5, 20500 Turku (Finland); Sund, Pernilla; Wilén, Carl-Erik [Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Polymer Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Turku (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3-5, 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Evaporation-induced self-assembly was used to prepare patterned TiO{sub 2} substrates. • Conducting polymers were inkjet-printed onto nanopatterned TiO{sub 2} substrates. • AFM shows that the deposited polymers are evenly distributed over the substrate. • The nanopatterned structure is maintained with ultrathin polymer film below ∼5 nm. - Abstract: Controlling the nanostructure of polymeric films using cost-effective deposition methods, like inkjet printing, has proven challenging due to the relative low resolution of such techniques. In this study, we combine inkjet printing with the use of nanopatterned substrates composed of TiO{sub 2} thin films on top of silicon wafers (NP-TiO{sub 2}) for the preparation of polymeric films with similar surface morphologies. First, the evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) process was used in the presence of a block co-polymer (polybutadiene-b-polyethyleneoxide) to prepare the NP-TiO{sub 2} substrates. The TiO{sub 2} ridges can be selectively modified with a hydrophobic perfluorinated phosphate, Zonyl FSE (ZFNP-TiO{sub 2}). Conducting polymers (biotinylated polythiophene and polyaniline) were inkjet-printed both onto NP-TiO{sub 2} and ZFNP-TiO{sub 2} substrates, resulting either in continuous polymeric thin films or matrixes with separate droplets, respectively. The high surface energy determined for the NP-TiO{sub 2} substrate deemed it more suitable for the deposition of uniform and nanometer thin polymer layers. In fact, atomic force microscopy demonstrates that the deposited polymers are evenly distributed over the substrate surface while the nanopatterned structure is maintained. We conclude that the combination of inkjet printing and nanotemplating is a simple and cost-efficient way to fabricate nanopatterned polymer films with high potential in biosensing and electrical devices.

  1. Electrical and Morphological Properties of Inkjet Printed Pedot/PSS Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, E.; Ginley, D.

    2005-01-01

    Organic solar cells and LEDs are becoming more popular because their low cost materials, potential manufacturability, and recent gains in efficiency make them feasible for widespread commercialization in the near future. One significant manufacturing problem, especially for OLEDs, is the cost associated with creating patterned devices with spatially non-specific deposition methods such as spincoating. Inkjet printing can remove this problem. In recent years, inkjet printed polyethylene(3,4-dioxythiophene)/ polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS) has been incorporated into many organic devices to help charge transfer, but there has not been much research regarding the effect of different printing parameters on the electrical and morphological film properties. In this work, an atomic force microscope, four point probe, and Kelvin probe were used to study the effects of printing parameters on roughness, conductivity and workfunction. Inkjet printed PEDOT films were also compared to spincoated films to determine how the polymer deposition method affects the above properties. Generally, inkjet printing created rougher but more conductive films with a smaller workfunction. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the workfunction of PEDOT films could be tuned over a range of about 0.5 V by changing the solvent mixture or substrate surface pretreatment. All additives to the as received PEDOT/PSS suspension caused the workfunction to decrease. It was discovered that workfunction decreases as printing voltage increases, but the trend reverses after annealing the films. This phenomenon suggests that when DMSO interacts with PEDOT, the workfunction changes. Finally, the results support previous publications suggesting that DMSO increases conductivity through a screening effect and also by changing the distribution of PEDOT and PSS in the film.

  2. A Compact Kapton-based Inkjet Printed Multiband Antenna for Flexible Wireless Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sana

    2015-04-20

    A low cost inkjet printed multiband antenna envisioned for integration into flexible and conformal mobile devices is presented. The antenna structure contains a novel triangular iterative design with coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed, printed on a Kapton polyimide-based flexible substrate with dimensions of 70 x 70 x 0.11 mm3. The antenna covers four wide frequency bands with measured impedance bandwidths of 54.4%, 14%, 23.5% and 17.2%, centered at 1.2, 2.0, 2.6 and 3.4 GHz, respectively, thus, enabling it to cover GSM 900, GPS, UMTS, WLAN, ISM, Bluetooth, LTE 2300/ 2500 and WiMAX standards. The antenna has omnidirectional radiation pattern with a maximum gain of 2.1 dBi. To characterize the flexibility of the antenna, the fabricated prototype is tested in convex and concave bent configurations for radii of 78mm and 59mm. The overall performance remains unaffected, except a minor shift of 20 MHz and 60 MHz in S11, for concave bending at both radii. The compact, lightweight and conformal design as well as multiband performance in bent configurations, proves the suitability of the antenna for future electronic devices.

  3. Conductive Carbon Nanotube Inks for Use with Desktop Inkjet Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Williams, Martha; Tate, LaNetra; Fortier, Craig; Smith, David; Davia, Kyle; Gibson, Tracy; Snyder, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a common commercial process. In addition to the familiar use in printing documents from computers, it is also used in some industrial applications. For example, wire manufacturers are required by law to print the wire type, gauge, and safety information on the exterior of each foot of manufactured wire, and this is typically done with inkjet or laser printers. The goal of this work was the creation of conductive inks that can be applied to a wire or flexible substrates via inkjet printing methods. The use of inkjet printing technology to print conductive inks has been in testing for several years. While researchers have been able to get the printing system to mechanically work, the application of conductive inks on substrates has not consistently produced adequate low resistances in the kilohm range. Conductive materials can be applied using a printer in single or multiple passes onto a substrate including textiles, polymer films, and paper. The conductive materials are composed of electrical conductors such as carbon nanotubes (including functionalized carbon nanotubes and metal-coated carbon nanotubes); graphene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (e.g., pentacene and bisperipentacene); metal nanoparticles; inherently conductive polymers (ICP); and combinations thereof. Once the conductive materials are applied, the materials are dried and sintered to form adherent conductive materials on the substrate. For certain formulations, increased conductivity can be achieved by printing on substrates supported by low levels of magnetic field alignment. The adherent conductive materials can be used in applications such as damage detection, dust particle removal, smart coating systems, and flexible electronic circuitry. By applying alternating layers of different electrical conductors to form a layered composite material, a single homogeneous layer can be produced with improved electrical properties. It is believed that patterning alternate layers of

  4. Inkjet-Printed In-Ga-Zn Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Laser Spike Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hang; Hu, Hailong; Zhu, Jingguang; Guo, Tailiang

    2017-07-01

    Inkjet-printed In-Ga-Zn oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated at low temperature using laser spike annealing (LSA) treatment. Coffee-ring effects during the printing process were eliminated to form uniform IGZO films by simply increasing the concentration of solute in the ink. The impact of LSA on the TFT performance was studied. The field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and on/off current ratio were greatly influenced by the LSA treatment. With laser scanning at 1 mm/s for 40 times, the 30-nm-thick IGZO TFT baked at 200°C showed mobility of 1.5 cm2/V s, threshold voltage of -8.5 V, and on/off current ratio >106. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of rapid LSA treatment of low-temperature inkjet-printed oxide semiconductor transistors, being comparable to those obtained by conventional high-temperature annealing.

  5. Controllable Impregnation Via Inkjet Printing for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Cell Air Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Da'as, E. H.

    2013-10-07

    The impregnation method has been considered as one of the most successful techniques for the fabrication of highly efficient electrodes for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells (SOCs) at the lab scale. However, because the impregnation is usually performed manually, its irreproducibility remains a major problem that can be solved by using controllable techniques, such as inkjet printing. In this paper, lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air electrodes were prepared by infiltrating YSZ porous bodies with LSM precursor solution using inkjet printing, followed by annealing at 800°C for 2 hours. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of the LSM phase, which was in the form of nanoparticles with size in the 50-70 nm range on the YSZ walls, as revealed by FEG-SEM observations. The effect of printing parameters on the distribution of the impregnated phase was investigated and discussed.

  6. Fabrication of conductive copper patterns using reactive inkjet printing followed by two-step electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin-Ju; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yan; Sowade, Enrico; Baumann, Reinhard R.; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper patterns were fabricated by reactive inkjet printing and two-step electroless plating. • Cu particles produced via reactive inkjet printing act as catalyst for copper electroless plating. • High conductivity can be obtained without many printing passes and high temperature sintering. • This approach can largely avoid nozzle-clogging problems. • This approach presents a potential way in the flexible printed electronics with simple process. - Abstract: A simple and low-cost process for fabricating conductive copper patterns on flexible polyimide substrates was demonstrated. Copper catalyst patterns were first produced on polyimide substrates using reactive inkjet printing of Cu (II)-bearing ink and reducing ink, and then the conductive copper patterns were generated after a two-step electroless plating procedure. The copper layers were characterized by optical microscope, SEM, XRD and EDS. Homogeneously distributed copper nanoclusters were found in the catalyst patterns. A thin copper layer with uniform particle size was formed after first-step electroless plating, and a thick copper layer of about 14.3 μm with closely packed structure and fine crystallinity was produced after second-step electroless plating. This resulting copper layer had good solderability, reliable adhesion strength and a low resistivity of 5.68 μΩ cm without any sintering process.

  7. A 24 GHz CMOS oscillator transmitter with an inkjet printed on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-08-15

    CMOS based RF circuits have demonstrated efficient performance over the decades. However, one bottle neck with this technology is its lossy nature for passive components such as inductors, antennas etc. Due to this drawback, passives are either implemented off chip or the designers work with the inefficient passives. This problem can be alleviated by using inkjet printing as a post process on CMOS chip. In this work, we demonstrate inkjet printing of a patterned polymer (SU8) layer on a 24 GHz oscillator chip to isolate the lossy Si substrate from the passives which are inkjet printed on top of the SU8 layer. As a proof of concept, a monopole antenna is printed on top of the SU8 layer integrating it with the oscillator through the exposed RF pads to realize an oscillator transmitter. The proposed hybrid fabrication technique can be extended to multiple dielectric and conductive printed layers to demonstrate complete RF systems on CMOS chips which are efficient, cost-effective and above all small in size. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. High Resolution Inkjet Printed Oxide Thin Film Transistors with Self-Aligned Fine Channel Bank Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Shao, Shuangshuang; Chen, Zheng; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Xia, Kai; Zhao, Jianwen; Cui, Zheng

    2018-04-12

    A self-aligned inkjet printing process has been developed to construct small channel metal oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with independent bottom gates on transparent glass substrates. Poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSQ) was used to pattern hydrophobic banks on the transparent substrate instead of commonly used self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). Photolithographic exposure from backside using bottom gate electrodes as mask formed hydrophilic channel areas for the TFTs. IGZO ink was selectively deposited by an inkjet printer in the hydrophilic channel region and confined by the hydrophobic bank structure, resulting in the precise deposition of semiconductor layers just above the gate electrodes. Inkjet-printed IGZO TFTs with independent gate electrodes of 10 μm width have been demonstrated, avoiding completely printed channel beyond the broad of the gate electrodes. The TFTs showed on/off ratios of 10 8 , maximum mobility of 3.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , negligible hysteresis and good uniformity. This method is conductive to minimizing the area of printed TFTs so as to the development of high resolution printing displays.

  9. Inkjet-printed silver conductors using silver nitrate ink and their electrical contacts with conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengchun; Su Yi; Varahramyan, Kody

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost and direct-writing silver metallization process based on drop-on-demand inkjet printing technique. Silver nitrate dissolved in the mixture of water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a metal precursor for metallization. The fabricated silver films on polyimide substrate were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical measurements. The experimental results show that the inkjet-printed silver tracks have well-defined shapes. The resistivity of the printed silver tracks is around 1.5x10 -5 Ω.cm, one order of magnitude larger than that of bulk silver, which is attributed to the porosities as well as the residual impurities. Two conducting polymers (CP), sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) and poly(ethylene dioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT/PSS), were inkjet-printed on the surface of the silver tracks to study electrical properties of the Ag-polymer contacts. The current-voltage measurement results show that the printed Ag-PEDOT/PSS and Ag-SPANi contacts exhibit 'ohmic' behavior

  10. Application of Biomaterials and Inkjet Printing to Develop Bacterial Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tithimanan Srimongkon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We created an automated bioassay system based on inkjet printing. Compared to conventional manual bacterial culture systems our printing approach improves the quality as well as the processing speed. A hydrophobic/hydrophilic pattern as a container supporting a culture medium was built on filter paper using a toluene solution of polystyrene for hydrophobization, followed by toluene printing to create several hydrophilic areas. As culture media we used a novel poly(vinyl alcohol based hydrogel and a standard calcium alginate hydrogel. The poly(vinyl alcohol hydrogel was formed by physical crosslinking poly(vinyl alcohol with adipic acid dihydrazide solutions. The conditions of poly(vinyl alcohol gelation were optimized for inkjet printability and the optimum mixture ratio was determined. The calcium alginate hydrogel was formed by chemical reaction between sodium alginate and CaCl2 solutions. Together with nutrients both hydrogel solutions were successfully printed on paper by means of the modified inkjet printer. The amount of each solution was demanded simply by outputting CMYK values. In the last step bacterial cells were printed on both hydrogel media. For both media we achieved a stable bacteria growth which was confirmed by microscopical imaging of the developed bacterial colonies.

  11. Series Resistance Analysis of Passivated Emitter Rear Contact Cells Patterned Using Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. T. Lenio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For higher-efficiency solar cell structures, such as the Passivated Emitter Rear Contact (PERC cells, to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment, potentially low-cost techniques such as inkjet printing and metal plating are desirable. A common problem that is experienced when fabricating PERC cells is low fill factors due to high series resistance. This paper identifies and attempts to quantify sources of series resistance in inkjet-patterned PERC cells that employ electroless or light-induced nickel-plating techniques followed by copper light-induced plating. Photoluminescence imaging is used to determine locations of series resistance losses in these inkjet-patterned and plated PERC cells.

  12. Polymer light-emitting diodes with thermal inkjet printed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate as transparent anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, W.-Y.; Lin, S.-T.; Cheng, H.-L.; Chang, M.-H.; Guo, H.-R.; Wen, T.-C.; Mai, Y.-S.; Horng, J.-B.; Kuo, C.-W.; Tang, F.-C.; Liao, C.-C.; Chiu, C.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) films, prepared by inkjet-printing and spin-coating methods, have been studied using atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, and four-point probe conductivity measurements. Electrical conductivity of the inkjet-printed film was enhanced by a factor of around 10 when compared to a spin-coating film. The improved conductivity was attributed to longer effective conjugation length of PEDOT chains in inkjet-printing PEDOT:PSS films as suggested by their micro-Raman spectroscopy. PEDOT:PSS films formed by the inkjet-printing method are appropriate for use as an anode for simplification of the fabrication process of polymer light-emitting diodes whose performance is about 1.2 cd/A

  13. Multiscale patterning of nanocomposite polyelectrolyte/nanoparticle films using inkjet printing and AFM scratching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, S J; Bowen, J; Preece, J A

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of structured polymer/nanoparticle composite films through a combination of additive, subtractive and self-assembly methodologies is investigated. Consumer grade inkjet printing hardware is employed to deposit cationic polyelectrolytes on (i) hydrophilic and (ii) hydrophobised glass substrates. The hydrophobisation process controls the spreading of the droplets and hence the lateral size of printed features. The printed cationic polyelectrolyte regions are used as a template to direct the self-assembly of negatively charged gold nanoparticles onto the surface. Micro-scale features are created in the polyelectrolyte/nanoparticle films using AFM scratching to selectively displace material. The effect of substrate wettability on film morphology is discussed. (paper)

  14. An inkjet printed meandered dipole antenna for RF passive sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Quddious, Abdul

    2016-04-10

    In this paper, a low cost inkjet printed antenna envisioned for integration with printed and non-printed RF sensors is presented. The proposed meandered dipole dual-loop antenna is designed on a 0.25mm thick paper substrate. The antenna not only gives wireless remote sensing capability but also allows remote identification functionality. The antenna structure consists of an outer loop and an inner loop resonating at 3GHz and 5GHz respectively and used for obtaining unique electromagnetic signature by modifications in their dimensions.

  15. Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Wireless Sensor Nodes for Environmental and Health Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-11-01

    Increase in population and limited resources have created a growing demand for a futuristic living environment where technology enables the efficient utilization and management of resources in order to increase quality of life. One characteristic of such a society, which is often referred to as a ‘Smart City’, is that the people are well informed about their physiological being as well as the environment around them, which makes them better equipped to handle crisis situations. There is a need, therefore, to develop wireless sensors which can provide early warnings and feedback during calamities such as floods, fires, and industrial leaks, and provide remote health care facilities. For these situations, low-cost sensor nodes with small form factors are required. For this purpose, the use of a low-cost, mass manufacturing technique such as inkjet printing can be beneficial due to its digitally controlled additive nature of depositing material on a variety of substrates. Inkjet printing can permit economical use of material on cheap flexible substrates that allows for the development of miniaturized freeform electronics. This thesis describes how low-cost, inkjet-printed, wireless sensors have been developed for real-time monitoring applications. A 3D buoyant mobile wireless sensor node has been demonstrated that can provide early warnings as well as real-time data for flood monitoring. This disposable paper-based module can communicate while floating in water up to a distance of 50 m, regardless of its orientation in the water. Moreover, fully inkjet-printed sensors have been developed to monitor temperature, humidity and gas levels for wireless environmental monitoring. The sensors are integrated and packaged using 3D inkjet printing technology. Finally, in order to demonstrate the benefits of such wireless sensor systems for health care applications, a low-cost, wearable, wireless sensing system has been developed for chronic wound monitoring. The system

  16. Inkjet 3D printing of microfluidic structures—on the selection of the printer towards printing your own microfluidic chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This article reports, for the first time, the results of detailed research on the application of inkjet 3D printing for the fabrication of microfluidic structures. CAD designed test structures were printed with four different printers. Dimensional fidelity, shape conformity, and surface roughness were studied for each printout. It was found that the minimum dimension (width or depth) for a properly printed microfluidic channel was approximately 200 μm. Although the nominal resolution of the printers was one order of magnitude better, smaller structures were significantly deformed or not printed at all. It was also found that a crucial step in one-step fabrication of embedded microchannels is the removal of the support material. We also discuss the source of print error and present a way to evaluate other printers. The printouts obtained from the four different printers were compared, and the optimal printing technique and printer were used to fabricate a microfluidic structure for the spectrophotometric characterisation of beverages. UV/VIS absorbance characteristics were collected using this microfluidic structure, demonstrating that the fabricated spectrophotometric chip operated properly. Thus, a proof-of-concept for using inkjet 3D printing for the fabrication of microfluidic structures was obtained. (paper)

  17. Influence Of Heat Treathment On Caracteristics Of Inkjet Prints On Textile Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kašiković

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research regarding influence of heat treatment on changes of prints on textile material whichare obtained by inkjet printing technique. Research was done on three characteristic materials (100 % polyesteron which ware printed test chart. Test chart consisted of four colour fields each 100% of one of process colours(CMYK. Printing machine used was Mimaki JV22-160 with J-eco Subly nano inks. Variable factor was numberof ink layers, textile materials ware printed with one, two, three, four and five layers of ink. The analysis of heattreatment influence on prints was done according to SRPS F.S3.311 standard (temperature 110 0C. Total of 60samples were analyzed, 20 for each material used in this experiment. Resistance of colour to heat treatment andtransfer to cotton cloth was determined for characteristic temperatures by using the gray scale. The surface changesof textile material before and after heat treatment ware monitored by SEM analysis.

  18. All-inkjet-printed thin-film transistors: manufacturing process reliability by root cause analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowade, Enrico; Ramon, Eloi; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Pedró, Marta; Pallarès, Jofre; Loffredo, Fausta; Villani, Fulvia; Gomes, Henrique L; Terés, Lluís; Baumann, Reinhard R

    2016-09-21

    We report on the detailed electrical investigation of all-inkjet-printed thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays focusing on TFT failures and their origins. The TFT arrays were manufactured on flexible polymer substrates in ambient condition without the need for cleanroom environment or inert atmosphere and at a maximum temperature of 150 °C. Alternative manufacturing processes for electronic devices such as inkjet printing suffer from lower accuracy compared to traditional microelectronic manufacturing methods. Furthermore, usually printing methods do not allow the manufacturing of electronic devices with high yield (high number of functional devices). In general, the manufacturing yield is much lower compared to the established conventional manufacturing methods based on lithography. Thus, the focus of this contribution is set on a comprehensive analysis of defective TFTs printed by inkjet technology. Based on root cause analysis, we present the defects by developing failure categories and discuss the reasons for the defects. This procedure identifies failure origins and allows the optimization of the manufacturing resulting finally to a yield improvement.

  19. An inkjet-printed buoyant 3-D lagrangian sensor for real-time flood monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-06-01

    A 3-D (cube-shaped) Lagrangian sensor, inkjet printed on a paper substrate, is presented for the first time. The sensor comprises a transmitter chip with a microcontroller completely embedded in the cube, along with a $1.5 \\\\lambda 0 dipole that is uniquely implemented on all the faces of the cube to achieve a near isotropic radiation pattern. The sensor has been designed to operate both in the air as well as water (half immersed) for real-time flood monitoring. The sensor weighs 1.8 gm and measures 13 mm$\\\\,\\\\times\\\\,$ 13 mm$\\\\,\\\\times\\\\,$ 13 mm, and each side of the cube corresponds to only $0.1 \\\\lambda 0 (at 2.4 GHz). The printed circuit board is also inkjet-printed on paper substrate to make the sensor light weight and buoyant. Issues related to the bending of inkjet-printed tracks and integration of the transmitter chip in the cube are discussed. The Lagrangian sensor is designed to operate in a wireless sensor network and field tests have confirmed that it can communicate up to a distance of 100 m while in the air and up to 50 m while half immersed in water. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  20. Inkjet Printing of Drug-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles—A Platform for Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrika Wickström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs have shown great potential in improving drug delivery of poorly water soluble (BCS class II, IV and poorly permeable (BCS class III, IV drugs, as well as facilitating successful delivery of unstable compounds. The nanoparticle technology would allow improved treatment by reducing adverse reactions of currently approved drugs and possibly reintroducing previously discarded compounds from the drug development pipeline. This study aims to highlight important aspects in mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN ink formulation development for digital inkjet printing technology and to advice on choosing a method (2D/3D for nanoparticle print deposit characterization. The results show that both unfunctionalized and polyethyeleneimine (PEI surface functionalized MSNs, as well as drug-free and drug-loaded MSN–PEI suspensions, can be successfully inkjet-printed. Furthermore, the model BCS class IV drug remained incorporated in the MSNs and the suspension remained physically stable during the processing time and steps. This proof-of-concept study suggests that inkjet printing technology would be a flexible deposition method of pharmaceutical MSN suspensions to generate patterns according to predefined designs. The concept could be utilized as a versatile drug screening platform in the future due to the possibility of accurately depositing controlled volumes of MSN suspensions on various materials.

  1. An inkjet printed stripe-type color filter of liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Tai; Wu, Kuo-Hua; Shieh, Fanny; Lu, Chun-Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive concept and new design of a drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing process for fabricating color filter (CF) layers of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) onto the structured surfaces of flat substrates, composed of 'physical sidewalls' for aligning and controlling the liquid morphology. Several fundamental guidelines of the design have been addressed in current inkjet-printing techniques. Using a droplet generator (printhead) of the deposition system, the color-ink drops can be jetted and placed over the specific domains, where the sidewalls align the flow merged from a stream of droplets and fulfill the coverage of the defined areas, in which the geometrical relations correlating the droplets and sidewalls are explicitly expressed in the study. According to the results of the simulation and analysis, the proposed sidewalls, acting as the physical barriers, can control the liquid morphology through the simple geometric factors such as sidewall widths, heights and contact angles. The experimental results showed that the solid RGB color layers were self-assembled from the liquid droplets and formed with the uniform thickness, except for the neighborhood of the sidewalls. It indicated that the sidewalls serving as 'physical barriers' had a remarkable effect in confining and self-aligning the droplet flow within the desirable regions. This inkjet-printing method would alternatively offer one cost-effective and high-flexibility method for the production of the versatile LCD CF, thus being particularly beneficial for large-area printing and flexible substrates.

  2. Control of surface wettability for inkjet printing by combining hydrophobic coating and plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Yeol; Kang, Byung Ju; Lee, Dohyung; Oh, Je Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a wide range of surface wettabilities of PI substrate for inkjet printing by combining hydrophobic solution coating and O 2 or Ar plasma treatments. Experiments were conducted to investigate the variation in inkjet-printed dot diameters with different surface treatments. The change in chemical and physical characteristics of treated surfaces was evaluated using static contact angle measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Only hydrophobic coated surface produces the smallest dot diameter and the largest contact angle. Dot diameter increases and contact angle decreases as the plasma treatment time increases. Since the removal of hydrophobic layer from the surface occurs due to the etching effect of O 2 and Ar plasma during the plasma treatments, F/C ratio decreases with increasing the plasma treatment time. Surface roughness variations are also observed after plasma treatments. The ranges of printed dot sizes for O 2 and Ar plasma treatments are 38 μm–70 μm and 38 μm–92 μm, respectively. Ar plasma treatment shows a wider range of surface wettability because of higher removal rate of the hydrophobic layer. This combination of hydrophobic coating and plasma treatment can offer an effective way to obtain a wide range of surface wettabilities for high quality inkjet-printed patterns. - Highlights: • Hydrophobic coating and plasma treatments were used to control surface wettability. • Inkjet-printed dot diameters increase with O 2 or Ar plasma treatment time. • Contact angles of Ag ink agree well with the variation tendency of dot diameters. • The removal of hydrophobic layer occurs during the plasma treatments. • Ar plasma treatment shows a wider range of surface wettability than O 2 plasma

  3. Photothermal effect of gold nanostar patterns inkjet-printed on coated paper substrates with different permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Borzenkov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing of spherical gold nanoparticles is widely applied in the fabrication of analytical and diagnostics tools. These methods could be extended to non-spherical gold nanoparticles that can efficiently release heat locally when irradiated in the near infrared (NIR wavelength region, due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. However, this promising application requires the ability to maintain high efficiency and tunability of the NIR LSPR of the printed nanoparticles. In this study stable inks containing PEGylated gold nanostars (GNS were fabricated and successfully inkjet-printed onto differently coated paper substrates with different porosity and permeability. A pronounced photothermal effect was observed under NIR excitation of LSPR of the printed GNS patterns even at low laser intensities. It was found that beside the direct role of the laser intensity, this effect depends appreciably on the printing parameters, such as drop density (δ, drops/mm2 and number of printed layers, and, critically, on the permeability of the coated paper substrates. These results will promote the development of GNS-based printed platforms for local photothermal therapy.

  4. Film patterned retarder for stereoscopic three-dimensional display using ink-jet printing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young Jin; Yu, Ji Hoon; Song, Ki Hoon; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Ren, Hongwen; Mun, Byung-June; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lee, Seung Hee

    2014-09-22

    We propose a film patterned retarder (FPR) for stereoscopic three-dimensional display with polarization glasses using ink-jet printing method. Conventional FPR process requires coating of photo-alignment and then UV exposure using wire-grid mask, which is very expensive and difficult. The proposed novel fabrication method utilizes a plastic substrate made of polyether sulfone and an alignment layer, poly (4, 4' - (9, 9 -fluorenyl) diphenylene cyclobutanyltetracarboximide) (9FDA/CBDA) in which the former and the latter aligns reactive mesogen along and perpendicular to the rubbing direction, respectively. The ink-jet printing of 9FDA/CBDA line by line allows fabricating the cost effective FPR which can be widely applied for 3D display applications.

  5. Low Cost Inkjet Printed Smart Bandage for Wireless Monitoring of Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-06-29

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and their treatment is challenging as the early signs indicating their development are subtle. In addition, a type of chronic wound, known as pressure ulcer, develops in patients with limited mobility. Infection and frequent bleeding are indicators of chronic wound development. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage, which can send early warnings for the parameters like irregular bleeding, variations in pH levels and external pressure at wound site. In addition to the early warnings, this smart bandage concept can provide long term wound progression data to the health care providers. The smart bandage comprises a disposable part which has the inkjet printed sensors and a reusable part constituting the wireless electronics. This work is an important step towards futuristic wearable sensors for remote health care applications.

  6. Fully inkjet printed wide band cantor fractal antenna for RF energy harvesting application

    KAUST Repository

    Bakytbekov, Azamat

    2017-06-07

    Energy harvesting from ambient RF signals is feasible, particularly from the GSM bands such as 900MHz, 1800MHz and the 3G band at 2.1GHz. This requires a wideband receive antenna which can cover all these bands with decent gain performance and an omnidirectional radiation pattern. In this work, a novel Cantor fractal antenna has been designed which fulfills the above mentioned performance requirements. Antenna has been realized through a combination of 3D inkjet printing of plastic substrate and 2D inkjet printing of metallic nanoparticles based ink. The stable impedance and radiation performance of the antenna over a bandwidth of 0.8GHz to 2.2GHz (93 %) shows the feasibility of its employment in wide band energy harvesting applications.

  7. A High Sensitivity Three-Dimensional-Shape Sensing Patch Prepared by Lithography and Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yao Lo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A process combining conventional photolithography and a novel inkjet printing method for the manufacture of high sensitivity three-dimensional-shape (3DS sensing patches was proposed and demonstrated. The supporting curvature ranges from 1.41 to 6.24 ´ 10−2 mm−1 and the sensing patch has a thickness of less than 130 μm and 20 ´ 20 mm2 dimensions. A complete finite element method (FEM model with simulation results was calculated and performed based on the buckling of columns and the deflection equation. The results show high compatibility of the drop-on-demand (DOD inkjet printing with photolithography and the interferometer design also supports bi-directional detection of deformation. The 3DS sensing patch can be operated remotely without any power consumption. It provides a novel and alternative option compared with other optical curvature sensors.

  8. Inkjet-Printed Wideband Antenna on Resin-Coated Paper Substrate for Curved Wireless Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Abutarboush, Hattan

    2015-04-28

    A low-cost, inkjet-printed multiband monopole antenna for conformal wireless applications is presented for the first time. The antenna is implemented on a low cost resin coated paper substrate which can be used for conformal devices. The antenna developed here is composed of four branch lines on the radiator and three L-shaped slots on the ground plane that help to generate multiple bands without increasing the size of the antenna. The antenna has a compact size, making it suitable for handheld and wearable wireless devices. Details of the inkjet printing fabrication processes and related issues are presented. The antennas were characterized under flat and bent conditions and the results indicate that the antennas can cover most bands for mobile and wireless applications such as PCS, UMTS, GSM1900 and WLAN

  9. Low Cost Inkjet Printed Smart Bandage for Wireless Monitoring of Chronic Wounds

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-06-29

    Chronic wounds affect millions of patients around the world and their treatment is challenging as the early signs indicating their development are subtle. In addition, a type of chronic wound, known as pressure ulcer, develops in patients with limited mobility. Infection and frequent bleeding are indicators of chronic wound development. In this article, we present an unprecedented low cost continuous wireless monitoring system, realized through inkjet printing on a standard bandage, which can send early warnings for the parameters like irregular bleeding, variations in pH levels and external pressure at wound site. In addition to the early warnings, this smart bandage concept can provide long term wound progression data to the health care providers. The smart bandage comprises a disposable part which has the inkjet printed sensors and a reusable part constituting the wireless electronics. This work is an important step towards futuristic wearable sensors for remote health care applications.

  10. Toward fast and cost-effective ink-jet printing of solid electrolyte for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, P.-E.; Riou, B.; Lestriez, B.; Guyomard, D.; Brousse, T.; Le Bideau, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ink-jet printing of ionogel for low-cost microbattery is presented. Such an approach allows to provide liquid-like electrolyte performances for all-solid microdevices. Ink-jet printing process is possible thanks to sol precursor of the ionogel. This full silica based ionogels confining ionic liquid are known to be thermal resistant, serving safety and technologies requiring solder reflow. High ionic conductivity and compatibility with porous composite electrodes allow reaching good electrochemical cycling performance: full Li-ion cell with LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 porous composite electrodes shows a surface capacity of 300 μAh cm-2 for more than 100 cycles. Such surface capacities are very competitive as compared to those obtained for microdevices based on expensive PVD processes.

  11. Inkjet-Printed PEDOT:PSS Electrodes on Paper for Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihar, Eloïse; Roberts, Timothée; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Hervé, Thierry; De Graaf, Jozina B; Malliaras, George G

    2017-03-01

    Inkjet-printed PEDOT:PSS electrodes are shown to record cutaneous electrophysiological signals such as electrocardiograms via a simple finger-to-electrode contact. The recordings are of high quality and show no deterioration over a 3 month period, paving the way for the development of the next generation of low-cost, convenient-to-use healthcare monitoring devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Inkjet?Printed Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Lux?Steiner, Martha Ch.; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4?based solar cells with total area (0.5 cm2) power conversion efficiency of 6.4% are demonstrated from thin film absorbers processed by inkjet printing technology of Cu?Zn?Sn?S precursor ink followed by selenization. The device performance is limited by the low fill factor, which is due to the high series resistance.

  13. Inkjet-Printed Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 -based solar cells with total area (0.5 cm 2 ) power conversion efficiency of 6.4% are demonstrated from thin film absorbers processed by inkjet printing technology of Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursor ink followed by selenization. The device performance is limited by the low fill factor, which is due to the high series resistance.

  14. Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Haverinen, Hanna

    2012-05-23

    Recently, an intriguing solution to obtain better color purity has been to introduce inorganic emissive quantum dots (QDs) into an otherwise OLED structure. The emphasis of this chapter is to present a simple discussion of the first attempts to fabricate high-density, pixelated (quarter video graphics array (QVGA) format), monochromatic and RGB quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs), where inkjet printing is used to deposit the light-emitting layer of QDs. It shows some of the factors that have to be considered in order to achieve the desired accuracy and printing quality. The successful operation of the RGB printed devices indicates the potential of the inkjet printing approach in the fabrication of full-color QDLEDs for display application. However, further optimization of print quality is still needed in order to eliminate the formation of pinholes, thus maximizing energy transfer from organic layers to the QDs and in turn increasing the performance of the devices. Controlled Vocabulary Terms: ink jet printing; LED displays; LED lamps; organic light emitting diodes; quantum dots

  15. Inkjet-printed selective microfluidic biosensor using CNTs functionalized by cytochrome P450 enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivec, Matic; Leitner, Raimund; Überall, Florian; Hochleitner, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    An additive manufacturing concept, consisting of 3D photopolymer printing and Ag nanoparticle printing, was investigated for the construction of a microfluidic biosensor based on immobilized cytochrome P450 enzyme. An acylate-type microfluidic chamber composed of two parts, i.e. chamber-housing and chamber-lid was printed with a polyjet 3D printer. A 3-electrode sensor structure was inkjet-printed on the lid using a combination of Ag and graphene printing. The working electrode was covered with carbon nanotubes by drop-casting and immobilized with cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme. The microfluidic sensor shows a significant response to a test xenobiotic, i.e. dextromethorphan; the cyclic voltammetrical measurements show a corresponding oxidation peak at 0.4 V with around 5 μM detection limit.

  16. Characteristics of via-hole interconnections fabricated by using an inkjet printing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Suk; You, In Kyu; Koo, Jae Bon; Lee, Sang Seok; Lim, Sang Chul; Kang, Seong Youl [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong Young [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Inkjet printing is a familiar technique that creates and releases droplets of fluid on demand and precisely deposits those droplets on a substrate. It has received increased attention for its novelty and ability to produce patterned and template material structures. In the application of electronic interconnection fabrication, drop-on-demand inkjet printers especially offer the advantages of contactless printing and eliminat the use of a die or photomask. In this study, we created a via-hole interconnecting structure through a polymer insulator layer by using an inkjet printing. When the droplets of Ag ink were dropped onto a PMMA/Au/Cr/SiO{sub 2}/Si area and the Ag film was annealed at high temperatures, the Ag ink containing solvents penetrated into the PMMA layer and generated the conducting paths between the top Ag and the bottom Au electrodes by partial dissolution and swelling of the polymer. The surface and the cross-sectional topologies of the formed via-holes were investigated by using an optical microscope and a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  17. Characteristics of via-hole interconnections fabricated by using an inkjet printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Suk; You, In Kyu; Koo, Jae Bon; Lee, Sang Seok; Lim, Sang Chul; Kang, Seong Youl; Noh, Yong Young

    2010-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a familiar technique that creates and releases droplets of fluid on demand and precisely deposits those droplets on a substrate. It has received increased attention for its novelty and ability to produce patterned and template material structures. In the application of electronic interconnection fabrication, drop-on-demand inkjet printers especially offer the advantages of contactless printing and eliminat the use of a die or photomask. In this study, we created a via-hole interconnecting structure through a polymer insulator layer by using an inkjet printing. When the droplets of Ag ink were dropped onto a PMMA/Au/Cr/SiO 2 /Si area and the Ag film was annealed at high temperatures, the Ag ink containing solvents penetrated into the PMMA layer and generated the conducting paths between the top Ag and the bottom Au electrodes by partial dissolution and swelling of the polymer. The surface and the cross-sectional topologies of the formed via-holes were investigated by using an optical microscope and a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  18. Inkjet printing for direct micropatterning of a superhydrophobic surface: Toward biomimetic fog harvesting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces with hydrophilic micro-sized patterns is highly desirable, but a one-step, mask-free method to produce such surfaces has not previously been reported. We have developed a direct method to produce superhydrophilic micropatterns on superhydrophobic surfaces based on inkjet printing technology. This work was inspired by the efficient fog-harvesting behavior of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert. A mussel-inspired ink consisting of an optimized solution of dopamine was applied directly by inkjet printing to superhydrophobic surfaces. Stable Wenzel\\'s microdroplets of the dopamine solution with well-defined micropatterns were obtained on these surfaces. Superhydrophilic micropatterns with well-controlled dimensions were then readily achieved on the superhydrophobic surfaces by the formation of polydopamine via in situ polymerization. The micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces prepared by this inkjet printing method showed enhanced water collection efficiency compared with uniform superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces. This method can be used for the facile large-scale patterning of superhydrophobic surfaces with high precision and superior pattern stability and is therefore a key step toward patterning superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications. This journal is

  19. Inkjet-printing of non-volatile organic resistive devices and crossbar array structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Stefan; Nau, Sebastian; Popovic, Karl; Bluemel, Alexander; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing demand for storage capacity in various electronic gadgets like mobile phones or tablets, new types of non-volatile memory devices have gained a lot of attention over the last few years. Especially multilevel conductance switching elements based on organic semiconductors are of great interest due to their relatively simple device architecture and their small feature size. Since organic semiconductors combine the electronic properties of inorganic materials with the mechanical characteristics of polymers, this class of materials is suitable for solution based large area device preparation techniques. Consequently, inkjet based deposition techniques are highly capable of facing preparation related challenges. By gradually replacing the evaporated electrodes with inkjet printed silver, the preparation related influence onto device performance parameters such as the ON/OFF ratio was investigated with IV measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Due to the electrode surface roughness the solvent load during the printing of the top electrode as well as organic layer inhomogeneity's the utilization in array applications is hampered. As a prototypical example a 1diode-1resistor element and a 2×2 subarray from 5×5 array matrix were fully characterized demonstrating the versatility of inkjet printing for device preparation.

  20. Crude oil water-cut sensing with disposable laser ablated and inkjet printed RF microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the first microwave microfluidic crude oil/water cut sensor. Anhydrous crude oil is been tested and the device provides a measurable frequency shift of 500MHz at 50% (vol.) water content and a 50MHz shift for a 5% (vol.) water concentration. The sensor is realized with a low-cost direct write fabrication method. This involves laser ablation, inkjet printing, laser heating, along with low temperature thermal compression bonding of Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) sheets. By using localized laser sintering a conductivity of 2.5e6 S/m is achieved for silver nanoparticle ink without the need to heat the entire substrate above its glass transition temperature of (105 °C). The dielectric properties of PMMA are characterized to 1 GHz and a simulation model is offered for analyzing the dielectric properties of crude oil. This work demonstrates that a small form factor and low cost device is capable of precise water-cut measurements. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Scalable Inkjet-Based Structural Color Printing by Molding Transparent Gratings on Multilayer Nanostructured Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Kaminska, Bozena

    2018-04-24

    To enable customized manufacturing of structural colors for commercial applications, up-scalable, low-cost, rapid, and versatile printing techniques are highly demanded. In this paper, we introduce a viable strategy for scaling up production of custom-input images by patterning individual structural colors on separate layers, which are then vertically stacked and recombined into full-color images. By applying this strategy on molded-ink-on-nanostructured-surface printing, we present an industry-applicable inkjet structural color printing technique termed multilayer molded-ink-on-nanostructured-surface (M-MIONS) printing, in which structural color pixels are molded on multiple layers of nanostructured surfaces. Transparent colorless titanium dioxide nanoparticles were inkjet-printed onto three separate transparent polymer substrates, and each substrate surface has one specific subwavelength grating pattern for molding the deposited nanoparticles into structural color pixels of red, green, or blue primary color. After index-matching lamination, the three layers were vertically stacked and bonded to display a color image. Each primary color can be printed into a range of different shades controlled through a half-tone process, and full colors were achieved by mixing primary colors from three layers. In our experiments, an image size as big as 10 cm by 10 cm was effortlessly achieved, and even larger images can potentially be printed on recombined grating surfaces. In one application example, the M-MIONS technique was used for printing customizable transparent color optical variable devices for protecting personalized security documents. In another example, a transparent diffractive color image printed with the M-MIONS technique was pasted onto a transparent panel for overlaying colorful information onto one's view of reality.

  2. A new photocrosslinkable polycaprolactone-based ink for three-dimensional inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yinfeng; Tuck, Christopher J; Prina, Elisabetta; Kilsby, Sam; Christie, Steven D R; Edmondson, Stephen; Hague, Richard J M; Rose, Felicity R A J; Wildman, Ricky D

    2017-08-01

    A new type of photocrosslinkable polycaprolactone (PCL) based ink that is suitable for three-dimensional (3D) inkjet printing has been developed. Photocrosslinkable Polycaprolactone dimethylacrylate (PCLDMA) was synthesized and mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) to prepare an ink with a suitable viscosity for inkjet printing. The ink performance under different printing environments, initiator concentrations, and post processes was studied. This showed that a nitrogen atmosphere during printing was beneficial for curing and material property optimization, as well as improving the quality of structures produced. A simple structure, built in the z-direction, demonstrated the potential for this material for the production of 3D printed objects. Cell tests were carried out to investigate the biocompatibility of the developed ink. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1645-1657, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Freeform micropatterning of living cells into cell culture medium using direct inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju An; Yoon, Sejeong; Kwon, Jimin; Now, Hesung; Kim, Young Kwon; Kim, Woo-Jong; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Jung, Sungjune

    2017-11-06

    Microfabrication methods have widely been used to control the local cellular environment on a micron scale. However, accurately mimicking the complexity of the in vivo tissue architecture while maintaining the freedom of form and design is still a challenge when co-culturing multiple types of cells on the same substrate. For the first time, we present a drop-on-demand inkjet printing method to directly pattern living cells into a cell-friendly liquid environment. High-resolution control of cell location is achieved by precisely optimizing printing parameters with high-speed imaging of cell jetting and impacting behaviors. We demonstrated the capabilities of the direct cell printing method by co-printing different cells into various designs, including complex gradient arrangements. Finally, we applied this technique to investigate the influence of the heterogeneity and geometry of the cell population on the infectivity of seasonal H1N1 influenza virus (PR8) by generating A549 and HeLa cells printed in checkboard patterns of different sizes in a medium-filled culture dish. Direct inkjet cell patterning can be a powerful and versatile tool for both fundamental biology and applied biotechnology.

  4. Efficient Design of Flexible and Low Cost Paper-Based Inkjet-Printed Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, efficient, flexible, and cheap antenna designed at 1.57 GHz microstrip patch antenna based on simple inkjet printer with improved performance using silver nanoparticles ink is developed. The antenna is printed on a kind of flexible substrate “glossy paper,” to offer the advantage of light and flexibility for different applications. The performance of silver nanoparticles ink has been studied through inkjet printing versus postsynthesis annealing and multilayer printing. The conductivity has been improved to have promising values up to 2 Ω/cm at temperatures up to 180°C. The surface morphology of the circuits has been analyzed using SEM with mean diameter of the nanoparticles around 100 nm, uniform surface distribution, and mean thickness of the printed layer around 230 microns. Also, a simple design of a coplanar waveguide (CPW monopole Z-shaped antenna has been considered as an application of fabricated printed antenna using the studied silver nanoparticles ink through a cheap printer.

  5. Three dimensional ink-jet printing of biomaterials using ionic liquids and co-solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Deshani H A T; Kuek, SzeLee; Hasanaj, Denis; He, Yinfeng; Tuck, Christopher; Croft, Anna K; Wildman, Ricky D

    2016-08-15

    1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4C1Im][OAc]) have been used as solvents for the dissolution and ink-jet printing of cellulose from 1.0 to 4.8 wt%, mixed with the co-solvents 1-butanol and DMSO. 1-Butanol and DMSO were used as rheological modifiers to ensure consistent printing, with DMSO in the range of 41-47 wt% producing samples within the printable range of a DIMATIX print-head used (printability parameter cellulose solubility. Regeneration of cellulose from printed samples using water was demonstrated, with the resulting structural changes to the cellulose sample assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI). These results indicate the potential of biorenewable materials to be used in the 3D additive manufacture process to generate single-component and composite materials.

  6. Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H; Manuilskiy, A; Sidén, J; Gao, J; Kunninmel, G V; Nilsson, H-E; Hummelgård, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications. (paper)

  7. Organic ferroelectric memory devices with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-05-01

    Drop-on-demand piezoelectric inkjet-printing technique has been used to fabricate a functional cross-bar array of all-organic ferroelectric memory devices. The polymer-ferroelectric-polymer device consists of a ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) film sandwiched between inkjet-patterned, continuous, orthogonal lines of PEDOT:PSS polymer as the bottom and top electrodes. These devices exhibit well-saturated hysteresis curves with a maximum remnant polarization (Pr) = 6.7 μC/cm2, coercive field (E c) = 55 MV/m and a peak capacitance density of 45 nF/cm2. Our polarization fatigue measurements show that these devices retain ∼100% and 45% of their initial Pr values after 103 and 10 5 stress cycles, respectively. The overall performance and polarization retention characteristics of these ferroelectric capacitors with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes are comparable to metal and spin-cast polymer electrodes suggesting their potential use in large-area flexible electronics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molding Inkjetted Silver on Nanostructured Surfaces for High-Throughput Structural Color Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Alan, Sheida; Shahbazbegian, Haleh; Patel, Jasbir N; Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-11-22

    Inkjet printing of silver ink has been widely used to print conductive patterns in flexible electronic devices, and the printed patterns are commonly known to be colorless. We demonstrate that by printing a single type of ordinary silver nanoparticle ink on top of a substrate patterned with polymer nanostructures, the printed silver is molded by the nanostructures and gains robust structural colors. The colors are tunable by varying the geometries of nanostructures, and a broad range of visual colors can be achieved by mixing the red, green, and blue colors displayed from silver dots printed on different nanostructures. Such mechanism can enable full-color, scalable, high-throughput, versatile, and cost-effective printing of structural color images for regular publishing and displaying purposes. In experiments, we implemented a transparent polymer substrate patterned with diffractive nanostructure arrays to print full-color images. The printed images display color-shifting optically variable effects useful for security and authentication applications that demand customizable anticounterfeiting features.

  9. Inkjet-Printed Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with an Air-Stable Hole Transport Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhenhua; Zhuang, Jinyong; Wei, Changting; Zhang, Dongyu; Xie, Zhongzhi; Xu, Xiaoping; Ji, Shunjun; Tang, Jianxin; Su, Wenming; Cui, Zheng

    2017-05-17

    High-efficiency quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated using inkjet printing with a novel cross-linkable hole transport material N,N'-(9,9'-spirobi[fluorene]-2,7-diylbis[4,1-phenylene])bis(N-phenyl-4'-vinyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-amine) (SDTF). The cross-linked SDTF film has excellent solvent resistance, high thermal stability, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of -5.54 eV. The inkjet-printed SDTF film is very smooth and uniform, with roughness as low as 0.37 nm, which is comparable with that of the spin-coated film (0.28 nm). The SDTF films stayed stable without any pinhole or grain even after 2 months in air. All-solution-processed QLEDs were fabricated; the maximum external quantum efficiency of 5.54% was achieved with the inkjet-printed SDTF in air, which is comparable to that of the spin-coated SDTF in a glove box (5.33%). Electrical stabilities of both spin-coated and inkjet-printed SDTF at the device level were also investigated and both showed a similar lifetime. The study demonstrated that SDTF is very promising as a printable hole transport material for making QLEDs using inkjet printing.

  10. High performance inkjet printed phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules commonly used in vacuum processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang-Joo, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyong-Jun, E-mail: hkim@kongju.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-30

    High efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are realized by inkjet printing based on small molecules commonly used in vacuum processes in spite of the limitation of the limited solubility. The OLEDs used the inkjet printed 5 wt.% tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) (Ir(ppy){sub 3}) doped in 4,4 Prime -Bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) as the light emitting layer on various small molecule based hole transporting layers, which are widely used in the fabrication of OLEDs by vacuum processes. The OLEDs resulted in the high power and the external quantum efficiencies of 29.9 lm/W and 11.7%, respectively, by inkjet printing the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} on a 40 nm thick 4,4 Prime ,4 Double-Prime -tris(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine layer. The performance was very close to a vacuum deposited device with a similar structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective inkjet printed organic light emitting diode (OLED) technique is explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution process on commonly used hole transporting material (HTM) is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triplet energy overlap of HTM and emitting material is the key to the performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple inkjet printed OLED provides the high current efficiency of 40 cd/A.

  11. Colour print workflow and methods for multilayering of colour and decorative inks using UV inkjet for fine art printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase density of colour and improve ink coverage when printing onto a range of non standard substrates, this paper will present research into multi-layering of colour and the appearance of colour at 'n' levels of ink coverage. Returning to our original investigation of artist's requirements when making inkjet prints, these observations are based on empirical approaches that address the need to present physical data that is more useful and meaningful to the designer. The study has used multi-pass printed colour charts to measure colour and to provide users with an understanding at a soft-preview level to demonstrate the appearance of printed colour on different substrates. Test results relating to the appearance of print on different surfaces, and a series of case studies will be presented using recent research into the capabilities of UV printing technology, which has widened the opportunities for the designer to print onto non-standard materials. It will also present a study into layering of greys and gloss in order to improve the appearance of printed images onto metal.

  12. Maxillofacial reconstruction using custom-made artificial bones fabricated by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Hideto; Igawa, Kazuyo; Kanno, Yuki; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Kayoko; Shimizu, Koutaro; Suzuki, Shigeki; Chikazu, Daichi; Iino, Mitsuki; Anzai, Masahiro; Sasaki, Nobuo; Chung, Ung-il; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Ideally, artificial bones should be dimensionally compatible with deformities, and be biodegradable and osteoconductive; however, there are no artificial bones developed to date that satisfy these requirements. We fabricated novel custom-made artificial bones from alpha-tricalcium phosphate powder using an inkjet printer and implanted them in ten patients with maxillofacial deformities. The artificial bones had dimensional compatibility in all the patients. The operation time was reduced due to minimal need for size adjustment and fixing manipulation. The postsurgical computed tomography analysis detected partial union between the artificial bones and host bone tissues. There were no serious adverse reactions. These findings provide support for further clinical studies of the inkjet-printed custom-made artificial bones.

  13. Effect of Substrates on the Dynamic Properties of Inkjet-Printed Ag Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokman Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic properties of inkjet-printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates were measured using flexural wave propagation. The Ag nanoparticle suspension was inkjet-printed on polyimide (PI, silicon wafer, and glass. The effects of flexible substrates on the dynamic properties of the films were investigated. Beam-shaped Ag-printed substrates were fabricated by pico-second laser pulse cutting. The wave approach was presented to analyze the vibrations of the thin film on the substrates. The Young’s modulus and loss factor of the Ag thin films with the substrates were represented by the combined bending stiffness of the bilayer beam. The vibration response of the base-excited cantilever was measured using an accelerometer and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. Vibration transfers were analyzed to obtain dynamic characteristics of the Ag-printed bilayer beam. The substrate affects the reduction of the Ag thin film thickness during the sintering process and surface roughness of the film. The proposed method based on the wave approach allows measurement of the dynamic properties regardless of the ratio of the modulus between the thin film and substrate.

  14. Influence of the relative humidity on the morphology of inkjet printed spots of IgG on a non-porous substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawar, Liyakat Hamid; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Siregar, D.P.; van Amerongen, A.; Norde, Willem

    2014-01-01

    During the drying of inkjet printed droplets, the solute particles (IgG-Alexa-635 molecules) in the drop may distribute unevenly on the substrate, resulting in a “coffee-stain‿ spot morphology. In our study, we investigated the influence of the relative humidity on the distribution of inkjet printed

  15. Influence of the relative humidity on the morphology of inkjet printed spots of IgG on a non-porous substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawar, Liyakat Hamid; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Siregar, D. P.; van Amerongen, Aart; Norde, Willem

    2014-01-01

    During the drying of inkjet printed droplets, the solute particles (IgG-Alexa-635 molecules) in the drop may distribute unevenly on the substrate, resulting in a "coffee-stain" spot morphology. In our study, we investigated the influence of the relative humidity on the distribution of inkjet printed

  16. Influence of the relative humidity on the morphology of inkjet printed spots of IgG on a non-porous substrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawar, L.H.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Siregar, D.P.; Amerongen, van A.; Norde, W.

    2014-01-01

    During the drying of inkjet printed droplets, the solute particles (IgG-Alexa-635 molecules) in the drop may distribute unevenly on the substrate, resulting in a “coffee-stain” spot morphology. In our study, we investigated the influence of the relative humidity on the distribution of inkjet printed

  17. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  18. Development of a Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Inkjet-Printed Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensor for the simple and sensitive measurement of hydrogen peroxide has been developed which is based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs modified with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs deposited using piezoelectric inkjet printing. PBNP-modified SPEs were characterized using physical and electrochemical techniques to optimize the PBNP layer thickness and electroanalytical conditions for optimum measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Sensor optimization resulted in a limit of detection of 2 × 10−7 M, a linear range from 0 to 4.5 mM and a sensitivity of 762 μA∙mM–1∙cm–2 which was achieved using 20 layers of printed PBNPs. Sensors also demonstrated excellent reproducibility (<5% rsd.

  19. Ink-jet printed porous composite LiFePO4 electrode from aqueous suspension for microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, P.-E.; Riou, B.; Brousse, T.; Le Bideau, J.; Guyomard, D.; Lestriez, B.

    2015-08-01

    This work demonstrates ink-jet printed LiFePO4-based composite porous electrodes for microbattery application. As binder and dispersant, we found that aqueous inks with more suitable rheological properties with respect to ink-jet printing are prepared with the low molecular weight poly-acrylic-co-maleic acid copolymer, rather than with the carboxymethyl cellulose standard binder of the lithium-ion technology. The ink-jet printed thin and porous electrode shows very high rate charge/discharge behavior, both in LiPF6/ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (LP30) and lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide salt (Li-TFSI) in N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)suflonylimide ionic liquid (PYR13-TFSI) electrolytes, as well as good cyclability.

  20. Graphene-based inkjet printing of flexible bioelectronic circuits and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2013-03-01

    Bioelectronics involves interfacing functional biomolecules or living cells with electronic circuitry. Recent advances in electrically conductive inks and inkjet printing technologies have enabled bioelectronic devices to be fabricated on mechanically flexible polymers, paper and silk. In this research, non-conductive graphene-oxide (GO) inks are synthesized from inexpensive graphite powders. Once printed on the flexible substrate the electrical conductivity of the micro-circuitry can be restored through thermal reduction. Laser irradiation is one method being investigated for transforming the high resistance printed GO film into conductive oxygen reduced graphene-oxide (rGO). Direct laser writing is a precision fabrication process that enables the imprinting of conductive and resistive micro-features on the GO film. The mechanically flexible rGO microcircuits can be further biofunctionalized using molecular self-assembly techniques. Opportunities and challenges in exploiting these emerging technologies for developing biosensors and bioelectronic cicruits are briefly discussed.

  1. Duplicating the fine art reproduction process: the technology used for guerilla ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Stephen

    1998-12-01

    Accurate, automatic color reproduction is the goal of much of color technology. However, there is a need to improve reproduction in only the luminous or gray axis. Quadtone reproduction takes advantage of the four device CMYK color planes to provide greater gray-scale depth within the limitations of 8-bit per channel band-width. 'Quadtone' refers to photos reproduced using four tones of the same colorant. It is the printed imposition of four carefully selected shades of ink that result in a greater number of densities. Guerilla printing is a collection of algorithms using the CMYK channels to simulate traditional photography on an inkjet printer. Guerilla printing increases density values, defines detail and produces near continuous-tone screens.

  2. Functional Inkjet Printing on Textiles: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Gooijer, H. (Henk)

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge for the Dutch and European textile and clothing sector is to make a paradigm shift from labour intensive industry to knowledge based industry. This shift is essential for gaining a competitive edge and to develop innovative products and eco-friendly processes. A promising technology to achieve this is digital printing. This future oriented process is aimed to achieve high energy, water, and chemical savings and therefore a drastic reduction of waste. The technology breakthr...

  3. High ink absorption performance of inkjet printing based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YiFan; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Li; Du, Yunzhe; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, LiWei; Huang, YuDong

    2018-04-01

    The increasing growth of the inkjet market makes the inkjet printing more necessary. A composite material based on core-shell structure has been developed and applied to prepare inkjet printing layer. In this contribution, the ink printing record layers based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composite was elaborated. The prepared core-shell composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved the presence of electrostatic adsorption between SiO2 molecules and Al13 molecules with the formation of the well-dispersed system. In addition, based on the adsorption and the liquid permeability analysis, SiO2@Al13 ink printing record layer achieved a relatively high ink uptake (2.5 gmm-1) and permeability (87%), respectively. The smoothness and glossiness of SiO2@Al13 record layers were higher than SiO2 record layers. The core-shell structure facilitated the dispersion of the silica, thereby improved its ink absorption performance and made the clear printed image. Thus, the proposed procedure based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell structure of dye particles could be applied as a promising strategy for inkjet printing.

  4. Producing a superhydrophobic paper and altering its repellency through ink-jet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, David; Amirfazli, A

    2011-03-07

    A new method for making superhydrophobic (SH) paper based on spraying a nanocomposite film is developed. Furthermore, manipulating the wetting characteristics of SH paper has been demonstrated through a new method, i.e. printing solid grey patterns of different intensities with simple printing technology (home or office grade ink-jet and laser printers). It has been found that for a range of ink intensities (0-85%), water drop mobility can be changed at a different rate (almost independently) from repellency. The repellency of water decreases minimally up to 85% ink intensity with a sharp decrease up to 100% ink intensity. Drop mobility remains constant up to 30% ink intensity with a steady decrease up to 100% ink intensity. It was observed that using ink-jet or laser printing would yield different results for the change of mobility or repellency with higher amounts of ink/toner used. Being able to achieve almost independent control of water drop mobility over water drop repellency on SH paper would allow inexpensive lab-on-paper devices to be used for sampling, mixing and transport of liquids.

  5. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R C; Wu, J; Li, D C; Hau, N Y; Chang, Y H; Feng, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm 2 with stable metal performance

  6. Self-reduction of a copper complex MOD ink for inkjet printing conductive patterns on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraj, Yousef; Grouchko, Michael; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2015-01-31

    Highly conductive copper patterns on low-cost flexible substrates are obtained by inkjet printing a metal complex based ink. Upon heating the ink, the soluble complex, which is composed of copper formate and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, decomposes under nitrogen at 140 °C and is converted to pure metallic copper. The decomposition process of the complex is investigated and a suggested mechanism is presented. The ink is stable in air for prolonged periods, with no sedimentation or oxidation problems, which are usually encountered in copper nanoparticle based inks.

  7. Physical properties investigation of reduced graphene oxide thin films prepared by material inkjet printing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmiedová, V.; Pospíšil, J.; Kovalenko, A.; Ashcheulov, Petr; Fekete, Ladislav; Cubon, T.; Kotrusz, P.; Zmeškal, O.; Weiter, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, Aug (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 3501903. ISSN 1687-4110 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1211 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene oxide * thin film * transparent electrode * inkjet printing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2016

  8. Selective Laser Sintering of Conductive Inks for Inkjet Printing Based on Nanoparticle Compositions with Organic Silver Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titkov, A. I.; Gadirov, R. M.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Odod, A. V.; Solodova, T. A.; Kurtсevich, A. E.; Kopylova, T. N.; Yukhin, Yu. M.; Lyakhov, N. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Inkjet ink based on silver nanoparticles with sizes of 11.1 ± 2.4 nm has been developed. Test images are printed on a laboratory inkjet printer, followed by sintering the printed patterns with a diode laser having a wavelength of 453 nm. The structure and electrical properties of the resulting films are studied depending on the parameters of laser sintering. It is found that under optimal conditions, an electrically conductive film with a low resistivity of 12.2 μΩ· cm can be formed.

  9. Design and testing of RFID sensor tag fabricated using inkjet-printing and electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien Dang, Mau; Son Nguyen, Dat; Dung Dang, Thi My; Tedjini, Smail; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The passive RFID tag with an added sensing function is of interest to many applications. In particular, applications where RFID tagging is already considered to be the next step, such as food items, are a specific target. This paper demonstrates a flexible RFID tag sensor fabricated using a low cost technique with an added zero-cost sensing function. It is more specifically applied to the sensing of degradable food, in particular beef meat in our demonstrated example. To reach this, the antenna is designed in such a way to be sensitive to the variation of the dielectric permittivity of the meat over time. The design of the sensing tag as well as its fabrication process are described. The fabrication involves inkjet printing of a silver nanoparticle based ink on a commercial low cost PET film to create a seed layer. It is followed by a copper electrodeposition step on top of the silver pattern to complete the tag to obtain the desired thickness and conductivity of the tag antenna. The results of the electrical tests showed that with the inkjet printing-electrodeposition combination it is possible to produce flexible electrically conductive patterns for practical RFID applications. The tag was then tested in close-to-real-world conditions and it is demonstrated that it can provide a sensing function to detect the consumption limit of the packaged beef.

  10. Fabrication of In Vitro Cancer Microtissue Array on Fibroblast-Layered Nanofibrous Membrane by Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Min Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, a drug candidate is evaluated using 2D-cultured cancer cells followed by an animal model. Despite successful preclinical testing, however, most drugs that enter human clinical trials fail. The high failure rates are mainly caused by incompatibility between the responses of the current models and humans. Here, we fabricated a cancer microtissue array in a multi-well format that exhibits heterogeneous and batch-to-batch structure by continuous deposition of collagen-suspended Hela cells on a fibroblast-layered nanofibrous membrane via inkjet printing. Expression of both Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 was higher in cancer microtissues than in fibroblast-free microtissues. The fabricated microtissues were treated with an anticancer drug, and high drug resistance to doxorubicin occurred in cancer microtissues but not in fibroblast-free microtissues. These results introduce an inkjet printing fabrication method for cancer microtissue arrays, which can be used for various applications such as early drug screening and gradual 3D cancer studies.

  11. Two-step flash light sintering process for crack-free inkjet-printed Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Sung; Jang, Shin; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step flash light sintering process for inkjet-printed Ag films is investigated with the aim of improving the quality of sintered Ag films. The flash light sintering process is divided into two steps: a preheating step and a main sintering step. The preheating step is used to remove the organic binder without abrupt vaporization. The main sintering step is used to complete the necking connections among the silver nanoparticles and achieve high electrical conductivity. The process minimizes the damage on the polymer substrate and the interface between the sintered Ag film and polymer substrate. The electrical conductivity is calculated by measuring the resistance and cross-sectional area with an LCR meter and 3D optical profiler, respectively. It is found that the resistivity of the optimal flash light-sintered Ag films (36.32 nΩ m), which is 228.86% of that of bulk silver, is lower than that of thermally sintered ones (40.84 nΩ m). Additionally, the polyimide film used as the substrate is preserved with the inkjet-printed pattern shape during the flash light sintering process without delamination or defects. (paper)

  12. All-solid-state micro-supercapacitors based on inkjet printed graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Mishukova, Viktoriia; Östling, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are fabricated simply through reliable inkjet printing of pristine graphene in interdigitated structure on silicon wafers to serve as both electrodes and current collectors, and a following drop casting of polymer electrolytes (polyvinyl alcohol/H3PO4). Benefiting from the printing processing, an attractive porous electrode microstructure with a large number of vertically orientated graphene flakes is observed. The devices exhibit commendable areal capacitance over 0.1 mF/cm2 and a long cycle life of over 1000 times. The simple and scalable fabrication technique for efficient micro-supercapacitors is promising for on-chip energy storage applications in emerging electronics.

  13. High-speed, inkjet-printed carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide hybrid complementary ring oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2014-06-11

    The materials combination of inkjet-printed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is very promising for large-area thin-film electronics. We compare the characteristics of conventional complementary inverters and ring oscillators measured in air (with SWCNT p-channel field effect transistors (FETs) and ZTO n-channel FETs) with those of ambipolar inverters and ring oscillators comprised of bilayer SWCNT/ZTO FETs. This is the first such comparison between the performance characteristics of ambipolar and conventional inverters and ring oscillators. The measured signal delay per stage of 140 ns for complementary ring oscillators is the fastest for any ring oscillator circuit with printed semiconductors to date.

  14. Physical Properties Investigation of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Material Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Schmiedova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of the optical properties of inkjet-printed graphene oxide (GO layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to its unique optical and electrical properties, GO can be used as, for example, a transparent and flexible electrode material in organic and printed electronics. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize the optical response of the GO layer and its reduced form (rGO, obtainable, for example, by reduction of prepared layers by either annealing, UV radiation, or chemical reduction in the visible range. The thicknesses of the layers were determined by a mechanical profilometer and used as an input parameter for optical modeling. Ellipsometric spectra were analyzed according to the dispersion model and the influence of the reduction of GO on optical constants is discussed. Thus, detailed analysis of the ellipsometric data provides a unique tool for qualitative and also quantitative description of the optical properties of GO thin films for electronic applications.

  15. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  16. Inkjet 3D printing of UV and thermal cure silicone elastomers for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David; Rosset, Samuel; Schlatter, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2017-12-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are an attractive form of electromechanical transducer, possessing high energy densities, an efficient design, mechanical compliance, high speed, and noiseless operation. They have been incorporated into a wide variety of devices, such as microfluidic systems, cell bioreactors, tunable optics, haptic displays, and actuators for soft robotics. Fabrication of DEA devices is complex, and the majority are inefficiently made by hand. 3D printing offers an automated and flexible manufacturing alternative that can fabricate complex, multi-material, integrated devices consistently and in high resolution. We present a novel additive manufacturing approach to DEA devices in which five commercially available, thermal and UV-cure DEA silicone rubber materials have been 3D printed with a drop-on-demand, piezoelectric inkjet system. Using this process, 3D structures and high-quality silicone dielectric elastomer membranes as thin as 2 μm have been printed that exhibit mechanical and actuation performance at least as good as conventionally blade-cast membranes. Printed silicone membranes exhibited maximum tensile strains of up to 727%, and DEAs with printed silicone dielectrics were actuated up to 6.1% area strain at a breakdown strength of 84 V μm-1 and also up to 130 V μm-1 at 2.4% strain. This approach holds great potential to manufacture reliable, high-performance DEA devices with high throughput.

  17. High-performance inkjet-printed four-terminal microelectromechanical relays and inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seungjun; Ul Karim, Muhammed Ahosan; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-05-13

    We report the first demonstration of inkjet-printed 4-terminal microelectromechanical (MEM) relays and inverters with hyper-abrupt switching that exhibit excellent electrical and mechanical characteristics. This first implementation of a printed 4-terminal device is critically important, since it allows for the realization of full complementary logic functions. The floated fourth terminal (body electrode), which allows the gate switching voltage to be adjusted, is bonded to movable channel beams via a printed epoxy layer in a planar structure, which can move downward together via the electrostatic force between the gate electrodes and body such that the channel can also actuate downward and touch the drain electrode. Because the body, channel, and drain electrodes are completely electrically separated, no detectable leakage or electrical interference between the electrodes is observed. The printed MEM relay exhibited an on-state resistance of only 3.48 Ω, immeasurable off-state leakage, subthreshold swing inverter exhibits abrupt transitions between on/off states. The operation of the printed 4-terminal MEM relay was also verified against the results of a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element simulation.

  18. Microstrain and residual stress in thin-films made from silver nanoparticles deposited by inkjet-printing technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauchois, R.; Borbély, A.; Gergaud, P.; Saadaoui, M.; Inal, K.

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles are increasingly employed in the fabrication process of electronic devices using inkjet-printing technology and a consecutive thermal treatment. The evolution of internal stresses during the conversion of silver nanoparticle-based ink into a metallic thin-film

  19. Fabrication of thin yttria-stabilized-zirconia dense electrolyte layers by inkjet printing for high performing solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present how a low-cost HP Deskjet 1000 inkjet printer was used to fabricate a 1.2 mm thin, dense and gas tight 16 cm2 solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrolyte. The electrolyte was printed using an ink made of highly diluted (

  20. Fabricating high-resolution offset color-filter black matrix by integrating heterostructured substrate with inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Guo-Shin; You, Po-Chin; Lin, Kai-Lun; Hong, Chien-Chong; Liou, Tong-Miin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a self-aligning ink by integrating an inkjet printing technique and heterostructures to fabricate a black matrix with a micrometer-scale tunable thickness. The black matrix is a grid-like structure used in color filters. Traditionally, a black matrix has been fabricated using photolithography techniques, the disadvantages of which are high material consumption, less fabrication flexibility, complex processing procedures, and high chemical pollution. Inkjet printing technology has garnered attention because of its low material costs, high fabrication flexibility, and reduced processing procedures and pollution. In this study, a fabricating process combining an inkjet printing technique with heterostructures to form stripe-arranged and delta-arranged thickness-tunable black matrices has been demonstrated. The deformation and self-aligning process of ink droplet impingement onto gutters are driven by designed heterogeneous surface properties. The minimum track width attained is 10 µm, which is competitive for color filter resolutions for thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays. The developed technology surmounts the bottlenecks of inkjet printing resolution, and saves more than 75% black material than modern photolithography. (paper)

  1. Improved performance of inkjet-printed Ag source/drain electrodes for organic thin-film transistors by overcoming the coffee ring effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Yan; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing is a promising technology for the scalable fabrication of organic electronics because of the material conservation and facile patterning as compared with other solution processing techniques. In this study, we have systematically investigated the cross-sectional profile control of silver (Ag) electrode via inkjet printing. A facile methodology for achieving inkjet-printed Ag source/drain with improved profiles is developed. It is demonstrated that the printing conditions such as substrate temperature, drop spacing and printing layers affect the magnitude of the droplet deposition and the rate of evaporation, which can be optimized to greatly reduce the coffee ring effects for improving the inkjet-printed electrode profiles. Ag source/drain electrodes with uniform profiles were successfully inkjet-printed and incorporated into organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The resulting devices showed superior electrical performance than those without special treatments. It is noted to mention that the strategy for modulating the inkjet-printed Ag electrodes in this work does not demand the ink formulation or complicated steps, which is beneficial for scaling up the printing techniques for potential large-area/mass manufacturing.

  2. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-In; Kim, Seil; Lee, Kun-Jae; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  3. INKJET PRINTING OF HIGH REFRACTIVE STRUCTURES BASED ON TiO2 SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Eremeeva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with description of novel inkjet printing method for optical elements formed by structures based on TiO2 sol. The proposed approach presents effective way to obtain such optical nano objects as diffraction structures and transparent interference patterns. Methods. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (0.36 mol in deionized water (33.3 mol under vigorous stirring and using nitric acid (0.04 mol as a protonating agent. Viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and surface tension - by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Titanium dioxide inks were deposited on commercially available microembossed PET film with a thickness of 20 µm. To print titania ink Canon Pixma IP 2840 desktop office printer was used with a drop volume of 2 pL. The thickness of an inkjet TiO2 layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 500 nm with a refractive index not less than 2.08 in the entire visible range.Main Results. The synthesis of aqueous TiO2 sol was used to obtain the ink with desirable rheological characteristics: viscosity and surface tension. The required rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel transition in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The reviled ratio of titanium dioxide sol and ethanol in the system gives such values of viscosity and surface tension that make this material convenient for inkjet printing. The coatings created by sol have a high refractive index in the entire visible range (not less than 2.08. We have shown that the deposition of optical transparent microstructures with diffraction effect has an ability to be applied on the transparent surfaces. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optic and atomic-force microscopes.Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach

  4. Wire-bonding on inkjet-printed silver pads reinforced by electroless plating for chip on flexible board packages

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Legeleux, Jacques; Malia, Thierry; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Inal, Karim; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The nanoporous nature of the inkjet printed silver nanoparticles entail low hardness and surface effective contact area for being compatible with pads that are suitable for wire-bonding in electronic packaging. Electroless nickel plating is a selective metal deposition technique which can brings the required thickness and hardness for further pads processing. Here, a 1.7 μm thick nickel layer is deposited on top of 600 nm thick printed and sintered silver nanoparticles...

  5. Chip integration using inkjet-printed silver conductive tracks reinforced by electroless plating for flexible board packages

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Legeleux, Jacques; Malia, Thierry; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Inal, Karim; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Inkjet-printing of interconnects is a maskless technology that has attracted great interest for printed electronics and packaging applications. Gemalto is expecting by motivated and developing skills and knowledge in this area to be at the forefront of European Security innovation and to answer to a continuous market pressure for higher security, lower cost and more secure complex systems. With an increasing need for flexible and mass deliveries of advanced secure pers...

  6. Properties of polyacrylic acid-coated silver nanoparticle ink for inkjet printing conductive tracks on paper with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qijin [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Shen, Wenfeng, E-mail: wfshen@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Xu, Qingsong [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Tan, Ruiqin [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Song, Weijie, E-mail: weijiesong@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with triethanolamine in the presence of polyacrylic acid. Silver nanoparticle-based ink was prepared by dispersing silver nanoparticles into a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The mechanism for the dispersion and aggregation of silver nanoparticles in ink is discussed. The strong electrostatic repulsions of the carboxylate anions of the adsorbed polyacrylic acid molecules disturbed the aggregation of metal particles in solutions with a high pH value (pH > 5). An inkjet printer was used to deposit this silver nanoparticle-based ink to form silver patterns on photo paper. The actual printing qualities of the silver tracks were then analyzed by variation of printing passes, sintering temperature and time. The results showed that sintering temperature and time are associated strongly with the conductivity of the inkjet-printed conductive patterns. The conductivity of printed patterns sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10{sup 7} S m{sup −1}, which was approximately one third that of bulk silver. In addition, silver tracks on paper substrate also showed better electrical performance after folding. This study demonstrated that the resulting ink-jet printed patterns can be used as conductive tracks in flexible electronic devices. - Highlights: • An ink from silver nanoparticles coated with polyacrylic acid was prepared. • The ink was used for inkjet-printed tracks at varying printing parameters. • The conductivity of printed tracks sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10{sup 7} S/m. • Mechanism for dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles in ink is discussed.

  7. Comparison of inkjet-printed silver conductors on different microsystem substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jené; Bezuidenhout, Petroné H.; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    Applications for diagnostic and environmental point-of-need require processes and building blocks to add smart features to disposable biosensors on low-cost substrates. A novel method for producing such biosensors is printing electronics using additive technologies. This work contributes to the toolbox of processes, materials and components for printed electronics manufacturing - as well as rapid prototyping - of circuits. Printing protocols were developed to facilitate successful inkjet printing of nanosilver ink (Harima NPS-JL) onto different microsystem substrates using a functional printer (Dimatix DMP-3281). Photo paper is a standard inkjet substrate, which were compared with glass, polycarbonate (PC), plastic projector transparency foil, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Comparison attributes include physical and electrical properties. The layout design comprised dogbone elements of 8 mm length, and widths varying between 100 μm and 2 mm. All printed features were thermally cured for 1 hour at 120 °C. The physical characteristics were measured with a laser scanning microscope (Zeiss LSM-5) to determine the width, thickness and surface roughness of the printed features. An LCR meter (GW-Instek 8110) was used to measure the printed structures' electrical characteristics (resistance, capacitance and inductance). A lumped element model and layout design rules were extracted to assist in standardized design procedures. The model incorporates prediction of the bandwidth attainable with these structures. The layer thickness on all substrates is larger than the 1 μm on photo paper, and varies between 1.6 μm (PC) and 7 μm (PDMS). The spreading for PDMS is similar to photo paper, but since for the other substrates it is between 5 (glass) and 10 (PC) times larger than for photo paper, the layout design rules require large spacing, leading to larger area networks. Electrical probing on the PDMS is not consistent and results are inconclusive. For the other substrates

  8. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC) Nanoparticles for Inkjet Printing of SOFC Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yu; Farandos, Nicholas M.; Rosa, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    nanoparticles were further processed into inks for inkjet printing. Despite the small particle size/large surface area, inks with excellent printing behavior were formulated. For proof-of-concept, thin GDC layers were printed on a) green NiO-GDC substrates, and on b) pre-sintered NiO-YSZ substrates. While...... no dense layers could be obtained on the green NiO-GDC substrates, GDC nanoparticles printed on NiO-YSZ substrates formed a dense continuous layer after firing at 1300 °C....

  9. Inkjet printing as a roll-to-roll compatible technology for the production of large area electronic devices on a pre-industrial scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.; Rubingh, E.; Lammeren, T. van; Abbel, R.J.; Groen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a promising approach towards the solution processing of electronic devices on an industrial scale. Of particular interest is the production of high-end applications such as large area OLEDs on flexible substrates. Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing technologies involving inkjet

  10. Electrical conductivity enhancement in inkjet-printed narrow lines through gradual heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Changjae; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2012-01-01

    Conductive silver lines of various widths (0.04–40 mm) were fabricated with dilute silver-nanoparticle ink on polyimide films using an inkjet printer. The electrical properties of the lines were found to vary in width. In particular, wider lines (>0.4 mm) exhibited low resistivity (3.6–5.4 µΩcm), approaching that of bulk silver (1.6 µΩcm). On the other hand, narrower lines (<0.3 mm) exhibited much higher resistivity (14.6–16.5 µΩcm), presumably because of the so-called coffee-ring effect. This effect, known to strongly influence nanoparticle deposition, is caused by convection flow, during which nanoparticles segregate at the line edge. However, when the narrower lines were heated slowly from 20 °C to 200 °C at a heating rate of 3 °C min −1 to reduce convection flow, the nanoparticles redistributed uniformly, after which the lines exhibited low resistivity (3.9–4.2 µΩcm). Therefore, gradual heating appears to be an excellent method for enabling inkjet printing technology to yield narrow highly conductive lines. (paper)

  11. Novel processing of iron-manganese alloy-based biomaterials by inkjet 3-D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Da-Tren; Wells, Derrick; Hong, Daeho; Lee, Boeun; Kuhn, Howard; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-11-01

    The present work provides an assessment of 3-D printed iron-manganese biodegradable scaffolds as a bone scaffold material. Iron-based alloys have been investigated due to their high strength and ability to slowly corrode. Current fabrications of Fe-based materials generate raw material which must be machined into their desired form. By using inkjet 3-D printing, a technique which generates complex, customizable parts from powders mechanically milled Fe-30Mn (wt.%) powder was directly processed into scaffolds. The 3-D printed parts maintained an open porosity of 36.3% and formed a mixed phase alloy of martensitic ε and austenitic γ phases. Electrochemical corrosion tests showed the 3-D printed Fe-Mn to desirably corrode significantly more rapidly than pure iron. The scaffolds exhibited similar tensile mechanical properties to natural bone, which may reduce the risk of stress shielding. Cell viability testing of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells seeded directly onto the Fe-Mn scaffolds using the live/dead assay and with cells cultured in the presence of the scaffolds' degradation products demonstrated good in vitro cytocompatibility compared to tissue culture plastic. Cell infiltration into the open pores of the 3-D printed scaffolds was also observed. Based on this preliminary study, we believe that 3-D printed Fe-Mn alloy is a promising material for craniofacial biomaterial applications, and represents an opportunity for other biodegradable metals to be fabricated using this unique method. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct patterning of silver particles on porous silicon by inkjet printing of a silver salt via in-situ reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Virga, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Paolo; Martino, Paola; Rivolo, Paola; Geobaldo, Francesco; Giorgis, Fabrizio

    2012-09-06

    We have developed a method for obtaining a direct pattern of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on porous silicon (p-Si) by means of inkjet printing (IjP) of a silver salt. Silver NPs were obtained by p-Si mediated in-situ reduction of Ag+ cations using solutions based on AgNO3 which were directly printed on p-Si according to specific geometries and process parameters. The main difference with respect to existing literature is that normally, inkjet printing is applied to silver (metal) NP suspensions, while in our experiment the NPs are formed after jetting the solution on the reactive substrate. We performed both optical and scanning electron microscopes on the NPs traces, correlating the morphology features with the IjP parameters, giving an insight on the synthesis kinetics. The patterned NPs show good performances as SERS substrates.

  13. Effect of the light spectrum of various substrates for inkjet printed conductive structures sintered with intense pulsed light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Dana, E-mail: dana.weise@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti, E-mail: dana.weise@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Ueberfuhr, Peter, E-mail: dana.weise@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Institute for Print and Media Technology, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Baumann, Reinhard R. [Institute for Print and Media Technology, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany and Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Department Printed Functionalities (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    In this work, the novel method of intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering of a nanoparticle silver ink is presented. Various patterns are printed with the Inkjet technology on two flexible foils with different light spectra. One is a clear Polyethylenterephthalat [PET] foil and the second is a light brownish Polyimide [PI] foil. The samples are flashed with different parameters regarding to pulse intensity and pulse length. Microscopic images are indicating the impact of the flashing parameters and the different light spectra of the substrates on the sintered structures. Sheet and line resistance are measured and the conductivity is calculated. A high influence of the property of the substrate with respect to light absorption and thermal conductivity on the functionality of printed conductive structures could be presented. With this new method of IPL sintering, highly conductive inkjet printed silver patterns could be manufactured within milliseconds on flexible polymeric foils without damaging the substrate.

  14. Effect of the light spectrum of various substrates for inkjet printed conductive structures sintered with intense pulsed light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, Dana; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Ueberfuhr, Peter; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the novel method of intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering of a nanoparticle silver ink is presented. Various patterns are printed with the Inkjet technology on two flexible foils with different light spectra. One is a clear Polyethylenterephthalat [PET] foil and the second is a light brownish Polyimide [PI] foil. The samples are flashed with different parameters regarding to pulse intensity and pulse length. Microscopic images are indicating the impact of the flashing parameters and the different light spectra of the substrates on the sintered structures. Sheet and line resistance are measured and the conductivity is calculated. A high influence of the property of the substrate with respect to light absorption and thermal conductivity on the functionality of printed conductive structures could be presented. With this new method of IPL sintering, highly conductive inkjet printed silver patterns could be manufactured within milliseconds on flexible polymeric foils without damaging the substrate

  15. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Tae [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-In [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seil [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hydrogen thermally- and plasma- treatments are applied to reduce and sinter the inkjet-printed copper patterns at low temperature. • Plasma sintered Cu patterns have fully densified microstructure with the resistivity of 3.23 μW cm. • Cu conductive track with dense microstructure remains its electrical resistivity after 1 month. • Thermal sintered Cu patterns show a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. - Abstract: Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  16. Detecting the Spur Marks of Ink-Jet Printed Documents Using a Multiband Scanner in NIR Mode and Image Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takeshi

    Ink-jet printers are frequently used in crime such as counterfeiting bank notes, driving licenses, and identification cards. Police investigators required us to identify makers or brands of ink-jet printers from counterfeits. In such demands, classifying ink-jet printers according to spur marks which were made by spur gears located in front of print heads for paper feed has been addressed by document examiners. However, spur marks are significantly faint so that it is difficult to detect them. In this study, we propose the new method for detecting spur marks using a multiband scanner in near infrared (NIR) mode and estimations of point spread function (PSF). As estimating PSF we used cepstrum which is inverse Fourier transform of logarithm spectrum. The proposed method provided the clear image of the spur marks.

  17. Low AC Loss YBCO Coated Conductor Geometry by Direct Inkjet Printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupich, Martin, Dr. [American Superconductor Corporation; Duckworth, Robert, Dr. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2009-10-01

    The second generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS) wire offers potential benefits for many electric power applications, including ones requiring filamentized conductors with low ac loss, such as transformers and fault current limiters. However, the use of 2G wire in these applications requires the development of both novel multi-filamentary conductor designs with lower ac losses and the development of advanced manufacturing technologies that enable the low-cost manufacturing of these filamentized architectures. This Phase I SBIR project focused on testing inkjet printing as a potential low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing technique to fabricate potential low ac loss filamentized architectures directly on the 2G template strips.

  18. Characterization of inkjet-printing HF and UHF antennas for RFID applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Paczesny, Daniel; Kawecki, Krzysztof

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a set of RFID antennas on flexible plastic substrates designed for range of HF and UHF band. The samples was fabricated using inkjet printing technology and conductive material base on silver nanopartilces ink. Fabricated antennas have been characterized, and the results were compared with the parameters of antennas made with usage of classical PCB technology on FR4 laminate with copper metallization. The paper presents studies on the impact of elastic substrates and conductive materials on antennas electrical parameters, as well as the communication range of the resulting RFID tags. During the experiment two patterns of HF and three patterns of UHF antennas was examined and the antennas was realized on different types of substrates, such as PET, Kapton® and FR4.

  19. [Custom-made artificial bones fabricated by an inkjet printing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Kazuyo; Chung, Ung-il; Tei, Yuichi

    2008-12-01

    Although current treatment modalities for bone defects include autograft, allograft, and artificial bone substitutes, they have problems concerning invasiveness, safety, and performance, respectively, calling for development of innovative artificial bones with better handling and mechanical strength, better control of external and internal structures, and better biodegradability and osteo-inductive ability. We propose to fabricate novel high performance artificial bones using 3D inkjet printer based on the image data of bone deformity. Shape precisely fitting to the deformity, internal structure facilitating cell invasion, and good biodegradability are achieved. Bioactive substances can be incorporated by printing in combination with drug delivery system to induce bone regeneration at desired locations. These osteo-inductive artificial bones will help efficiently treat various types of bone deformity in a less invasive and safe manner.

  20. An inkjet printed near isotropic 3-D antenna with embedded electronics for wireless sensor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    A 3-D (cube-shaped) antenna, which has been inkjet printed on a paper substrate and integrated with embedded electronics, is presented for the first time. A 1.5λ0 dipole is uniquely implemented on all the faces of the cube to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern. The antenna measures 13mm × 13mm × 13mm, where each side of the cube corresponds to only 0.1λ0 (at 2.4 GHz). Measurements with driving electronics placed inside the cube have shown that the antenna performance is not affected by the presence of embedded circuits. The cube antenna design is highly suitable for mobile sensing applications.

  1. Modeling thermal inkjet and cell printing process using modified pseudopotential and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Salman; Liu, Yaling

    2018-03-01

    Pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) can simulate a phase transition in high-density ratio multiphase flow systems. If coupled with thermal LBMs through equation of state, they can be used to study instantaneous phase transition phenomena with a high-temperature gradient where only one set of formulations in an LBM system can handle liquid, vapor, phase transition, and heat transport. However, at lower temperatures an unrealistic spurious current at the interface introduces instability and limits its application in real flow system. In this study, we proposed new modifications to the LBM system to minimize a spurious current which enables us to study nucleation dynamic at room temperature. To demonstrate the capabilities of this approach, the thermal ejection process is modeled as one example of a complex flow system. In an inkjet printer, a thermal pulse instantly heats up the liquid in a microfluidic chamber and nucleates bubble vapor providing the pressure pulse necessary to eject droplets at high speed. Our modified method can present a more realistic model of the explosive vaporization process since it can also capture a high-temperature/density gradient at nucleation region. Thermal inkjet technology has been successfully applied for printing cells, but cells are susceptible to mechanical damage or death as they squeeze out of the nozzle head. To study cell deformation, a spring network model, representing cells, is connected to the LBM through the immersed boundary method. Looking into strain and stress distribution of a cell membrane at its most deformed state, it is found that a high stretching rate effectively increases the rupture tension. In other words, membrane deformation energy is released through creation of multiple smaller nanopores rather than big pores. Overall, concurrently simulating multiphase flow, phase transition, heat transfer, and cell deformation in one unified LB platform, we are able to provide a better insight into the

  2. Particle image velocimetry measurements in an anatomical vascular model fabricated using inkjet 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Kenneth I.; Hariharan, Prasanna; Craven, Brent A.

    2017-11-01

    For decades, the study of biomedical fluid dynamics using optical flow visualization and measurement techniques has been limited by the inability to fabricate transparent physical models that realistically replicate the complex morphology of biological lumens. In this study, we present an approach for producing optically transparent anatomical models that are suitable for particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a common 3D inkjet printing process (PolyJet) and stock resin (VeroClear). By matching the index of refraction of the VeroClear material using a room-temperature mixture of water, sodium iodide, and glycerol, and by printing the part in an orientation such that the flat, optical surfaces are at an approximately 45° angle to the build plane, we overcome the challenges associated with using this 3D printing technique for PIV. Here, we summarize our methodology and demonstrate the process and the resultant PIV measurements of flow in an optically transparent anatomical model of the human inferior vena cava.

  3. A Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for the Selective Detection of Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Niazul Islam; Maddaus, Alec G; Song, Edward

    2018-01-15

    Recently, inkjet-printing has gained increased popularity in applications such as flexible electronics and disposable sensors, as well as in wearable sensors because of its multifarious advantages. This work presents a novel, low-cost immobilization technique using inkjet-printing for the development of an aptamer-based biosensor for the detection of lysozyme, an important biomarker in various disease diagnosis. The strong affinity between the carbon nanotube (CNT) and the single-stranded DNA is exploited to immobilize the aptamers onto the working electrode by printing the ink containing the dispersion of CNT-aptamer complex. The inkjet-printing method enables aptamer density control, as well as high resolution patternability. Our developed sensor shows a detection limit of 90 ng/mL with high target selectivity against other proteins. The sensor also demonstrates a shelf-life for a reasonable period. This technology has potential for applications in developing low-cost point-of-care diagnostic testing kits for home healthcare.

  4. Enabling Inkjet Printed Graphene for Ion Selective Electrodes with Postprint Thermal Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Das, Suprem R; Garland, Nathaniel T; Jing, Dapeng; Hondred, John A; Cargill, Allison A; Ding, Shaowei; Karunakaran, Chandran; Claussen, Jonathan C

    2017-04-12

    Inkjet printed graphene (IPG) has recently shown tremendous promise in reducing the cost and complexity of graphene circuit fabrication. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time, the fabrication of an ion selective electrode (ISE) with IPG. A thermal annealing process in a nitrogen ambient environment converts the IPG into a highly conductive electrode (sheet resistance changes from 52.8 ± 7.4 MΩ/□ for unannealed graphene to 172.7 ± 33.3 Ω/□ for graphene annealed at 950 °C). Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis reveals that the printed graphene flakes begin to smooth at an annealing temperature of 500 °C and then become more porous and more electrically conductive when annealed at temperatures of 650 °C and above. The resultant thermally annealed, IPG electrodes are converted into potassium ISEs via functionalization with a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane and valinomycin ionophore. The developed potassium ISE displays a wide linear sensing range (0.01-100 mM), a low detection limit (7 μM), minimal drift (8.6 × 10 -6 V/s), and a negligible interference during electrochemical potassium sensing against the backdrop of interfering ions [i.e., sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca)] and artificial eccrine perspiration. Thus, the IPG ISE shows potential for potassium detection in a wide variety of human fluids including plasma, serum, and sweat.

  5. Synthesis and Inkjet Printing of SnO2 Ink on a Flexible Substrate for Gas Sensor Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Omar; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Rieu, Mathilde; Viricelle, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    ISSN: 2504-3900; International audience; Sol based SnO2 precursor was synthetized by aqueous sol-gel route, then transformed into a stable ink with appropriate viscosity and surface tension to be inkjet printed and sintered at relatively moderate temperature. Plastic foil with thickness of 50 µm was selected as substrate for its high thermal resistance and stability (Upilex-50S). Prepared sol and formulated ink were both characterized by analytical techniques; electrical measurements were per...

  6. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ralf K W; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17″ cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P=0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thin TiO2 Films Prepared by Inkjet Printing of the Reverse Micelles Sol-Gel Composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Krýsa, Josef; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Šolcová, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2011), s. 371-378 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032; GA ČR GA104/09/0694; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sol-gel * titanium oxide * inkjet printing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2011

  8. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W.; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  9. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W., E-mail: rschulze@mail.uni-mainz.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grimm, Stefanie, E-mail: StefanieGrimm@gmx.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schulze, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schulze@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Klinik fuer Mund,- Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Sektion Roentgen, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Voss, Kai, E-mail: zahnarzt@drvoss.eu [Zahnaerztekammer Schleswig-Holstein, Vorstand fuer Praxisfuehrung, Westring 496, D- 24106 Kiel (Germany); Keller, Hans-Peter, E-mail: hans-peter.keller@din.de [NA Dental (NADENT) im DIN, Alexander-Wellendorff-Str. 2, D-75172 Pforzheim (Germany); Wedel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.wedel@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Postfach 32 60, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding {+-}2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  10. Synthesis of IGZO ink and study of ink-jet printed IGZO thin films with different Ga concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. K.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. K.; Chen, Z. H.; Chen, T. P.; Zhang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    By dissolving gallium chloride (GaCl3), indium chloride (InCl3), zinc acetate dihydrate [Zn(OAc)2·2H2O] and monoethanolamine (MEA) into a solvent of 2-methoxyethanol, the IGZO ink was synthesized. Five types of IGZO ink were prepared with different molar ratios of In:Ga:Zn, which can be used for ink-jet printing process. The thermal behaviors of IGZO ink with different formulas were investigated and the ideal annealing temperature for film formation was found to be ∼450 °C. Based on the prepared ink, amorphous IGZO thin films were directly printed on the glass substrate with a FujiFilm Dimatix ink-jet printer, followed by a thermal annealing at 450 °C for 1 h. The surface morphology, crystal structure, optical transmittance, electron mobility and carrier concentration were characterized and investigated. The ink-jet printed amorphous IGZO thin films fabricated in this work can be used as switching medium in flexible resistive random access memory devices.

  11. High performance inkjet-printed metal oxide thin film transistors via addition of insulating polymer with proper molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Cihai; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xiaomin; Chen, Huipeng; Guo, Tailiang

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal oxide thin film transistor (MOTFT) arrays using the inkjet printing process has caused tremendous interest for low-cost and large-area flexible electronic devices. However, the inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays usually exhibited a non-uniform geometry due to the coffee ring effect, which restricted their commercial application. Therefore, in this work, a strategy is reported to control the geometry and enhance device performance of inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays by the addition of an insulating polymer to the precursor solution prior to film deposition. Moreover, the impact of the polymer molecular weight (MW) on the geometry, chemical constitution, crystallization, and MOTFT properties of inkjet-printed metal oxide depositions was investigated. The results demonstrated that with an increase of MW of polystyrene (PS) from 2000 to 200 000, the coffee ring was gradually faded and the coffee ring effect was completely eliminated when MW reached 200 000, which is associated with the enhanced viscosity with the insulating polymer, providing a high resistance to the outward capillary flow, which facilitated the depinning of the contact line, leading to the elimination of the coffee ring. More importantly, the carrier mobility increased significantly from 4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 up to 13.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 as PS MW increased from 2000 to 200 000, which was about 3 times that of the pristine In2O3 TFTs. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that PS doping of In2O3 films not only frustrated crystallization but also altered chemical constitution by enhancing the formation of the M-O structure, both of which facilitated the carrier transport. These results demonstrated that the simple polymer additive process provides a promising method that can efficiently control the geometry of MO arrays during inkjet printing and maximize the device performance of MOTFT arrays, which showed great potential for the application in next

  12. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of antioxidants in teas using inkjet-printed graphene-polyaniline electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardpho, Chayanee; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-02-01

    A development of ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic coupled with a novel inkjet-printed conductive ink-modified electrode for a fast and simultaneous determination of polyphenolic antioxidants was achieved. Two printing techniques were selected for fabrication and modification including (i) an in-house screen-printing method and (ii) an inkjet-printing method, respectively. A conductive ink containing graphene and polyaniline nanocomposite (G-PANI) was precisely casted onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a dimatix inkjet material printer. Compared to a bare SPCE, the G-PANI-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (G-PANI/SPCE) exhibited higher electrochemical sensitivity with increase (2-4 times) of peak current of each antioxidant. Moreover, four antioxidants were successfully separated and determined within 3 min using a reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with a mobile phase containing phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (90:10 v/v). Under an optimal detection potential at +1.2V vs. Ag/AgCl, linear calibrations and limits of detection (S/N=3) for antioxidants were found to be 0.01-10 µg mL(-1) and 1.38-1.94 ng mL(-1), respectively. Finally, this proposed method has been successfully used for the determination of antioxidants in tea samples, the results obtained from our presented method were within a highly good agreement those obtained from a standard UHPLC-UV method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inkjet printing of antiviral PCL nanoparticles and anticancer cyclodextrin inclusion complexes on bioadhesive film for cervical administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Cem; Wickström, Henrika; Sandler, Niklas; Aktaş, Yeşim; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-10-15

    Personalized medicine is an important treatment approach for diseases like cancer with high intrasubject variability. In this framework, printing is one of the most promising methods since it permits dose and geometry adjustment of the final product. With this study, a combination product consisting of anticancer (paclitaxel) and antiviral (cidofovir) drugs was manufactured by inkjet printing onto adhesive film for local treatment of cervical cancers as a result of HPV infection. Furthermore, solubility problem of paclitaxel was overcome by maintaining this poorly soluble drug in a cyclodextrin inclusion complex and release of cidofovir was controlled by encapsulation in polycaprolactone nanoparticles. In vitro characterization studies of printed film formulations were performed and cell culture studies showed that drug loaded film formulation was effective on human cervical adenocarcinoma cells. Our study suggests that inkjet printing technology can be utilized in the development of antiviral/anticancer combination dosage forms for mucosal application. The drug amount in the delivery system can be accurately controlled and modified. Moreover, prolonged drug release time can be obtained. Printing of anticancer and antiviral drugs on film seem to be a potential approach for HPV-related cervical cancer treatment and a good candidate for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructure-tunable highly conductive graphene-metal composites achieved by inkjet printing and low temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Song, Man; Wen, Chenyu; Majee, Subimal; Yang, Dong; Wu, Biao; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Bin

    2018-03-01

    We present a method for fabricating highly conductive graphene-silver composite films with a tunable microstructure achieved by means of an inkjet printing process and low temperature annealing. This is implemented by starting from an aqueous ink formulation using a reactive silver solution mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), followed by inkjet printing deposition and annealing at 100 °C for silver formation. Due to the hydrophilic surfaces and the aid of a polymer stabilizer in an aqueous solution, the GNPs are uniformly covered with a silver layer. Simply by adjusting the content of GNPs in the inks, highly conductive GNP/Ag composites (>106 S m-1), with their microstructure changed from a large-area porous network to a compact film, is formed. In addition, the printed composite films show superior quality on a variety of unconventional substrates compared to its counterpart without GNPs. The availability of composite films paves the way to the metallization in different printed devices, e.g. interconnects in printed circuits and electrodes in energy storage devices.

  15. Inkjet Printing of Conductive Inks with High Lateral Resolution on Omniphobic “R F Paper” for Paper-Based Electronics and MEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lessing, Joshua; Glavan, Ana C; Walker, S. Brett; Keplinger, Christoph; Lewis, Jennifer; Whitesides, George McClelland

    2014-01-01

    The use of omniphobic “fluoroalkylated paper” as a substrate for inkjet printing of aqueous inks that are the precursors of electrically conductive patterns is described. By controlling the surface chemistry of the paper, it is possible to print high resolution, conductive patterns that remain conductive after folding and exposure to common solvents.

  16. Inkjet printing of TIPS-PEN on soluble polymer insulating films: a route to high-performance thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Anthony, J.E.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to inkjet print high-performance organic transistors by printing the organic semiconductor ink on a thin, continuous, and solvent-absorbing layer of insulating material. The ink spreading is effectively controlled by local dissolution of the layer, and during drying the

  17. Particle Fabrication Using Inkjet Printing onto Hydrophobic Surfaces for Optimization and Calibration of Trace Contraband Detection Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gillen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed to fabricate patterned arrays of micrometer-sized monodisperse solid particles of ammonium nitrate on hydrophobic silicon surfaces using inkjet printing. The method relies on dispensing one or more microdrops of a concentrated aqueous ammonium nitrate solution from a drop-on-demand (DOD inkjet printer at specific locations on a silicon substrate rendered hydrophobic by a perfluorodecytrichlorosilane monolayer coating. The deposited liquid droplets form into the shape of a spherical shaped cap; during the evaporation process, a deposited liquid droplet maintains this geometry until it forms a solid micrometer sized particle. Arrays of solid particles are obtained by sequential translation of the printer stage. The use of DOD inkjet printing for fabrication of discrete particle arrays allows for precise control of particle characteristics (mass, diameter and height, as well as the particle number and spatial distribution on the substrate. The final mass of an individual particle is precisely determined by using gravimetric measurement of the average mass of solution ejected per microdrop. The primary application of this method is fabrication of test materials for the evaluation of spatially-resolved optical and mass spectrometry based sensors used for detecting particle residues of contraband materials, such as explosives or narcotics.

  18. Fabrication of epoxy spherical microstructures by controlled drop-on-demand inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacot-Descombes, L; Gullo, M R; Cadarso, V J; Brugger, J

    2012-01-01

    Well-controlled spherical microstructures open new possibilities for several MEMS devices, such as hemispherical microfluidic channels or micro-optical elements. However, machining of micro-spherical shapes has proven to be difficult with conventional planar micro-fabrication processes. This paper presents a fabrication method allowing the fabrication of controlled micro-spherical cap structures with defined edge angles. Drops of 30 pL of an epoxy solution were accurately inkjet printed on circular platforms. The deposited volume is confined by the rim of the platforms. This allows a fine tuning of the spherical cap edge angle as well as its height and radius of curvature. The presented method allowed fabricating large arrays of well-controlled micro-spherical shapes of different diameters, ranging from 50 to 930 μm, with a maximum controlled edge angle tuning of 85°. Theoretical investigations of the underlying phenomena are also presented. Good agreement between experimental results and theoretical expectations has been observed, with standard deviations below 3%. Using the proposed method, several 2D arrays up to 900 micro hemispheres with an edge angle of 90° ± 2° have been fabricated with a yield above 98%. (paper)

  19. Preparation of Mach-Zehnder interferometric photonic biosensors by inkjet printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Florian; Melnik, Eva; Muellner, Paul; Jiménez-Meneses, Pilar; Nechvile, Magdalena; Koppitsch, Guenther; Lieberzeit, Peter; Laemmerhofer, Michael; Heer, Rudolf; Hainberger, Rainer

    2017-05-01

    Inkjet printing is a versatile method to apply surface modification procedures in a spatially controlled, cost-effective and mass-fabrication compatible manner. Utilizing this technology, we investigate two different approaches for functionalizing label-free optical waveguide based biosensors: a) surface modification with amine-based functional polymers (biotin-modified polyethylenimine (PEI-B)) employing active ester chemistry and b) modification with dextran based hydrogel thin films employing photoactive benzophenone crosslinker moieties. Whereas the modification with PEI-B ensures high receptor density at the surface, the hydrogel films can serve both as a voluminous matrix binding matrix and as a semipermeable separation layer between the sensor surface and the sample. We use the two surface modification strategies both individually and in combination for binding studies towards the detection of the protein inflammation biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP). For the specific detection of CRP, we compare two kinds of capture molecules, namely biotinylated antibodies and biotinylated CRP-specific DNA based aptamers. Both kinds of capture molecules were immobilized on the PEI-B by means of streptavidin-biotin affinity binding. As transducer, we use an integrated four-channel silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) photonic sensing platform operating at a wavelength of 850nm (TM-mode).

  20. An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper-supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihalainen, Petri; Määttänen, Anni; Peltonen, Jouko; Pettersson, Fredrik; Pesonen, Markus; Österbacka, Ronald; Viitala, Tapani

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two different supramolecular recognition architectures for impedimetric detection of DNA hybridization have been formed on disposable paper-supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes. The gold electrodes were fabricated using a gold nanoparticle based ink. The first recognition architecture consists of subsequent layers of biotinylated self-assembly monolayer (SAM), streptavidin and biotinylated DNA probe. The other recognition architecture is constructed by immobilization of thiol-functionalized DNA probe (HS-DNA) and subsequent backfill with 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MUOH) SAM. The binding capacity and selectivity of the recognition architectures were examined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. SPR results showed that the HS-DNA/MUOH system had a higher binding capacity for the complementary DNA target. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the hybridization can be detected with impedimetric spectroscopy in picomol range for both systems. EIS signal indicated a good selectivity for both recognition architectures, whereas SPR showed very high unspecific binding for the HS-DNA/MUOH system. The factors affecting the impedance signal were interpreted in terms of the complexity of the supramolecular architecture. The more complex architecture acts as a less ideal capacitive sensor and the impedance signal is dominated by the resistive elements. (paper)

  1. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  2. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  3. Inkjet Printed Fully-Passive Body-Worn Wireless Sensors for Smart and Connected Community (SCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir I. Morshed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Future Smart and Connected Communities (SCC will utilize distributed sensors and embedded computing to seamlessly generate meaningful data that can assist individuals, communities, and society with interlocking physical, social, behavioral, economic, and infrastructural interaction. SCC will require newer technologies for seamless and unobtrusive sensing and computation in natural settings. This work presents a new technology for health monitoring with low-cost body-worn disposable fully passive electronic sensors, along with a scanner, smartphone app, and web-server for a complete smart sensor system framework. The novel wireless resistive analog passive (WRAP sensors are printed using an inkjet printing (IJP technique on paper with silver inks (Novacentrix Ag B40, sheet resistance of 21 mΩ/sq and incorporate a few discrete surface mounted electronic components (overall thickness of <1 mm. These zero-power flexible sensors are powered through a wireless inductive link from a low-power scanner (500 mW during scanning burst of 100 ms by amplitude modulation at the carrier signal of 13.56 MHz. While development of various WRAP sensors is ongoing, this paper describes development of a WRAP temperature sensor in detail as an illustration. The prototypes were functionally verified at various temperatures with energy consumption of as low as 50 mJ per scan. The data is analyzed with a smartphone app that computes severity (Events-of-Interest, or EoI using a real-time algorithm. The severity can then be anonymously shared with a custom web-server, and visualized either in temporal or spatial domains. This research aims to reduce ER visits of patients by enabling self-monitoring, thereby improving community health for SSC.

  4. Adjustable threshold-voltage in all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor using double-layer dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Hao; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2013-01-01

    An all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with a double-layer dielectric structure is proposed and implemented in this study. By using the double-layer structure with different dielectric materials (i.e., polyvinylphenol with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)), the threshold-voltage of OTFT can be adjusted. The threshold-voltage shift can be controlled by changing the composition of dielectric layers. That is, an enhancement-mode OTFT can be converted to a depletion-mode OTFT by selectively printing additional dielectric layers to form a high-k/low-k double-layer structure. The printed OTFT has a carrier mobility of 5.0 × 10 −3 cm 2 /V-s. The threshold-voltages of the OTFTs ranged between − 13 V and 10 V. This study demonstrates an additional design parameter for organic electronics manufactured using inkjet printing technology. - Highlights: • A double-layer dielectric organic thin film transistor, OTFT, is implemented. • The threshold voltage of OTFT can be configured by the double dielectric structure. • The composition of the dielectric determines the threshold voltage shift. • The characteristics of OTFTs can be adjusted by double dielectric structures

  5. Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles to Fabricate a Mask-Free Thin-Film Transistor by Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a low-cost, mask-free, reduced material wastage, deposited technology using transparent, directly printable, air-stable semiconductor slurries and dielectric solutions. We have demonstrate an emerging process for fabricating printable transistors with ZnO nanoparticles as the active channel and poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP matrix as the gate dielectric, respectively, and the inkjet-printed ZnO TFTs have shown to exhibit the carrier mobility of 0.69 cm2/Vs and the threshold voltage of 25.5 V. We suggest that the printable materials and the printing technology enable the use of all-printed low-cost flexible displays and other transparent electronic applications.

  6. Comparison of barium titanate thin films prepared by inkjet printing and spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukmirović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, barium titanate films were prepared by different deposition techniques (spin coating, office Epson inkjet printer and commercial Dimatix inkjet printer. As inkjet technique requires special rheological properties of inks the first part of the study deals with the preparation of inks, whereas the second part examines and compares structural characteristics of the deposited films. Inks were synthesized by sol-gel method and parameters such as viscosity, particle size and surface tension were measured. Deposited films were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The findings consider advantages and disadvantages of the particular deposition techniques.

  7. Surface processing and ageing behavior of silk fabrics treated with atmospheric-pressure plasma for pigment-based ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunming; Wang, Libing; Yu, Miao; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2018-03-01

    Pigment inkjet printing has highlighted the advantages of cost-effective, short production cycle and environment-friendly. However, patterns directly printed with pigment inks usually have low color yields and blurry images which are caused by bleeding phenomenon. This work presents an atmospheric-pressure plasma method for improving the pigment-based ink-jet printing performance of silk fabrics. The effects of surface changes induced are discussed, with data derived from morphological study by atomic force microscopy (AFM), chemical analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. Ink-jet printing experiments were conducted to study the influence of measured changes on anti-bleeding property and color strength of treated and original samples. The ageing experiment indicates that the modified silk fabrics should be printed within 24 h after plasma processing for maximum color yields. This study explores an effective approach for the atmospheric-pressure plasma, which can provide its significant use in improving the surface properties and ink-jet printing performance of fabrics.

  8. Carbon-Based Flexible and All-Solid-State Micro-supercapacitors Fabricated by Inkjet Printing with Enhanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhibin; Hu, Haibo; Liang, Guojin; Ye, Changhui

    2017-04-01

    By means of inkjet printing technique, flexible and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) were fabricated with carbon-based hybrid ink composed of graphene oxide (GO, 98.0 vol.%) ink and commercial pen ink (2.0 vol.%). A small amount of commercial pen ink was added to effectively reduce the agglomeration of the GO sheets during solvent evaporation and the following reduction processes in which the presence of graphite carbon nanoparticles served as nano-spacer to separate GO sheets. The printed device fabricated using the hybrid ink, combined with the binder-free microelectrodes and interdigital microelectrode configuration, exhibits nearly 780% enhancement in areal capacitance compared with that of pure GO ink. It also shows excellent flexibility and cycling stability with nearly 100% retention of the areal capacitance after 10,000 cycles. The all-solid-state device can be optionally connected in series or in parallel to meet the voltage and capacity requirements for a given application. This work demonstrates a promising future of the carbon-based hybrid ink for directly large-scale inkjet printing MSCs for disposable energy storage devices.

  9. Direct ceramic inkjet printing of yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte layers for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, R.I.; Hopkins, S.C. [Applied Superconductivity and Cryoscience Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB4 3QZ (United Kingdom); Krauz, M.; Kluczowski, J.R. [Institute of Power Engineering, Ceramic Department CEREL, 36-040 Boguchwala (Poland); Jewulski, J. [Institute of Power Engineering, Fuel Cells Department, 02-981 Warsaw (Poland); Glowacka, D.M. [Detector Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B.A. [Applied Superconductivity and Cryoscience Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB4 3QZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Power Engineering, Fuel Cells Department, 02-981 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-11-01

    Electromagnetic drop-on-demand direct ceramic inkjet printing (EM/DCIJP) was employed to fabricate dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support from ceramic suspensions. Printing parameters including pressure, nozzle opening time and droplet overlapping were studied in order to optimize the surface quality of the YSZ coating. It was found that moderate overlapping and multiple coatings produce the desired membrane quality. A single fuel cell with a NiO-YSZ/YSZ ({proportional_to}6 {mu}m)/LSM + YSZ/LSM architecture was successfully prepared. The cell was tested using humidified hydrogen as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant. The cell provided a power density of 170 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a highly coherent dense YSZ electrolyte layer with no open porosity. These results suggest that the EM/DCIJP inkjet printing technique can be successfully implemented to fabricate electrolyte coatings for SOFC thinner than 10 {mu}m and comparable in quality to those fabricated by more conventional ceramic processing methods. (author)

  10. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  11. Comparison of inkjet-printed silver conductors on different microsystem substrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, Jene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of nanosilver ink (Harima NPS-JL) onto different microsystem substrates using a functional printer (Dimatix DMP-3281). Photo paper is a standard inkjet substrate, which were compared with glass, polycarbonate (PC), plastic projector transparency foil...

  12. Work Function and Conductivity of Inkjet-Printed Silver Layers: Effect of Inks and Post-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Pillai, Nikhil; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2018-03-01

    The electronic properties of a printed layer are influenced by a number of factors, including the nature of the ink (nanoparticle- or solution-based), ink composition (solvents, additives, concentration), and post-treatment technologies, especially sintering. One of the major challenges in the field of printed electronics is achieving the desired performance, for example, in terms of conductivity, resistivity, or work function (WF). This work investigates the dependence of sheet resistance and WF on various sintering methodologies. Four different silver nanoparticle inks were inkjet-printed on a flexible polymeric foil and post-treated by thermal sintering (in an oven) or novel sintering processes using infrared or intense pulsed light. The surfaces of the printed and sintered layers were investigated optically, and various inhomogeneities in the layer surface were observed, varying from a smooth to a highly rough appearance with ring-shaped drying structures. An analysis of the sheet resistance revealed notable variation among the various inks and sintering methodologies used. Here, for the very first time, WF is measured and evaluated as a function of sintering methodology and silver ink, and the respective layer formation characteristics realized with the inkjet printing technology. The WF values obtained by ultraviolet photoemission show a similar spread and allow unambiguous trends to be tracked with respect to the type of ink and sintering method used. The values of the WF obtained range from 3.7 eV to 4.3 eV, approaching the reported bulk values of 4.3-4.7 eV. The various silver inks resulted in different WFs when the same sintering method was used, while the same silver ink resulted in different WFs when various sintering methods were applied. Therefore, it is believed that the WF can be tuned over a broad range in a controlled manner to satisfy electronic device requirements.

  13. Hybrid top-gate transistors based on ink-jet printed zinc tin oxide and different organic dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Benedikt; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    We report about hybrid top-gate transistors based on ink-jet printed zinc tin oxide (ZTO) and different spin-coated organic dielectrics. Transistors using the polar dielectric poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the nonpolar polystyrene (PS) were evaluated. By applying PMMA, we were able to process field-effect transistors with a saturation mobility of up to 4.3 cm2 V-1 s-1. This is the highest reported mobility of an ink-jet printed ZTO top-gate transistor using a spin-coated PMMA dielectric. This transistor also exhibits a small threshold voltage of 1.7 V and an on/off-current ratio exceeding 105. The usage of PS as another organic dielectric leads to functional devices with inferior performance, meaning a saturation mobility of 0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a threshold voltage of 9.7 V. The more polar character of the PMMA compared to the PS dielectric leading to a better adhesion on the quite hydrophilic ZTO surface could explain the improved device performance of the ZTO top-gate transistor using PMMA.

  14. Insitu synthesis of self-assembled gold nanoparticles on glass or silicon substrates through reactive inkjet printing

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2013-12-18

    A facile and low cost method for the synthesis of self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) with minimal size variation and chemical waste by using reactive inkjet printing was developed. Gold NPs with diameters as small as (8±2)nm can be made at low temperature (120 °C). The size of the resulting NPs can be readily controlled through the concentration of the gold precursor and oleylamine ink. The pure gold composition of the synthesized NPs was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis. High-resolution SEM (HRSEM) and TEM (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction revealed their size and face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, respectively. Owing to the high density of the NP film, UV/Vis spectroscopy showed a red shift in the intrinsic plasmonic resonance peak. We envision the extension of this approach to the synthesis of other nanomaterials and the production of tailored functional nanomaterials and devices. Midas touch: The use of low-cost manufacturing approaches in the synthesis of nanoparticles is critical for many applications. Reactive inkjet printing, along with a judicious choice of precursor/solvent system, was used to synthesize a relatively uniform assembly of crystalline gold nanoparticles, with diameters as small as (8±2)nm, over a given substrate surface. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH.

  15. Inkjet-Printed Organic Field-Effect Transistor by Using Composite Semiconductor Material of Carbon Nanoparticles and Poly(3-Hexylthiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene, P3HT, has been widely used in organic electronics as a semiconductor material. It suffers from the low carrier mobility characteristics. This limits P3HT to be employed in applications. Therefore, the blending semiconductor material, carbon nanoparticle (CNP, and P3HT, are developed and examined by inkjet-printing organic field-effect transistor technology in this work. The effective carrier mobility of fabricated OFETs can be enhanced by 8 folds with adding CNP and using O2 plasma treatment. At the same time, the transconductance of fabricated OFETs is also raised by 5 folds. Based on the observations of SEM, XRD, and FTIR, these improvements are contributed to the local field induced by the formation of CNP/P3HT complexes. This observation presents an insight of the development in organic semiconductor materials. Moreover, this work also offers a low-cost and effective semiconductor material for inkjet-printing technology in the development of organic electronics.

  16. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid Seyed Shirazi, Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Azuan Abu Osman, Noor

    2015-06-01

    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  17. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2015-06-01

    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  18. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Rožić; Marina Vukoje; Kristinka Vinković; Nives Galić; Mirela Jukić

    2017-01-01

    The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US) and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP) that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2) which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was...

  19. One-step inkjet printing of tungsten oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate hybrid film and its applications in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi-Thuy-Nga, E-mail: thuysnga@gmail.com; Chan, Chih-Yu; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-03-31

    Hybrid film comprised tungsten oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate (WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS) was developed by applying one-step inkjet printing from an office inkjet printer. The WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized from commercial crystalline WO{sub 3} powder through a wet ball-milling process, which is a simple, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective method of using water as a green solvent and low-energy milling. The WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS inkjet ink was prepared by dispersing the as-milled WO{sub 3} and PEDOT:PSS in n-propanol and deionized water. The inkjet-printed WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS thin films show marked improvements of cathodic electrochromism over WO{sub 3} films: the transmittance change of 20% at 550 nm (visible region) and 35% at 900 nm (infrared region) along with the response time of 5.67/0.30 s in their colored/bleached state, and the electrochromic coloration efficiency of 27.86 cm{sup 2}/C at 550 nm and 69.64 cm{sup 2}/C at 900 nm. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by milling commercial crystalline WO{sub 3}. • Wet ball-milling was carried out by using water as a green solvent and low energy. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid ink was simply prepared by adding n-propanol and DI water. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were inkjet-printed via an office inkjet printer. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS films show better electrochromic performances than WO{sub 3} films.

  20. Characterization and optimization of an inkjet-printed smart textile UV-sensor cured with UV-LED light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, S.; Yu, J.; Periyasamy, A. P.; Viková, M.; Vik, M.; Nierstrasz, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    For the development of niche products like smart textiles and other functional high-end products, resource-saving production processes are needed. Niche products only require small batches, which makes their production with traditional textile production techniques time-consuming and costly. To achieve a profitable production, as well as to further foster innovation, flexible and integrated production techniques are a requirement. Both digital inkjet printing and UV-light curing contribute to a flexible, resource-efficient, energy-saving and therewith economic production of smart textiles. In this article, a smart textile UV-sensor is printed using a piezoelectric drop-on-demand printhead and cured with a UV-LED lamp. The UVcurable ink system is based on free radical polymerization and the integrated UVsensing material is a photochromic dye, Reversacol Ruby Red. The combination of two photoactive compounds, for which UV-light is both the curer and the activator, challenges two processes: polymer crosslinking of the resin and color performance of the photochromic dye. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to characterize the curing efficiency of the prints. Color measurements are made to determine the influence of degree of polymer crosslinking on the developed color intensities, as well as coloration and decoloration rates of the photochromic prints. Optimized functionality of the textile UV-sensor is found using different belt speeds and lamp intensities during the curing process.

  1. Fire-through Ag contact formation for crystalline Si solar cells using single-step inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Gang; Cho, Sung-Bin; Chung, Bo-Mook; Huh, Joo-Youl; Yoon, Sam S

    2012-04-01

    Inkjet-printed Ag metallization is a promising method of forming front-side contacts on Si solar cells due to its non-contact printing nature and fine grid resolution. However, conventional Ag inks are unable to punch through the SiN(x) anti-reflection coating (ARC) layer on emitter Si surfaces. In this study, a novel formulation of Ag ink is examined for the formation of fire-through contacts on a SiN(x)-coated Si substrate using the single-step printing of Ag ink, followed by rapid thermal annealing at 800 degrees C. In order to formulate Ag inks with fire-through contact formation capabilities, a liquid etching agent was first formulated by dissolving metal nitrates in an organic solvent and then mixing the resulting solution with a commercial Ag nanoparticle ink at various volume ratios. During the firing process, the dissolved metal nitrates decomposed into metal oxides and acted in a similar manner to the glass frit contained in Ag pastes for screen-printed Ag metallization. The newly formulated ink with a 1 wt% loading ratio of metal oxides to Ag formed finely distributed Ag crystallites on the Si substrate after firing at 800 degrees C for 1 min.

  2. Photo-thermal and cytotoxic properties of inkjet-printed copper sulfide films on biocompatible latex coated substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Jawad; Borzenkov, Mykola; Niemelä, Erik; Weinberger, Christian; Törngren, Björn; Rosqvist, Emil; Collini, Maddalena; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Eriksson, John; Peltonen, Jouko; Ihalainen, Petri; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Inkjet-printing of metal nanoparticles is a particularly promising technique for the fabrication and modification of surfaces with a multifunctional nature. Recently copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs) have attracted wide interest due to a range of valuable properties including long term stability, photo-thermal activity, ease of synthesis and low cost. In the present study, printed CuS patterns were successfully fabricated on latex coated paper substrates and characterized by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID). The resulted patterns displayed pronounced photo-thermal effect under Near Infrared Irradiation (NIR) even with relatively low laser power. Finally, by utilizing an automated real-time imaging platform it was possible to verify that the CuS printed film was not cytotoxic to human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). The pronounced photo-thermal properties and nontoxic nature of these printed low-cost flexible CuS films make them promising candidates for fabrication of devices with localized photo-thermal effect suitable for biomedical applications.

  3. Inkjet printing as a technique for filling of micro-wells with biocompatible polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present an innovative technique to dispense precise amounts of polymer solutions into large arrays of microscopic wells. An inkjet printer (NP 2.1 GeSim, Germany) is used to fill micro-wells with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP K10). The micro-wells are fabricated with cavity diameters of 300 μm...

  4. Paper-based inkjet-printed tri-band U-slot monopole antenna for wireless applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutarboush, Hattan

    2012-01-01

    Realization of a U-slot tri-band monopole antenna on a low-cost paper substrate using inkjet-printed technology is presented for the first time. The U-shaped slot is optimized to enhance the bandwidth and to achieve tri-band operation of 1.57, 3.2, and 5 GHz with measured impedance bandwidths of 3.21%, 28.1%, and 36%, respectively. The antenna is fabricated through a metallic nanoparticle ink on a standard commercial paper. Thus, the antenna can be used to cover the GPS, WiMAX, HiperLAN/2, and WLAN. The antenna has a compact size of 12 × 37.3 × 0.44 mm3 , leaving enough space for the driving electronics on the paper substrate. The impedance bandwidth, current distributions, radiation patterns, gain, and efficiency of the antenna have been studied through computer simulations and measurements. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  5. Attachment of Poly(l-lactide) Nanoparticles to Plasma-Treated Non-Woven Polymer Fabrics Using Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana V; Baier, Grit; Landfester, Katharina; Musin, Eduard; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Cameron, David C; Homola, Tomáš; Whittle, Jason D; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-09-01

    Active dressings that based on fabric materials are an area of interest for the treatment of wounds. Poly(l-lactide) nanoparticles containing the antimicrobial agent octenidine can be controllably lysed by toxins released by pathogenic bacteria thus releasing antimicrobial material in response to the presence of the bacterial toxins and so counteracting the infection. We developed an integrated engineering solution that allows for the stable immobilisation of nanoparticles on non-woven fabrics. The process involves coating nanoparticles on non-woven polymer surfaces by using an inkjet printing process. In order to improve the adhesion and retention of the nanoparticles on the fabric, surface pretreatment of the non-woven fabric using plasma jet treatment can be applied to increase its surface energy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Generation and Diffusion of Innovations in a District Innovation System: The Case of Ink-Jet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Reig-Otero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an in-depth case study of the ink-jet printing (IJP technology that emerged from the ceramic industry in a Spanish region (Castellon in the first decade of 2000. We propose an analytical framework that combines the theoretical perspectives of Industrial Districts and Innovation Systems, and exploit a qualitative methodology that includes information from patent and scientific article databases and 21 in-depth interviews. Our results show that IJP is a major innovation that breaks with the tradition of machinery innovations in this industry in Spain. Micro-level evidences show the complex external and internal relationships in the sharing of knowledge and innovation process, being the role of internal ties, trust, secrecy and strong in-house R&D strategies determinants of the IJP innovation.

  7. Effect of electroless nickel on the series resistance of high-efficiency inkjet printed passivated emitter rear contacted solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenio, Martha A.T. [REC Technology US, Inc., 1159 Triton Dr., Foster City, CA 94301 (United States); Lennon, A.J.; Ho-Baillie, A.; Wenham, S.R. [ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Many existing and emerging solar cell technologies rely on plated metal to form the front surface contacts, and aluminium to form the rear contact. Interactions between the metal plating solutions and the aluminium rear can have a significant impact on cell performance. This paper describes non-uniform nickel deposition on the sintered aluminium rear surface of passivated emitter and rear contacted (PERC) cells patterned using an inkjet printing technique. Rather than being plated homogeneously over the entire rear surface as is observed on an alloyed aluminium rear, the nickel is plated only in the vicinity of the point openings in the rear surface silicon dioxide dielectric layer. Furthermore, this non-uniform nickel deposition was shown to increase the contact resistance of the rear point contacts by an order of magnitude, resulting in higher series resistance values for these fabricated PERC cells. (author)

  8. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Yunsik; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  9. Organic Solar Cell by Inkjet Printing—An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf Sumaiya; Kamran Kardel; Adel El-Shahat

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, organic solar cells became more attractive due to their flexible power devices and the potential for low-cost manufacturing. Inkjet printing is a very potential manufacturing technique of organic solar cells because of its low material usage, flexibility, and large area formation. In this paper, we presented an overall review on the inkjet printing technology as well as advantages of inkjet-printing, comparison of inkjet printing with other printing technologies and its poten...

  10. Inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed autonomous wearable RF modules for biomonitoring, positioning and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Jo; Bahr, Ryan; Hester, Jimmy; Kimionis, John; Nauroze, Abdullah; Su, Wenjing; Tehrani, Bijan; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, numerous inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed wearable flexible antennas, RF electronics, modules and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g. LCP) substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of autonomous Biomonitoring, Positioning and Sensing applications. This paper briefly discusses the state-of-the-art area of fully-integrated wearable wireless sensor modules on paper or flexible LCP and show the first ever 4D sensor module integration on paper, as well as numerous 3D and 4D multilayer paper-based and LCP-based RF/microwave, flexible and wearable structures, that could potentially set the foundation for the truly convergent wireless sensor ad-hoc "on-body networks of the future with enhanced cognitive intelligence and "rugged" packaging. Also, some challenges concerning the power sources of "nearperpetual" wearable RF modules, including flexible miniaturized batteries as well as power-scavenging approaches involving electromagnetic and solar energy forms are discuessed. The final step of the paper will involve examples from mmW wearable (e.g. biomonitoring) antennas and RF modules, as well as the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. It has to be noted that the paper will review and present challenges for inkjetprinted organic active and nonlinear devices as well as future directions in the area of environmentally-friendly "green") wearable RF electronics and "smart-skin conformal sensors.

  11. The Influence of Parameters of Ink-Jet Printing on Photoluminescence Properties of Nanophotonic Labels Based on Ag Nanoparticles for Smart Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Hrytsenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles are perspective for the use in ink-jet printed smart packaging labels in order to protect a customer from counterfeit or inform them about the safety of consumption of a packaged product via changeable luminescence properties. It is determined that, to obtain printed images with the highest luminescence intensity, using the most technologically permissible concentration of fluorescent component in the ink composition and applying inks to papers with the lowest absorbance are recommended. The highest contrast of a tone fluorescent image can be obtained on papers with high degree of sizing. It is found that the use of papers with low optical brightness agent (OBA content with a wide range of luminescence intensity allows obtaining the same visual legibility of a printed nanophotonic label. The increase in the relative area of raster elements of an image leads to nonlinear increase in luminescence intensity of printed images in long-wave area of visible spectrum, affecting the luminescence color of a printed label. For wide industrial production of printed nanophotonic labels for smart packaging, the created principles of reproduction of nanophotonic images applied onto paper materials by ink-jet printing technique using printing inks containing Ag nanoparticles should be taken into account.

  12. Finding optimal HBr reduction of inkjet printed graphene oxide for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlasny, I., E-mail: igor.wlasny@fuw.edu.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland); Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02 093, Warsaw (Poland); Rogala, M.; Dabrowski, P.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Busiakiewicz, A.; Kozlowski, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland); Lipinska, L.; Jagiello, J.; Aksienionek, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919, Warsaw (Poland); Sieradzki, Z. [Electrotechnological Company QWERTY Ltd., Siewna 21, 94-250, Lodz (Poland); Krucinska, I.; Puchalski, M.; Skrzetuska, E.; Draczynski, Z. [Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924, Lodz (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    In this article we present the results of our investigations of reduction of graphene oxide overprints, deposited by ink-jet method, by hydrobromic acid. Our study presents impact of different parameters of reduction, such as a temperature and time of the process on the chemical composition and electrical conductivity of the resulting material – reduced graphene oxide. Our results show the outstanding potential of this method for use in the production of flexible and elastic electronics and indicate the optimal parameters of reduction, which allow producing the optimal product. - Highlights: • The process of reduction of graphene oxide inkjet printouts by HBr is investigated. • Impact of parameters of reduction on the chemical structure of printout is studied. • Impact of parameters of reduction on the sheet resistance of printout is studied. • Optimal parameters of reduction are proposed.

  13. Inkjet Printing With In Situ Fast Annealing For Patterned Multilayer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2013-12-05

    Patterned multilayer films, such as those used in electronic devices, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) may be deposited and annealed in a single tool. The tool includes an inkjet printer head, a heater, and a laser. The inkjet printer head deposits on a substrate either suspended particles of a functional material or solvated precursors of a functional material. The head is mounted on a support that allows the head to scan the substrate by moving along the support in a first direction and moving the support along a second direction. After the head deposits the material the heater evaporates solvent from substrate, and the depositing and heating may be repeated one or more times to form a patterned multilayer material. Then, a laser, microwave, and/or Joule effect heating device may be used to anneal the multilayer material to a desired pattern and crystalline state.

  14. Ink-jet printing technology enables self-aligned mould patterning for electroplating in a single step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, M V; Spengler, N; Mager, D; Wang, N; Kiss, S Z; Höfflin, J; While, P T; Korvink, J G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new self-aligned, mask-free micro-fabrication method with which to form thick-layered conductive metal micro-structures inside electroplating moulds. Seed layer patterning for electroplating was performed by ink-jet printing using a silver nano-particle ink deposited on SU-8 or Ordyl SY permanent resist. The silver ink contact angle on SU-8 was adjusted by oxygen plasma followed by a hard bake. Besides functioning as a seed layer, the printed structures further served as a shadow mask during patterning of electroplating moulds into negative photoresist. The printed silver tracks remained in strong adhesion to the substrate when exposed to the acidic chemistry of the electroplating bath. To demonstrate the process, we manufactured rectangular, low-resistivity planar micro-coils for use in magnetic resonance microscopy. MRI images of a spring onion with an in-plane resolution down to 10 µm × 10 µm were acquired using a micro-coil on an 11.7 T MRI scanner. (paper)

  15. Disposable, Paper-Based, Inkjet-Printed Humidity and H2S Gas Sensor for Passive Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Quddious, Abdul

    2016-12-06

    An inkjet-printed, fully passive sensor capable of either humidity or gas sensing is presented herein. The sensor is composed of an interdigitated electrode, a customized printable gas sensitive ink and a specialized dipole antenna for wireless sensing. The interdigitated electrode printed on a paper substrate provides the base conductivity that varies during the sensing process. Aided by the porous nature of the substrate, a change in relative humidity from 18% to 88% decreases the electrode resistance from a few Mega-ohms to the kilo-ohm range. For gas sensing, an additional copper acetate-based customized ink is printed on top of the electrode, which, upon reaction with hydrogen sulphide gas (HS) changes, both the optical and the electrical properties of the electrode. A fast response time of 3 min is achieved at room temperature for a HS concentration of 10 ppm at a relative humidity (RH) of 45%. The passive wireless sensing is enabled through an antenna in which the inner loop takes care of conductivity changes in the 4-5 GHz band, whereas the outer-dipole arm is used for chipless identification in the 2-3 GHz band.

  16. Application of a handheld NIR spectrometer in prediction of drug content in inkjet printed orodispersible formulations containing prednisolone and levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hossein; Wickström, Henrika; Desai, Diti; Preis, Maren; Sandler, Niklas

    2017-05-30

    Quality control tools to assess the quality of printable orodispersible formulations are yet to be defined. Four different orodispersible dosage forms containing two poorly soluble drugs, levothyroxine and prednisolone, were produced on two different edible substrates by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Square shaped units of 4cm 2 were printed in different resolutions to achieve an escalating drug dose by highly accurate and uniform displacement of droplets in picoliter range from the printhead onto the substrates. In addition, the stability of drug inks in a course of 24h as well as the mechanical properties and disintegration behavior of the printed units were examined. A compact handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectral device in the range of 1550-1950nm was used for quantitative estimation of the drug amount in printed formulations. The spectral data was treated with mean centering, Savitzky-Golay filtering and a third derivative approach. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) regression were applied to build predictive models for quality control of the printed dosage forms. The accurate tuning of the dose in each formulation was confirmed by UV spectrophotometry for prednisolone (0.43-1.95mg with R 2 =0.999) and high performance liquid chromatography for levothyroxine (0.15-0.86mg with R 2 =0.997). It was verified that the models were capable of clustering and predicting the drug dose in the formulations with both Q 2 and R 2 Y values between 0.94-0.99. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Pluronic F127 on the distribution and functionality of inkjet-printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujawar, Liyakat Hamid; van Amerongen, Aart; Norde, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of inkjet-printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose substrates often results in a non-homogeneous spot morphology commonly referred to as 'doughnut-shaped' spots. We have studied the influence of Pluronic F127 (an amphiphilic surfactant) on the functionality of inkjet-printed primary antibody molecules and on the final assay result by performing a one-step antibody binding assay in the nitrocellulose substrate. The primary antibody was printed with and without Pluronic, followed by the addition of double-labelled amplicons as antigen molecules and a fluorophore-labelled streptavidin as detection conjugate. The distribution of the fluorescence intensity down into the nitrocellulose substrate was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy in 'Z' stacking mode. Each horizontal slice was further analysed by applying a concentric ring format and the fluorescence intensity in each slice was represented in a colour-coded way. The mean and total fluorescence intensity of the antibody binding assay (fluorescent streptavidin) showed a peak at 0.2% (w/v) Pluronic F127. In addition, an improved spot morphology was observed also peaking at the same Pluronic concentration. Subsequently, we investigated the direct influence of Pluronic F127 on the location of the primary antibody molecules by labelling these molecules with the fluorophore Alexa-488. Our results show that upon increasing the concentration of Pluronic F127 in the printing buffer, the spot diameter increased and the number of primary antibody molecules bound in the spot area gradually decreased. This was confirmed by analysing the distribution of fluorescently labelled primary antibody molecules down into the membrane layers. We conclude that a particular ratio between primary antibody and Pluronic F127 molecules in combination with available substrate binding capacity results in an optimal orientation, that is Fab-UP, of the primary antibody molecules. Consequently, an increased number

  18. Laser direct writing and inkjet printing for a sub-2 μm channel length MoS2 transistor with high-resolution electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Chung, Seungjun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-10-07

    Patterns formed by the laser direct writing (LDW) lithography process are used either as channels or barriers for MoS2 transistors fabricated via inkjet printing. Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink is printed over patterns formed on top of the MoS2 flakes in order to construct high-resolution source/drain (S/D) electrodes. When positive photoresist is used, the produced grooves are filled with inkjetted Ag ink by capillary forces. On the other hand, in the case of negative photoresist, convex barrier-like patterns are written on the MoS2 flakes and patterns, dividing the printed Ag ink into the S/D electrodes by self-alignment. LDW lithography combined with inkjet printing is applied to MoS2 thin-film transistors that exhibit moderate electrical performance such as mobility and subthreshold swing. However, especially in the linear operation regime, their features are limited by the contact effect. The Y-function method can exclude the contact effect and allow proper evaluation of the maximum available mobility and contact resistance. The presented fabrication methods may facilitate the development of cost-effective fabrication processes.

  19. Laser direct writing and inkjet printing for a sub-2 μm channel length MoS2 transistor with high-resolution electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Chung, Seungjun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2016-10-01

    Patterns formed by the laser direct writing (LDW) lithography process are used either as channels or barriers for MoS2 transistors fabricated via inkjet printing. Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink is printed over patterns formed on top of the MoS2 flakes in order to construct high-resolution source/drain (S/D) electrodes. When positive photoresist is used, the produced grooves are filled with inkjetted Ag ink by capillary forces. On the other hand, in the case of negative photoresist, convex barrier-like patterns are written on the MoS2 flakes and patterns, dividing the printed Ag ink into the S/D electrodes by self-alignment. LDW lithography combined with inkjet printing is applied to MoS2 thin-film transistors that exhibit moderate electrical performance such as mobility and subthreshold swing. However, especially in the linear operation regime, their features are limited by the contact effect. The Y-function method can exclude the contact effect and allow proper evaluation of the maximum available mobility and contact resistance. The presented fabrication methods may facilitate the development of cost-effective fabrication processes.

  20. Inkjet-Printed Paper-Based RFID and Nanotechnology-Based Ultrasensitive Sensors: The "Green" Ultimate Solution for an Ever Improving Life Quality and Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentzeris, Manos; Yang, Li

    The paper introduces the integration of conformal paper-based RFID's with a Single Walled Carbon Nanotube (SW-CNT) composite for the development of a chipless RFID-enabled wireless sensor node for toxic gas detection and breathing-gas-content estimation. The electrical performance of the inkjet-printed SWCNT-based ultra-sensitive sensor if reported up to 1GHz. The whole module is realized by inkjet-printing on a low-cost "green" paper-based substrate designed to operate in the European UHF RFID band. The electrical conductivity of the SWCNT film changes in the presence of ultra-small quantities of gases like ammonia and nitrogen dioxide, resulting in the variation of the backscattered power level which can be easily detected by the RFID reader to realize reliable early-warning toxic gas detection or breathing monitoring with potentially profound effects on ubiquitous low-cost "green" quality-of-life applications.

  1. Printable organic thin film transistors for glucose detection incorporating inkjet-printing of the enzyme recognition element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D., E-mail: Daniel.Elkington@newcastle.edu.au; Wasson, M.; Belcher, W.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. [Centre for Organic Electronics, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308 (Australia)

    2015-06-29

    The effect of device architecture upon the response of printable enzymatic glucose sensors based on poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) organic thin film transistors is presented. The change in drain current is used as the basis for glucose detection and we show that significant improvements in drain current response time can be achieved by modifying the design of the sensor structure. In particular, we show that eliminating the dielectric layer and reducing the thickness of the active layer reduce the device response time considerably. The results are in good agreement with a diffusion based model of device operation, where an initial rapid dedoping process is followed by a slower doping of the P3HT layer from protons that are enzymatically generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) at the Nafion gate electrode. The fitted diffusion data are consistent with a P3HT doping region that is close to the source-drain electrodes rather than located at the P3HT:[Nafion:GOX] interface. Finally, we demonstrate that further improvements in sensor structure and morphology can be achieved by inkjet-printing the GOX layer, offering a pathway to low-cost printed biosensors for the detection of glucose in saliva.

  2. Electrical Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Schwann-Cell-Like Phenotypes Using Inkjet-Printed Graphene Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suprem R; Uz, Metin; Ding, Shaowei; Lentner, Matthew T; Hondred, John A; Cargill, Allison A; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Mallapragada, Surya; Claussen, Jonathan C

    2017-04-01

    Graphene-based materials (GBMs) have displayed tremendous promise for use as neurointerfacial substrates as they enable favorable adhesion, growth, proliferation, spreading, and migration of immobilized cells. This study reports the first case of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes through the application of electrical stimuli from a graphene-based electrode. Electrical differentiation of MSCs into SC-like phenotypes is carried out on a flexible, inkjet-printed graphene interdigitated electrode (IDE) circuit that is made highly conductive (sheet resistance < 1 kΩ/sq) via a postprint pulse-laser annealing process. MSCs immobilized on the graphene printed IDEs and electrically stimulated/treated (etMSCs) display significant enhanced cellular differentiation and paracrine activity above conventional chemical treatment strategies [≈85% of the etMSCs differentiated into SC-like phenotypes with ≈80 ng mL -1 of nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion vs. 75% and ≈55 ng mL -1 for chemically treated MSCs (ctMSCs)]. These results help pave the way for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration where the flexible graphene electrodes could conform to the injury site and provide intimate electrical simulation for nerve cell regrowth. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The effect of temperature on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during electrical sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the thermal behavior of ink-jet-printed nanoparticle ink during electrical sintering was demonstrated. The ink consisting of silver nanoparticles approximately 50 nm in size and 34 wt% was used. Constant currents of 0.11, 0.22, and 0.31 A were applied to Joule-heat the inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles. During the sintering process, in-situ voltage and current measurements were taken to calculate the heat source and thermal conductivity. In order to estimate the temperature during the electrical sintering process, numerical modeling of the two-dimensional heat conduction equation was adopted. Thermal conductivity was obtained from the in-situ electrical conductivity measurement and coupled to the numerical model using the Wiedemann Franz law. From these numerical modeling results, the relationship between the specific resistance of the ink and the temperature was determined. During the electrical sintering process, the specific resistance of the ink was strongly related to the sintering temperature. The specific resistance of the ink decreases as the process temperature rises.

  4. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  5. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  6. Inkjet Printing Based Mono-layered Photonic Crystal Patterning for Anti-counterfeiting Structural Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyunmoon; Song, Kyungjun; Ha, Dogyeong; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal structures can be created to manipulate electromagnetic waves so that many studies have focused on designing photonic band-gaps for various applications including sensors, LEDs, lasers, and optical fibers. Here, we show that mono-layered, self-assembled photonic crystals (SAPCs) fabricated by using an inkjet printer exhibit extremely weak structural colors and multiple colorful holograms so that they can be utilized in anti-counterfeit measures. We demonstrate that SAPC patterns on a white background are covert under daylight, such that pattern detection can be avoided, but they become overt in a simple manner under strong illumination with smartphone flash light and/or on a black background, showing remarkable potential for anti-counterfeit techniques. Besides, we demonstrate that SAPCs yield different RGB histograms that depend on viewing angles and pattern densities, thus enhancing their cryptographic capabilities. Hence, the structural colorations designed by inkjet printers would not only produce optical holograms for the simple authentication of many items and products but also enable a high-secure anti-counterfeit technique. PMID:27487978

  7. Improved electron injection in all-solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors with an inkjet-printed ZnO electron injection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Kim, Hyeok; Park, Myeongjin; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lee, Changhee

    2017-10-01

    Interface engineering for the improved injection properties of all-solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) arising from the use of an inkjet-printed ZnO electron injection layer were demonstrated. The characteristics of ZnO in terms of electron injection and transport were investigated, and then we employed ZnO as the electron injection layer via inkjet-printing during the fabrication of all-solution-processed, n-type OFETs. With the inkjet-printed ZnO electron injection layer, the devices exhibited approximately five-fold increased mobility (0.0058 cm2/V s to 0.030 cm2/V s), more than two-fold increased charge concentration (2.76 × 1011 cm-2 to 6.86 × 1011 cm-2), and two orders of magnitude reduced device resistance (120 MΩ cm to 3 MΩ cm). Moreover, n-type polymer form smoother film with ZnO implying denser packing of polymer, which results in higher mobility.

  8. A bio-enabled maximally mild layer-by-layer Kapton surface modification approach for the fabrication of all-inkjet-printed flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunnan; Hester, Jimmy G. D.; Su, Wenjing; Chow, Justin H.; Sitaraman, Suresh K.; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2016-12-01

    A bio-enabled, environmentally-friendly, and maximally mild layer-by-layer approach has been developed to surface modify inherently hydrophobic Kapton HN substrates to allow for great printability of both water- and organic solvent-based inks thus facilitating the full-inkjet-printing of flexible electronic devices. Different from the traditional Kapton surface modification approaches which are structure-compromising and use harsh conditions to target, and oxidize and/or remove part of, the surface polyimide of Kapton, the present Kapton surface modification approach targeted the surface electric charges borne by its additive particles, and was not only the first to utilize environmentally-friendly clinical biomolecules to build up a thin film of protamine-heparin complex on Kapton, but also the first to be conducted under minimally destructive and maximally mild conditions. Besides, for electrically charged ink particles, the present surface modification method can enhance the uniformity of the inkjet-printed films by reducing the “coffee ring effect”. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, reduced graphene oxide-based gas sensors, which were flexible, ultra-lightweight, and miniature-sized, were fully-inkjet-printed on surface modified Kapton HN films and tested for their sensitivity to dimethyl methylphosphonate (a nerve agent simulant). Such fabricated sensors survived a Scotch-tape peel test and were found insensitive to repeated bending to a small 0.5 cm radius.

  9. Three-dimensional quick response code based on inkjet printing of upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles for drug anti-counterfeiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Minli; Lin, Min; Wang, Shurui; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Ge; Hong, Yuan; Dong, Yuqing; Jin, Guorui; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a smart phone recognition based upconversion fluorescent three-dimensional (3D) quick response (QR) code for tracking and anti-counterfeiting of drugs. We firstly formulated three colored inks incorporating upconversion nanoparticles with RGB (i.e., red, green and blue) emission colors. Using a modified inkjet printer, we printed a series of colors by precisely regulating the overlap of these three inks. Meanwhile, we developed a multilayer printing and splitting technology, which significantly increases the information storage capacity per unit area. As an example, we directly printed the upconversion fluorescent 3D QR code on the surface of drug capsules. The 3D QR code consisted of three different color layers with each layer encoded by information of different aspects of the drug. A smart phone APP was designed to decode the multicolor 3D QR code, providing the authenticity and related information of drugs. The developed technology possesses merits in terms of low cost, ease of operation, high throughput and high information capacity, thus holds great potential for drug anti-counterfeiting.Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a

  10. Embedding of inkjet-printed Ag-grid/ITO hybrid transparent electrode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flexible ITO/Ag-grid hybrid layers were prepared by a solution process and embedded into a plastic layer.The structural analysis confirmed that the printed layers were successfully embedded into the plastic substrate without anystructural damage. The detachment of the printed ITO/Ag-grid layers from the glass substrate ...

  11. Inkjet printing and electrical characterisation of DNA-templated cadmium sulphide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdillayeva, R. N.; Oshido, A. B.; Bamford, T. A.; El-Zubir, O.; Houlton, A.; Hedley, J.; Pike, A. R.; Horrocks, B. R.

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium sulphide can be templated on λ-DNA molecules to form an aqueous dispersion of CdS/λ-DNA nanowires. Subsequent addition of ethylene glycol to 50% v/v is sufficient to formulate an ink suitable for printing using piezoelectric drop-on-demand technology. Printed droplet arrays show a coffee-ring morphology of individual deposits by fluorescence and Raman microscopy, but upon increasing the number of layers of printed material by repeated printing over each droplet, the dry deposit approaches closer to a disc shape. It is also possible to print parallel tracks by reducing the droplet separation in the array until neighbouring droplets overlap before they dry. The droplets coalesce to form a strip of width roughly equal to the diameter of the droplets. Evaporation-driven capillary flow sends the nanowires to the edges of the strip and when dry they form parallel tracks of CdS/λ-DNA nanowire bundles. Both droplets and tracks were printed onto Pt-on-glass interdigitated microelectrodes (10 μm width, 10 μm gap). The current-voltage characteristics of these two-terminal devices were approximately ohmic, but with some hysteresis. The conductance increased with temperature as a simple activated process with activation energies of 0.57 ± 0.02 eV (tracks) and 0.39 ± 0.02 eV (droplets). The impedance spectra of the printed films were consistent with hopping between CdS grains.

  12. Visualization and Non-Destructive Quantification of Inkjet-Printed Pharmaceuticals on Different Substrates Using Raman Spectroscopy and Raman Chemical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Rantanen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    and ethanol was developed. Inkjet printing technology was used to apply haloperidol ink onto three different substrates. Custom-made inorganic compacts and dry foam, as well as marketed paracetamol tablets were used as the substrates. RESULTS: Therapeutic personalized doses were printed by using one to ten...... printing rounds on the substrates. The haloperidol content in the finished dosage forms were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The distribution of the haloperidol on the dosage forms were visualized using Raman chemical imaging combined with principal components analysis (PCA......). Raman spectroscopy combined with modeling by partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for establishment of a quantitative model of the haloperidol content in the printed dosage forms. A good prediction of the haloperidol content was achieved for the inorganic compacts, while a slightly poorer...

  13. Colorimetry as Quality Control Tool for Individual Inkjet-Printed Pediatric Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickström, Henrika; Nyman, Johan O; Indola, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    *) was observed on the substrates. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used as a reference method for the colorimetry measurements plotted against the number of printed layers. It was concluded that colorimetry could be used as a quality control tool for detection of different doses. However, optimization...... evaluated the potential use of a handheld colorimetry device for quality control of printed doses of vitamin Bs on edible rice and sugar substrates. The structural features of the substrates with and without ink were also compared. A multicomponent ink formulation with vitamin B1, B2, B3, and B6...... with specific needs, such as children and the elderly, and patients facing multimorbidity. Printing of pharmaceuticals as technique generates new demands on the quality control procedures. For example, rapid quality control is needed as the printing can be done on demand and at the point of care. This study...

  14. The effect of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite line patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, C K; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Chang, Jingbo; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    We prepared nanocomposite inks of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) filled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) purified by acidic treatment, carboxylated by chemical oxidation and carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes physically modified with a natural gum, gum arabic. Inkjet printing of line patterns with a feature size of 100 μm width and lengths ranging from 1 to 5 cm was performed on glass substrates with a piezoelectric inkjet printer. The carboxyl-functionalized SWNT-based composite demonstrated a significant decrease (fourfold) of electrical resistance for the line patterns compared to that with a purified CNT-based composite due to improved dispersability of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The use of gum arabic for the dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes demonstrated a further drastic decrease (18-fold) of the resistance compared with a purified CNT-based composite owing to the formation of an extended continuous network within the line pattern. The inkjet-printed conductive patterns can be applied in various fields, such as flexible high speed transistors, high efficiency solar cells and transparent electrodes.

  15. Transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during furnace sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkeun; Lee, Iksang; Yoo, Youngbum; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae, E-mail: smoon@hanyang.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink was monitored as a function of temperature. The ink was composed of 34 wt% silver nanoparticles with an average grain size of 50 nm. In order to determine the relationship between shrinkage and electrical properties, the cross-sectional area and specific resistance change were measured with various sintering temperatures and times. The samples were sintered at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 60, 120, 300, 600, 1200, and 3000 s. The cross-sectional profile was investigated in order to calculate the cross-sectional area of the ink using a surface profiler. To examine the mass transfer in a conductive line with various sintering temperatures and times, the surface morphology was investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy. As the temperature increased, the shrinkage ratio of the ink's cross-sectional area increased. By investigating the relationship between specific resistance and shrinkage, the sintering mechanisms can be determined.

  16. Universal model of bias-stress-induced instability in inkjet-printed carbon nanotube networks field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sungju; Jang, Jun Tae; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Yongwoo; Rhee, Jihyun; Ahn, Geumho; Yu, Hye Ri; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    We propose a universal model for bias-stress (BS)-induced instability in the inkjet-printed carbon nanotube (CNT) networks used in field-effect transistors (FETs). By combining two experimental methods, i.e., a comparison between air and vacuum BS tests and interface trap extraction, BS instability is explained regardless of either the BS polarity or ambient condition, using a single platform constituted by four key factors: OH- adsorption/desorption followed by a change in carrier concentration, electron concentration in CNT channel corroborated with H2O/O2 molecules in ambient, charge trapping/detrapping, and interface trap generation. Under negative BS (NBS), the negative threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) is dominated by OH- desorption, which is followed by hole trapping in the interface and/or gate insulator. Under positive BS (PBS), the positive ΔVT is dominated by OH- adsorption, which is followed by electron trapping in the interface and/or gate insulator. This instability is compensated by interface trap extraction; PBS instability is slightly more complicated than NBS instability. Furthermore, our model is verified using device simulation, which gives insights on how much each mechanism contributes to BS instability. Our result is potentially useful for the design of highly stable CNT-based flexible circuits in the Internet of Things wearable healthcare era.

  17. Direct Inkjet Printing of Silver Source/Drain Electrodes on an Amorphous InGaZnO Layer for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglong Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printing technologies for thin-film transistors (TFTs have recently attracted much interest owing to their eco-friendliness, direct patterning, low cost, and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. Lower production costs could result if electrodes fabricated by vacuum processes could be replaced by inkjet printing. However, poor interfacial contacts and/or serious diffusion between the active layer and the silver electrodes are still problematic for achieving amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO TFTs with good electrical performance. In this paper, silver (Ag source/drain electrodes were directly inkjet-printed on an amorphous a-IGZO layer to fabricate TFTs that exhibited a mobility of 0.29 cm2·V−1·s−1 and an on/off current ratio of over 105. To the best of our knowledge, this is a major improvement for bottom-gate top-contact a-IGZO TFTs with directly printed silver electrodes on a substrate with no pretreatment. This study presents a promising alternative method of fabricating electrodes of a-IGZO TFTs with desirable device performance.

  18. Bio-patch design and implementation based on a low-power system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Geng; Xie, Li; Mantysalo, Matti; Chen, Jian; Tenhunen, Hannu; Zheng, L R

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-ìm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 ìW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

  19. Quantification of Marangoni flows and film morphology during solid film formation by inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hirotaka; Fukai, Jun

    2018-01-01

    We visualized experimentally the internal flow inside inkjet droplets of polystyrene-anisole solution during solid film formation on substrates at room temperature. The effects of contact angle and evaporation rate on the internal flow and film morphology were quantitatively investigated. The transport process during film formation was examined by measuring the relationship between internal flow and film morphology, which provided three remarkable findings. First, self-pinning and the strength of outward flow on the free surface under 2.3 Pa s determined film morphology. The solute distribution, corresponding to rim areas in ring-like films and a convex trough in dot-like films, had already developed at self-pinning. Second, the mass fraction at self-pinning close to the contact line converged to one, regardless of the film morphology. This implies that self-pinning is independent of parameters such as the contact angle and evaporation rate. Third, at room temperature, the solutal Marangoni numbers were 20-30 times larger than the thermal ones. Thus, the outward flow on the free surface caused by the solutal Marangoni effect dominates in droplets before self-pinning. The solutal Marangoni number at self-pinning and thickness variation at the center of the film displayed a good relationship for droplets with different contact angles and evaporation rates. This suggests that film morphology can be technically controlled by solutal Marangoni number at room temperature.

  20. Embedding of inkjet-printed Ag-grid/ITO hybrid transparent electrode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... Abstract. Flexible ITO/Ag-grid hybrid layers were prepared by a solution process and embedded into a plastic layer. The structural analysis confirmed that the printed layers were successfully embedded into the plastic substrate without any ... an opportunity to reduce the fabrication costs from the fol-.

  1. Inkjet printing metals on flexible materials for plastic and paper electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shamery, K.; Raut, N. C.

    2018-01-01

    . Besides some examples demonstrating aspects on ink formulation via patterning solid surfaces such as glass and silicon oxide, special emphasis will be placed on compatibility for usage in plastic and paper electronics. Printing of nanoparticles of copper, silver, gold etc. will be discussed...

  2. µPlasma patterning and inkjet printing to enhance localized wetting and mixing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Martinus Henricus Adrianus; van Dongen, Martinus Henricus Adrianus

    2014-01-01

    In the development of applications for printed electronics, the interaction of fluids with substrates is of great importance. Control and understanding of the wetting behaviour of fluids on substrates, as well as fluid-fluid interaction on the substrate is necessary to develop new applications. This

  3. Performance characterization of screen printed radio frequency identification antennas with silver nanopaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Lee, Yongshik; Kim, Chung Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The era of wireless communication has come and it is going to flourish in the form of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The employment of RFID tags in daily commodities, however, is constrained due to the manufacturing cost. Therefore, industries in the field have sought for alternative manufacturing methods at an ultra low cost and various printing processes have been considered such as inkjet, gravure, flexo, off-set and screen. Although such printing processes are age-old, their applications have been mainly limited to graphic arts and design rules for electronic appliances have not been fully established yet. In this paper, the selection of ink and printing process to fabricate RFID antennas is discussed. The developed silver nanopaste in the range of 20 to 50 nm without the inclusion of microparticles and flakes was sintered at 120 o C for 1 min, which is lower than that of conventional silver paste with microparticles and flakes, and its resistivity was found to be approximately 3 μΩ cm. The radiation performances of various screen printed RFID antennas with silver nanopaste were found comparable to those of copper etched ones.

  4. Evaluation of the modified braille dots printed with the UV ink-jet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raša Urbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Braille presents a complex system of writing with additional symbols and letters designating numbers, capital letters and other special symbols in mathematics, physics, music etc. Due to mentioned braille texts are usually very long, bulky, space consuming and complex. In this research a study of modified braille dots is presented. Samples were prepared in several different steps, enabling the determination of the optimal braille dot height on top which additional elements were printed. Properties of ordinary braille dot samples and braille dot samples printed with additional element were compared and analyzed. An extensive sensory analysis with blind and visually impaired people was performed for establishing weather modified braille dots can be tactile recognized and used in practice.

  5. Ink-jet printing of graphene for flexible electronics: An environmentally-friendly approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, A.; Del Rio Castillo, A. E.; Sun, H.; Ansaldo, A.; Pellegrini, V.; Bonaccorso, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical flexibility is considered an asset in consumer electronics and next-generation electronic systems. Printed and flexible electronic devices could be embedded into clothing or other surfaces at home or office or in many products such as low-cost sensors integrated in transparent and flexible surfaces. In this context inks based on graphene and related two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are gaining increasing attention owing to their exceptional (opto)electronic, electrochemical and mechanical properties. The current limitation relies on the use of solvents, providing stable dispersions of graphene and 2DMs and fitting the proper fluidic requirements for printing, which are in general not environmentally benign, and with high boiling point. Non-toxic and low boiling point solvents do not possess the required rheological properties (i.e., surface tension, viscosity and density) for the solution processing of graphene and 2DMs. Such solvents (e.g., water, alcohols) require the addition of stabilizing agents such as polymers or surfactants for the dispersion of graphene and 2DMs, which however unavoidably corrupt their properties, thus preventing their use for the target application. Here, we demonstrate a viable strategy to tune the fluidic properties of water/ethanol mixtures (low-boiling point solvents) to first effectively exfoliate graphite and then disperse graphene flakes to formulate graphene-based inks. We demonstrate that such inks can be used to print conductive stripes (sheet resistance of ~13 kΩ/□) on flexible substrates (polyethylene terephthalate), moving a step forward towards the realization of graphene-based printed electronic devices.

  6. Inkjet Gene Printing: A Novel Approach to Achieve Gene Modified Cells for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) were co-printed with living cells (porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells) through the ink...and pIRES-VEGF- GFP (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA) encoding the cDNAs of jellyfish Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein , driven by the...Schweigerer et al. 1987) were mixed with the plasmid expression vector pmaxGFP, which encodes bacterial green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) under

  7. The pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing technology and electroless Cu metallic patterns on indium-doped tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Yi [Medical Device Section, Medical Devices and Opto-Electronics Equipment Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsai-Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Nian, Yan-Yu [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China); Wang, Min-Wen, E-mail: mwwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method to fabricate copper pattern on an indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate is described. This method involves ink-jet printing of a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate/Pd nanoparticle (CTS-g-PVAc-Pd) based ink on an untreated ITO plate to create the catalytic sites, onto which copper is subsequently deposited by an electroless plating method. To prepare the CTS-g-PVAc-Pd nanoparticles, a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate (CTS-g-PVAc) copolymer is utilized to self-reduce Pd nanoparticles. The pH-sensitive CTS chains function as stabilizing agent for noble metal nanoparticles in acidic ink solution. On the other hand, CTS-g-PVAc copolymers convert to hydrophilic CTS-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) via alkali hydrolysis during the electroless copper plating. Therefore, the copper film with dramatically enhanced adhesion is formed on the surface of ITO glass without special pretreatment step before electroless deposition of copper film. Our results show that this process yields copper line with width down to 60 μm and ITO plated with the copper coating has good electrical conductivity, with an electrical resistivity of about 5.4 μΩ cm. - Highlights: • Chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate copolymer provides reducing environment for Pd nanoparticles. • pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing. • Patterning Pd catalyst for the electroless deposition of copper patterns. • Method to fabricate copper patterns on In-doped tin oxide substrates. • Ink-jet printing can be directly and easily applied to fabricate metal patterns.

  8. Low-cost board-to-board optical interconnects using molded polymer waveguide with 45 degree mirrors and inkjet-printed micro-lenses as proximity vertical coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaohui; Hosseini, Amir; Dou, Xinyuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2013-01-14

    We demonstrate intra- and inter-board level optical interconnects using polymer waveguides and waveguide couplers consisting of both 45 degree total internal reflection (TIR) mirrors and inkjet-printed micro-lenses. Surface normal couplers consisting of 50 µm × 50 µm waveguides with embedded 45 degree mirrors are fabricated using a nickel mold imprint. Micro-lenses, 70 µm in diameter, are inkjet-printed on top of the mirrors. We characterize the optical transmission between waveguides located on different boards in terms of insertion loss, mirror coupling loss, and free space propagation loss as a function of interconnection distance in free space. Each mirror contributes 1.88 dB loss to the system, corresponding to 65% efficiency. The printed micro-lenses improve the transmission by 2-4 dB (per coupler). Data transmission at 10 Gbps reveals that inter-board interconnects has a bit error rate (BER) of 1.1 × 10(-10) and 6.2 × 10(-13) without and with the micro-lenses, respectively.

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet as a Dry Alternative to Inkjet Printing in Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, Ram Prasad; Lopez, Arlene; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an atmospheric pressure plasma jet printing system that works at room temperature to 50 deg C unlike conventional aerosol assisted techniques which require a high temperature sintering step to obtain desired thin films. Multiple jets can be configured to increase throughput or to deposit multiple materials, and the jet(s) can be moved across large areas using a x-y stage. The plasma jet has been used to deposit carbon nanotubes, graphene, silver nanowires, copper nanoparticles and other materials on substrates such as paper, cotton, plastic and thin metal foils.

  10. Morphological and spectroscopic characterizations of inkjet-printed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends for organic solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, A.; Villani, F.; Grimaldi, I.A.; Loffredo, F.; Morvillo, P.; Diana, R.; Haque, S.; Minarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    The most exploited active material for photovoltaic devices is the regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), p-type conjugated polymer, blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), n-type material. The deposition methods and the induced morphology strongly influence the functionality of the active material and in turn the final charge generation performances of a photoactive layer. In the present work, we studied the influence of PCBM concentration on the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the inkjet printed P3HT:PCBM blends through atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to value the charge formation yield in the blends, prepared by inkjet technology, as function of the acceptor concentrations in correlation with morphology and intermixing of the two components. For the inkjet printed samples the blends composition that corresponds to the best intermixing between P3HT and PCBM and the higher charges formation yield should be between 20% and 45% in weight (wt)., differently for what has been found previously for spin-coated samples. Indeed, for inkjet prepared film, the 45 wt.% blend ratio leads to much bigger domains with respect to the spin-coated samples as shown from the AFM measurements. - Highlights: • Inkjet-printed P3HT:PCBM blends for organic solar cell applications • Coarser morphology of inkjet P3HT:PCBM films with respect to the spin-coated film • Inkjet P3HT:PCBM films showed charge formation maximum for PCBM wt.% lower than 45

  11. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  12. Inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles on nano-engineered cellulose films for electrically conducting structures and organic transistors: concept and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the suitability of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films as a substrate for printing electrically conductive structures and multilayer electronic structures such as organic field effect transistors. Various MFC qualities were tested, including mechanically produced MFC, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl pre-treated MFC and carboxymethylated-MFC. The films differed significantly with respect to the surface structure. In addition, the carboxymethylated-MFC films were surface modified with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to reduce the water-wettability of the films, and thus, improve the print resolution of the inkjet-printed silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The Ag-particles (diameter < 50 nm) were printed on the HMDS-modified films, which were mainly composed of nanofibrils with diameters <20 nm. The effect of surface roughness and surface chemical characteristics on the ink spreading and print resolution of the Ag-structures was explored. It was demonstrated that organic transistors operating at low voltages can be fabricated on nano-engineered MFC films.

  13. Inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles on nano-engineered cellulose films for electrically conducting structures and organic transistors: concept and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary, E-mail: gary.chinga.carrasco@pfi.no [Paper and Fibre Research Institute (PFI) (Norway); Tobjoerk, Daniel; Oesterbacka, Ronald [Abo Akademi University, Physics, Department of Natural Sciences and Center for Functional Materials (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    This study explores the suitability of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films as a substrate for printing electrically conductive structures and multilayer electronic structures such as organic field effect transistors. Various MFC qualities were tested, including mechanically produced MFC, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl pre-treated MFC and carboxymethylated-MFC. The films differed significantly with respect to the surface structure. In addition, the carboxymethylated-MFC films were surface modified with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to reduce the water-wettability of the films, and thus, improve the print resolution of the inkjet-printed silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The Ag-particles (diameter < 50 nm) were printed on the HMDS-modified films, which were mainly composed of nanofibrils with diameters <20 nm. The effect of surface roughness and surface chemical characteristics on the ink spreading and print resolution of the Ag-structures was explored. It was demonstrated that organic transistors operating at low voltages can be fabricated on nano-engineered MFC films.

  14. Milligram-per-second femtosecond laser production of Se nanoparticle inks and ink-jet printing of nanophotonic 2D-patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrey; Ivanova, Anastasia; Khmel'nitskii, Roman; Klevkov, Yury; Kudryashov, Sergey; Mel'nik, Nikolay; Nastulyavichus, Alena; Rudenko, Andrey; Saraeva, Irina; Smirnov, Nikita; Zayarny, Dmitry; Baranov, Anatoly; Kirilenko, Demid; Brunkov, Pavel; Shakhmin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Milligram-per-second production of selenium nanoparticles in water sols was realized through 7-W, 2 MHz-rate femtosecond laser ablation of a crystalline trigonal selenium pellet. High-yield particle formation mechanism and ultimate mass-removal yield were elucidated by optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy characterization of the corresponding crater depths and topographies. Deposited selenium particles were inspected by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, while their hydrosols (nanoinks) were characterized by optical transmission, Raman and dynamic light scattering spectroscopy. 2D patterns and coatings were ink-jet printed on thin supported silver films and their bare silica glass substrates, as well as on IR-transparent CaF2 substrates, and characterized by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and broadband (vis-mid IR) transmission spectroscopy, exhibiting crystalline selenium nanoparticles with high refractive index as promising all-dielectric sensing building nanoblocks in nanophotonics.

  15. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle surfaces for the detection of low molecular weight biomolecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Alyssa L M; Creran, Brian; Duncan, Bradley; Elci, S Gokhan; Jiang, Ying; Onasch, Timothy B; Wormhoudt, Joda; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    Effective detection of low molecular weight compounds in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often hindered by matrix interferences in the low m/z region of the mass spectrum. Here, we show that monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can serve as alternate matrices for the very sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids. Amino acids can be detected at low fmol levels with minimal interferences by properly choosing the AuNP deposition method, density, size, and monolayer surface chemistry. By inkjet-printing AuNPs at various densities, we find that AuNP clusters are essential for obtaining the greatest sensitivity. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Study of the correlation between sensing performance and surface morphology of inkjet-printed aqueous graphene-based chemiresistors for NO2 detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Villani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The extremely high sensitivity to the external environment and the high specific surface area, as well as the absence of bulk phenomena that could interfere with the response signal, make graphene highly attractive for the applications in the field of sensing. Among the various methods for producing graphene over large areas, liquid phase exfoliation (LPE appears to be very promising, especially if combined with inkjet printing (IJP, which offers several advantages, including the selective and controlled deposition of small ink volumes and the versatility of the exploitable inks and substrates. Herein we present a feasibility study of chemiresistive gas sensors inkjet-printed onto paper substrates, in which a LPE graphene suspension dispersed in a water/isopropanol (H2O/IPA mixture is used as sensing ink. The device performances, in terms of relative conductance variations, upon exposure to NO2 at standard ambient temperature and pressure, are analysed. In addition, we examine the effect of the substrate morphology and, more specifically, of the ink/substrate interaction on the device performances, by comparing the response of different chemiresistors fabricated by dispensing the same suspension also onto Al2O3 and Si/SiO2 substrates and carrying out a supportive atomic force microscopy analysis. The results prove the possibility to produce sensor devices by means of a wholly environmentally friendly, low-cost process that meets the requests coming from the increasing field of paper-based electronics and paving the way towards a flexible, green-by-design mass production.

  17. Inkjet-assisted layer-by-layer printing of quantum dot/enzyme microarrays for highly sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Enxiao; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Hongxi; Liu, Shaoqin

    2016-01-01

    We present a facile fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microarrays of quantum dots (QDs) and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The resulting arrays had several unique properties, such as low cost, high integration and excellent flexibility and time–saving. The presence of organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) can inhibit the AChE activity and thus changes the fluorescent intensity of QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays. Therefore, the QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays were used for the sensitive visual detection of OPs. Linear calibration for parathion and paraoxon was obtained in the range of 5–100 μg L −1 under the optimized conditions with the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 μg L −1 . The arrays have been successfully used for detection of OPs in fruits and water real samples. The new array was validated by comparison with conventional high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). - Graphical abstract: A fluorimetric assay for high-throughput screening of organophosphorous pesticides was developed based on the CdTe QDs/AChE microarrays via inkjet-assisted LbL printing techniques. - Highlights: • The large scale microarrays of CdTe QDs and AChE were fabricated by facile inkjet-assisted LbL printing technique. • The QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays could be used quantitatively and rapidly for the sensitively visual detection of OPs. • A detection limit of 10 μg L −1 was achieved, much lower than levels specified by standard tests and other colorimetric detection methods. • The low cost, short processing time, sufficient sensitivity, good stability and ease of use make it for a facile platform for on-site screening.

  18. Reach/frequency for printed media: Personal probabilities or models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates two different ways of estimating reach and frequency of plans for printed media. The first assigns reading probabilities to groups of respondents and calculates reach and frequency by simulation. the second estimates parameters to a model for reach/frequency. It is concluded ...

  19. Poly (3, 4-Ethylenedioxythiophene - Poly (4-Styrenesulfonate for Humidity Sensing Using Ink-jet Printing Technique on Flexible Polyimide Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee C. LIM

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A fully reversible and repeatable flexible capacitive humidity sensor is realized from design concept to reality via an ink-jet deposition system. The humidity sensor is ink-jet fabricated with aqueous Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene - poly (4-styrenesulfonate, PEDOT: PSS ink and Toluene suspended nano Ag particles of 5 nm sized solution. The humidity is monitored by changes in the sensor’s effective inter-digitated electrodes capacitance. The humidity sensor exhibits sensitivity with resolution and accuracy of 0.0067 nF/ %RH and 1% RH, respectively, towards the relative environmental moisture concentrations of 32% RH to 100% RH. A fast absorption time of < 1 second and desorption time of approximately 3 second for the humidity sensor is observed.

  20. Inkjet printing of multiple Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} buffer layers on a Ni-5%W substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiadz, M; Tomov, R I; Hopkins, S C; Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Martin, G [Inkjet Research Centre, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Mill Lane, Cambridge, CB2 1RX (United Kingdom); Holzapfel, B, E-mail: mm701@cam.ac.u [Superconducting Materials, Institute for Metallic Materials, Leibnitz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    The successful inkjet printing of multiple cerium gadolinium oxide (Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) layers on highly textured Ni-5%W is reported using a stable ink, developing a solid-liquid interface comparable with that arising from dip coating. Two different approaches were used for the deposition of CGO layers using a 16-nozzle piezoelectric drop-on-demand print head. Two overlapping square arrays of droplets with constant volume and spacing were printed, with and without an intermediate CGO crystallization. The shortest possible heat treatment of the deposited layers was applied, potentially suitable for continuous large scale production. The results from X-ray diffraction show that the single phase Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} was obtained in all cases, but only the approach with intermediate CGO crystallization can produce a highly textured buffer layer. Optical micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) also indicate the good quality of deposited films after heat treatment.

  1. Preparation and SERS performance of Au NP/paper strips based on inkjet printing and seed mediated growth: The effect of silver ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Guojun; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu

    2018-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely used in biomedical sensing with the advantages of high sensitivity and label-free. However, the fabrication of SERS substrates with good Raman activity, reproducibility, and low cost is still under development in practical applications. This paper presents a practicable method for fabricating Au NP/paper strips by using inkjet printing and seed mediated growth. Small gold seed synthesized by borohydride reduction was used as ink and printed on the filter paper. The printed gold seed grew in situ in the growth solution and formed the gold nanoparticle (Au NP)/paper strips. The fabricated paper strip was characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the Au NP/paper strips had two local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks: the short one at around 540 nm and the long one located in the range of 640-840 nm. And the long LSPR peak firstly shifted to red then to blue with the increased concentrations of silver ions in growth solution. From the SEM images, the shape of grown Au NPs was diverse, including sphere, rod, ellipsoid, dimer, trimer, and big aggregates. We thought the short peak came from the LSPR of nanospheres and the transvers LSPR of rod and ellipsoid like particles, while the long peak mainly came from the plasmonic coupling of dimer along the inter-particle axis. The obtained Au NP/paper strip with the long peak located around 650 nm had the highest SERS activity, which could be attributed to the plasmon resonance induced local field enhancement and nanogap effect. Also, the SERS performance results indicated the printed SERS strips exhibited satisfied uniformity and stability, demonstrating the potential of Au NP/paper strip in real-world applications.

  2. Highly effective permeability and antifouling performances of polypropylene non-woven fabric membranes modified with graphene oxide by inkjet printing and immersion coating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Qi; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Rui-Yun; Chen, Jie; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, graphene oxide (GO)-modified polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP-NWF) membranes were prepared via inkjet printing and immersion coating methods. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, pure water permeation (JPWP) and protein adsorption were tested to evaluate the impact of the GO nanosheet on the characteristics and performance of modified PP-NWF membranes. The results showed that the exfoliated GO nanosheets uniformly deposited on the membrane surface and firmly embedded into the interlaced fibers, resulting in the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling properties comparing with original PP-NWF membranes. The GO-printed and GO-coated membranes had 113 and 188% higher fluxes, and 70.95 and 75.74% lower protein adsorptions than the original PP-NWF membranes, respectively. After cross-linked treatment, ultrasound processing was conducted to evaluate the stability of the modified PP-NWF membranes. The results demonstrated that there was almost no decrease in permeation after ultrasonic treatment indicating that the cross-linking treatment could enhance the immobilization of the GO nanosheets on and into the modified membranes.

  3. RF beam transmission of x-band PAA system utilizing large-area, polymer-based true-time-delay module developed using imprinting and inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zeyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Xingyu; Zou, Yi; Panday, Ashwin; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-02-01

    Phased-array antenna (PAA) technology plays a significant role in modern day radar and communication networks. Truetime- delay (TTD) enabled beam steering networks provide several advantages over their electronic counterparts, including squint-free beam steering, low RF loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and large bandwidth control of PAAs. Chip-scale and integrated TTD modules promise a miniaturized, light-weight system; however, the modules are still rigid and they require complex packaging solutions. Moreover, the total achievable time delay is still restricted by the wafer size. In this work, we propose a light-weight and large-area, true-time-delay beamforming network that can be fabricated on light-weight and flexible/rigid surfaces utilizing low-cost "printing" techniques. In order to prove the feasibility of the approach, a 2-bit thermo-optic polymer TTD network is developed using a combination of imprinting and ink-jet printing. RF beam steering of a 1×4 X-band PAA up to 60° is demonstrated. The development of such active components on large area, light-weight, and low-cost substrates promises significant improvement in size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements over the state-of-the-art.

  4. Characterization of printed pigment-based inks on ink-jet media using cross-sectional electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P. de; Pataki, T.; Peeters, D.; Roost, C. van

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the microscopic assessment of representative specimen cross-sections prepared by microtomy and ultramicrotomy with emphasis in structure-property information using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, namely, the absolute optical density δ, the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde, the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar, and the morphology at 100% nominal printing coverage. This work shows that for different test patches printed at the same nominal printing coverage a number of different printing schemes yield a pre-defined absolute optical density δ which basically depends on the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde and the type of pigment-based inks used (spectral absorptivity m≠∞) and therefore on the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar. A method for estimating the spectral absorptivity m is presented which combines the absolute optical density δ of the test patch and the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar as measured from cross-sectional electron microscopy

  5. Quantitative analysis of drug distribution by ambient mass spectrometry imaging method with signal extinction normalization strategy and inkjet-printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jingjing; He, Jiuming; Huang, Lan; Song, Xiaowei; Li, Xin; Abliz, Zeper

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a robust approach that provides both quantitative and spatial information for drug candidates' research. However, because of complicated signal suppression and interference, acquiring accurate quantitative information from MSI data remains a challenge, especially for whole-body tissue sample. Ambient MSI techniques using spray-based ionization appear to be ideal for pharmaceutical quantitative MSI analysis. However, it is more challenging, as it involves almost no sample preparation and is more susceptible to ion suppression/enhancement. Herein, based on our developed air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization (AFADESI)-MSI technology, an ambient quantitative MSI method was introduced by integrating inkjet-printing technology with normalization of the signal extinction coefficient (SEC) using the target compound itself. The method utilized a single calibration curve to quantify multiple tissue types. Basic blue 7 and an antitumor drug candidate (S-(+)-deoxytylophorinidine, CAT) were chosen to initially validate the feasibility and reliability of the quantitative MSI method. Rat tissue sections (heart, kidney, and brain) administered with CAT was then analyzed. The quantitative MSI analysis results were cross-validated by LC-MS/MS analysis data of the same tissues. The consistency suggests that the approach is able to fast obtain the quantitative MSI data without introducing interference into the in-situ environment of the tissue sample, and is potential to provide a high-throughput, economical and reliable approach for drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultra-Wideband Printed Slot Radiators with Controllable Frequency Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Chernyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of creating ultra-wideband (UWB antennas with controlled frequency response of matching based on the printed slot antenna Vivaldi by introducing controlled resonators directly into the structure of the radiator. In the area of irregular slotline there are printed switched resonators with variable capacitance (varactor model, which allow tuning the frequency characteristics for each state of switching cavities, providing bandpass and band-barrage properties of the antenna. The investigation of reconfigurable printed resonators in the system of reconfigurable resonators of a bandpass filter is conducted. The paper considers filter to provide restructuring in the band (3-9 GHz. Electrodynamic simulation of the device was carried out in the time domain using a finite integration method. A bandstop reconfigurable filter is also investigated. The filter located on the substrate opposite the slit is based on tunable L-shaped resonator that has one end connected to the short-circuitor through the board metallization; the other end remains open and is brought into the region of interaction with the slotline. Such filter provides an effective narrow-band suppression and can be easily tuned to the desired frequency channel. The combination of these two types of filters allows you to create a controlled print Vivaldi slot antenna with combined properties. The paper investigates parameters of the scattering and radiation pattern of the antenna in different modes.

  7. Printed high-frequency RF identification antenna on ultrathin polymer film by simple production process for soft-surface adhesive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Hiroki; Okamoto, Marin; Takeoka, Shinji; Iwase, Eiji; Fujie, Toshinori; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method for manufacturing electronic devices using ultrathin polymer films, and develop a high-frequency RF identification. To expand the market for flexible devices, it is important to enhance their adhesiveness and conformability to surfaces, to simplify their fabrication, and to reduce their cost. We developed a method to design an antenna for use on an operable RF identification whose wiring was subjected to commercially available inkjet or simple screen printing, and successfully fabricated the RF identification. By using ultrathin films made of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) as substrates — less than 750 nm — the films could be attached to various surfaces, including soft surfaces, by van der Waals force and without using glue. We succeeded in the simple fabrication of an ultrathin RF identification including a commercial or simple printing process.

  8. The effects of latent print processing on questioned documents produced by office machine systems utilizing inkjet technology and toner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, Gerald M; Ramotowski, Robert S

    2003-05-01

    Counterfeiting of currency and identity documents, death threats, illegitimate business transactions, and terrorist-related activities are some examples of the types of crimes that often involve documents produced from printers and copiers. Although standard protocol typically requires a questioned document (QD) examination prior to latent print (LP) processing, occasionally, items of evidence may be submitted for a QD examination following the application of a series chemicals utilized in the development of latent fingerprints. In such cases, the forensic examiner must take into account any previous treatments prior to initiating an examination on documents produced with a printer or copier. This study was devised to examine the effects of a latent print development technique [ninhydrin, physical developer, and a bleach enhancer] on the physical and chemical examination of documents produced from copiers and printers.

  9. Ink for Ink-Jet Printing of Electrically Conductive Structures on Flexible Substrates with Low Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcki, A.; Smolarek-Nowak, A.; Felba, J.; Kinart, A.

    2017-07-01

    The development of new technologies in electronics related to flexible polymeric substrates forces the industry to introduce suitable tools (special type of dispensers) and modern conductive materials for printing electronic circuits. Moreover, due to the wide use of inexpensive polymeric foils (polyethene, PE, or poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET), there is a need to develop materials with the lowest possible processing temperatures. The present paper presents the selection criteria of suitable components and their preparation for obtaining electrically conductive ink with a special nanosilver base. In the case of the discussed solution, all components allow to make circuits in relatively low sintering temperature (even below 130°C). Additionally, the authors show the most significant ink parameters that should be taken into consideration during Research and Development (R&D) works with electrically conductive inks. Moreover, ink stability parameters are discussed and some examples of printed circuits are presented.

  10. Study on Surface Modification of Indium Tin Oxide and Resist Surfaces Using CF4/O2 Plasma for Manufacturing Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Inkjet Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikagawa, Masakuni; Tohno, Ichiro; Shinmura, Tadashi; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Kataoka, Yoshinori; Fujihira, Masamichi

    2008-12-01

    We studied a surface modification technique for indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes without precleaning and resist banks for manufacturing organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by inkjet printing. The ITO surface modified by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with an optimized CF4/O2 (7:3) gas mixture improved both its hydrophilicity and its work function, while the resist surface treated by the plasma became hydrophobic. The resist and ITO surfaces treated by plasmas of various gas mixtures (i.e., CF4, CF4/Ar (1:2), CF4/O2 (x:1; x=1, 7/3, 4, and 9) were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the C 1s, F 1s, O 1s, and In 3d5/2 core levels. On the uncleaned ITO surfaces modified by CF4/O2 plasmas, organic contaminants were removed more efficiently and the deposition of CFx on the remaining contaminants decreased with increasing oxygen. The amount of F in the form of InFx increased using the CF4/O2 (7:3) plasma in comparison with that using the CF4/Ar and CF4 plasmas. We investigated the effect of adding oxygen to CF4 on the change in gaseous species produced in the plasma chamber by mass spectrometry. In the CF4/O2 (7:3) plasma, the peak intensities of F+, HF+, F2+, O+, and O2+ were higher than those in the CF4 plasma. The results suggest that In2O3 was generated by the oxidation of indium with O, and InFx was generated by the fluoridation of indium with HF. By introducing InFx onto ITO surfaces using the CF4/O2 plasma, the hole-injection energy barrier could be reduced.

  11. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle chemiresistors: Influence of film morphology and ionic strength on the detection of organics dissolved in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Edith [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)], E-mail: Edith.Chow@csiro.au; Herrmann, Jan; Barton, Christopher S.; Raguse, Burkhard; Wieczorek, Lech [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2009-01-19

    The influence of film morphology on the performance of inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle chemiresistors has been investigated. Nanoparticles deposited from a single-solvent system resulted in a 'coffee ring'-like structure with most of the materials deposited at the edge. It was shown that the uniformity of the film could be improved if the nanoparticles were deposited from a mixture of solvents comprising N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and water. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that both 'coffee ring' and 'flat' films were qualitatively similar suggesting that the films have similar nanoscale structures. To form the functional chemiresistor device, the 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine coating on the nanoparticle was exchanged with 1-hexanethiol to provide a hydrophobic sensing layer. The performance of 1-hexanethiol coated gold nanoparticle chemiresistors to small organic molecules, toluene, dichloromethane and ethanol dissolved in 1 M KCl in regard to changes in impedance and response times was unaffected by the film morphology. For larger hydrocarbons such as octane, the rate of uptake of the analyte into the film was significantly faster when the flatter nanoparticle film was used as opposed to the 'coffee ring' film which has a thicker edge. Furthermore, the presence of potassium and chloride ions in the solution media does not significantly affect the impedance of the nanoparticle film at 1 Hz (<2% variation in film impedance over more than four orders of magnitude change in ionic strength). However, the ionic strength of the media affected the partitioning of the analyte into the hydrophobic nanoparticle film. The response of the sensor was found to increase with an increased salt concentration due to a salting-out of the analyte from the solution.

  12. Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; de Bruin, G.J.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Reinten, Hans; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Wijshoff, H.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The stability of inkjet printers is a major requirement for high-quality-printing. However, in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, air entrapment can lead to malfunctioning of the jet formation. The piezoactuator is employed to actively monitor the channel acoustics and to identify distortions at an

  13. Cobalt Nanoparticle Inks for Printed High Frequency Applications on Polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelo, Mikko; Myllymäki, Sami; Juuti, Jari; Uusimäki, Antti; Jantunen, Heli

    2015-12-01

    In this work the high frequency properties of low curing temperature cobalt nanoparticle inks printed on polycarbonate substrates were investigated. The inks consisted of 30-70 vol.% metallic cobalt nanoparticles and poly (methylene methacrylate) polymer, having excellent adhesion on polycarbonate and a curing temperature of 110°C. The influence of binder material content on the electromagnetic properties of the ink was investigated using the shorted microstrip transmission-line perturbation method. Changes in mechanical properties were evaluated with adhesion tests using the pull-out strength test and the ASTM D 3359-B cross-hatch tape peel test. The microstructure of the printed patterns was investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The inks remained mechanically durable with metal contents up to 60 vol.%, achieving pull-off strength of up to 5.2 MPa and the highest marks in adhesion of the tape peel test. The inks obtained a relative permeability of 1.5-3 in the 45 MHz-10 GHz band with a magnetic loss tangent of 0.01-0.06. The developed inks can be utilized in various printed electronics applications such as antenna miniaturization, antenna substrates and magnetic sensors or sensing.

  14. Silver front electrode grids for ITO-free all printed polymer solar cells with embedded and raised topographies, prepared by thermal imprint, flexographic and inkjet roll-to-roll processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Su; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Jung-Su; Jo, Jeongdai; Larsen-Olsen, Thue T; Søndergaard, Roar R; Hösel, Markus; Angmo, Dechan; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-09-28

    Semitransparent front electrodes for polymer solar cells, that are printable and roll-to-roll processable under ambient conditions using different approaches, are explored in this report. The excellent smoothness of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes has traditionally been believed to be difficult to achieve using printed front grids, as surface topographies accumulate when processing subsequent layers, leading to shunts between the top and bottom printed metallic electrodes. Here we demonstrate how aqueous nanoparticle based silver inks can be employed as printed front electrodes using several different roll-to-roll techniques. We thus compare hexagonal silver grids prepared using either roll-to-roll inkjet or roll-to-roll flexographic printing. Both inkjet and flexo grids present a raised topography and were found to perform differently due to only the conductivity of the obtained silver grid. The raised topographies were compared with a roll-to-roll thermally imprinted grid that was filled with silver in a roll-to-roll process, thus presenting an embedded topography. The embedded grid and the flexo grid were found to perform equally well, with the flexographic technique currently presenting the fastest processing and the lowest silver use, whereas the embedded grid presents the maximally achievable optical transparency and conductivity. Polymer solar cells were prepared in the same step, using roll-to-roll slot-die coating of zinc oxide as the electron transport layer, poly-3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as the active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the top electrode, along with a flat bed screen printed silver grid. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtained for large area devices (6 cm(2)) was 1.84%, 0.79% and 1.72%, respectively, for thermally imprinted, inkjet and flexographic silver grids, tested outside under the real sun. Central to all three approaches was that they

  15. Effects of Single and Blended Coating Pigments on the Inkjet Image Quality of Dye Sublimation Transfer Printed Paper: SiO2, CaCO3, Talc, and Sericite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ching Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects on the image quality of CaCO3, SiO2, talc, and sericite on coated inkjet paper. The papers serve as dye sublimation transfer paper for printing on fabrics. The brightness, smoothness, and contact angle of the coated papers were evaluated. The papers were then printed with a textile color image evaluation test form, and the imprinted images were evaluated with respect to six criteria of the solid ink density, tone value increase, print contrast, ink trapping, grayness, and hue error. The overall printed image quality was correlated with the smoothness and brightness of the coated paper but showed no correlation with the contact angle. For single-pigment-coated papers, CaCO3 produced paper with the best color difference performance and could be substituted for silica. On the other hand, SiO2 was found to be suitable for blending with talc, calcium carbonate, and sericite, and its combination with these materials generally produced better image qualities than silica alone. Talc and sericite, when blended with silica as composite coating pigments, produced better printed image qualities than those as single-pigment-coated papers. The overall image quality ranking suggests that the best performance was achieved with CaCO3-, SiO2/talc-, CaCO3/SiO2-, SiO2/sericite-, and SiO2-coated papers.

  16. Organic Solar Cell by Inkjet Printing—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Sumaiya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, organic solar cells became more attractive due to their flexible power devices and the potential for low-cost manufacturing. Inkjet printing is a very potential manufacturing technique of organic solar cells because of its low material usage, flexibility, and large area formation. In this paper, we presented an overall review on the inkjet printing technology as well as advantages of inkjet-printing, comparison of inkjet printing with other printing technologies and its potential for organic solar cells (OSCs. Here we highlighted in more details about the viability of environment-friendly and cost-effective, non-halogenated indium tin oxide (ITO free large scale roll to roll production of the OSC by inkjet printing technology. The challenges of inkjet printing like the viscosity limitations, nozzle clogging, coffee ring effect, and limitation of printability as well as dot spacing are also discussed. Lastly, some of the improvement strategies for getting the higher efficiency of the OSCs have been suggested.

  17. Inkjet technology for crystalline silicon photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, David; Mager, Dario; Biro, Daniel; Korvink, Jan G

    2015-01-27

    The world's ever increasing demand for energy necessitates technologies that generate electricity from inexhaustible and easily accessible energy sources. Silicon photovoltaics is a technology that can harvest the energy of sunlight. Its great characteristics have fueled research and development activities in this exciting field for many years now. One of the most important activities in the solar cell community is the investigation of alternative fabrication and structuring technologies, ideally serving both of the two main goals: device optimization and reduction of fabrication costs. Inkjet technology is practically evaluated along the whole process chain. Research activities cover many processes, such as surface texturing, emitter formation, or metallization. Furthermore, the inkjet technology itself is manifold as well. It can be used to apply inks that serve as a functional structure, present in the final device, as mask for subsequent structuring steps, or even serve as a reactant source to activate chemical etch reactions. This article reviews investigations of inkjet-printing in the field of silicon photovoltaics. The focus is on the different inkjet processes for individual fabrication steps of a solar cell. A technological overview and suggestions about where future work will be focused on are also provided. The great variety of the investigated processes highlights the ability of the inkjet technology to find its way into many other areas of functional printing and printed electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fast prototyping of microtubes with embedded sensing elements made possible with an inkjet printing and rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Meissner, M. V.; MacKinnon, N.; Luchnikov, V.; Mager, D.; Korvink, J. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a new fabrication process to create sub-mm micro tubes with embedded conductive patterns. Based on common 2D patterning techniques and a specially designed rolling process, it achieves 3D structures featuring potentially complex, embedded electrical, mechanical and micro-fluidic functions. We demonstrate the advantage in creating freeform electrical conductors around sub-mm tubes, such as needed for a tube-integrated micro heater. The production of the 2D patterns is flexible, and we demonstrate that both additive manufacturing (fast, accessible) and conventional micro-fabrication processes (cleanroom, wafer-scale) are compatible with the rolling process. To adapt the rolling process for high frequency applications, the patterned tracks can be directly electroplated, with good adhesion, to reduce electrical resistance. For the first time, we achieve saddle-geometry NMR micro detectors. They feature 100 μm wide, 10 μm thick conductive tracks on 25 μm thick polyimide film, and were successfully tested in a 500 MHz (11.7 T) NMR spectrometer. Using a 620 μm diameter coil, we measured the single-shot SNR of deionized water sample, which corresponded to a mole sensitivity of 18.78 nmolHz-1/2 , and a water line shape of 1.52/26.8/37.3 Hz (50, 0.55, 0.11% of the maximum height) from a sample volume of only 82 nl.

  19. Marangoni flow on an inkjet nozzle plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Reinten, Hans; Wijshoff, H.; Wijshoff, Herman; van den Berg, Marc; Delescen, Koos; van Dongen, Rini; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    In piezo inkjet printing, nozzle failures are often caused by an ink layer on the nozzle plate. It is experimentally shown that the ink layer at the nozzle is formed through streamers of ink, emanating from a central ink band on the nozzle plate. The streamers propagate over a wetting nanofilm of

  20. Fully Printed Flexible Single-Chip RFID Tag with Light Detection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniello Falco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A printed passive radiofrequency identification (RFID tag in the ultra-high frequency band for light and temperature monitoring is presented. The whole tag has been manufactured by printing techniques on a flexible substrate. Antenna and interconnects are realized with silver nanoparticles via inkjet printing. A sprayed photodetector performs the light monitoring, whereas temperature measurement comes from an in-built sensor in the silicon RFID chip. One of the advantages of this system is the digital read-out and transmission of the sensors information on the RFID tag that ensures reliability. Furthermore, the use of printing techniques allows large-scale manufacturing and the direct fabrication of the tag on the desired surface. This work proves for the first time the feasibility of the embedment of large-scale organic photodetectors onto inkjet printed RFID tags. Here, we solve the problem of integration of different manufacturing techniques to develop an optimal final sensor system.

  1. Inkjet-based micromanufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Korvink, Jan G; Shin, Dong-Youn; Brand, Oliver; Fedder, Gary K; Hierold, Christofer; Tabata, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet-based Micromanufacturing Inkjet technology goes way beyond putting ink on paper: it enables simpler, faster and more reliable manufacturing processes in the fields of micro- and nanotechnology. Modern inkjet heads are per se precision instruments that deposit droplets of fluids on a variety of surfaces in programmable, repeating patterns, allowing, after suitable modifications and adaptations, the manufacturing of devices such as thin-film transistors, polymer-based displays and photovoltaic elements. Moreover, inkjet technology facilitates the large-scale production of flexible RFID tr

  2. The Effect of Print Access on Reading Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff; Au, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Examines print access in a comprehensive way to include home, school, and community resources. Finds that consistent with previous research, convenient access to reading material, regardless of these eleventh-grade students' reading ability, was associated with more frequent reading. Discusses implications for providing students with easier access…

  3. Printed Circuit Board Integrated Toroidal Radio Frequency Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamby, Peter; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    implemented as solenoids, either in spiral or cylindrical form. Those have the disadvantage of excessive stray fields, which can cause losses and disturbances in adjacent circuitry. Therefore this paper presents the analysis, design and realization of a printed circuit board (PCB) integrated inductor under...

  4. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2018-01-30

    The field of printed electronics is still in its infancy and most of the reported work is based on commercially available nanoparticle-based metallic inks. Although fully printed devices that employ dielectric/semiconductor inks have recently been reported, there is a dearth of functional inks that can demonstrate controllable devices. The lack of availability of functional inks is a barrier to the widespread use of fully printed devices. For radio-frequency electronics, magnetic materials have many uses in reconfigurable components but rely on expensive and rigid ferrite materials. A suitable magnetic ink can facilitate the realization of fully printed, magnetically controlled, tunable devices. This report presents the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. First, a tunable inductor is fully printed using iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid to make them compatible with a UV-curable SU8 solution. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna is demonstrated using the magnetic and in-house silver-organo-complex inks. This is a step toward low-cost, fully printed, controllable electronic components.

  5. Printed Circuit Board Integrated Toroidal Radio Frequency Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamby, Peter; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Modern power semiconductors allow for switching frequencies of power converters in the very high frequency (VHF) band (30 MHz to 300 MHz). The major advantage of this frequency increase is a remarkable reduction of the size of power converters due to smaller passive components. However crucial at...

  6. Roll-to-Roll Inkjet Printing and Photonic Sintering of Electrodes for ITO Free Polymer Solar Cell Modules and Facile Product Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Small polymer solar cell modules that are manufactured without indium-tin-oxide using only roll-to-roll printing and coating techniques under ambient conditions enable facile integration into a simple demonstrator (for example a laser pointer). Semitransparent front electrode grid structures...

  7. Surface study of graphene ink for fine solid lines printed on BOPP Substrate in micro-flexographic printing using XPS analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Ding, S.; Maksud, M. I.

    2018-01-01

    Micro-flexographic printing is a combination of flexography and micro-contact printing technique. It is a new printing method for fine solid lines printing purpose. Graphene material has been used as depositing agent or printing ink in other printing technique like inkjet printing. This graphene ink is printed on biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) by using Micro-flexographic printing technique. The choose of graphene as a printing ink is due to its wide application in producing electronic and micro-electronic devices such as Radio-frequency identification (RFID) and printed circuit board. The graphene printed on the surface of BOPP substrate was analyzed using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The positions for each synthetic component in the narrow scan are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). This research is focused on two narrow scan regions which are C 1s and O 1s. Further discussion of the narrow scan spectrum will be explained in detail. From the narrow scan analysis, it is proposed that from the surface adhesive properties of graphene, it is suitable as an alternative printing ink medium for Micro-flexographic printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at micro to nano scale feature.

  8. A fully printed ferrite nano-particle ink based tunable antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Inkjet printing or printing in general has emerged as a very attractive method for the fabrication of low cost and large size electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs rely on nano-particle based metallic inks which are printed on conventional microwave substrates. In order to have a fully printed fabrication process, the substrate also need to be printed. In this paper, a fully printed multi-layer process utilizing custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink and a silver organic complex (SOC) ink is demonstrated for tunable antennas applications. The ink has been characterized for high frequency and magnetostatic properties. Finally as a proof of concept, a microstrip patch antenna is realized using the proposed fabrication technique which shows a tuning range of 12.5 %.

  9. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2 which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was dissolved in distilled water and the solutions obtained after degradation were analysed in terms of total organic compound (TOC and absorption curves in the visible spectra. Also used for the process monitoring was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The efficiency of discoloration is significantly affected by the effluent pH. The efficiency of discolouration was higher when the pH of initial solution was 2 with respect to the initial solution pH of 5.5. In all solutions, irrespective of the initial pH value and the processing method the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols occurs. Although the decomposition is significant, surface peaks resulting from HPLC analysis are very small. Decolourization is closely related to the cleavage of the – C=C and -N=N- bonds, and oxidation of polyhydric alcohol to the formation of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids or other low molecular weight compounds with a lesser number of unsaturated double bonds. These compounds have low UV absorbance or they absorb below 200 nm and therefore their detection is impossible. Thus, the obtained total organic compound results indicate a small degree of mineralization. The effectiveness of the low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz oxidation is similar to the effectiveness of oxidation by greendsand.

  10. Printed Graphene Derivative Circuits as Passive Electrical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K

    2018-02-23

    The objective of this study is to inkjet print resistor-capacitor ( RC ) low pass electrical filters, using a novel water-based cellulose graphene ink, and compare the voltage-frequency and transient behavior to equivalent circuits constructed from discrete passive components. The synthesized non-toxic graphene-carboxymethyl cellulose (G-CMC) ink is deposited on mechanically flexible polyimide substrates using a customized printer that dispenses functionalized aqueous solutions. The design of the printed first-order and second-order low-pass RC filters incorporate resistive traces and interdigitated capacitors. Low pass filter characteristics, such as time constant, cut-off frequency and roll-off rate, are determined for comparative analysis. Experiments demonstrate that for low frequency applications (filter and RC integrator applications. The impact of mechanical stress due to bending on the electrical performance of the flexible printed circuits is also investigated.

  11. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laureti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  12. Adjoint-based shape optimisation of inkjet printhead with compliant boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungurtsev, Petr; Juniper, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    A drop-on-demand inkjet printhead is a narrow, ink-filled, channel with a piezoelement on the upper boundary and a nozzle on the opposite side. A high-frequency electric pulse is applied to deform the piezoelement, pushing a small amount of fluid through the nozzle to create a droplet. After the pulse ends, acoustic waves continue to propagate inside the channel. The printing speed depends on the rate at which droplets are expelled and therefore on the frequency of the applied pulse. As the pulse frequency increases and approaches the first natural mode, the amplitude of the acoustic wave increases rapidly. This leads to an unpredictable oscillatory behaviour inside the channel as the acoustic waves have not decayed before the start of the next pulse, and the print quality reduces. We demonstrate how to adjust the printhead geometry to increase the decay rate of acoustic oscillations, which should maintain print quality for higher frequencies. We have derived the decay rate sensitivity to the shape changes in Hadamard form, and modified the channel`s geometry to increase the decay rate of acoustic fluctuations. Also, the presence of the domain boundaries compliance is taken into account to consider their deformation under the influence of the oscillations propagating inside. Marie Curie ITN.

  13. Controlling Propagation Properties of Surface Plasmon Polariton at Terahertz Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Barun

    Despite great scientific exploration since the 1900s, the terahertz range is one of the least explored regions of electromagnetic spectrum today. In the field of plasmonics, texturing and patterning allows for control over electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and the adjacent dielectric medium. The surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) display unique dispersion characteristics that depend upon the plasma frequency of the medium. In the long wavelength regime, where metals are highly conductive, such texturing can create an effective medium that can be characterized by an effective plasma frequency that is determined by the geometrical parameters of the surface structure. The terahertz (THz) spectral range offers unique opportunities to utilize such materials. This thesis describes a number of terahertz plasmonic devices, both passive and active, fabricated using different techniques. As an example, inkjet printing is exploited for fabricating two-dimensional plasmonic devices. In this case, we demonstrated the terahertz plasmonic structures in which the conductivity of the metallic film is varied spatially in order to further control the plasmonic response. Using a commercially available inkjet printers, in which one cartridge is filled with conductive silver ink and a second cartridge is filled with resistive carbon ink, computer generated drawings of plasmonic structures are printed in which the individual printed dots can have differing amounts of the two inks, thereby creating a spatial variation in the conductivity. The inkjet printing technique is limited to the two-dimensional structurers. In order to expand the capability of printing complex terahertz devices, which cannot otherwise be fabricated using standard fabricating techniques, we employed 3D printing techniques. 3D printing techniques using polymers to print out the complex structures. In the realm of active plasmonic devices, a wide range of innovative approaches have been

  14. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  15. Compact printed two dipole array antenna with a high front-back ratio for ultra-high-frequency radio-frequency identification handheld reader applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    A printed two-dipole array antenna with a high front-back ratio is proposed for ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification handheld readers. The proposed antenna is a parasitic dual-element array with the ends of both elements folded back towards each other for additional coupling...

  16. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  17. Printed photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Grimoldi, Andrea; Sampietro, Marco; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Photodetectors convert light pulses into electrical signals and are fundamental building blocks for any opto-electronic system adopting light as a probe or information carrier. They have widespread technological applications, from telecommunications to sensors in industrial, medical and civil environments. Further opportunities are plastic short-range communications systems, interactive large-area surfaces and light-weight, flexible, digital imagers. These applications would greatly benefit from the cost-effective fabrication processes enabled by printing technology. While organic semiconductors are the most investigated materials for printed photodetectors, and are the main focus of the present review, there are notable examples of other inorganic or hybrid printable semiconductors for opto-electronic systems, such as quantum-dots and nanowires. Here we propose an overview on printed photodetectors, including three-terminal phototransistors. We first give a brief account of the working mechanism of these light sensitive devices, and then we review the recent progress achieved with scalable printing techniques such as screen-printing, inkjet and other non-contact technologies in the development of all-printed or hybrid systems. (paper)

  18. A Stretchable Radio-Frequency Strain Sensor Using Screen Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heijun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-11-02

    In this paper, we propose a stretchable radio-frequency (RF) strain sensor fabricated with screen printing technology. The RF sensor is designed using a half-wavelength patch that resonates at 3.7 GHz. The resonant frequency is determined by the length of the patch, and it therefore changes when the patch is stretched. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used to create the substrate, because of its stretchable and screen-printable surface. In addition, Dupont PE872 (Dupont, NC, American) silver conductive ink is used to create the stretchable conductive patterns. The sensor performance is demonstrated both with full-wave simulations and with measurements carried out on a fabricated sample. When the length of the patch sensor is increased by a 7.8% stretch, the resonant frequency decreases from 3.7 GHz to 3.43 GHz, evidencing a sensitivity of 3.43 × 10⁷ Hz/%. Stretching the patch along its width does not change the resonant frequency.

  19. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun, E-mail: Z.Hu@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin [BGT Materials Limited, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, Andre K. [Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Novoselov, Kostya S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10{sup 4 }S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  20. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun; Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10 4  S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks

  1. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2015-12-29

    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  2. Contactless and absolute linear displacement detection based upon 3D printed magnets combined with passive radio-frequency identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windl, Roman; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Huber, Christian; Vogler, Christoph; Weitensfelder, Herbert; Suess, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    Within this work a passive and wireless magnetic sensor, to monitor linear displacements, is proposed. We exploit recent advances in 3D printing and fabricate a polymer bonded magnet with a spatially linear magnetic field component corresponding to the length of the magnet. Regulating the magnetic compound fraction during printing allows specific shaping of the magnetic field distribution. A giant magnetoresistance magnetic field sensor is combined with a radio-frequency identification tag in order to passively monitor the exerted magnetic field of the printed magnet. Due to the tailored magnetic field, a displacement of the magnet with respect to the sensor can be detected within the sub-mm regime. The sensor design provides good flexibility by controlling the 3D printing process according to application needs. Absolute displacement detection using low cost components and providing passive operation, long term stability, and longevity renders the proposed sensor system ideal for structural health monitoring applications.

  3. Contactless and absolute linear displacement detection based upon 3D printed magnets combined with passive radio-frequency identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Windl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within this work a passive and wireless magnetic sensor, to monitor linear displacements, is proposed. We exploit recent advances in 3D printing and fabricate a polymer bonded magnet with a spatially linear magnetic field component corresponding to the length of the magnet. Regulating the magnetic compound fraction during printing allows specific shaping of the magnetic field distribution. A giant magnetoresistance magnetic field sensor is combined with a radio-frequency identification tag in order to passively monitor the exerted magnetic field of the printed magnet. Due to the tailored magnetic field, a displacement of the magnet with respect to the sensor can be detected within the sub-mm regime. The sensor design provides good flexibility by controlling the 3D printing process according to application needs. Absolute displacement detection using low cost components and providing passive operation, long term stability, and longevity renders the proposed sensor system ideal for structural health monitoring applications.

  4. Non-Lithographic Silicon Micromachining Using Inkjet and Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Hoshian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-lithographical and vacuum-free method to pattern silicon. The method combines inkjet printing and metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE; we call this method “INKMAC”. A commercial silver ink is printed on top of a silicon surface to create the catalytic patterns for MaCE. The MaCE process leaves behind a set of silicon nanowires in the shape of the inkjet printed micrometer scale pattern. We further show how a potassium hydroxide (KOH wet etching process can be used to rapidly etch away the nanowires, producing fully opened cavities and channels in the shape of the original printed pattern. We show how the printed lines (width 50–100 µm can be etched into functional silicon microfluidic channels with different depths (10–40 µm with aspect ratios close to one. We also used individual droplets (minimum diameter 30 µm to produce cavities with a depth of 60 µm and an aspect ratio of two. Further, we discuss using the structured silicon substrate as a template for polymer replication to produce superhydrophobic surfaces.

  5. Colour printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parraman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Invited chapter in the book Colour Design: Theories and Applications. In PART 3 COLOUR, DESIGN AND COLORATION this chapter covers:\\ud - Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital\\ud - Colour theory in relation to printing\\ud - Overview of halftoning and digital print technologies\\ud - Overview and development of inks\\ud - Inkjet papers and inks\\ud - Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware.\\ud \\ud This book differs from other existing books in the field, with the aim of an...

  6. Novel “Enhanced-Cognition” RFID Architectures on Organic/Paper Low-Cost Substrates Utilizing Inkjet Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of novel design and integration approaches for improved performance “enhanced-cognition” UHF passive and active radio frequency identification (RFID tags. Antenna design rules are explained for a variety of applications. A strategy that is currently under development for embedding power sources and integration of sensors and integrated circuits (ICs on low-cost organic substrates, such as liquid crystal polymer (LCP and paper, enabling the use of inkjet-printing capability for the UHF frequency band, is discussed in the paper. The proposed technologies could potentially revolutionize RFID tags allowing for integrated sensing capabilities for various applications such as security, military, logistics, automotion, and pharmaceutics.

  7. Printed UWB Antenna with Coupled Slotted Element for Notch-Frequency Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Bao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel printed monopole antenna employing a slotted-plate, which is electromagnetically coupled to the microstrip-fed planar element, is proposed to provide notch-frequency function. This technique enables stopband characteristics with improved control, compared to placing the slot in the microstrip-fed element. A detailed investigation of the rejectband properties has been made for the UWB antenna. Measured data for the optimized case show the 10 dB return loss bandwidth to be 9.8 GHz (from 2.80 GHz to 12.60 GHz with a notchband frequency from 5.15 GHz to 5.825 GHz. Propagation measurements indicate that the electromagnetically coupled slot provides a greater reduction in stopband gain for the three principal planes, compared to placing the slot in the fed element. This is desirable to mitigate interference from WLAN systems. A full parametric study of the antenna is presented.

  8. Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, John G; Creehan, Kevin D; Kuhn, Howard A

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios

  9. Three-dimensional inkjet biofabrication based on designed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenichi; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toda, Hideki; Genci, Capi; Nakamura, Makoto; Nishiyama, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been developed with the ultimate aim of manufacturing human organs, but success has been limited to only thin tissues and tissues with no significant structures. In order to construct more complicated tissues, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technology in which 3D structures are directly built up by layer-by-layer printing with living cells and several tissue components. We developed a custom-made inkjet printer specially designed for this purpose. Recently, this printer was improved, and the on-demand printing mode was developed and installed to fabricate further complicated structures. As a result of this version, 3D layer-by-layer printing based on complicated image data has become possible, and several 2D and 3D structures with more complexity than before were successfully fabricated. The effectiveness of the on-demand printing mode in the fabrication of complicated 3D tissue structures was confirmed. As complicated 3D structures are essential for biofunctional tissues, inkjet 3D biofabrication has great potential for engineering complicated bio-functional tissues.

  10. Three-dimensional inkjet biofabrication based on designed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Kenichi; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toda, Hideki; Genci, Capi; Nakamura, Makoto [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yuichi, E-mail: maknaka@eng.u-toyama.ac.jp [Bioprinting Project of Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Tissue engineering has been developed with the ultimate aim of manufacturing human organs, but success has been limited to only thin tissues and tissues with no significant structures. In order to construct more complicated tissues, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technology in which 3D structures are directly built up by layer-by-layer printing with living cells and several tissue components. We developed a custom-made inkjet printer specially designed for this purpose. Recently, this printer was improved, and the on-demand printing mode was developed and installed to fabricate further complicated structures. As a result of this version, 3D layer-by-layer printing based on complicated image data has become possible, and several 2D and 3D structures with more complexity than before were successfully fabricated. The effectiveness of the on-demand printing mode in the fabrication of complicated 3D tissue structures was confirmed. As complicated 3D structures are essential for biofunctional tissues, inkjet 3D biofabrication has great potential for engineering complicated bio-functional tissues.

  11. µPlasma printing of hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterns to improve wetting behaviour for printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Niewenhuis; ir Renee Verkuijlen; Dr Jan Bernards; ir Martijn van Dongen; Lise Verbraeken

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a rapidly growing technology for depositing functional materials in the production of organic electronics. Challenges lie among others in the printing of high resolution patterns with high aspect ratio of functional materials to obtain the needed functionality like e.g.

  12. Screen-printed silver-ink antennas for frequency-reconfigurable architectures in LTE phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Holmgaard, Tobias; Christensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Screen printing is a proven manufacturing technology enabling high volume production at low cost. This letter investigates the achievable efficiency of a screen-printed silver antenna structure for 4G mobile phone implementation, with a market-ready solution. The contribution of each element of t...

  13. First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

  14. A ferrite nano-particles based fully printed process for tunable microwave components

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-08-15

    With the advent of nano-particles based metallic inks, inkjet printing emerged as an attractive medium for fast prototyping as well as for low cost and flexible electronics. However, at present, it is limited to printing of metallic inks on conventional microwave substrates. For fully printed designs, ideally, the substrate must also be printed. In this work, we demonstrate a fully printed process utilizing a custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink for functional substrate printing and a custom silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink for metal traces printing. Due to the magnetic nature of the ink, this process is highly suitable for tunable microwave components. The printed magnetic substrate is characterized for the magnetostatic as well as microwave properties. The measured B(H) curve shows a saturation magnetization and remanence of 1560 and 350 Gauss respectively. As a proof of concept, a patch antenna is implemented in the proposed stack up which shows a tuning range of 4 % around the center frequency. © 2016 IEEE.

  15. 75 FR 34169 - Hewlett-Packard Company, Inkjet Consumer Solutions, HP Consumer Hardware Inkjet Lab, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Hardware Inkjet Lab, Including Leased Workers From Hightower Technology Capital, Inc., Syncro Design, VMC, PDG Oncore, K Force, Supply Source, Sigma Design, Novo Engineering, Act, Stilwell Baker, and... Company, Inkjet Consumer Solutions, HP Consumer Hardware Inkjet Lab, Vancouver, Washington. The notice was...

  16. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  17. A modified consumer inkjet for spatiotemporal control of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel J; Morfino, Roberto C; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-09-18

    This paper presents a low-cost inkjet dosing system capable of continuous, two-dimensional spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression via delivery of diffusible regulators to a custom-mounted gel culture of E. coli. A consumer-grade, inkjet printer was adapted for chemical printing; E. coli cultures were grown on 750 microm thick agar embedded in micro-wells machined into commercial compact discs. Spatio-temporal regulation of the lac operon was demonstrated via the printing of patterns of lactose and glucose directly into the cultures; X-Gal blue patterns were used for visual feedback. We demonstrate how the bistable nature of the lac operon's feedback, when perturbed by patterning lactose (inducer) and glucose (inhibitor), can lead to coordination of cell expression patterns across a field in ways that mimic motifs seen in developmental biology. Examples of this include sharp boundaries and the generation of traveling waves of mRNA expression. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of reaction-diffusion effects in the well-studied lac operon. A finite element reaction-diffusion model of the lac operon is also presented which predicts pattern formation with good fidelity.

  18. A modified consumer inkjet for spatiotemporal control of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cohen

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost inkjet dosing system capable of continuous, two-dimensional spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression via delivery of diffusible regulators to a custom-mounted gel culture of E. coli. A consumer-grade, inkjet printer was adapted for chemical printing; E. coli cultures were grown on 750 microm thick agar embedded in micro-wells machined into commercial compact discs. Spatio-temporal regulation of the lac operon was demonstrated via the printing of patterns of lactose and glucose directly into the cultures; X-Gal blue patterns were used for visual feedback. We demonstrate how the bistable nature of the lac operon's feedback, when perturbed by patterning lactose (inducer and glucose (inhibitor, can lead to coordination of cell expression patterns across a field in ways that mimic motifs seen in developmental biology. Examples of this include sharp boundaries and the generation of traveling waves of mRNA expression. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of reaction-diffusion effects in the well-studied lac operon. A finite element reaction-diffusion model of the lac operon is also presented which predicts pattern formation with good fidelity.

  19. Optical Properties of Titania Coatings Prepared by Inkjet Direct Patterning of a Reverse Micelles Sol-Gel Composition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmiedová, V.; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Zmeškal, O.; Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2015), s. 14552-14564 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010548; GA MPO FR-TI1/144 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : material printing * inkjet * ellipsometry Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  20. Digital Printing of μPlasmas to Selectively Improve Wetting Behavior of Functional Inks for Printed Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir Renee Verkuijlen; Dr Jan Bernards; ir Martijn van Dongen; Lise Verbraeken; Erik Nieuwenhuis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we investigate the change in wetting behavior of inkjet printed materials on either hydrophilic or hydrophobic plasma treated patterns, to determine the minimum obtainable track width using selective patterned μPlasma printing. For Hexamethyl-Disiloxane (HMDSO)/N2 plasma, a decrease

  1. Frequency and correlation of lip prints, fingerprints and ABO blood groups in population of Sriganganagar District, Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpreet; Verma, Pradhuman; Padda, Sarfaraz; Raj, Seetharamaiha Sunder

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the frequency and uniqueness of different lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and ABO Rh blood groups among a semi-urban population of Sriganganagar, Rajasthan. The study was conducted on 1200 healthy volunteers aged 18-30 years. The cheiloscopic and dermatographic data of each subject were obtained and were analysed according to the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi and Henry systems of classification, respectively. Two forensic experts analyzed the patterns independently. The ABO Rh blood group was also recorded for each subject. The Chi square statistical analysis was done and tests were considered significant when p value blood group was noted as most common in both genders while least common were A- among males and AB- in females. Type II lip pattern was most predominant while the least common was Type I' in males and Type I' and Type V in females. The UL fingerprint pattern was the most common, while RL was least noted in both genders. All the fingerprint patterns showed correlation with different lip print patterns. A correlation was found between different blood groups and lip print patterns except Type I (vertical) lip pattern. A positive correlation was observed between all the blood groups and fingerprint patterns, except for RL pattern. There is an association between lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns and ABO blood groups in both the genders. Thus, correlating the uniqueness of these physical evidences sometimes helps the forensic team members in accurate personal identification or it can at least narrow the search for an individual where there are no possible data referring to the identity of the subject. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Printed Circuit Board Embedded Inductors for Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations for the impeda......The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations...... to take possible electromagnetic interference problems into account, when the structures are compared. The simulated fields are verified through near field measurements performed on the prototypes. Finally design flexibility are considered, both regarding scalability and design of the individual inductors...

  3. Water Based Inkjet Material Deposition Of Donor-Acceptor Nanoparticles For Usage In Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetcha, Anirudh Raju

    Significant efficiency increases are being made for bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic prototype devices with world records at 11%. However the chlorinated solvents most frequently used in prototype manufacture would cause local health and safety concerns or large scale environmental pollution upon expansion of these techniques for commercialization. Moreover, research to bridge prototype and large-scale production of these solar cells is still in its infancy. Most prototype devices are made in inert glove box environments using spin-coating. There is a need to develop a non-toxic ink and incorporate it into a material deposition system that can be used in mass production. In this thesis, P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic devices were fabricated with the help of inkjet printing. P3HT:PCBM blends were dissolved in organic solvent systems, and this solution was used as the ink for the printer. The "coffee-ring effect" as well as the effect of inkjet printing parameters on film formation were highlighted - thus the inkjet printing method was validated as a stepping stone between lab-scale production of OPVs and large-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing. To address the need of a non-toxic ink, P3HT:PCBM blends were then dispersed in water, using the miniemulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized for their size, as well as the blending between the P3HT and PCBM within the nanoparticle. These dispersions were then converted into inks. Finally, these nanoparticle inks were inkjet-printed to fabricate OPV devices. Based on the results obtained here, tentative "next steps" have been outlined in order to improve upon this research work, in the future.

  4. Effects of ozone on the various digital print technologies: Photographs and documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, D.; Gordeladze, N.; Bigourdan, J.-L.; Nishimura, D.

    2010-06-01

    The harmful effects of ozone on inkjet photographs have been well documented. This project expands on that research by performing ozone tests on a greater variety of digital prints including colour electrophotographic and dye sublimation. The sensitivities of these materials are compared to traditionally printed materials (black-and-white electrophotographic, colour photographic and offset lithographic) to determine if the digital prints require special care practices. In general, the digital prints were more sensitive to ozone than traditional prints. Dye inkjet prints were more sensitive to fade than pigment inkjet, though pigment was not immune. The dye sublimation, colour electrophotographic (dry and liquid toner), and traditional print systems were relatively resistant to ozone. Text-based documents were evaluated in addition to photographic images, since little work has been done to determine if the type of object (image or text) has an impact on its sensitivity to ozone. The results showed that documents can be more resistant to ozone than photographs even when created using the same printer and inks. It is recommended that cultural heritage institutions not expose their porous-coated, dye-based inkjet photos to open air for extended periods of time. Other inkjet prints should be monitored for early signs of change.

  5. Effects of ozone on the various digital print technologies: Photographs and documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Gordeladze, N; Bigourdan, J-L; Nishimura, D

    2010-01-01

    The harmful effects of ozone on inkjet photographs have been well documented. This project expands on that research by performing ozone tests on a greater variety of digital prints including colour electrophotographic and dye sublimation. The sensitivities of these materials are compared to traditionally printed materials (black-and-white electrophotographic, colour photographic and offset lithographic) to determine if the digital prints require special care practices. In general, the digital prints were more sensitive to ozone than traditional prints. Dye inkjet prints were more sensitive to fade than pigment inkjet, though pigment was not immune. The dye sublimation, colour electrophotographic (dry and liquid toner), and traditional print systems were relatively resistant to ozone. Text-based documents were evaluated in addition to photographic images, since little work has been done to determine if the type of object (image or text) has an impact on its sensitivity to ozone. The results showed that documents can be more resistant to ozone than photographs even when created using the same printer and inks. It is recommended that cultural heritage institutions not expose their porous-coated, dye-based inkjet photos to open air for extended periods of time. Other inkjet prints should be monitored for early signs of change.

  6. Principal component analysis for the forensic discrimination of black inkjet inks based on the Vis-NIR fibre optics reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Lukáš; Oravec, Michal; Gemeiner, Pavol; Čeppan, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Nineteen black inkjet inks of six different brands were examined by fibre optics reflection spectroscopy in Visible and Near Infrared Region (Vis-NIR FORS) directly on paper with a view to achieving good resolution between them. These different inks were tested on nineteen different inkjet printers from three brands. Samples were obtained from prints by reflection probe. Processed reflection spectra in the range 500-1000 nm were used as samples in principal component analysis. Variability between spectra of the same ink obtained from different prints, as well as between spectra of square areas and lines was examined. For both spectra obtained from square areas and lines reference, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were created. According to these models, the inkjet inks were divided into clusters. PCA method is able to separate inks containing carbon black as main colorant from the other inks using other colorants. Some spectra were recorded from another piece of printer and used as validation samples. Spectra of validation samples were projected onto reference PCA models. According to position of validation samples in score plots it can be concluded that PCA based on Vis-NIR FORS can reliably differentiate inkjet inks which are included in the reference database. The presented method appears to be a suitable tool for forensic examination of questioned documents containing inkjet inks. Inkjet inks spectra were obtained without extraction or cutting sample with possibility to measure out of the laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Criteria for the quality of digitized halftone color prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzl, Joachim L.; Petschik, Benno

    1994-05-01

    A grading system for the quality of hardcopy color prints is suggested. It uses two index numbers: one of them describes the size of the available color space in terms of psychooptical discriminability; the other describes the size of the digitization error with respect to the detection threshold. Several examples illustrate the grading system developed at the Lehrstuhl Feingeratebau of the Technical University of Munich. In the CIELAB color space the number of printable and distinguishable colors is determined. It can be approximately calculated from the gamut values and the contrast of black and white. The number can be used as a color quality number for comparisons between hardcopy devices. A typical color inkjet printer now available on the market and using the recommended paper reaches about half the size of the color solid available in offset-printing. Digitization errors are brought in relation to the detection threshold. Contouring, texture, and positioning errors are examined separately in the frequency domain. The overall print quality is determined by the largest error beyond the detection threshold. The psychooptical basics of assessing digitalization errors are summarized. The influences of the dither method and of the halftoning cell are described. The connections between halftoning method, print resolution, and visibility of digitalization errors are shown. Orthogonal halftoning cells are compared to hexagonal cells. Improvements by using different dot sizes and presentation modes are discussed.

  8. A Low-Power Integrated Humidity CMOS Sensor by Printing-on-Chip Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A low-power, wide-dynamic-range integrated humidity sensing chip is implemented using a printable polymer sensing material with an on-chip pulse-width-modulation interface circuit. By using the inkjet printing technique, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene/polystyrene sulfonate that has humidity sensing features can be printed onto the top metal layer of a 0.35 μm CMOS IC. The developed printing-on-chip humidity sensor achieves a heterogeneous three dimensional sensor system-on-chip architecture. The humidity sensing of the implemented printing-on-chip sensor system is experimentally tested. The sensor shows a sensitivity of 0.98% to humidity in the atmosphere. The maximum dynamic range of the readout circuit is 9.8 MΩ, which can be further tuned by the frequency of input signal to fit the requirement of the resistance of printed sensor. The power consumption keeps only 154 μW. This printing-on-chip sensor provides a practical solution to fulfill an ultra-small integrated sensor for the applications in miniaturized sensing systems.

  9. Hewlett Packard's inkjet MEMS technology: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, J.; Richards, S.; Angelos, S.

    2009-05-01

    In 1985, HP introduced the ThinkJet - the first low-cost, mass-produced thermal inkjet printer. Providing a reasonable alternative to noisy dot matrix printers, ThinkJet set the stage for subsequent generations of HP thermal inkjet technology (TIJ). With each new generation, HP TIJ products provided new standards for print quality, color, and an unprecedented cost/performance ratio. Regarded as the first and most successful commercial MEMS technology, the development of HP's TIJ printheads required multidisciplinary innovation in fluid dynamics, bulk and surface micromachining, large-scale integration of electronics, packaging, and high volume MEMS manufacturing. HP's current TIJ printhead products combine Pentium-class addressing circuitry, high voltage mixed-signal driver electronics, dense electrical interconnects, and up to 3900 high-precision microfluidic devices - all on a single silicon chip. In this paper, we will provide a brief history of HP's TIJ technology and discuss how the unique capabilities that were required to advance the state-of-the-art of TIJ printheads are now providing a platform for the development of new MEMS devices and systems.

  10. Deposition of PEDOT: PSS Nanoparticles as a Conductive Microlayer Anode in OLEDs Device by Desktop Inkjet Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple microfabrication technique for delivering macromolecules and patterning microelectrode arrays using desktop inkjet printer was described. Aqueous solution of nanoparticle of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS was prepared while its particle size, the surface tension, and the viscosity of the solution were adjusted to be suitable for deposition on a flexible cellulose nanocomposite substrate via inkjet printer. The statistical average of PEDOT: PSS particle size of 100 nm was observed. The microthickness, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the printed substrate were then characterized by profilometer, atomic force microscope (AFM, and four-point probe electrical measurement, respectively. The inkjet deposition of PEDOT: PSS was successfully carried out, whilst retained its transparency feature. Highly smooth surface (roughness ~23–44 nm was achieved.

  11. Customizing digital printing for fine art practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; Thirkell, Paul; Hoskins, Steve; Wang, Hong Qiang; Laidler, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The presentation will demonstrate how through alternative methods of digital print production the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) is developing methodologies for digital printing that attempt to move beyond standard reproductive print methods. Profiling is used for input and output hardware, along with bespoke profiling for fine art printmaking papers. Examples of artist's work, and examples from the Perpetual Portfolio are included - an artist in residence scheme for selected artists wanting to work at the Centre and to make a large-format digital print. Colour is an important issue: colour fidelity, colour density on paper, colour that can be achieved through multiple-pass printing. Research is also underway to test colour shortfalls in the current inkjet ink range, and to extend colour through the use of traditional printing inks.

  12. The Capability of Raman Microspectroscopy to Differentiate Printing Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelsea E; Martin, Paul; Roberts, Katherine A; Trejos, Tatiana; Corzo, Ruthmara; Almirall, Jose R; Safer, Alan M

    2018-01-01

    This study applies Raman microspectroscopy to differentiate the chemical components in printing inks of different brands, colors, and type using the 532 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. Spectra were collected from 319 inks (78 inkjet, 76 toner, 79 offset, and 86 intaglio) representing various colors. Comparisons were performed to calculate discrimination capability percentages for each ink type. Overall, Raman microspectroscopy differentiates according to the following hierarchy: intaglio (96%), inkjet (92%), offset (90%), and toner (61%). The ability of Raman microspectroscopy to differentiate between same-colored inks from different brands was dependent on the color and ink analyzed. Based on ink color, the discrimination capability ranged from 75 to 94% (inkjet), 0 to 86% (toner), and 0 to 77% (offset). Copper phthalocyanine was detected in cyan inks and various intaglio inks, while carbon black was identified in black inkjet, offset, and intaglio inks. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Composite 3D-printed metastructures for low-frequency and broadband vibration absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Bauhofer, Anton; Krödel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Architected materials that control elastic wave propagation are essential in vibration mitigation and sound attenuation. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials use band-gap engineering to forbid certain frequencies from propagating through a material. However, existing solutions are limited in the low-frequency regimes and in their bandwidth of operation because they require impractical sizes and masses. Here, we present a class of materials (labeled elastic metastructures) that supports the formation of wide and low-frequency band gaps, while simultaneously reducing their global mass. To achieve these properties, the metastructures combine local resonances with structural modes of a periodic architected lattice. Whereas the band gaps in these metastructures are induced by Bragg scattering mechanisms, their key feature is that the band-gap size and frequency range can be controlled and broadened through local resonances, which are linked to changes in the lattice geometry. We demonstrate these principles experimentally, using advanced additive manufacturing methods, and inform our designs using finite-element simulations. This design strategy has a broad range of applications, including control of structural vibrations, noise, and shock mitigation.

  14. Printing method for organic light emitting device lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Hyun Chul; Kim, Seon Hoon; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Tae-Un; Kim, Snag-Gi; Hong, Kyung-Jin; So, Soon-Yeol

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) has a characteristic to change the electric energy into the light when the electric field is applied to the organic material. OLED is currently employed as a light source for the lighting tools because research has extensively progressed in the improvement of luminance, efficiency, and life time. OLED is widely used in the plate display device because of a simple manufacture process and high emitting efficiency. But most of OLED lighting projects were used the vacuum evaporator (thermal evaporator) with low molecular. Although printing method has lower efficiency and life time of OLED than vacuum evaporator method, projects of printing OLED actively are progressed because was possible to combine with flexible substrate and printing technology. Printing technology is ink-jet, screen printing and slot coating. This printing method allows for low cost and mass production techniques and large substrates. In this research, we have proposed inkjet printing for organic light-emitting devices has the dominant method of thick film deposition because of its low cost and simple processing. In this research, the fabrication of the passive matrix OLED is achieved by inkjet printing, using a polymer phosphorescent ink. We are measured optical and electrical characteristics of OLED.

  15. ELEMENT DESIGN FOR AN INKJET SYSTEM OF HYDROSTATIC GAS BEARING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Il'ina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper discusses the concept of inkjet systems application, also known as pneumonics, for automatic hydrostatic gas bearing control. Inkjet systems have the advantages over traditional control systems in those problems where the speed of traditional mechanical, electrical or hydraulic servomotors is not enough. Control of the shaft position in gas bearing with forced gas supply into the gap between the shaft and the bearing is typical for this class of problems. In this case, control means the pressure changing or flow rate of gas supplied to the gap by at least one of three axes at a frequency higher than the nominal speed of the shaft. Thus, high speed of response is required from the system. The objective of this work is to design a discrete jet element, testing of its geometry and switching characteristics. Main Results. The discrete inkjet element for oil-free non-contact transmission working on the refrigerant was designed. Relay transition process was modeled in the inkjet element with the use of numerical methods. The switching time has reached 0.2-0.3 ms; this is one order less than the requirements of aircraft control systems, which typically operate at a frequency of about 200 Hz. It is shown that periodic oscillations with high frequency occur when the control signal is injected with insufficient level of pressure. Therefore, a separate design task is to determine the minimum pressure allowable in the control channel.

  16. A Printed Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Peroxide Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Macia, Laura; Smyth, Malcolm R.; Killard, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The modification of silver screen-printed electrodes with a dodecyl benzenesulphonic acid and KCl solution was performed by inkjet printing. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed to characterize the electrode surfaces. Electrochemical reduction of H2O2 was studied and compared to electrodes modified by dip-coating. Analytical parameters of the all-printed electrode such as LOD, sensitivity and inter-electrode reproducibility were calculated (5.8 x 10-6 M, 4.9 x 10-2 AM-1cm-2 and approx. ...

  17. Study of thermo-fluidic behavior of micro-droplet in inkjet-based micro manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raju; Mahapatra, Abhijit; Ball, Amit Kumar; Roy, Shibendu Shekhar; Murmu, Naresh Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Inkjet printing technology, a maskless, non-contact patterning operation, which has been a revelation in the field of micro and nano manufacturing for its use in the selective deposition of desired materials. It is becoming an exciting alternative technology such as lithography to print functional material on to a substrate. Selective deposition of functional materials on desired substrates is a basic requirement in many of the printing based micro and nano manufacturing operations like the fabrication of microelectronic devices, solar cell, Light-emitting Diode (LED) research fields like pharmaceutical industries for drug discovery purposes and in biotechnology to make DNA microarrays. In this paper, an attempt has been made to design and develop an indigenous Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet printing system for micro fabrication and to study the interrelationships between various thermos-fluidic parameters of the ink material in the printing process. The effect of printing process parameters on printing performance characteristics has also been studied. And the applicability of the process has also been experimentally demonstrated. The experimentally found results were quite satisfactory and accordance to its applicability.

  18. Rapid wasted-free microfluidic fabrication based on ink-jet approach for microfluidic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Amarit, Rattasart; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2016-11-01

    Realizing that current microfluidic chip fabrication techniques are time consuming and labor intensive as well as always have material leftover after chip fabrication, this research work proposes an innovative approach for rapid microfluidic chip production. The key idea relies on a combination of a widely-used inkjet printing method and a heat-based polymer curing technique with an electronic-mechanical control, thus eliminating the need of masking and molds compared to typical microfluidic fabrication processes. In addition, as the appropriate amount of polymer is utilized during printing, there is much less amount of material wasted. Our inkjet-based microfluidic printer can print out the desired microfluidic chip pattern directly onto a heated glass surface, where the printed polymer is suddenly cured. Our proof-of-concept demonstration for widely-used single-flow channel, Y-junction, and T-junction microfluidic chips shows that the whole microfluidic chip fabrication process requires only 3 steps with a fabrication time of 6 minutes.

  19. A feasibility study on using inkjet technology, micropumps, and MEMs as fuel injectors for bipropellant rocket engines

    OpenAIRE

    Glynne-Jones, Peter; Coletti, M.; White, N.M.; Gabriel, S.B.; Bramanti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Control over drop size distributions, injection rates, and geometrical distribution of fuel and oxidizer sprays in bi-propellant rocket engines has the potential to produce more efficient, more stable, less polluting rocket engines. This control also offers the potential of an engine that can be throttled, working efficiently over a wide range of output thrusts. Inkjet printing technologies, MEMS fuel atomizers, and piezoelectric injectors similar in concept to those used in diesel engines ar...

  20. To Investigate the Absorption, Dynamic Contact Angle and Printability Effects of Synthetic Zeolite Pigments in an Inkjet Receptive Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil

    Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented

  1. Functional Inkjet Printing on Textiles : Challenges and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Gooijer, H. (Henk)

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge for the Dutch and European textile and clothing sector is to make a paradigm shift from labour intensive industry to knowledge based industry. This shift is essential for gaining a competitive edge and to develop innovative products and eco-friendly processes. A promising

  2. Tissue engineering with the aid of inkjet printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Phil G; Weiss, Lee E

    2007-08-01

    Tissue engineering holds the promise to create revolutionary new therapies for tissue and organ regeneration. This emerging field is extremely broad and eclectic in its various approaches. However, all strategies being developed are based on the therapeutic delivery of one or more of the following types of tissue building-blocks: cells; extracellular matrices or scaffolds; and hormones or other signaling molecules. So far, most work has used essentially homogenous combinations of these components, with subsequent self-organization to impart some level of tissue functionality occurring during in vitro culture or after transplantation. Emerging 'bioprinting' methodologies are being investigated to create tissue engineered constructs initially with more defined spatial organization, motivated by the hypothesis that biomimetic patterns can achieve improved therapeutic outcomes. Bioprinting based on inkjet and related printing technologies can be used to fabricate persistent biomimetic patterns that can be used both to study the underlying biology of tissue regeneration and potentially be translated into effective clinical therapies. However, recapitulating nature at even the most primitive levels such that printed cells, extracellular matrices and hormones become integrated into hierarchical, spatially organized three-dimensional tissue structures with appropriate functionality remains a significant challenge.

  3. Structural Color Patterns on Paper Fabricated by Inkjet Printer and Their Application in Anticounterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suli; Liu, Baoqi; Su, Xin; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-07-06

    Inkjet-printed structural color patterns have attracted great attention in recent years because of their broadly promising applications. However, the patterns are usually fabricated on pretreated plastic substrates. Herein a convenient inkjet printing method was developed to fabricate large-scale computer-designed structural color patterns on photo paper without any treatment using inks containing monodisperse CdS spheres. By this strategy, not only were the single-color and multicolor structural color patterns on paper successfully obtained, but also invisible photonic anticounterfeiting was achieved without any external stimuli. The key point of this anticounterfeiting technique is printing patterns and the background with inks containing uniformed CdS spheres with different diameters but similar intrinsic colors, so that the invisible patterns can be observed clearly by simply changing the viewing angle. The invisible and visible can be realized without the change of intrinsic structure, and the patterns are all solids. The patterns will have long lifetime and good durability, which is beneficial for their practical usage.

  4. Fabrication of 3D fine scale PZT components by ink-jet prototyping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, R.; Dossou-Yovo, C.; Lejeune, M.; Chartier, T.

    2005-09-01

    Different investigations have been carried out to optimize an ink-jet printing technique, devoted to the fabrication of 3D fine scale PZT parts, by adjustment of the fluid properties of the ceramic suspensions and by controlling the ejection and impact phenomena. A 10 vol% PZT loaded suspension characterized by a Newtonian behavior, corresponding to a viscosity of 10mPa.s and to a ratio Re/We1/2 of 5.98 has been selected. The ejection and impact phenomena strongly depend on the driving parameters of the printing head, in particular the formation of the droplet, with satellite or not, as well as its velocity and volume which are function of the pulse amplitude. Moreover, the conditions of ejection (droplet velocity and volume) control the characteristics of the deposit (definition, spreading, thickness uniformity). Sintered PZT pillar array has been achieved by ink-jet printing with a definition equal to 50μm. These structures could be very useful to improve the performances of 1-3 ceramic polymer composites for imaging probes or more generally for ultrasonic transducers and also of micro-deformable mirrors for optical adaptive systems.

  5. Inkjet Impregnation for Tailoring Air Electrode Microstructure to Improve Solid Oxide Cells Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Da’as, Eman H.

    2015-09-30

    The urge to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide cells (SOCs) to the intermediate ranges between 500-700°C motivated the research into impregnation processes, which offer highly efficient SOC air electrodes at low operating temperatures. Lack of controllability and reproducibility of this technique in the conventional way is still considered as an inadequacy for industrialization since it is performed manually. Therefore, inkjet-printing technology was proposed as an adequate approach to perform scalable and controllable impregnation for SOC air electrodes, which in turn leads to low operating temperatures. Composite LSM-ionic conductive air electrodes of weight ratio 1:2 were fabricated by inkjet impregnation of lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3) precursor nitrates onto a porous ionic conductive backbone structure. First, porous yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) substrates prepared by tape casting were used to study the influence of the printing parameters on the lateral dispersion and penetration of LSM ink inside the pores. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of LSM phase after calcination at 800°C for 2 h, while SEM revealed the formation of LSM nanostructures. It has been found by optical microscope observations that the spacing between the drops and the substrate temperature have a significant role in controlling the printing process. Next, the optimized printing parameters were applied in the inkjet impregnation of the LSM ink into porous YSZ electrodes that were spin coated on both sides of dense YSZ layers. LSM-YSZ composite air electrodes achieved an area specific resistance (ASR) of around 0.29 Ω.cm2 at 700°C. The performance of LSM-YSZ composite electrodes was influenced by the microstructure and the thickness, and by the electrode/electrolyte interface characteristics. As a result, the enhancement in LSM-YSZ composite electrode performance was observed due to the better percolation in LSM, YSZ and oxygen diffusion. Finally

  6. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  7. All printed antenna based on silver nanoparticles for 1.8 GHz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Arshad; Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel printed antenna for 1.8 GHz band applications. The proposed antenna is made of silver nanoparticle-based radiating element and 0.04-mm thin, transparent and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated by finite-element-method-based high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS). We obtain reflection coefficient of -23 dB, gain of 2.72 dBi and efficiency of 93.33 %. The resonance frequency of the antenna is also verified through national instrument (NI) Multisim simulation on the proposed equivalent circuit. We realize the antenna in a single process by commercial Dimatix material inkjet printer (DMP-3000) at ambient condition and characterize it by using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer. The measured reflection coefficient and -10 dB bandwidth are -32.2 dB and 190.5 MHz, respectively, which shows good agreement with HFSS and NI Multisim results. The proposed compact and optimum antenna printed on thin, transparent and fully bendable PET substrate becomes very attractive since it can overcome the limits of cost and size. These results suggest that the proposed antenna is well suitable for electronic devices operating over 1.8 GHz band such as Telos-B and other wearable printed devices.

  8. A New Anti-Counterfeiting Feature Relying on Invisible Luminescent Full Color Images Printed with Lanthanide-Based Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Julien; Hersch, Roger D.; Moser, Jacques-Edouard; Chauvin, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Europium and terbium trisdipicolinate complexes are inkjet printed onto paper with commercially available desktop inkjet printers. Together with a commercial blue luminescent ink, the red-emitting luminescent ink containing europium and the green-emitting luminescent ink containing terbium are used to reproduce accurate full color images that are invisible under white light and appear under a 254 nm UV light. Such invisible luminescent images are attractive anti-counterfeiting security featur...

  9. Fully Printed, Flexible, Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Hen, Ray T.; Lu, Xuejun; Chen, Maggie Yihong

    2013-01-01

    NASAs future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit, and back to Earth. Flexible antennas are highly desired in many scenarios. Active phased array antennas (active PAAs) with distributed control and processing electronics at the surface of an antenna aperture offer numerous advantages for radar communications. Large-area active PAAs on flexible substrates are of particular interest in NASA s space radars due to their efficient inflatable package that can be rolled up during transportation and deployed in space. Such an inflatable package significantly reduces stowage volume and mass. Because of these performance and packaging advantages, large-area inflatable active PAAs are highly desired in NASA s surface-to-orbit and surface-to-relay communications. To address the issues of flexible electronics, a room-temperature printing process of active phased-array antennas on a flexible Kapton substrate was developed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with many unique physical properties, were successfully proved feasible for the PAA system. This innovation is a new type of fully inkjet-printable, two-dimensional, high-frequency PAA on a flexible substrate at room temperature. The designed electronic circuit components, such as the FET switches in the phase shifter, metal interconnection lines, microstrip transmission lines, etc., are all printed using a special inkjet printer. Using the developed technology, entire 1x4, 2x2, and 4x4 PAA systems were developed, packaged, and demonstrated at 5.3 GHz. Several key solutions are addressed in this work to solve the fabrication issues. The source/drain contact is developed using droplets of silver ink printed on the source/drain areas prior to applying CNT thin-film. The wet silver ink droplets allow the silver to

  10. A feasibility study on using inkjet technology, micropumps, and MEMs as fuel injectors for bipropellant rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynne-Jones, Peter; Coletti, M.; White, N. M.; Gabriel, S. B.; Bramanti, C.

    2010-07-01

    Control over drop size distributions, injection rates, and geometrical distribution of fuel and oxidizer sprays in bi-propellant rocket engines has the potential to produce more efficient, more stable, less polluting rocket engines. This control also offers the potential of an engine that can be throttled, working efficiently over a wide range of output thrusts. Inkjet printing technologies, MEMS fuel atomizers, and piezoelectric injectors similar in concept to those used in diesel engines are considered for their potential to yield a new, more active injection scheme for a rocket engine. Inkjets are found to be unable to pump at sufficient pressures, and have possibly dangerous failure modes. Active injection is found to be feasible if high pressure drop along the injector plate is used. A conceptual design is presented and its basic behavior assessed.

  11. Inkjet formation of unilamellar lipid vesicles for cell-like encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Richmond, David L; Li, Thomas H; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2009-07-21

    Encapsulation of macromolecules within lipid vesicles has the potential to drive biological discovery and enable development of novel, cell-like therapeutics and sensors. However, rapid and reliable production of large numbers of unilamellar vesicles loaded with unrestricted and precisely-controlled contents requires new technologies that overcome size, uniformity, and throughput limitations of existing approaches. Here we present a high-throughput microfluidic method for vesicle formation and encapsulation using an inkjet printer at rates up to 200 Hz. We show how multiple high-frequency pulses of the inkjet's piezoelectric actuator create a microfluidic jet that deforms a bilayer lipid membrane, controlling formation of individual vesicles. Variations in pulse number, pulse voltage, and solution viscosity are used to control the vesicle size. As a first step toward cell-like reconstitution using this method, we encapsulate the cytoskeletal protein actin and use co-encapsulated microspheres to track its polymerization into a densely entangled cytoskeletal network upon vesicle formation.

  12. Model-based Feedforward Control for Inkjet Printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalate, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, inkjet technology has emerged as a promising manufacturing tool. This technology has gained its popularity mainly due to the facts that it can handle diverse materials and it is a non-contact and additive process. Moreover, the inkjet technology offers low operational costs, easy

  13. A multimaterial electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, E; Shigeta, K; Kim, Y K; Graf, P G; Hoelzle, D J; Barton, K L; Alleyne, A G; Ferreira, P M; Rogers, J A

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing has emerged as a high-resolution alternative to other forms of direct solution-based fabrication approaches, such as ink-jet printing. This paper discusses the design, integration and operation of a unique E-jet printing platform. The uniqueness lies in the ability to utilize multiple materials in the same overall print-head, thereby enabling increased degrees of heterogeneous integration of different functionalities on a single substrate. By utilizing multiple individual print-heads, with a carrousel indexing among them, increased material flexibility is achieved. The hardware design and system operation for a relatively inexpensive system are developed and presented. Crossover interconnects and multiple fluorescent tagged proteins, demonstrating printed electronics and biological sensing applications, respectively. (paper)

  14. Chip-by-chip configurable interconnection using digital printing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad; Carrabina, Jordi; Winchester, Lee; Laurila, Mika-Matti; Mäntysalo, Matti; Ogier, Simon; Terés, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    Printed electronics technologies add new fabrication concepts to the classical set of microelectronic processes. Among these, the use of digital printing techniques such as inkjet permits the deposition of materials on top of preexisting substrates without any mask. This allows individual personalization of electronic circuits. Different proposals have been made to make use of such a property: (1) wiring new metallic layers on top of circuits to build programmable logic array-like circuits, (2) programming OTP ROM like memories, and (3) building inkjet-configurable gate arrays. The capability of building an individual circuit with technological steps simpler than photolithographic ones opens a concept similar to the successful field programmable gate array. Although nowadays the process resolution is still low, it can quickly evolve to higher wiring densities and therefore permit a greater level of transistor integration. In this paper, we propose a new structure to realize the connections only by deposition of conductive dots oriented to optimize the area needed to implement the drop-on-demand (DoD) wiring at circuit level. One important feature of this structure is that it minimizes the amount of printed material required for the connection thereby reducing failures often seen with DoD printing techniques for conductive lines. These structures have been validated by two different DoD technologies: inkjet and superfine jet, and have been compared to mask-based photolithography technology with promising results. (paper)

  15. Chip-by-chip configurable interconnection using digital printing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad; Winchester, Lee; Laurila, Mika-Matti; Mäntysalo, Matti; Ogier, Simon; Terés, Lluís; Carrabina, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Printed electronics technologies add new fabrication concepts to the classical set of microelectronic processes. Among these, the use of digital printing techniques such as inkjet permits the deposition of materials on top of preexisting substrates without any mask. This allows individual personalization of electronic circuits. Different proposals have been made to make use of such a property: (1) wiring new metallic layers on top of circuits to build programmable logic array-like circuits, (2) programming OTP ROM like memories, and (3) building inkjet-configurable gate arrays. The capability of building an individual circuit with technological steps simpler than photolithographic ones opens a concept similar to the successful field programmable gate array. Although nowadays the process resolution is still low, it can quickly evolve to higher wiring densities and therefore permit a greater level of transistor integration. In this paper, we propose a new structure to realize the connections only by deposition of conductive dots oriented to optimize the area needed to implement the drop-on-demand (DoD) wiring at circuit level. One important feature of this structure is that it minimizes the amount of printed material required for the connection thereby reducing failures often seen with DoD printing techniques for conductive lines. These structures have been validated by two different DoD technologies: inkjet and superfine jet, and have been compared to mask-based photolithography technology with promising results.

  16. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  17. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2014-08-26

    We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal-insulator-metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Recent advances in inkjet dispensing technologies: applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangcheng; Zheng, Qiang; Yang, Hu; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Duan, Yanwen; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    2012-09-01

    Inkjet dispensing technology is a promising fabrication methodology widely applied in drug discovery. The automated programmable characteristics and high-throughput efficiency makes this approach potentially very useful in miniaturizing the design patterns for assays and drug screening. Various custom-made inkjet dispensing systems as well as specialized bio-ink and substrates have been developed and applied to fulfill the increasing demands of basic drug discovery studies. The incorporation of other modern technologies has further exploited the potential of inkjet dispensing technology in drug discovery and development. This paper reviews and discusses the recent developments and practical applications of inkjet dispensing technology in several areas of drug discovery and development including fundamental assays of cells and proteins, microarrays, biosensors, tissue engineering, basic biological and pharmaceutical studies. Progression in a number of areas of research including biomaterials, inkjet mechanical systems and modern analytical techniques as well as the exploration and accumulation of profound biological knowledge has enabled different inkjet dispensing technologies to be developed and adapted for high-throughput pattern fabrication and miniaturization. This in turn presents a great opportunity to propel inkjet dispensing technology into drug discovery.

  19. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  20. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  1. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  2. Patterned paper sensors printed with long-chain DNA aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Carmen; Little, Jessamyn R L; Li, Yingfu; Brennan, John D

    2015-05-11

    There is growing interest in developing printable paper sensors to enable rapid testing of analytes for environmental, food safety, and clinical applications. A major challenge is to find suitable bioinks that are amenable to high-speed printing and remain functional after printing. We report on a simple and effective approach wherein an aqueous ink composed of megadalton-sized tandem repeating structure-switching DNA aptamers (concatemeric aptamers) is used to rapidly create patterned paper sensors on filter paper by inkjet printing. These concatemeric aptamer reporters remain immobilized at the point of printing through strong adsorption but retain sufficient segmental mobility to undergo structure switching and fluorescence signaling to provide both qualitative and quantitative detection of small molecules and protein targets. The convenience of inkjet printing allows for the patterning of internally referenced sensors with multiplexed detection, and provides a generic platform for on-demand printing of sensors even in remote locations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Prediction formulas for a notched frequency response of a printed ultra-wideband antenna loaded with notching resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ayd R. Saad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Letter presents closed-form formulas for fast approximate determination of frequency band notches of ultra-wideband (UWB antennas loaded with nearly quarter-/half- or even full-wavelength notches resonators. The formulas are derived using the curve-fitting technique. They describe the influences of the physical length of these notches resonators on the corresponding frequency notches in the UWB of 3.1–10.6 GHz. The calculated results obtained using these new formulas show good correlation with the reported electromagnetic simulation results elsewhere.

  4. Fully Printed 3D Cube Cantor Fractal Rectenna for Ambient RF Energy Harvesting Application

    KAUST Repository

    Bakytbekov, Azamat

    2017-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a new emerging paradigm which requires billions of wirelessly connected devices that communicate with each other in a complex radio-frequency (RF) environment. Considering the huge number of devices, recharging batteries or replacing them becomes impractical in real life. Therefore, harvesting ambient RF energy for powering IoT devices can be a practical solution to achieve self-charging operation. The antenna for the RF energy harvesting application must work on multiple frequency bands (multiband or wideband) to capture as much power as possible from ambient; it should be compact and small in size so that it can be integrated with IoT devices; and it should be low cost, considering the huge number of devices. This thesis presents a fully printed 3D cube Cantor fractal RF energy harvesting unit, which meets the above-mentioned criteria. The multiband Cantor fractal antenna has been designed and implemented on a package of rectifying circuits using additive manufacturing (combination of 3D inkjet printing of plastic substrate and 2D metallic screen printing of silver paste) for the first time for RF energy harvesting application. The antenna, which is in a Cantor fractal shape, is folded on five faces of a 3D cube where the bottom face accommodates rectifying circuit with matching network. The rectenna (rectifying antenna) harvests RF power from GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G at 2100 MHz frequency. Indoor and outdoor field tests of the RF energy harvester have been conducted in the IMPACT lab and the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus territory, and 252.4 mV of maximum output voltage is harvested.

  5. Microwave properties of sphere-, flake-, and disc-shaped BaFe12O19 nanoparticle inks for high-frequency applications on printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymäki, S.; Maček Kržmanc, M.; Sloma, M.; Juuti, J.; Nelo, M.; Teirikangas, M.; Jakubowska, M.; Suvorov, D.; Jantunen, H.

    2016-12-01

    Spherical (diameter 50-200 nm), flake- (diameter 40-200 nm), and disc-shaped (diameter 10-20 nm) BaFe12O19 nanoparticles were synthesized with a wet chemical method, and their permittivity, electric loss tangent, permeability, and magnetic loss tangent were measured in the 0.045-10 GHz range. The materials were prepared using a solution of 12% PMMA resin in a butyldiglycol solvent for 10-50 wt% filling content. Microstrip transmission-line perturbation was used to measure complex permeability and the split post dielectric resonator method was employed to measure dielectric properties. The frequency dependence of the permeability and permittivity spectra of the composites was affected by their shape and filling fraction. The composites made with spherical particles had higher permeability values (1.4-1.75) at 1 GHz than the composites made with flake (1.25-1.6) or disc particles (1.1-1.3), but the spherical particles caused more losses. The flake particle composite provided permeability and magnetic loss characteristics at both 1 GHz and 7 GHz superior to those of the sphere particle composite in low-loss RF applications. The magnetic loss tangent of PMMA/BaFe12O19 was 0.2-0.3 at 1 GHz, being lower than that of state-of-the-art PANI/BaFe12O19 composites. The sphere composite inks showed permeability values less than 1 at 1-4 GHz ferromagnetic resonance (FMR); they could be used as a tunable material in microwave applications. The sphere and flake composite inks also had sufficient printing quality for the screen-printing fabrication method.

  6. Microwave properties of sphere-, flake-, and disc-shaped BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticle inks for high-frequency applications on printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myllymäki, S. [Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014 (Finland); Maček Kržmanc, M. [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sloma, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) Department of Silicon Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Juuti, J.; Nelo, M.; Teirikangas, M. [Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014 (Finland); Jakubowska, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) Department of Silicon Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Suvorov, D. [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jantunen, H. [Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014 (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    Spherical (diameter 50–200 nm), flake- (diameter 40–200 nm), and disc-shaped (diameter 10–20 nm) BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were synthesized with a wet chemical method, and their permittivity, electric loss tangent, permeability, and magnetic loss tangent were measured in the 0.045–10 GHz range. The materials were prepared using a solution of 12% PMMA resin in a butyldiglycol solvent for 10–50 wt% filling content. Microstrip transmission-line perturbation was used to measure complex permeability and the split post dielectric resonator method was employed to measure dielectric properties. The frequency dependence of the permeability and permittivity spectra of the composites was affected by their shape and filling fraction. The composites made with spherical particles had higher permeability values (1.4–1.75) at 1 GHz than the composites made with flake (1.25–1.6) or disc particles (1.1–1.3), but the spherical particles caused more losses. The flake particle composite provided permeability and magnetic loss characteristics at both 1 GHz and 7 GHz superior to those of the sphere particle composite in low-loss RF applications. The magnetic loss tangent of PMMA/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was 0.2–0.3 at 1 GHz, being lower than that of state-of-the-art PANI/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} composites. The sphere composite inks showed permeability values less than 1 at 1–4 GHz ferromagnetic resonance (FMR); they could be used as a tunable material in microwave applications. The sphere and flake composite inks also had sufficient printing quality for the screen-printing fabrication method.

  7. Microwave properties of sphere-, flake-, and disc-shaped BaFe12O19 nanoparticle inks for high-frequency applications on printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllymäki, S.; Maček Kržmanc, M.; Sloma, M.; Juuti, J.; Nelo, M.; Teirikangas, M.; Jakubowska, M.; Suvorov, D.; Jantunen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical (diameter 50–200 nm), flake- (diameter 40–200 nm), and disc-shaped (diameter 10–20 nm) BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles were synthesized with a wet chemical method, and their permittivity, electric loss tangent, permeability, and magnetic loss tangent were measured in the 0.045–10 GHz range. The materials were prepared using a solution of 12% PMMA resin in a butyldiglycol solvent for 10–50 wt% filling content. Microstrip transmission-line perturbation was used to measure complex permeability and the split post dielectric resonator method was employed to measure dielectric properties. The frequency dependence of the permeability and permittivity spectra of the composites was affected by their shape and filling fraction. The composites made with spherical particles had higher permeability values (1.4–1.75) at 1 GHz than the composites made with flake (1.25–1.6) or disc particles (1.1–1.3), but the spherical particles caused more losses. The flake particle composite provided permeability and magnetic loss characteristics at both 1 GHz and 7 GHz superior to those of the sphere particle composite in low-loss RF applications. The magnetic loss tangent of PMMA/BaFe 12 O 19 was 0.2–0.3 at 1 GHz, being lower than that of state-of-the-art PANI/BaFe 12 O 19 composites. The sphere composite inks showed permeability values less than 1 at 1–4 GHz ferromagnetic resonance (FMR); they could be used as a tunable material in microwave applications. The sphere and flake composite inks also had sufficient printing quality for the screen-printing fabrication method.

  8. Highly Conductive Aromatic Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Inkjet Printable High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Ujjain

    Full Text Available We report the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT via the 1,3-dipolar [3+2] cycloaddition of aromatic azides, which resulted in a detangled CNT as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Carboxylic moieties (-COOH on aromatic azide result in highly stable aqueous dispersion (max. conc. ~ 10 mg/mL H2O, making the suitable for inkjet printing. Printed patterns on polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate exhibit low sheet resistivity ~65 Ω. cm, which is attributed to enhanced conductivity. Fabricated Supercapacitors (SC assembled using these printed substrates exhibit good electrochemical performance in organic as well as aqueous electrolytes. High energy and power density (57.8 Wh/kg and 0.85 kW/kg in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed supercapacitor. Capacitive retention varies from ~85-94% with columbic efficiency ~95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles in different electrolytes, demonstrating the excellent potential of the device for futuristic power applications.

  9. Variable-data Printing Serves - Niches Here, There & Everywhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ynostroza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A milestone focus on high-end digital color presses capable of variable-data imaging - a technology that was introduced ten years ago and is just now at the beginning of wider, more successful implementation in commercial printing-tends to overshadow some real achievements on other variable-data fronts. Those activities involve ink-jet and electrophotographic imaging for high-volume transactional printing, print-on-demand books and catalogs, wide-format proofing and imaging, label production, and printing of text and coding of printed packaging.The capabilities of digital production color presses intrigue commercial printers the most, especially new units referred to by manufacturers as "Series II" or "third-generation" systems. Besides having more press-like characteristics, from offset-caliber quality, image consistency, and high output rates to sturdy construction, reliability, and stock choice, the units seem to represent a way to produce printing that’s beyond the norm.Some users are producing hybrid printed products (offset printing a quantity of "shells" that are later personalized by digital presses, while others are utilizing clients’ "dynamic" databases to personalize marketing materials that drive response rates up to 15%, even 35%. Finally, digital color systems prompt the creation of high-margin Internet-based print providers offering easy-to-design and easy-toorder print materials. Printers may do well to adopt the high-value communications capability that digital imaging offers.

  10. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

    2008-02-01

    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

  11. Versatile Molecular Silver Ink Platform for Printed Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J; Paquet, Chantal; Mozenson, Olga; Djavani-Tabrizi, Iden; Deore, Bhavana; Liu, Xiangyang; Lopinski, Gregory P; James, Robert; Hettak, Khelifa; Shaker, Jafar; Momciu, Adrian; Ferrigno, Julie; Ferrand, Olivier; Hu, Jian Xiong; Lafrenière, Sylvie; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-05-24

    A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet, and aerosol jet printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose, and solvent provides improved performance versus that of established inks, yet with improved economics. Thin, screen-printed traces with exceptional electrical (inks. Low surface roughness, submicron thicknesses, and line widths as narrow as 41 μm outperform commercial ink benchmarks based on flakes or nanoparticles. These traces are mechanically robust to flexing and creasing (less than 10% change in resistance) and bind strongly to epoxy-based adhesives. Thin traces are remarkably conformal, enabling fully printed metal-insulator-metal band-pass filters. The versatility of the molecular ink platform enables an aerosol jet-compatible ink that yields conductive features on glass with 2× bulk resistivity and strong adhesion to various plastic substrates. An inkjet formulation is also used to print top source/drain contacts and demonstrate printed high-mobility thin film transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. TFTs with mobility values of ∼25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and current on/off ratios >10 4 were obtained, performance similar to that of evaporated metal contacts in analogous devices.

  12. Quartz crystal micro–balance gas sensor with ink–jet printed nano–diamond sensitive layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, J.; Laposa, A.; Procházka, Václav; Husák, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2016), s. 61-64 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gas sensor * QCM * nanodiamond * ink-jet printing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2016

  13. 76 FR 66964 - Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-723] Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With... exclusion order prohibiting importation of infringing inkjet ink cartridges with printheads and components... inkjet ink cartridges with printheads and components thereof by reason of infringement of various claims...

  14. Photoreactive and Metal-Platable Copolymer Inks for High-Throughput, Room-Temperature Printing of Flexible Metal Electrodes for Thin-Film Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yaokang; Li, Kan; Yan, Casey; Wei, Xiaoling; Chen, Lina; Zhen, Hongyu; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Shengdong; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-06-01

    Photoreactive and metal-platable copolymer inks are reported for the first time to allow high-throughput printing of high-performance flexible electrodes at room temperature. This new copolymer ink accommodates various types of printing technologies, such as soft lithography molding, screen printing, and inkjet printing. Electronic devices including resistors, sensors, solar cells, and thin-film transistors fabricated with these printed electrodes show excellent electrical performance and mechanical flexibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink-jet printing onto a paper substrate due to the excellent ink absorption of paper. A specific capacity of 33 F/g at a high specific power of 250 000 W/kg is achieved with an organic electrolyte. Such a lightweight paper-based supercapacitor could be used to power paper electronics such as transistors or displays. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Cell and organ printing 1: protein and cell printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W Cris; Boland, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    We have developed several devices for positioning organic molecules, molecular aggregates, cells, and single-cell organisms onto solid supports. These printers can create stable, functional protein arrays using an inexpensive technology. The cell printer allows us to create cell libraries as well as cellular assemblies that mimic their respective position in organs. The printers are derived from commercially available ink-jet printers that are modified to dispense protein or cell solutions instead of ink. We describe here the modifications to the print heads, and the printer hardware and software that enabled us to adapt the ink-jet printers for the manufacture of cell and protein arrays. The printers have the advantage of being fully automated and computer controlled, and allow for the high-throughput manufacture of protein and cell arrays. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Colour changes in prints during long-term dark storage of prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2010-01-01

    The most significant impact on colour fading in prints is exposure to light and air. However what happens to coloured prints during long-term storage in boxes, drawers and on shelves? Measurements of samples, printed in July 2005, stored in a range of light and darkened storage conditions have shown some interesting initial results. As more emphasis is placed on the effects of light, the dark stability of inkjet prints is relatively overlooked when considering how to preserve or store coloured prints. This study and presentation builds on previous research [1] and has concentrated on the changes to colour during storage. With reference to ASTM F2035 - 00(2006) Standard Practice for Measuring the Dark Stability of Ink Jet Prints, the Standards outline points out that whilst natural aging is the most reliable method of assessing image stability, materials and inks any data that is produced quickly becomes redundant; therefore accelerated aging is more preferred. However, the fine art materials in this study are still very much in circulation. The leading fine art papers, and pigmented ink-sets used in these trials are still being used by artists. We can therefore demonstrate the characteristics of colour changes and the impact of ink on paper that utilises natural aging methods.

  18. 3D printing technologies for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Wei, Min; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Swart, Benjamin; Shao, Yuyan; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes play an important role in promoting the performance of electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices such as batteries and supercapacitors. Traditional fabrication techniques have limited capability in controlling the geometry and architecture of the electrode and solid-state electrolytes, which would otherwise compromise the performance. 3D printing, a disruptive manufacturing technology, has emerged as an innovative approach to fabricating EES devices from nanoscale to macroscale and from nanowatt to megawatt, providing great opportunities to accurately control device geometry (e.g., dimension, porosity, morphology) and structure with enhanced specific energy and power densities. Moreover, the additive manufacturing nature of 3D printing provides excellent controllability of the electrode thickness with much simplified process in a cost effective manner. With the unique spatial and temporal material manipulation capability, 3D printing can integrate multiple nanomaterials in the same print, and multi-functional EES devices (including functional gradient devices) can be fabricated. Herein, we review recent advances in 3D printing of EES devices. We focused on two major 3D printing technologies including direct writing and inkjet printing. The direct material deposition characteristics of these two processes enable them to print on a variety of flat substrates, even a conformal one, well suiting them to applications such as wearable devices and on-chip integrations. Other potential 3D printing techniques such as freeze nano-printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, binder jetting, laminated object manufacturing, and metal 3D printing are also introduced. The advantages and limitations of each 3D printing technology are extensively discussed. More importantly, we provide a perspective on how to integrate the emerging 3D printing with existing technologies to create structures over multiple length scale from

  19. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  20. Online & Print

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Berglez

    only daily at the time- run by Blantyre Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Blantyre Printing. 5 Abridged speech made ... of the Ngwazi were: Blantyre Print and Packaging Company Limited, Olivetti (formerly. Gaskells Limited) .... that meet the immediate needs of our industry, communities and country. Secondly, we need to ...

  1. Printed biotin-functionalised polythiophene films as biorecognition layers in the development of paper-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Pesonen, Markus [Physics, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Sund, Pernilla [Laboratory of Polymer Technology, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Viitala, Tapani [Centre for Drug Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Määttänen, Anni; Sarfraz, Jawad [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Wilén, Carl-Erik [Laboratory of Polymer Technology, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Österbacka, Ronald [Physics, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2016-02-28

    Highlights: • Inkjet-printed polythiophene films show good adhesion on ultrathin gold films. • Biotin-functionalisation of polythiophene enables specificity towards streptavidin. • Supramolecular biorecognition architectures can be prepared by printing. • The addition of each printed layer can be followed by a change in capacitance. - Abstract: The integration of flexible electronic sensors in clinical diagnostics is visioned to significantly reduce the cost of many diagnostic tests and ultimately make healthcare more accessible. This study concentrates on the characterisation of inkjet-printed bio-functionalised polythiophene films on paper-based ultrathin gold film (UTGF) electrodes and their possible application as biorecognition layers. Physicochemical surface properties (topography, chemistry, and wetting) and electrochemical characteristics of water-soluble regioirregular tetraethylene-glycol polythiophene (TEGPT) and biotin-functionalised TEGPT (b-TEGPT) films were examined and compared. In addition, their specificity towards streptavidin protein was tested. The results show that stable supramolecular biorecognition layers of insulating b-TEGPT and streptavidin were successfully fabricated on a paper-based UTGF by inkjet-printing. Good adhesion of thiophene to UTGF can be attributed to covalent linkage between sulphur and gold, whereas the stability of the streptavidin layer is due to the high affinity between biotin and streptavidin. The device introduced can be utilised in the development of biosensors for clinically relevant analytes e.g. for detecting complementary DNA oligomers or antibody–antigen complexes.

  2. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  3. Applying Inkjet Technology to Dispense Colloidal Nanoparticle Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Annie; Mohar, Harjyot; Hernandez, Victor; Estrada, Arturo; Munoz, Leonel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura; Jimenez, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The inkjet technology is widely employed to reliably deliver nanomaterials onto a substrate medium for further characterization and processing. To explore the feasibility of inkjet deposition for colloids, a novel drop-on-demand fluid dispenser is constructed to eject various types of liquids to produce atomized droplets. To make structured nanomaterials on a substrate using inkjet techniques, it is essential to determine the dynamical properties of the droplets as they are being formed. These would include the ejection speed, acceleration, terminal velocity and flight trajectories. For measuring these dynamic parameters, we successfully dispensed propylene glycol solution in different mixing ratios. This forms a reference fluid for establishing a baseline for our investigations. Our experimental data suggest that rapidly ejected droplets can be accurately modeled using Newton's equations and Stokes' law. In this conference, we describe our experiments consisting of an innovative inkjet dispensing apparatus in synchronization with a high-resolution camera imaging system. Furthermore, we plan to discuss our research efforts in dispensing microdroplets for relevant materials, such as chemical colloidal suspensions containing nanoparticles and polymer based fluids. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  4. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-11-23

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications. While there exist bulk material reduction methods to flex them, such thinned CMOS electronics are fragile and vulnerable to handling for high throughput manufacturing. Here, we show a fusion of a CMOS technology compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics, with inkjet and conductive cellulose based interconnects, followed by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing based packaging) and finally roll-to-roll printing of packaged decal electronics (thin film transistors based circuit components and sensors) focusing on printed high performance flexible electronic systems. This work provides the most pragmatic route for packaged flexible electronic systems for wide ranging applications.

  5. A 3D printed helical antenna with integrated lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2015-10-26

    A novel antenna configuration comprising a helical antenna with an integrated lens is demonstrated in this work. The antenna is manufactured by a unique combination of 3D printing of plastic material (ABS) and inkjet printing of silver nano-particle based metallic ink. The integration of lens enhances the gain by around 7 dB giving a peak gain of about 16.4 dBi at 9.4 GHz. The helical antenna operates in the end-fire mode and radiates a left-hand circularly polarized (LHCP) pattern. The 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of the antenna with lens is 3.2 %. Due to integration of lens and fully printed processing, this antenna configuration offers high gain performance and requires low cost for manufacturing.

  6. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tappa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  7. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Karthik; Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    2018-02-07

    The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  8. 3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, Jason A; Olvera, Diana; Fuller, Seth M; Kelly, James P; Graeve, Olivia A; Schwarz, Edward M; Kates, Stephen L; Awad, Hani A

    2014-04-01

    Low temperature 3D printing of calcium phosphate scaffolds holds great promise for fabricating synthetic bone graft substitutes with enhanced performance over traditional techniques. Many design parameters, such as the binder solution properties, have yet to be optimized to ensure maximal biocompatibility and osteoconductivity with sufficient mechanical properties. This study tailored the phosphoric acid-based binder solution concentration to 8.75 wt% to maximize cytocompatibility and mechanical strength, with a supplementation of Tween 80 to improve printing. To further enhance the formulation, collagen was dissolved into the binder solution to fabricate collagen-calcium phosphate composites. Reducing the viscosity and surface tension through a physiologic heat treatment and Tween 80, respectively, enabled reliable thermal inkjet printing of the collagen solutions. Supplementing the binder solution with 1-2 wt% collagen significantly improved maximum flexural strength and cell viability. To assess the bone healing performance, we implanted 3D printed scaffolds into a critically sized murine femoral defect for 9 weeks. The implants were confirmed to be osteoconductive, with new bone growth incorporating the degrading scaffold materials. In conclusion, this study demonstrates optimization of material parameters for 3D printed calcium phosphate scaffolds and enhancement of material properties by volumetric collagen incorporation via inkjet printing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inkjet-based adaptive planarization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Grigas, Michelle M.; Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Sreenivasan, Srinivasan V.

    2017-03-01

    that should have been polished away. Preventive techniques like dummy fill and patterned resist can be used to reduce the variation in pattern density. These techniques increase the complexity of the planarization process and significantly limit the device design flexibility. Contact Planarization (CP) has also been reported as an alternative to the CMP processing [7], [8]. A substrate is spin coated with a photo curable material and pre baked to remove residual solvent. An ultra-flat surface or an optical flat is pressed on the spin-coated wafer. The material is forced to reflow. Pressure is used to spread out material evenly and achieve global planarization. The substrate is then exposed to UV radiation to harden the photo curable material. Although attractive, this process is not adaptive as it does not account for differences in surface topography of the wafer and the optical flat, nor can it address all the parasitics that arise during the process itself. The optical flat leads to undesirable planarization of even the substrate nominal shape and nanotopography, which corrupts the final film thickness profile. Hence, it becomes extremely difficult to eliminate this signature to a desirable extent without introducing other parasitic signatures. An example of this is shown in Figure 1. In this paper, a novel adaptive planarization process has been presented that potentially addresses the problems associated with planarization of varying pattern density, even in the presence of pre-existing substrate topography [9]. This process is called Inkjet-enabled Adaptive Planarization (IAP). The IAP process uses an inverse optimization scheme, built around a validated fluid mechanics-based forward model [10], that takes the pre-existing substrate topography and pattern layout as inputs. It then generates an inkjet drop pattern with a material distribution that is correlated with the desired planarization film profile. This allows a contiguous film to be formed with the desired

  10. Printed Thin Film Transistors: Research from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sichao; Sun, Jia; Yang, Junliang

    2018-03-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) have experienced tremendous development during the past decades and show great potential applications in flat displays, sensors, radio frequency identification tags, logic circuit, and so on. The printed TFTs are the key components for rapid development and commercialization of printed electronics. The researchers in China play important roles to accelerate the development and commercialization of printed TFTs. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the research progress of printed TFTs on rigid and flexible substrates from China. The review will focus on printing techniques of TFTs, printed TFTs components including semiconductors, dielectrics and electrodes, as well as fully-printed TFTs and printed flexible TFTs. Furthermore, perspectives on the remaining challenges and future developments are proposed as well.

  11. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of out of plane compressive strength of 3D printed sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, V.; Yap, Y. L.; Goh, G. D.; Yang, H.; Lim, J. C.; Qi, X.; Yeong, W. Y.; Wei, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to manufacture the sandwich composites. Composite filament fabrication based 3D printer was used to print the face-sheet, and inkjet 3D printer was used to print the sandwich core structure. This work aims to study the compressive failure of the sandwich structure manufactured by using these two manufacturing techniques. Two different types of core structures were investigated with the same type of face-sheet configuration. The core structures were printed using photopolymer, while the face-sheet was made using nylon/glass. The out-of-plane compressive strength of the 3D printed sandwich composite structure has been examined in accordance with ASTM standards C365/C365-M and presented in this paper.

  13. Electricity generation from digitally printed cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Marin; Fantuzzi, Andrea; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2017-11-06

    Microbial biophotovoltaic cells exploit the ability of cyanobacteria and microalgae to convert light energy into electrical current using water as the source of electrons. Such bioelectrochemical systems have a clear advantage over more conventional microbial fuel cells which require the input of organic carbon for microbial growth. However, innovative approaches are needed to address scale-up issues associated with the fabrication of the inorganic (electrodes) and biological (microbe) parts of the biophotovoltaic device. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using a simple commercial inkjet printer to fabricate a thin-film paper-based biophotovoltaic cell consisting of a layer of cyanobacterial cells on top of a carbon nanotube conducting surface. We show that these printed cyanobacteria are capable of generating a sustained electrical current both in the dark (as a 'solar bio-battery') and in response to light (as a 'bio-solar-panel') with potential applications in low-power devices.

  14. 3D printed helical antenna with lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-12-19

    The gain of an antenna can be enhanced through the integration of a lens, however this technique has traditionally been restricted to planar antennas due to fabrication limitations of standard manufacturing processes. Here, with a unique combination of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a Fresnel lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a Fresnel lens enhances the gain of a 2-turn helix by around 4.6 dB giving a peak gain of about 12.9 dBi at 8.8 GHz.

  15. 3D metal droplet printing development and advanced materials additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Murr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While commercial additive manufacturing processes involving direct metal wire or powder deposition along with powder bed fusion technologies using laser and electron beam melting have proliferated over the past decade, inkjet printing using molten metal droplets for direct, 3D printing has been elusive. In this paper we review the more than three decades of development of metal droplet generation for precision additive manufacturing applications utilizing advanced, high-temperature metals and alloys. Issues concerning process optimization, including product structure and properties affected by oxidation are discussed and some comparisons of related additive manufactured microstructures are presented.

  16. Printing technologies in fabrication of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Viitala, Tapani; Ihalainen, Petri; Genina, Natalja; Peltonen, Jouko; Sandler, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    There has been increased activity in the field recently regarding the development and research on various printing techniques in fabrication of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. These technologies may offer benefits and flexibility in manufacturing, potentially paving the way for personalized dosing and tailor-made dosage forms. In this review, the most recent observations and advancements in fabrication of drug delivery systems by utilizing printing technologies are summarized. A general overview of 2D printing techniques is presented including a review of the most recent literature where printing techniques are used in fabrication of drug delivery systems. The future perspectives and possible impacts on formulation strategies, flexible dosing and personalized medication of using printing techniques for fabrication of drug delivery systems are discussed. It is evident that there is an urgent need to meet the challenges of rapidly growing trend of personalization of medicines through development of flexible drug-manufacturing approaches. In this context, various printing technologies, such as inkjet and flexography, can play an important role. Challenges on different levels exist and include: i) technological development of printers and production lines; ii) printable formulations and carrier substrates; iii) quality control and characterization; and iv) regulatory perspectives.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of performance of three-dimensional printed lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawedzinski, John; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the shape, surface quality, and imaging capabilities of custom three-dimensional (3-D) printed lenses. 3-D printing technology enables lens prototypes to be fabricated without restrictions on surface geometry. Thus, spherical, aspherical, and rotationally nonsymmetric lenses can be manufactured in an integrated production process. This technique serves as a noteworthy alternative to multistage, labor-intensive, abrasive processes, such as grinding, polishing, and diamond turning. Here, we evaluate the quality of lenses fabricated by Luxexcel using patented Printoptical©; technology that is based on an inkjet printing technique by comparing them to lenses made with traditional glass processing technologies (grinding, polishing, etc.). The surface geometry and roughness of the lenses were evaluated using white-light and Fizeau interferometers. We have compared peak-to-valley wavefront deviation, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error, radii of curvature, and the arithmetic roughness average (Ra) profile of plastic and glass lenses. In addition, the imaging performance of selected pairs of lenses was tested using 1951 USAF resolution target. The results indicate performance of 3-D printed optics that could be manufactured with surface roughness comparable to that of injection molded lenses (Ra<20 nm). The RMS wavefront error of 3-D printed prototypes was at a minimum 18.8 times larger than equivalent glass prototypes for a lens with a 12.7 mm clear aperture, but, when measured within 63% of its clear aperture, the 3-D printed components' RMS wavefront error was comparable to glass lenses.

  18. Effect of doctoring on the performance of direct gravure printing for conductive microfine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Hoang, Huu; Lim Ko, Sung

    2015-11-01

    Printed electronics on flexible thin film has challenged and inspired the motivation of scientists in many fields. Among traditional printing methods such as stamping, flexography, offset, screen-printing, and inkjet, the gravure method is expected to reduce costs and increase productivity for printed electronics applications. In this research, conductive microfine line patterns, which print out the layer as microelectrodes for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) or microcircuit lines, have been designed with different size widths and lengths according to the printing direction, MD (machine direction), and CMD (cross machine direction, or transverse direction, TD, which is popularly used in industry). These patterns were printed with nano-particle silver ink on PI thin film, but had some serious problems with discontinuity and less filling after doctoring and printing. To solve these problems, the doctoring effect is investigated and analyzed before ink transferring, mainly in the printing machine direction and CMD. The uniformity and accuracy of the microfine lines are controlled and improved in order to achieve the stability of the printed pattern lines. In this work, considering the effect of the deflection of the doctor blade in the CMD (transverse direction), a doctoring model in the CMD is proposed and compared with the experimental result. Experimentally, proper doctoring conditions like blade stiffness and doctoring pressure are sought.

  19. Effect of doctoring on the performance of direct gravure printing for conductive microfine lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Huu Phuong; Ko, Sung Lim

    2015-01-01

    Printed electronics on flexible thin film has challenged and inspired the motivation of scientists in many fields. Among traditional printing methods such as stamping, flexography, offset, screen-printing, and inkjet, the gravure method is expected to reduce costs and increase productivity for printed electronics applications. In this research, conductive microfine line patterns, which print out the layer as microelectrodes for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) or microcircuit lines, have been designed with different size widths and lengths according to the printing direction, MD (machine direction), and CMD (cross machine direction, or transverse direction, TD, which is popularly used in industry). These patterns were printed with nano-particle silver ink on PI thin film, but had some serious problems with discontinuity and less filling after doctoring and printing. To solve these problems, the doctoring effect is investigated and analyzed before ink transferring, mainly in the printing machine direction and CMD. The uniformity and accuracy of the microfine lines are controlled and improved in order to achieve the stability of the printed pattern lines. In this work, considering the effect of the deflection of the doctor blade in the CMD (transverse direction), a doctoring model in the CMD is proposed and compared with the experimental result. Experimentally, proper doctoring conditions like blade stiffness and doctoring pressure are sought. (paper)

  20. 75 FR 45663 - In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Corrected Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-730] In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies... United States after importation of certain inkjet ink supplies and components thereof by reason of... inkjet ink supplies or components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-5, 7, 22-25, and 27-28 of...