Robust time and frequency domain estimation methods in adaptive control
Lamaire, Richard Orville
1987-01-01
A robust identification method was developed for use in an adaptive control system. The type of estimator is called the robust estimator, since it is robust to the effects of both unmodeled dynamics and an unmeasurable disturbance. The development of the robust estimator was motivated by a need to provide guarantees in the identification part of an adaptive controller. To enable the design of a robust control system, a nominal model as well as a frequency-domain bounding function on the modeling uncertainty associated with this nominal model must be provided. Two estimation methods are presented for finding parameter estimates, and, hence, a nominal model. One of these methods is based on the well developed field of time-domain parameter estimation. In a second method of finding parameter estimates, a type of weighted least-squares fitting to a frequency-domain estimated model is used. The frequency-domain estimator is shown to perform better, in general, than the time-domain parameter estimator. In addition, a methodology for finding a frequency-domain bounding function on the disturbance is used to compute a frequency-domain bounding function on the additive modeling error due to the effects of the disturbance and the use of finite-length data. The performance of the robust estimator in both open-loop and closed-loop situations is examined through the use of simulations.
An Improved Traffic Matrix Decomposition Method with Frequency Domain Regularization
Wang, Zhe; Yin, Baolin
2012-01-01
In this letter, we propose a novel network traffic matrix decomposition method named as Stable Principal Component Pursuit with Frequency Domain Regularization (SPCP-FDR). SPCP-FDR improves the Stable Principal Component Pursuit (SPCP) method by using a new noise regularization function defined in frequency domain. Compared with SPCP, SPCP-FDR is more adaptive to empirical frequency properties of diverse traffic components. The Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) algorithm for SPCP-FDR is presented. Our experiment results demonstrate the rationality of this new method.
An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain
Wang, Tong; Zhang, Lingmi; Tamura, Yukio
2005-12-01
A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.
An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Tong; Zhang Lingmi; Tamura Yukio
2005-01-01
A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.
Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method in Nanophotonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra
is often indispensable. This thesis presents the development of rigorous finite-difference method, a very general tool to solve Maxwell’s equations in arbitrary geometries in three dimensions, with an emphasis on the frequency-domain formulation. Enhanced performance of the perfectly matched layers...... is obtained through free space squeezing technique, and nonuniform orthogonal grids are built to greatly improve the accuracy of simulations of highly heterogeneous nanostructures. Examples of the use of the finite-difference frequency-domain method in this thesis range from simulating localized modes...
A Frequency Domain Design Method For Sampled-Data Compensators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik
1990-01-01
A new approach to the design of a sampled-data compensator in the frequency domain is investigated. The starting point is a continuous-time compensator for the continuous-time system which satisfy specific design criteria. The new design method will graphically show how the discrete...
Damping identification in frequency domain using integral method
Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Ma, Jiangang; Zhang, Wulin
2015-03-01
A new method for damping identification of linear system in frequency domain is presented, by using frequency response function (FRF) with integral method. The FRF curve is firstly transformed to other type of frequency-related curve by changing the representations of horizontal and vertical axes. For the newly constructed frequency-related curve, integral is conducted and the area forming from the new curve is used to determine the damping. Three different methods based on integral are proposed in this paper, which are called FDI-1, FDI-2 and FDI-3 method, respectively. For a single degree of freedom (Sdof) system, the formulated relation of each method between integrated area and loss factor is derived theoretically. The numeral simulation and experiment results show that, the proposed integral methods have high precision, strong noise resistance and are very stable in repeated measurements. Among the three integral methods, FDI-3 method is the most recommended because of its higher accuracy and simpler algorithm. The new methods are limited to linear system in which modes are well separated, and for closely spaced mode system, mode decomposition process should be conducted firstly.
Frequency Domain Storage Ring Method for Electric Dipole Moment Measurement
Talman, Richard
2015-01-01
Precise measurement of the electric dipole moments (EDM) of fundamental charged particles would provide a significant probe of physics beyond the standard model. Any measurably large EDM would imply violation of both time reversal and parity conservation, with implications for the matter/anti-matter imbalance of the universe, not currently understood within the standard model. A frequency domain (i.e. difference of frequencies) method is proposed for measuring the EDM of electrons or protons or, with modifications, deuterons. Anticipated precision (i.e. reproducibility) is $10^{-30}\\,$e-cm for the proton EDM, with comparable accuracy (i.e. including systematic error). This would be almost six orders of magnitude smaller than the present upper limit, and will provide a stringent test of the standard model. Resonant polarimetry, made practical by the large polarized beam charge, is the key (most novel, least proven) element of the method. Along with the phase-locked, rolling polarization "Koop spin wheel," reso...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1996-12-31
A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.
Numerical methods for time-domain and frequency-domain analysis: applications in engineering
Tamas, R. D.
2015-11-01
Numerical methods are widely used for modeling different physical phenomena in engineering, especially when an analytic approach is not possible. Time-domain or frequency- domain type variations are generally investigated, depending on the nature of the process under consideration. Some methods originate from mechanics, although most of their applications belong to other fields, such as electromagnetism. Conversely, other methods were firstly developed for electromagnetism, but their field of application was extended to other fields. This paper presents some results that we have obtained by using a general purpose method for solving linear equations, i.e., the method of moments (MoM), and a time-domain method derived for electromagnetism, i.e., the Transmission Line Matrix method (TLM).
A review of time-domain and frequency-domain component mode synthesis method
Craig, R. R., Jr.
1985-01-01
Hurty (1965) has conducted a dynamic analysis of structural systems using component modes. The component mode synthesis (CMS) procedure considered by him represents a form of substructure coupling analysis which is often utilized in structural dynamics. Time-domain CMS methods employing real modes are discussed, taking into account real component modes, normal modes, redundant constraint modes, rigid-body modes, attachment modes, inertia-relief modes, statically-complete interface mode sets, dynamic component mode supersets, component modal models, the coupling of components, and the classification of methods. Attention is also given to the experimental determination of component mode synthesis parameters, time-domain CMS methods for damped systems, and frequency-domain CMS methods for damped systems.
On the Analysis Methods for the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Response of a Buried Objects*
Poljak, Dragan; Šesnić, Silvestar; Cvetković, Mario
2014-05-01
There has been a continuous interest in the analysis of ground-penetrating radar systems and related applications in civil engineering [1]. Consequently, a deeper insight of scattering phenomena occurring in a lossy half-space, as well as the development of sophisticated numerical methods based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Method of Moments (MoM) and various hybrid methods, is required, e.g. [2], [3]. The present paper deals with certain techniques for time and frequency domain analysis, respectively, of buried conducting and dielectric objects. Time domain analysis is related to the assessment of a transient response of a horizontal straight thin wire buried in a lossy half-space using a rigorous antenna theory (AT) approach. The AT approach is based on the space-time integral equation of the Pocklington type (time domain electric field integral equation for thin wires). The influence of the earth-air interface is taken into account via the simplified reflection coefficient arising from the Modified Image Theory (MIT). The obtained results for the transient current induced along the electrode due to the transmitted plane wave excitation are compared to the numerical results calculated via an approximate transmission line (TL) approach and the AT approach based on the space-frequency variant of the Pocklington integro-differential approach, respectively. It is worth noting that the space-frequency Pocklington equation is numerically solved via the Galerkin-Bubnov variant of the Indirect Boundary Element Method (GB-IBEM) and the corresponding transient response is obtained by the aid of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The results calculated by means of different approaches agree satisfactorily. Frequency domain analysis is related to the assessment of frequency domain response of dielectric sphere using the full wave model based on the set of coupled electric field integral
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ke Xiao; Shang-Bo Zhou; Wei-Wei Zhang
2008-01-01
For a general nonlinear fractional-order differential equation, the numerical solution is a good way to approximate the trajectory of such systems. In this paper, a novel algorithm for numerical solution of fractional-order differential equations based on the definition of Grunwald-Letnikov is presented. The results of numerical solution by using the novel method and the frequency-domain method are compared, and the limitations of frequency-domain method arediscussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David O. Smallwood
1993-01-01
, that relates pairs of elements of the vector random process {X(t},−∞
Solving forward and inverse seismic problems by boundary-element method in frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xianxi, J.
1988-01-01
Solving the boundary value problem of wave equation by boundary element method in frequency domain involves these steps: 1. ID Fourier transform of time variable is made to convert the wave equation into Helmholtz equation; 2. this equation is then solved using boundary-element method in frequency domain; 3. the result is returned to time domain by making inverse Fourier transform. Compared with other formulas, the formula in this paper brings higher accuracy but less computation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ke Xiao; Shang-Bo Zhou; Wei-Wei Zhang
2008-01-01
For a general nonlinear fractional-orderdifferential equation, the numerical solution is a goodway to approximate the trajectory of such systems. Inthis paper, a novel algorithm for numerical solution offractional-order differential equations based on thedefinition of Grunwald-Letnikov is presented. Theresults of numerical solution by using the novel methodand the frequency-domain method are compared, and the limitations of frequency-domain method arediscussed.
Frequency-domain generelaized singular peruturbation method for relative error model order reduction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hamid Reza SHAKER
2009-01-01
A new mixed method for relative error model order reduction is proposed.In the proposed method the frequency domain balanced stochastic truncation method is improved by applying the generalized singular perturbation method to the frequency domain balanced system in the reduction procedure.The frequency domain balanced stochastic truncation method,which was proposed in [15] and [17] by the author,is based on two recently developed methods,namely frequency domain balanced truncation within a desired frequency bound and inner-outer factorization techniques.The proposed method in this paper is a carry over of the frequency-domain balanced stochastic truncation and is of interest for practical model order reduction because in this context it shows to keep the accuracy of the approximation as high as possible without sacrificing the computational efficiency and important system properties.It is shown that some important properties of the frequency domain stochastic balanced reduction technique are extended to the proposed reduction method by using the concept and properties of the reciprocal systems.Numerical results show the accuracy,simplicity and flexibility enhancement of the method.
The application of finite element method to forward and inverse seismic problems in frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaoyou, J.; Xiangheng, J.; Shizhe, X.
1987-04-01
Unstable result is obtained when the boundary problem of wave equation is solved using finite element method in time domain. However, when the boundary problem of wave equation is solved by finite element method in frequency domain, not only the unstablity can be avoided but also computation is speeded up because of using FFT. The procedure for solving the boundary problem using finite element method in frequency domain is as follows: 1. the wave equation is transformed into Helmholtz equation by making one-dimensional Fourier transform with respect to time; 2. Helmholtz equation is solved using finite element method in frequency domain; 3. the obtained result is returned to time domain by making inverse Fourier transform. Both forward and inverse seismic problems can be solved by this method.
Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)
2016-12-15
Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.
Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain
Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Na; Liu, Qing Huo
2016-12-01
Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.
Comparison of Frequency-Domain Array Methods for Studying Earthquake Rupture Process
Sheng, Y.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.
2014-12-01
Seismic array methods, in both time- and frequency- domains, have been widely used to study the rupture process and energy radiation of earthquakes. With better spatial resolution, the high-resolution frequency-domain methods, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) (Schimdt, 1986; Meng et al., 2011) and the recently developed Compressive Sensing (CS) technique (Yao et al., 2011, 2013), are revealing new features of earthquake rupture processes. We have performed various tests on the methods of MUSIC, CS, minimum-variance distortionless response (MVDR) Beamforming and conventional Beamforming in order to better understand the advantages and features of these methods for studying earthquake rupture processes. We use the ricker wavelet to synthesize seismograms and use these frequency-domain techniques to relocate the synthetic sources we set, for instance, two sources separated in space but, their waveforms completely overlapping in the time domain. We also test the effects of the sliding window scheme on the recovery of a series of input sources, in particular, some artifacts that are caused by the sliding window scheme. Based on our tests, we find that CS, which is developed from the theory of sparsity inversion, has relatively high spatial resolution than the other frequency-domain methods and has better performance at lower frequencies. In high-frequency bands, MUSIC, as well as MVDR Beamforming, is more stable, especially in the multi-source situation. Meanwhile, CS tends to produce more artifacts when data have poor signal-to-noise ratio. Although these techniques can distinctly improve the spatial resolution, they still produce some artifacts along with the sliding of the time window. Furthermore, we propose a new method, which combines both the time-domain and frequency-domain techniques, to suppress these artifacts and obtain more reliable earthquake rupture images. Finally, we apply this new technique to study the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan Zhisheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: duanzs@pku.edu.cn; Wang Jinzhi; Yang Ying; Huang Lin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2009-04-30
This paper surveys frequency-domain and time-domain methods for feedback nonlinear systems and their possible applications to chaos control, coupled systems and complex dynamical networks. The absolute stability of Lur'e systems with single equilibrium and global properties of a class of pendulum-like systems with multi-equilibria are discussed. Time-domain and frequency-domain criteria for the convergence of solutions are presented. Some latest results on analysis and control of nonlinear systems with multiple equilibria and applications to chaos control are reviewed. Finally, new chaotic oscillating phenomena are shown in a pendulum-like system and a new nonlinear system with an attraction/repulsion function.
A hybrid analysis method for linear dynamic soil-structure interaction in time and frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁海平; 廖振鹏
2001-01-01
A hybrid analysis method in time and frequency domains for linear soil-structure interaction is presented. First, the time domain solution of the system with Rayleigh damping excited by a short time impulse is obtained by the decoupling numerical simulation technique of near-field wave motion. Then, the corresponding frequency domain solution can be got by Fourier transform. According to the relationship between damping value and dynamic re-sponse of a system, the solution of the system with complex damping can be got by Taylor expansion. The hybrid method makes the best of decoupling and explicit algorithm in time domain, and increases the calculation efficien-cy for linear soil-structure interaction analysis.
A frequency domain radar interferometric imaging (FII) technique based on high-resolution methods
Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Helal, D.; Crochet, M.
2001-01-01
In the present work, we propose a frequency-domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique for a better knowledge of the vertical distribution of the atmospheric scatterers detected by MST radars. This is an extension of the dual frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) technique to multiple frequencies. Its objective is to reduce the ambiguity (resulting from the use of only two adjacent frequencies), inherent with the FDI technique. Different methods, commonly used in antenna array processing, are first described within the context of application to the FII technique. These methods are the Fourier-based imaging, the Capon's and the singular value decomposition method used with the MUSIC algorithm. Some preliminary simulations and tests performed on data collected with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan) are also presented. This work is a first step in the developments of the FII technique which seems to be very promising.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何艳丽; 董石麟
2002-01-01
Large span spatial lattice structures have many natural frequencies in a narrow frequency range, the conventional frequency domain method is difficult to contain all significant contribution modes. Through numerical examples, it is found that some high order modes are likely to be overlooked because of their higher positions of modal order, in spite of their significance to wind response. According to the contributions of modes to strain energy of system, the paper presented an efficient method to compensate the errors owing to missing out some significant high order modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through a numerical analysis of the wind responses of a spherical dome.
Nonlinear system identification NARMAX methods in the time, frequency, and spatio-temporal domains
Billings, Stephen A
2013-01-01
Nonlinear System Identification: NARMAX Methods in the Time, Frequency, and Spatio-Temporal Domains describes a comprehensive framework for the identification and analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems in the time, frequency, and spatio-temporal domains. This book is written with an emphasis on making the algorithms accessible so that they can be applied and used in practice. Includes coverage of: The NARMAX (nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs) modelThe orthogonal least squares algorithm that allows models to be built term by
Modeling of Nanophotonic Resonators with the Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry
2011-01-01
Finite-difference frequency-domain method with perfectly matched layers and free-space squeezing is applied to model open photonic resonators of arbitrary morphology in three dimensions. Treating each spatial dimension independently, nonuniform mesh of continuously varying density can be built ea...
The PolyMAX Frequency-Domain Method: A New Standard for Modal Parameter Estimation?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Peeters
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, a new non-iterative frequency-domain parameter estimation method was proposed. It is based on a (weighted least-squares approach and uses multiple-input-multiple-output frequency response functions as primary data. This so-called “PolyMAX” or polyreference least-squares complex frequency-domain method can be implemented in a very similar way as the industry standard polyreference (time-domain least-squares complex exponential method: in a first step a stabilisation diagram is constructed containing frequency, damping and participation information. Next, the mode shapes are found in a second least-squares step, based on the user selection of stable poles. One of the specific advantages of the technique lies in the very stable identification of the system poles and participation factors as a function of the specified system order, leading to easy-to-interpret stabilisation diagrams. This implies a potential for automating the method and to apply it to “difficult” estimation cases such as high-order and/or highly damped systems with large modal overlap. Some real-life automotive and aerospace case studies are discussed. PolyMAX is compared with classical methods concerning stability, accuracy of the estimated modal parameters and quality of the frequency response function synthesis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc power electronic systems are widely used in a variety of applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircraft and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions and frequency coupling between network...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...... and loads and other converters. Hence, time-domain simulations are usually required to consider such a complex system behavior. However, simulations in the time-domain may increase the calculation time and the utilization of computer memory. Furthermore, frequency coupling driven by multiple converters...
Pragmatic circuits frequency domain
Eccles, William
2006-01-01
Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC
Panayappan, Kadappan
With the advent of sub-micron technologies and increasing awareness of Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC) issues, designers are often interested in full- wave solutions of complete systems, taking to account a variety of environments in which the system operates. However, attempts to do this substantially increase the complexities involved in computing full-wave solutions, especially when the problems involve multi- scale geometries with very fine features. For such problems, even the well-established numerical methods, such as the time domain technique FDTD and the frequency domain methods FEM and MoM, are often challenged to the limits of their capabilities. In an attempt to address such challenges, three novel techniques have been introduced in this work, namely Dipole Moment (DM) Approach, Recursive Update in Frequency Domain (RUFD) and New Finite Difference Time Domain ( vFDTD). Furthermore, the efficacy of the above techniques has been illustrated, via several examples, and the results obtained by proposed techniques have been compared with other existing numerical methods for the purpose of validation. The DM method is a new physics-based approach for formulating MoM problems, which is based on the use of dipole moments (DMs), as opposed to the conventional Green's functions. The absence of the Green's functions, as well as those of the vector and scalar potentials, helps to eliminate two of the key sources of difficulties in the conventional MoM formulation, namely the singularity and low-frequency problems. Specifically, we show that there are no singularities that we need to be concerned with in the DM formulation; hence, this obviates the need for special techniques for integrating these singularities. Yet another salutary feature of the DM approach is its ability to handle thin and lossy structures, or whether they are metallic, dielectric-type, or even combinations thereof. We have found that the DM formulation can handle these
A frequency-spatial domain decomposition (FSDD) method for operational modal analysis
Zhang, Lingmi; Wang, Tong; Tamura, Yukio
2010-07-01
Following a brief review of the development of operational modal identification techniques, we describe a new method named frequency-spatial domain decomposition (FSDD), with theoretical background, formulation and algorithm. Three typical applications to civil engineering structures are presented to demonstrate the procedure and features of the method: a large-span stadium roof for finite-element model verification, a highway bridge for damage detection and a long-span cable-stayed bridge for structural health monitoring.
2.5-D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modelling using finite-element method
Zhao, Jian-guo; Huang, Xing-xing; Liu, Wei-fang; Zhao, Wei-jun; Song, Jian-yong; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Shang-xu
2017-10-01
2-D seismic modelling has notable dynamic information discrepancies with field data because of the implicit line-source assumption, whereas 3-D modelling suffers from a huge computational burden. The 2.5-D approach is able to overcome both of the aforementioned limitations. In general, the earth model is treated as an elastic material, but the real media is viscous. In this study, we develop an accurate and efficient frequency-domain finite-element method (FEM) for modelling 2.5-D viscoelastic wave propagation. To perform the 2.5-D approach, we assume that the 2-D viscoelastic media are based on the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and a 3-D point source. The viscoelastic wave equation is temporally and spatially Fourier transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain. Then, we systematically derive the weak form and its spatial discretization of 2.5-D viscoelastic wave equations in the frequency-wavenumber domain through the Galerkin weighted residual method for FEM. Fixing a frequency, the 2-D problem for each wavenumber is solved by FEM. Subsequently, a composite Simpson formula is adopted to estimate the inverse Fourier integration to obtain the 3-D wavefield. We implement the stiffness reduction method (SRM) to suppress artificial boundary reflections. The results show that this absorbing boundary condition is valid and efficient in the frequency-wavenumber domain. Finally, three numerical models, an unbounded homogeneous medium, a half-space layered medium and an undulating topography medium, are established. Numerical results validate the accuracy and stability of 2.5-D solutions and present the adaptability of finite-element method to complicated geographic conditions. The proposed 2.5-D modelling strategy has the potential to address modelling studies on wave propagation in real earth media in an accurate and efficient way.
Fast time- and frequency-domain finite-element methods for electromagnetic analysis
Lee, Woochan
Fast electromagnetic analysis in time and frequency domain is of critical importance to the design of integrated circuits (IC) and other advanced engineering products and systems. Many IC structures constitute a very large scale problem in modeling and simulation, the size of which also continuously grows with the advancement of the processing technology. This results in numerical problems beyond the reach of existing most powerful computational resources. Different from many other engineering problems, the structure of most ICs is special in the sense that its geometry is of Manhattan type and its dielectrics are layered. Hence, it is important to develop structure-aware algorithms that take advantage of the structure specialties to speed up the computation. In addition, among existing time-domain methods, explicit methods can avoid solving a matrix equation. However, their time step is traditionally restricted by the space step for ensuring the stability of a time-domain simulation. Therefore, making explicit time-domain methods unconditionally stable is important to accelerate the computation. In addition to time-domain methods, frequency-domain methods have suffered from an indefinite system that makes an iterative solution difficult to converge fast. The first contribution of this work is a fast time-domain finite-element algorithm for the analysis and design of very large-scale on-chip circuits. The structure specialty of on-chip circuits such as Manhattan geometry and layered permittivity is preserved in the proposed algorithm. As a result, the large-scale matrix solution encountered in the 3-D circuit analysis is turned into a simple scaling of the solution of a small 1-D matrix, which can be obtained in linear (optimal) complexity with negligible cost. Furthermore, the time step size is not sacrificed, and the total number of time steps to be simulated is also significantly reduced, thus achieving a total cost reduction in CPU time. The second contribution
A Novel Absorbing Boundary Condition for the Frequency-DependentFinite-Difference Time-Domain Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A new absorbing boundary condition (ABC) for frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain algorithm for the arbitrary dispersive media is presented. The concepts of the digital systems are introduced to the (FD)2TD method. On the basis of digital filter designing and vector algebra, the absorbing boundary condition under arbitrary angle of incidence are derived. The transient electromagnetic problems in two-dimensions and three-dimensions are calculated and the validity of the ABC is verified.
An Adaptive Steganographic Method in Frequency Domain Based on Statistical Metrics of Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyyed Amin Seyyedi
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Steganography is a branch of information hiding. A tradeoff between the hiding payload and quality of digital image steganographic schemes is major challenge of the steganographic methods. An adaptive steganographic method for embedding secret message into gray scale images is proposed. Before embedding the secret message, the cover image is transformed into frequency domain by integer wavelet. The middle frequency band of cover image is partitioned into 4×4 non overlapping blocks. The blocks by deviation and entropy metrics are classified into three categories: smooth, edge, and texture regions. Number of bits which can be embedded in a block is defined by block features. Moreover, RC4 encryption method is used to increase secrecy protection. Experimental results denote the feasibility of the proposed method. Statistical tests were conducted to collect related data to verify the security of method.
Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Forzati, Marco; Martensson, Jonas; Mussolin, Marco; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T
2016-01-01
The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.
Frequency domain optical tomography using a conjugate gradient method without line search
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca
2007-03-15
A conjugate gradient method without line search (CGMWLS) is presented. This method is used to retrieve the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the tissue-like test medium, with the synthetic data. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method based on the frequency domain formulation of radiative transfer equation. The inversion results demonstrate that the CGMWLS can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by reducing cross-talk between absorption and scattering coefficients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiuming Cheng
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The patterns shown on two-dimensional images (fields used in geosciences reflect the end products of geo-processes that occurred on the surface and in the subsurface of the Earth. Anisotropy of these types of patterns can provide information useful for interpretation of geo-processes and identification of features in the mapped area. Quantification of the anisotropy property is therefore essential for image processing and interpretation. This paper introduces several techniques newly developed on the basis of multifractal modeling in space, Fourier frequency, and eigen domains, respectively. A singularity analysis method implemented in the space domain can be used to quantify the intensity and anisotropy of local singularities. The second method, called S-A, characterizes the generalized scale invariance property of a field in the Fourier frequency domain. The third method characterizes the field using a power-law model on the basis of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the field. The applications of these methods are demonstrated with a case study of Environment Scan Electric Microscope (ESEM microimages for identification of sphalerite (ZnS ore minerals from the Jinding Pb/Zn/Ag mineral deposit in Shangjiang District, Yunnan Province, China.
Parallel full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain by the Gauss-Newton method
Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan
2016-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. We first test the inversion ability of three numerical optimization methods, i.e., the steepest-descent method, the Newton-CG method and the Gauss- Newton method, for a simple model. The results show that the Gauss-Newton method performs well and efficiently. Then numerical computations for a benchmark model named Marmousi model by the Gauss-Newton method are implemented. Parallel algorithm based on message passing interface (MPI) is applied as the inversion is a typical large-scale computational problem. Numerical computations show that the Gauss-Newton method has good ability to reconstruct the complex model.
Mid Frequency Shock Response Determination by Using Energy Flow Method and Time Domain Correction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hyun Woo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Shock induced vibration can be more crucial in the mid frequency range where the dynamic couplings with structural parts and components play important roles. To estimate the behavior of structures in this frequency range where conventional analytical schemes, such as statistical energy analysis (SEA and finite element analysis (FEA methods may become inaccurate, many alternative methodologies have been tried up to date. This study presents an effective and practical method to accurately predict transient responses in the mid frequency range without having to resort to the large computational efforts. Specifically, the present study employs the more realistic frequency response functions (FRFs from the energy flow method (EFM which is a hybrid method combining the pseudo SEA equation (or SEA-Like equation and modal information obtained by the finite element analysis (FEA. Furthermore, to obtain the time responses synthesized with modal characteristics, a time domain correction is practiced with the input force signal and the reference FRF on a position of the response subsystem. A numerical simulation is performed for a simple five plate model to show its suitability and effectiveness over the standard analytical schemes.
Copot, Cosmin; Zhong, Yu; Ionescu, Clara; Keyser, Robin
2013-06-01
In this paper, two methods to tune a fractional-order PI λ D μ controller for a mechatronic system are presented. The first method is based on a genetic algorithm to obtain the parameter values for the fractionalorder PI λ D μ controller by global optimization. The second method used to design the fractional-order PI λ D μ controller relies on an auto-tuning approach by meeting some specifications in the frequency domain. The real-time experiments are conducted using a Steward platform which consists of a table tilted by six servo-motors with a ball on the top of the table. The considered system is a 6 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) motion platform. The feedback on the position of the ball is obtained from images acquired by a visual sensor mounted above the platform. The fractional-order controllers were implemented and the performances of the steward platform are analyzed.
Adaptive eigenspace method for inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain
Grote, Marcus J.; Kray, Marie; Nahum, Uri
2017-02-01
A nonlinear optimization method is proposed for the solution of inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain, when the scattered field is governed by the Helmholtz equation. The time-harmonic inverse medium problem is formulated as a PDE-constrained optimization problem and solved by an inexact truncated Newton-type iteration. Instead of a grid-based discrete representation, the unknown wave speed is projected to a particular finite-dimensional basis of eigenfunctions, which is iteratively adapted during the optimization. Truncating the adaptive eigenspace (AE) basis at a (small and slowly increasing) finite number of eigenfunctions effectively introduces regularization into the inversion and thus avoids the need for standard Tikhonov-type regularization. Both analytical and numerical evidence underpins the accuracy of the AE representation. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and robustness to missing or noisy data of the resulting adaptive eigenspace inversion method.
An improved wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling.
Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Cannata, Jonathan
2014-03-01
In this paper, a recently developed wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling is improved and verified by numerical simulations and underwater experiments. Higher order numeric schemes are proposed that significantly increase the modeling accuracy, thereby allowing for a larger step size and shorter computation time. The improved algorithms replace the left-point Riemann sum in the original algorithm by the trapezoidal or Simpson's integration. Plane waves and a phased array were first studied to numerically validate the model. It is shown that the left-point Riemann sum, trapezoidal, and Simpson's integration have first-, second-, and third-order global accuracy, respectively. A highly focused therapeutic transducer was then used for experimental verifications. Short high-intensity pulses were generated. 2-D scans were conducted at a prefocal plane, which were later used as the input to the numerical model to predict the acoustic field at other planes. Good agreement is observed between simulations and experiments.
Ultrasonic guided wave based damage imaging by time-reversal method in frequency-wavenumber domain
Xu, C. G.; Xu, B. Q.; Luo, Y.; Xu, G. D.; Lu, L. Z.
2017-05-01
More attention has been drawn to ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) based damage detection method for its advantages of wide range inspection of large scale structures. However, complex propagation characteristics of guided waves as well as traditional contact ultrasonic transducers limit its application for the practical damage detection. By combining Scanning Laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) technology, Time-Reversal method in frequency-wavenumber domain (f-k RTM) can compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves, localize multiple damage sites and identify their sizes without time consuming numerical calculation. In this work, we adopt f-k RTM for damage detection in plate-like structure. Instead of SLDV in experiment, 3D finite element numerical method is adopted to obtain scattered ultrasonic guided wavefield data with high spatial resolution. The direct path waves were extracted to obtain the incident wavefield while the scattered signals were used to calculate the scattering wave field. Damage imaging can also be achieved by introducing crosscorrelation imaging condition. Imaging results show that the method is very effective for crack localization and boundary shape-recognition. Numerical simulation results and imaging algorithm laid the foundation for the method applied in experiment and practice.
Double-grid finite-difference frequency-domain (DG-FDFD) method for scattering from chiral objects
Alkan, Erdogan; Elsherbeni, Atef
2013-01-01
This book presents the application of the overlapping grids approach to solve chiral material problems using the FDFD method. Due to the two grids being used in the technique, we will name this method as Double-Grid Finite Difference Frequency-Domain (DG-FDFD) method. As a result of this new approach the electric and magnetic field components are defined at every node in the computation space. Thus, there is no need to perform averaging during the calculations as in the aforementioned FDFD technique [16]. We formulate general 3D frequency-domain numerical methods based on double-grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Ruzzo
2016-10-01
Full Text Available System identification of offshore floating platforms is usually performed by testing small-scale models in wave tanks, where controlled conditions, such as still water for free decay tests, regular and irregular wave loading can be represented. However, this approach may result in constraints on model dimensions, testing time, and costs of the experimental activity. For such reasons, intermediate-scale field modelling of offshore floating structures may become an interesting as well as cost-effective alternative in a near future. Clearly, since the open sea is not a controlled environment, traditional system identification may become challenging and less precise. In this paper, a new approach based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD method for Operational Modal Analysis is proposed and validated against numerical simulations in ANSYS AQWA v.16.0 on a simple spar-type structure. The results obtained match well with numerical predictions, showing that this new approach, opportunely coupled with more traditional wave tanks techniques, proves to be very promising to perform field-site identification of the model structures.
On the convergence and causality of a frequency domain method for dynamic structural analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kuifu Chen; Senwen Zhang
2006-01-01
Venanico-Filho et al.developed an elegant matrix formulation for dynamic analysis by frequency domain (FD),but the convergence,causality and extended period need further refining.In the present Paper,it was argued that:(1) under reasonable assumptions (approximating the frequency response function by the discrete Fourier transform of the discretized unitary impulse response function),the matrix formulation by FD is equivalent to a circular convolution;(2) to avoid the wraparound Interference,the excitation vector and impulse response must be padded with enough zeros:(3) provided that the zero padding requirement satisfied,the convergence and accuracy of direct time domain analysis,which is equivalent to that by FD,are guaranteed by the numerical integration scheme;(4) the imaginary part of the computational response approaching zero is due to the continuity of the impulse response functions.
A Novel Ship Wake Detection Method of SAR Images Based on Frequency Domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Hao; Zhu Minhui
2003-01-01
Moving ships produce a set of waves of "V' pattern on the ocean. These waves can often be seen by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The detection of these wakes can provide important information for surveillance of shipping, such as ship traveling direction and speed. A novel approach to the detection of ship wakes in SAR images based on frequency domain is provided in this letter. Compared with traditional Radon-based approaches, computation is reduced by 20%-40% without losing nearly any of detection performance. The testing results using real data and simulation of synthetic SAR images test the algorithm's feasibility and robustness.
Frequency domain analysis of power system transients using Welch and Yule-Walker AR methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alkan, Ahmet [Department of Computer Engineering, Yasar University, 35500 Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ahmet S. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam University, 46050-9 Kahramanmaras (Turkey)
2007-07-15
In this study, power quality (PQ) signals are analyzed by using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The parameters of the autoregressive (AR) model were estimated by using the Yule-Walker method. PQ spectra were then used to compare the applied spectral estimation methods in terms of their frequency resolution and the effects in determination of spectral components. The variations in the shape of the obtained power spectra were examined in order to detect power system transients. Performance of the proposed methods was evaluated by means of power spectral densities (PSDs). Graphical results comparing the performance of the AR method with that of the Welch technique are given. The results demonstrate superior performance of the AR method over the Welch method. (author)
A Modified Frequency Domain Imaging Method for One-stationary Bistatic SAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Ri-chu
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BiSAR in one-stationary mode has many advantages over the traditional monostatic SAR. Its echo, however, shows serious space variance in both range and azimuth directions due to its complex imaging geometry, making it hard to be processed by the frequency methods used in the monostatic SAR. To solve that problem, a method based on blocks and interpolation has been proposed by Wang Yu et al.. With this method, points can be well focused except for those located on the edge of each block. In this paper, a modified method is put forward, which adopts new block-dividing strategy and new mapping relationship in the interpolation. With the proposed method, points on the edge can also be well focused, making the quality of the final image greatly improved.
Yin, Gang; Zhang, Yingtang; Mi, Songlin; Fan, Hongbo; Li, Zhining
2016-11-01
To obtain accurate magnetic gradient tensor data, a fast and robust calculation method based on regularized method in frequency domain was proposed. Using the potential field theory, the transform formula in frequency domain was deduced in order to calculate the magnetic gradient tensor from the pre-existing total magnetic anomaly data. By analyzing the filter characteristics of the Vertical vector transform operator (VVTO) and Gradient tensor transform operator (GTTO), we proved that the conventional transform process was unstable which would zoom in the high-frequency part of the data in which measuring noise locate. Due to the existing unstable problem that led to a low signal-to-noise (SNR) for the calculated result, we introduced regularized method in this paper. By selecting the optimum regularization parameters of different transform phases using the C-norm approach, the high frequency noise was restrained and the SNR was improved effectively. Numerical analysis demonstrates that most value and characteristics of the calculated data by the proposed method compare favorably with reference magnetic gradient tensor data. In addition, calculated magnetic gradient tensor components form real aeromagnetic survey provided better resolution of the magnetic sources and original profile.
The Sine Wave Tuning method: Robust PID controller design in the frequency domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Š. Bucz
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a novel robust PID controller design method for nominal performance specified in terms of maximum overshoot and settling time. The PID controller design provides guaranteed gain margin GM. The parameter of the tuning rules is a suitably chosen point of the plant frequency response obtained by a sine-wave signal with excitation frequency ωn. Then, the designed controller moves this point into the phase crossover with the required gain margin GM. The couple (ωn;GM is specified with respect to closed-loop performance requirements in terms of ηmax (maximum overshoot and ts (settling time according to developed parabolic dependences. The new approach has been verified on a vast batch of benchmark examples; subsequently, the developed algorithm has been extended to robust PID controller design for plants with unstable zero and unstructured uncertainties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Ahmadi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available To date, a number of numerical methods, including the popular Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD technique, have been proposed to simulate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR responses. Despite having a number of advantages, the finite-difference method also has pitfalls such as being very time consuming in simulating the most common case of media with high dielectric permittivity, causing the forward modelling process to be very long lasting, even with modern high-speed computers. In the present study the well-known hyperbolic pattern response of horizontal cylinders, usually found in GPR B-Scan images, is used as a basic model to examine the possibility of reducing the forward modelling execution time. In general, the simulated GPR traces of common reflected objects are time shifted, as with the Normal Moveout (NMO traces encountered in seismic reflection responses. This suggests the application of Fourier transform to the GPR traces, employing the time-shifting property of the transformation to interpolate the traces between the adjusted traces in the frequency domain (FD. Therefore, in the present study two post-processing algorithms have been adopted to increase the speed of forward modelling while maintaining the required precision. The first approach is based on linear interpolation in the Fourier domain, resulting in increasing lateral trace-to-trace interval of appropriate sampling frequency of the signal, preventing any aliasing. In the second approach, a super-resolution algorithm based on 2D-wavelet transform is developed to increase both vertical and horizontal resolution of the GPR B-Scan images through preserving scale and shape of hidden hyperbola features. Through comparing outputs from both methods with the corresponding actual high-resolution forward response, it is shown that both approaches can perform satisfactorily, although the wavelet-based approach outperforms the frequency-domain approach noticeably, both in amplitude and
Acworth, R. Ian; Halloran, Landon J. S.; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Bernardi, Tony L.
2016-11-01
The groundwater hydraulic head response to the worldwide and ubiquitous atmospheric tide at 2 cycles per day (cpd) is a direct function of confined aquifer compressible storage. The ratio of the responses of hydraulic head to the atmospheric pressure change is a measure of aquifer barometric efficiency, from which formation compressibility and aquifer specific storage can be determined in situ rather than resorting to laboratory or aquifer pumping tests. The Earth tide also impacts the hydraulic head response at the same frequency, and a method is developed here to quantify and remove this interference. As a result, the barometric efficiency can be routinely calculated from 6-hourly hydraulic head, atmospheric pressure, and modeled Earth tide records where available for a minimum of 15 days duration. This new approach will be of critical importance in assessing worldwide problems of land subsidence or groundwater resource evaluation that both occur due to groundwater abstraction.
Extension of the frequency-domain pFFT method for wave structure interaction in finite depth
Teng, Bin; Song, Zhi-jie
2017-06-01
To analyze wave interaction with a large scale body in the frequency domain, a precorrected Fast Fourier Transform (pFFT) method has been proposed for infinite depth problems with the deep water Green function, as it can form a matrix with Toeplitz and Hankel properties. In this paper, a method is proposed to decompose the finite depth Green function into two terms, which can form matrices with the Toeplitz and a Hankel properties respectively. Then, a pFFT method for finite depth problems is developed. Based on the pFFT method, a numerical code pFFT-HOBEM is developed with the discretization of high order elements. The model is validated, and examinations on the computing efficiency and memory requirement of the new method have also been carried out. It shows that the new method has the same advantages as that for infinite depth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomi Roinila
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs have demonstrated the ability of ultrasensitive detection of a wide range of biological and chemical targets. The detection is based on the variation of the conductance of a nanowire channel, which is caused by the target substance. This is seen in the voltage–current behavior between the drain and source. Some current, known as leakage current, flows between the gate and drain, and affects the current between the drain and source. Studies have shown that leakage current is frequency dependent. Measurements of such frequency characteristics can provide valuable tools in validating the functionality of the used transistor. The measurements can also be an advantage in developing new detection technologies utilizing SiNW FETs. The frequency-domain responses can be measured by using a commercial sine-sweep-based network analyzer. However, because the analyzer takes a long time, it effectively prevents the development of most practical applications. Another problem with the method is that in order to produce sinusoids the signal generator has to cope with a large number of signal levels. This may become challenging in developing low-cost applications. This paper presents fast, cost-effective frequency-domain methods with which to obtain the responses within seconds. The inverse-repeat binary sequence (IRS is applied and the admittance spectroscopy between the drain and source is computed through Fourier methods. The methods is verified by experimental measurements from an n-type SiNW FET.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gil-Cacho, Jose M.; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new framework to tackle the double-talk (DT) problem in acoustic echo cancellation (AEC). It is based on a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) implementation of the so-called prediction error method adaptive filtering using row operations (PEM-AFROW) leading...... to the FDAF-PEM-AFROW algorithm. We show that FDAF-PEM-AFROW is by construction related to the best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) of the echo path. We depart from this framework to show an improvement in performance with respect to other adaptive filters minimizing the BLUE criterion, namely the PEM...
Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram
2002-10-01
the tumor. * Combination of the above two points into a composite false-color breast image containing structural information (from the second...Antonangeli, A. Savoia, T. Parasassi, and N. Rosato, " Plastique : a synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain
Mata, Luz Angelica Caudillo; Schwarzbach, Christoph
2016-01-01
In order to reduce the computational cost of the simulation of electromagnetic responses in geophysical settings that involve highly heterogeneous media, we develop a multiscale finite volume method with oversampling for the quasi-static Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain. We assume a coarse mesh nested within a fine mesh that accurately discretizes the problem. For each coarse cell, we independently solve a local version of the original Maxwell's system subject to linear boundary conditions on an extended domain, which includes the coarse cell and a neighborhood of fine cells around it. The local Maxwell's system is solved using the fine mesh contained in the extended domain and the mimetic finite volume method. Next, these local solutions (basis functions) together with a weak-continuity condition are used to construct a coarse-mesh version of the global problem. The basis functions can be used to obtain the fine-mesh details from the solution of the coarse-mesh problem. Our approach leads to a sig...
Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Murayama, Hideaki; Kasai, Tokio
2014-03-24
A signal processing method based on group delay calculations is introduced for distributed measurements of long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Bragg wavelength shifts in interfered signals of OFDR are regarded as group delay. By calculating group delay, the distribution of Bragg wavelength shifts is obtained with high computational efficiency. We introduce weighted averaging process for noise reduction. This method required only 3.5% of signal processing time which was necessary for conventional equivalent signal processing based on short-time Fourier transform. The method also showed high sensitivity to experimental signals where non-uniform strain distributions existed in a long-length FBG.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca
2007-03-15
The Sensitivity Function-based Conjugate Gradient Method (SFCGM) is described. This method is used to solve the inverse problems of function estimation, such as the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients, as applied to optical tomography for biomedical imaging. A highly scattering, absorbing, non-reflecting, non-emitting medium is considered here and simultaneous reconstructions of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the test medium are achieved with the proposed optimization technique, by using the exit intensity measured at boundary surfaces. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method on the framework of the frequency-domain full equation of radiative transfer. The modulation frequency is set to 600 MHz and the frequency data, obtained with the source modulation, is used as the input data. The inversion results demonstrate that the SFCGM can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by significantly reducing a cross-talk between inter-parameters. It is also observed that the closer-to-detector objects are better retrieved.
Yahav, Gilad; Fixler, Dror; Gershanov, Sivan; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza
2016-03-01
Brain tumors are the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children, after leukemia. Patients with cancer in the central nervous system have a very low recovery rate. Today known imaging and cytology techniques are not always sensitive enough for an early detection of both tumor and its metastatic spread, moreover the detection is generally limited, reviewer dependent and takes a relatively long time. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The aim of our talk is to present the frequency domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system as a possible method for an early detection of MB and its metastatic spread in the cerebrospinal fluids within the pediatric population.
H2 consensus control of time-delayed multi-agent systems: A frequency-domain method.
Ye, Fei; Zhang, Weidong; Ou, Linlin
2017-01-01
An analytical H2 controller design approach of homogeneous multi-agent systems with time delays is presented to improve consensus performance. Firstly, a closed-loop multi-input multi-output framework in frequency domain is introduced, and a consensus tracking condition is given. Secondly, the decomposition method is utilized to simplify the analysis of internal stability and H2 performance index of the whole system to a set of independent optimization problems. Finally, the H2 optimal controller can be computed from all the stabilizing controllers. The contributions of the new approach are that the design procedure is conducted analytically for arbitrary delayed multi-agent systems, and a simple quantitative tuning way is developed to trade off the nominal performance and robustness. The simulation examples show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun
2016-01-01
The initial detection of dental caries is an essential biomedical requirement to barricade the progression of caries and tooth demineralization. The objective of this study is to introduce an optical frequency-domain imaging technique based quantitative evaluation method to calculate the volume and thickness of enamel residual, and a quantification method was developed to evaluate the total intensity fluctuation in depth direction owing to carious lesions, which can be favorable to identify the progression of dental caries in advance. The cross-sectional images of the ex vivo tooth samples were acquired using 1.3 μm spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT). Moreover, the advantages of the proposed method over the conventional dental inspection methods were compared to highlight the potential capability of OCT. As a consequence, the threshold parameters obtained through the developed method can be used as an efficient investigating technique for the initial detection of demineralization. PMID:27929440
Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations
Copeland, Dylan
2010-10-05
The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Comparison of the domain and frequency domain state feedbacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, S.Y.
1986-01-01
In this paper, we present explicitly the equivalence of the time domain and frequency domain state feedbacks, as well as the dynamic state feedback and a modified frequency domain state feedback, from the closed-loop transfer function point of view. The difference of the two approaches is also shown.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.; Simon, F., E-mail: ferenc.simon@univie.ac.at [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and MTA-BME Lendület Spintronics Research Group (PROSPIN), P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Murányi, F. [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)
2015-09-15
We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.
Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters
Lynn, D. W.
1990-01-01
A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.
Chou, Szu-Wei; Shiu, Guo-Rung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Peng, Wen-Ping
2012-11-01
We adopt an orthogonal wavelet packet decomposition (OWPD) filtering approach to cancel harmonic interference noises arising from an AC power source in time domain and remove the resulting rf voltage interference noise from the mass spectra acquired by using a charge detection frequency-scan quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. With the use of a phase lock resampling technique, the transform coefficients of the rf interference in signals become a constant, exhibiting a shift of the baseline in different rf phases. The rf interference is therefore removable by shifting the baselines back to zero in OWPD coefficients. The approach successfully reduces the time-domain background noise from 1367 electrons (rms) to 408 electrons (rms) (an improvement of 70 %) and removes the high frequency noise components in the charge detection ion trap mass spectrometry. Unlike other smoothing or averaging methods commonly used in the mass-to-charge (m/Ze) domain, our approach does not cause any distortion of original signals.
Frequency Domain Image Filtering Using CUDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Awais Rajput
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA?s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture. In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA?s parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butterworth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output image quality on both the processing architectures
Spatial frequency domain error budget
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D
1998-08-27
The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine
Frequency Domain Electroretinography in Retinitis Pigmentosa versus Normal Eyes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Homa Hassan-Karimi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare electroretinogram (ERG characteristics in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP and normal subjects using frequency domain analysis. Methods: Five basic ERG recordings were performed in normal subjects and patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP according to the ISCEV (International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol. Frequency domain analysis was performed by MATLAB software. Different frequency domain parameters were compared between the study groups. Results: Peak frequency (Fmod of flicker and oscillatory responses in RP patients showed significant (P<0.0001 high pass response as compared to normal controls. Peak frequency (Fmod of the other responses was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: In addition to conventional ERG using time domain methods, frequency domain analysis may be useful for diagnosis of RP. Oscillatory and flicker responses may be analyzed in frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform may reveal two distinct high pass responses (shift to higher frequencies in Fmod. Time and frequency domain analyses may be performed simultaneously with many modern ERG machines and may therefore be recommended in RP patients.
System Identification A Frequency Domain Approach
Pintelon, Rik
2012-01-01
System identification is a general term used to describe mathematical tools and algorithms that build dynamical models from measured data. Used for prediction, control, physical interpretation, and the designing of any electrical systems, they are vital in the fields of electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Focusing mainly on frequency domain techniques, System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, Second Edition also studies in detail the similarities and differences with the classical time domain approach. It high??lights many of the important steps in the identi
Error Analysis in Frequency Domain for Linear Multipass Algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Error analysis methods in frequency domain are developed in this paper for determining the characteristic root and transfer function errors when the linear multipass algorithms are used to solve linear differential equations.the relation between the local truncation error in time domain and the error in frequency domain is established, which is the basis for developing the error estimation methods. The error estimation methods for the digital simulation model constructed by using the Runge-Kutta algorithms and the linear multistep predictor-corrector algorithms are also given.
Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune;
2007-01-01
When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... by analysis of simulated responses of a 4 DOF system, for which the exact modal parameters are known. This estimation approach entails modal identification of the natural eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios by the frequency domain decomposition technique. Scaled mode shapes are determined by use...
Conversion of Dielectric Data from the Time Domain to the Frequency Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Durman
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Polarisation and conduction processes in dielectric systems can be identified by the time domain or the frequency domain measurements. If the systems is a linear one, the results of the time domain measurements can be transformed into the frequency domain, and vice versa. Commonly, the time domain data of the absorption conductivity are transformed into the frequency domain data of the dielectric susceptibility. In practice, the relaxation are mainly evaluated by the frequency domain data. In the time domain, the absorption current measurement were prefered up to now. Recent methods are based on the recovery voltage measurements. In this paper a new method of the recovery data conversion from the time the frequency domain is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the recovery voltage transient based on the Maxwell equation for the current density in a dielectric. Unlike the previous published solutions, the Laplace fransform was used to derive a formula suitable for practical purposes. the proposed procedure allows also calculating of the insulation resistance and separating the polarisation and conduction losses.
Potravkin, N N; Perezhogin, I A; Makarov, V A
2012-11-01
We propose an alternative method of integration of Maxwell equations. This method is the generalization of a finite-difference time-domain method with an auxiliary differential equation for the case of a linear optical medium with a frequency dispersion and an arbitrary source of spatial dispersion. We apply this method to the problem of the propagation of short plane-wave linearly polarized light pulses in such a medium. It is shown that some features of their propagation are completely different from those that are generally recognized for the linear optical activity phenomenon. For example, in some cases an initially linearly polarized light pulse becomes elliptically polarized during the propagation. This effect is more prominent in the front part of the pulse.
Asakura, T; Ishizuka, T; Miyajima, T; Toyoda, M; Sakamoto, S
2014-09-01
Due to limitations of computers, prediction of structure-borne sound remains difficult for large-scale problems. Herein a prediction method for low-frequency structure-borne sound transmissions on concrete structures using the finite-difference time-domain scheme is proposed. The target structure is modeled as a composition of multiple plate elements to reduce the dimensions of the simulated vibration field from three-dimensional discretization by solid elements to two-dimensional discretization. This scheme reduces both the calculation time and the amount of required memory. To validate the proposed method, the vibration characteristics using the numerical results of the proposed scheme are compared to those measured for a two-level concrete structure. Comparison of the measured and simulated results suggests that the proposed method can be used to simulate real-scale structures.
一种新的三维模型水印频域算法%A New Frequency Domain 3D Method for Watermarking in Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何文广; 王耀民
2011-01-01
In order to improve the robustness and efficiency, proposes a new frequency domain method for watermarking in 3D model. It defines a local geometric space using the topology of 3D model, and then, we extract a signal in spatial domain and transform it to a signal in frequency domain using discrete cosine transform（DCT）. After that, a watermark is embedded by modifying the frequency coefficients. Finally, we transform the changed signal back to a digital signal in spatial domain, which determine the new position of the selected vertex within their related spaces. This method is simple to realize, and pretreatment is not needed during detection procedure. The experimental result shows that the algorithm guaranteed the high performance of the watermark robustness such as translation, rotation, scaling, vertex permutation, model cropping and model simplification etc. And the result also presents an evident superiority in non sentience of watermark, excellent efficiency and accuracy of detection.%从提高三维模型数字水印的鲁棒性和效率出发．提出一种新的频域水印算法。该算法利用网格拓扑结构．构建出目标顶点所处的局部几何空间．进而提取出适用于DCT变换的信息序列，修改频域系数嵌入水印：然后通过逆向DCT转回空域信号，修改目标顶点在局部几何空间中的位置得到含水印模型。算法实现简单．水印检测无需预处理．且能有效抵抗平移、旋转、缩放、剪切、网格简化等攻击。实验结果表明，该算法具有很好的鲁棒性、水印的不可感知性、水印检测高效准确的优势。
Parker, Jr., Allen R (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Nino) (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A method and system for multiplexing a network of parallel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-fibers to a single acquisition channel of a closed Michelson interferometer system via a fiber splitter by distinguishing each branch of fiber sensors in the spatial domain. On each branch of the splitter, the fibers have a specific pre-determined length, effectively separating each branch of fiber sensors spatially. In the spatial domain the fiber branches are seen as part of one acquisition channel on the interrogation system. However, the FBG-reference arm beat frequency information for each fiber is retained. Since the beat frequency is generated between the reference arm, the effective fiber length of each successive branch includes the entire length of the preceding branch. The multiple branches are seen as one fiber having three segments where the segments can be resolved. This greatly simplifies optical, electronic and computational complexity, and is especially suited for use in multiplexed or branched OFS networks for SHM of large and/or distributed structures which need a lot of measurement points.
Realization of Thermal Inertia in Frequency Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boe-Shong Hong
2014-02-01
Full Text Available To realize the lagging behavior in heat conduction observed in these two decades, this paper firstly theoretically excludes the possibility that the underlying thermal inertia is a result of the time delay in heat diffusion. Instead, we verify in experiments the electro-thermal analogy, wherein the thermal inertial is parameterized by thermal inductance that formulates hyperbolic heat-conduction. The thermal hyperbolicity exhibits a special frequency response in Bode plot, wherein the amplitude ratios is kept flat after crossing some certain frequency, as opposed to Fourier heat-conduction. We apply this specialty to design an instrument that reliably identifies thermal inductances of some materials in frequency domain. The instrument is embedded with a DSP-based frequency synthesizer capable of modulating frequencies in utmost high-resolution. Thermal inertia implies a new possibility for energy storage in analogy to inductive energy storage in electricity or mechanics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tong Wu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.
Frequency domain processing of on-chip biphoton frequency comb
Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Odele, Ogaga D; Leaird, Daniel E; Ou, Zhe-Yu; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M
2016-01-01
Quantum information processing (QIP) promises to improve the security of our communications as well as to solve some algorithms with exponential complexity in polynomial time. Biphotons have been demonstrated as one of the most promising platforms for real implementations of QIP systems. In particular, time-bin entangled photons have been used for implementations of quantum gates which require highly stable interferometers. On the other hand, frequency-bin entanglement has been proposed to avoid the use of interferometers and the complexity of their stabilization, which potentially makes the implementation of quantum gates highly scalable. Through Fourier transform pulse shaping and electro-optic modulation, there has been a wide range of experiments that show control of entangled photons in the frequency domain. In addition, biphoton frequency combs (BFC) have also been generated using bulk optics and frequency filtering of broadband continuous biphoton spectra. However, on-chip entangled photon pair generat...
Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method
Clements, Keith
2017-01-01
The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谭芳; 宋亚男; 徐荣华; 胡凤娟
2013-01-01
针对频域方法和时域方法均被用于船舶动力定位系统建模,但未见特点和适用性对比研究的问题,以船舶动力定位系统参数辨识为对象,进行了频域法R-MISO (reverse multiple input-single output)和时域算法EKF (extended kalmanfilter)的算法实现难易程度、收敛速度、参数依赖性、抗噪能力和适应场合等的比较；基于MATLAB仿真结果显示RMISO算法辨识时间短,不需要设置初始值,适用于在线辨识,而EKF算法去噪能力比较强,需要数据量大,结果依赖初始值,适用于离线辨识,从而为实际船舶动力定位系统参数辨识提供一定的指导.%The methods of frequency domain and time domain are used in the ship dynamic positioning system model,in order to find the comparison of characteristics and applicability,the methods of frequency domain method R-MISO (reverse multiple input-single output) as well as the time domain identification method EKF (extended kalman filter) are taken into consideration in ship dynamic positioning system parameters identification,and carry out a comparative study of difficulty degree,convergence speed,parameter dependence,noise immunity ability and adapt to the comparison of the occasion of the methods.By the MATLAB simulation,the two algorithms are compared,the results show that the R-MISO algorithm is faster,and it doesn't need to provide the initial value,it can be better applied to the online identification,on the other hand the EKF method processes a stronger denoising ability,however it needs a larger number of data as well as the dependence of the initial value,it can be better applied to the offiine identification,to some degree a guidance is provided for the identification process of the ship dynamic positioning system.
Design PID controllers for desired time-domain or frequency-domain response.
Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yugeng; Yang, Genke; Xu, Xiaoming
2002-10-01
Practical requirements on the design of control systems, especially process control systems, are usually specified in terms of time-domain response, such as overshoot and rise time, or frequency-domain response, such as resonance peak and stability margin. Although numerous methods have been developed for the design of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, little work has been done in relation to the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses. In this paper, we study the following problem: Given a nominal stable process with time delay, we design a suboptimal PID controller to achieve the required time-domain response or frequency-domain response for the nominal system or the uncertain system. An H(infinity) PID controller is developed based on optimal control theory and the parameters are derived analytically. Its properties are investigated and compared with that of two developed suboptimal controllers: an H2 PID controller and a Maclaurin PID controller. It is shown that all three controllers can provide the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses.
Collins, Kimberlee C; Maznev, Alexei A; Cuffe, John; Nelson, Keith A; Chen, Gang
2014-12-01
Laser-based time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) and frequency-domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) techniques are widely used for investigating thermal transport at micro- and nano-scales. We demonstrate that data obtained in TDTR measurements can be represented in a frequency-domain form equivalent to FDTR, i.e., in the form of a surface temperature amplitude and phase response to time-harmonic heating. Such a representation is made possible by using a large TDTR delay time window covering the entire pulse repetition interval. We demonstrate the extraction of frequency-domain data up to 1 GHz from TDTR measurements on a sapphire sample coated with a thin layer of aluminum, and show that the frequency dependencies of both the amplitude and phase responses agree well with theory. The proposed method not only allows a direct comparison of TDTR and FDTR data, but also enables measurements at high frequencies currently not accessible to FDTR. The frequency-domain representation helps uncover aspects of the measurement physics which remain obscured in a traditional TDTR measurement, such as the importance of modeling the details of the heat transport in the metal transducer film for analyzing high frequency responses.
A Visible Watermarking Scheme for Digital Images in Frequency Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.R.Denslin Brabin
2012-11-01
Full Text Available A novel method is proposed for visible watermarking of digital image in frequency domain. The method is based on DCT modification of original image with respect to watermark image. The host image pixels are transformed into frequency coefficients as well as the watermark image pixels are also transformed into frequency coefficients using DCT. The compound mapping function is used to adjust the pixel values close to those of desired visible watermarks. Thus the watermarking is done in frequency domain using compound mapping function. One who has the watermark image and mapping function parameters only can remove the watermark. Thus it enhances the security. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Jinpeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a theoretical foundation is built to evaluate the downlink performance of an MC-CDMA cellular system with site diversity operation with and receive antenna diversity combining. An expression for the theoretical conditional bit error rate (BER for the given set of channel gains is derived based on Gaussian approximation of the interference components in the composite receive signal. The local average BER is then obtained by averaging the conditional BER over the given set of channel gains using Monte-Carlo numerical method. The outage probability is measured from the numerically obtained cumulative distribution of the local average BER to determine the downlink capacity. Results from theoretical computation are compared to the results from computer simulation and discussed.
Time delay measurement in the frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durbin, Stephen M., E-mail: durbin@purdue.edu; Liu, Shih-Chieh [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2015-08-06
A simple frequency domain technique for determining the time delay between laser pump and X-ray probe pulses achieves 1 ps resolution even for ∼100 ps synchrotron pulses, permitting improved pump–probe characterization of ultrafast processes. Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (∼100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ∼1 ps. Improved precision is possible by simply extending the data acquisition time.
AU-FREDI - AUTONOMOUS FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION
Yam, Y.
1994-01-01
The Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification program, AU-FREDI, is a system of methods, algorithms and software that was developed for the identification of structural dynamic parameters and system transfer function characterization for control of large space platforms and flexible spacecraft. It was validated in the CALTECH/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory. Due to the unique characteristics of this laboratory environment, and the environment-specific nature of many of the software's routines, AU-FREDI should be considered to be a collection of routines which can be modified and reassembled to suit system identification and control experiments on large flexible structures. The AU-FREDI software was originally designed to command plant excitation and handle subsequent input/output data transfer, and to conduct system identification based on the I/O data. Key features of the AU-FREDI methodology are as follows: 1. AU-FREDI has on-line digital filter design to support on-orbit optimal input design and data composition. 2. Data composition of experimental data in overlapping frequency bands overcomes finite actuator power constraints. 3. Recursive least squares sine-dwell estimation accurately handles digitized sinusoids and low frequency modes. 4. The system also includes automated estimation of model order using a product moment matrix. 5. A sample-data transfer function parametrization supports digital control design. 6. Minimum variance estimation is assured with a curve fitting algorithm with iterative reweighting. 7. Robust root solvers accurately factorize high order polynomials to determine frequency and damping estimates. 8. Output error characterization of model additive uncertainty supports robustness analysis. The research objectives associated with AU-FREDI were particularly useful in focusing the identification methodology for realistic on-orbit testing conditions. Rather than estimating the entire structure, as is
Wu, Shun-Der; Glytsis, Elias N.
2002-10-01
The effects of finite number of periods (FNP) and finite incident beams on the diffraction efficiencies of holographic gratings are investigated by the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. Gratings comprising 20, 15, 10, 5, and 3 periods illuminated by TE and TM incident light with various beam sizes are analyzed with the FDFD method and compared with the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Both unslanted and slanted gratings are treated in transmission as well as in reflection configurations. In general, the effect of the FNP is a decrease in the diffraction efficiency with a decrease in the number of periods of the grating. Similarly, a decrease in incident-beam width causes a decrease in the diffraction efficiency. Exceptions appear in off-Bragg incidence in which a smaller beam width could result in higher diffraction efficiency. For beam widths greater than 10 grating periods and for gratings with more than 20 periods in width, the diffraction efficiencies slowly converge to the values predicted by the RCWA (infinite incident beam and infinite-number-of-periods grating) for both TE and TM polarizations. Furthermore, the effects of FNP holographic gratings on their diffraction performance are found to be comparable to their counterparts of FNP surface-relief gratings. 2002 Optical Society of America
Broadband Beamspace DOA Estimation: Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain Processing Approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Shefeng
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Frequency-domain and time-domain processing approaches to direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation for multiple broadband far field signals using beamspace preprocessing structures are proposed. The technique is based on constant mainlobe response beamforming. A set of frequency-domain and time-domain beamformers with constant (frequency independent mainlobe response and controlled sidelobes is designed to cover the spatial sector of interest using optimal array pattern synthesis technique and optimal FIR filters design technique. These techniques lead the resulting beampatterns higher mainlobe approximation accuracy and yet lower sidelobes. For the scenario of strong out-of-sector interfering sources, our approaches can form nulls or notches in the direction of them and yet guarantee that the mainlobe response of the beamformers is constant over the design band. Numerical results show that the proposed time-domain processing DOA estimator has comparable performance with the proposed frequency-domain processing method, and that both of them are able to resolve correlated source signals and provide better resolution at lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and lower root-mean-square error (RMSE of the DOA estimate compared with the existing method. Our beamspace DOA estimators maintain good DOA estimation and spatial resolution capability in the scenario of strong out-of-sector interfering sources.
On Frequency Domain Models for TDOA Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2015-01-01
of a much more general method. In this connection, we establish the conditions under which the cross-correlation method is a statistically efficient estimator. One of the conditions is that the source signal is periodic with a known fundamental frequency of 2π/N radians per sample, where N is the number...
Communicating oscillatory networks: frequency domain analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ihekwaba Adaoha EC
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Constructing predictive dynamic models of interacting signalling networks remains one of the great challenges facing systems biology. While detailed dynamical data exists about individual pathways, the task of combining such data without further lengthy experimentation is highly nontrivial. The communicating links between pathways, implicitly assumed to be unimportant and thus excluded, are precisely what become important in the larger system and must be reinstated. To maintain the delicate phase relationships between signals, signalling networks demand accurate dynamical parameters, but parameters optimised in isolation and under varying conditions are unlikely to remain optimal when combined. The computational burden of estimating parameters increases exponentially with increasing system size, so it is crucial to find precise and efficient ways of measuring the behaviour of systems, in order to re-use existing work. Results Motivated by the above, we present a new frequency domain-based systematic analysis technique that attempts to address the challenge of network assembly by defining a rigorous means to quantify the behaviour of stochastic systems. As our focus we construct a novel coupled oscillatory model of p53, NF-kB and the mammalian cell cycle, based on recent experimentally verified mathematical models. Informed by online databases of protein networks and interactions, we distilled their key elements into simplified models containing the most significant parts. Having coupled these systems, we constructed stochastic models for use in our frequency domain analysis. We used our new technique to investigate the crosstalk between the components of our model and measure the efficacy of certain network-based heuristic measures. Conclusions We find that the interactions between the networks we study are highly complex and not intuitive: (i points of maximum perturbation do not necessarily correspond to points of maximum
Parameter Identification of Weakly Nonlinear Vibration System in Frequency Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiehua Peng
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A new method of identifying parameters of nonlinearly vibrating system in frequency domain is presented in this paper. The problems of parameter identification of the nonlinear dynamic system with nonlinear elastic force or nonlinear damping force are discussed. In the method, the mathematic model of parameter identification is frequency response function. Firstly, by means of perturbation method the frequency response function of weakly nonlinear vibration system is derived. Next, a parameter transformation is made and the frequency response function becomes a linear function of the new parameters. Then, based on this function and with the least square method, physical parameters of the system are identified. Finally, the applicability of the proposed technique is confirmed by numerical simulation.
Higher order statistical frequency domain decomposition for operational modal analysis
Nita, G. M.; Mahgoub, M. A.; Sharyatpanahi, S. G.; Cretu, N. C.; El-Fouly, T. M.
2017-02-01
Experimental methods based on modal analysis under ambient vibrational excitation are often employed to detect structural damages of mechanical systems. Many of such frequency domain methods, such as Basic Frequency Domain (BFD), Frequency Domain Decomposition (FFD), or Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFFD), use as first step a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimate of the power spectral density (PSD) associated with the response of the system. In this study it is shown that higher order statistical estimators such as Spectral Kurtosis (SK) and Sample to Model Ratio (SMR) may be successfully employed not only to more reliably discriminate the response of the system against the ambient noise fluctuations, but also to better identify and separate contributions from closely spaced individual modes. It is shown that a SMR-based Maximum Likelihood curve fitting algorithm may improve the accuracy of the spectral shape and location of the individual modes and, when combined with the SK analysis, it provides efficient means to categorize such individual spectral components according to their temporal dynamics as coherent or incoherent system responses to unknown ambient excitations.
Research on the Identification Method to Hammerstein model in Frequency Domain%Hammerstein模型频域辨识方法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李振强; 黄杰; 邹丽蓉
2015-01-01
In this paper, a method is proposed to identify the nonlinear Hammerstein model with the input-output data in frequency domain. We can obtain the nonparametric model and not to estimate the parameters of the model with the noise corrupted output data. If the nonlinear model is known, the inverse of its can be done as a controller, we can make the nonlinear system to be a linear system to control. Parameters of the nonlinear block can be estimated by the proposed method, it can give a help to design a controller. The proposed method is proved to be feasible and effective by the simulation.%本文提出了一种在频域估计非线性Hammerstein模型的非线性部分的参数的方法。在随机噪声存在的情况下，通常利用频域的辨识方法，只能得到非参数的模型，不能估计出对应的参数。对于控制非线性Hammerstein模型，如果非线性部分的参数已知，控制器选取非线性部分的逆，能够使非线性系统控制变成线性系统进行控制。本文提出方法能够估计出非线性部分的参数，便于控制器的设计。通过仿真实验，证明该辨识方法是可行的，有效的。
Men, Kuo; Quan, Hong; Yang, Peipei; Cao, Ting; Li, Weihao
2010-04-01
The frequency-domain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is achieved by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the time-domain signals. Usually we are only interested in the portion lying in a frequency band of the whole spectrum. A method based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and frequency-selection is presented in this article. The method quantifies the spectrum lying in the interested frequency band and reduces the interference of the parts lying out of the band in a computationally efficient way. Comparative experiments with the standard time-domain SVD method indicate that the method introduced in this article is accurate and timesaving in practical situations.
Hybrid time/frequency domain modeling of nonlinear components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth
2007-01-01
model is used as a basis for its implementation. First, the linear network part is replaced with an ideal voltage source and a time domain (EMT) simulation is performed. During the initial oscillations, harmonic content of the converter currents is calculated at every period by a fast Fourier transform...... and the periodic steady state is identified. Obtained harmonic currents are assigned to current sources and used in the frequency domain calculation in the linear network. The obtained three-phase bus voltage is then inverse Fourier transformed and assigned to the voltage source and the time domain simulation...... is performed again. This process is repeated until the change in the magnitudes and phase angles of the fundamental and low order characteristic harmonics of the bus voltage is smaller then predefined precision indexes. The method is verified against precise time domain simulation. The convergence properties...
On frequency and time domain models of traveling wave tubes
Théveny, Stéphane; Elskens, Yves
2016-01-01
We discuss the envelope modulation assumption of frequency-domain models of traveling wave tubes (TWTs) and test its consistency with the Maxwell equations. We compare the predictions of usual frequency-domain models with those of a new time domain model of the TWT.
Fatigue Damage Assessment by Considering Mean Value Effect in Frequency Domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁红岩; 朱奇; 张浦阳
2015-01-01
Fatigue damage assessment is carried out considering mean value effect by applying four criteria of failure. Three frequency domain methods, i.e., level crossing counting (LCC), range counting (RC) and a new proposed method, are applied. The core of frequency domain method is the construction of probability density function for the mean stress and stress range of the stress process. The applicability of these frequency domain methods are inspected by comparing with time domain method. Numerical simulations verify the applicability of LCC and the proposed method, while RC gives poor estimations.
Frequency domain analysis of noise in autoregulated gene circuits
Simpson, Michael L.; Cox, Chris D.; Sayler, Gary S.
2003-01-01
We describe a frequency domain technique for the analysis of intrinsic noise within negatively autoregulated gene circuits. This approach is based on the transfer function around the feedback loop (loop transmission) and the equivalent noise bandwidth of the system. The loop transmission, T, is shown to be a determining factor of the dynamics and the noise behavior of autoregulated gene circuits, and this T-based technique provides a simple and flexible method for the analysis of noise arisin...
Reduced Order Internal Models in the Frequency Domain
Laakkonen, Petteri; Paunonen, Lassi
2016-01-01
The internal model principle states that all robustly regulating controllers must contain a suitably reduplicated internal model of the signal to be regulated. Using frequency domain methods, we show that the number of the copies may be reduced if the class of perturbations in the problem is restricted. We present a two step design procedure for a simple controller containing a reduced order internal model achieving robust regulation. The results are illustrated with an example of a five tank...
Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Chen, Xinlin; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, Min
2017-02-01
We have presented a novel Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation (SSMD) method enabling single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties of turbid media in the Spatial Frequency Domain. SSMD makes use of the orthogonality of harmonic functions and extracts the modulation transfer function (MTF) at multiple modulation frequencies and of arbitrary orientations and amplitudes simultaneously from a single structured-illuminated image at once. SSMD not only increases significantly the data acquisition speed and reduces motion artifacts but also exhibits excellent noise suppression in imaging as well. The performance of SSMD-SFDI is demonstrated with experiments on both tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo for recovering optical properties. SSMD is ideal in the implementation of a real-time spatial frequency domain imaging platform, which will open up SFDI for vast applications in, for example, mapping the optical properties of a dynamic turbid medium or monitoring fast temporal evolutions.
The Peltier driven frequency domain approach in thermal analysis.
De Marchi, Andrea; Giaretto, Valter
2014-10-01
The merits of Frequency Domain analysis as a tool for thermal system characterization are discussed, and the complex thermal impedance approach is illustrated. Pure AC thermal flux generation with negligible DC component is possible with a Peltier device, differently from other existing methods in which a significant DC component is intrinsically attached to the generated AC flux. Such technique is named here Peltier Driven Frequency Domain (PDFD). As a necessary prerequisite, a novel one-dimensional analytical model for an asymmetrically loaded Peltier device is developed, which is general enough to be useful in most practical situations as a design tool for measurement systems and as a key for the interpretation of experimental results. Impedance analysis is possible with Peltier devices by the inbuilt Seebeck effect differential thermometer, and is used in the paper for an experimental validation of the analytical model. Suggestions are then given for possible applications of PDFD, including the determination of thermal properties of materials.
The Peltier driven frequency domain approach in thermal analysis
Marchi, Andrea De; Giaretto, Valter
2014-10-01
The merits of Frequency Domain analysis as a tool for thermal system characterization are discussed, and the complex thermal impedance approach is illustrated. Pure AC thermal flux generation with negligible DC component is possible with a Peltier device, differently from other existing methods in which a significant DC component is intrinsically attached to the generated AC flux. Such technique is named here Peltier Driven Frequency Domain (PDFD). As a necessary prerequisite, a novel one-dimensional analytical model for an asymmetrically loaded Peltier device is developed, which is general enough to be useful in most practical situations as a design tool for measurement systems and as a key for the interpretation of experimental results. Impedance analysis is possible with Peltier devices by the inbuilt Seebeck effect differential thermometer, and is used in the paper for an experimental validation of the analytical model. Suggestions are then given for possible applications of PDFD, including the determination of thermal properties of materials.
Estimated Frequency Domain Model Uncertainties used in Robust Controller Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob;
1994-01-01
This paper deals with the combination of system identification and robust controller design. Recent results on estimation of frequency domain model uncertainty are......This paper deals with the combination of system identification and robust controller design. Recent results on estimation of frequency domain model uncertainty are...
Damping Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Ventura, C. E.; Andersen, P.
2001-01-01
frequencies can be accurately estimated without being limited by the frequency resolution of the discrete Fourier transform. It is explained how the spectral density matrix is decomposed into a set of single degree of freedom systems, and how the individual SDOF auto spectral density functions are transformed...
A frequency domain approach to handling qualities design
Wolovich, W. A.
1978-01-01
A method for designing linear multivariable feedback control systems based on desired closed loop transfer matrix information is introduced. The technique which was employed to achieve the final design was based on a theoretical result, known as the structure theorem. The structure theorem was a frequency domain relationship which simplified the expression for the transfer matrix (matrix of transfer functions) of a linear time-invariant multivariable system. The effect of linear state variable feedback on the closed loop transfer matrix of the system was also clarified.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pan Jin; Wang De-yu
2006-01-01
In this paper, adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is applied to topology optimization of truss structure with frequency domain excitations. The optimization constraints include fundamental frequency, displacement responses under force excitations and acceleration responses under foundation acceleration excitations. The roulette wheel selection operator, adaptive crossover and mutation operators are used as genetic operators. Some heuristic strategies are put forward to direct the deletion of the extra bars and nodes on truss structures. Three examples demonstrate that the proposed method can yield the optimum structure form and the lightest weight of the given ground structure while satisfying dynamic response constraints.
Frequency domain analysis of triggered lightning return stroke luminosity velocity
Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Moore, R. C.
2017-02-01
Fourier analysis is applied to time domain return stroke luminosity signals to calculate the phase and group velocities and the amplitude of the luminosity signals as a function of frequency measured between 4 m and 115 m during 12 triggered lightning strokes. We show that pairs of time domain luminosity signals measured at different heights can be interpreted as the input and the output of a system whose frequency domain transfer function can be determined from the measured time domain signals. From the frequency domain transfer function phase we find the phase and group velocities, and luminosity amplitude as a function of triggered lightning channel height and signal frequency ranging from 50 kHz to 300 kHz. We show that higher-frequency luminosity components propagate faster than the lower frequency components and that higher-frequency luminosity components attenuate more rapidly than lower frequency components. Finally, we calculate time domain return stroke velocities as a function of channel height using two time delay techniques: (1) measurement at the 20% amplitude level and (2) cross correlation.
Spatial frequency domain imaging for monitoring palpable breast lesions
Robbins, Constance M.; Antaki, James F.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.
2017-02-01
We describe a novel approach for monitoring breast lesions, utilizing spatial frequency domain imaging, a diffuse optical imaging method to detect hemoglobin contrast, in combination with mechanical compression of the tissue. The project is motivated by the growing rate of unnecessary breast biopsies, caused by uncertainty in X-ray mammographic diagnoses. We believe there is a need for an alternate means of tracking the progression palpable lesions exhibiting probably benign features, that can be performed non-invasively and hence frequently: at home or in the clinic. The proposed approach capitalizes on two distinguishing properties of cancerous lesions, namely the relative stiffness with respect to surrounding tissue and the optical absorption due to the greater vascularization, hence hemoglobin concentration. The current research project is a pilot study to evaluate the principle on soft, breast tissue-mimicking phantoms containing stiffer, more highly absorbing inclusions. Spatial frequency domain imaging was performed by projecting onto the phantom a series of wide-field patterns at multiple spatial frequencies. Image analysis then was performed to map absorption and scattering properties. The results of the study demonstrate that compression significantly increases the optical contrast observed for inclusions located 10 and 15 mm beneath the surface. In the latter case, the inclusion was not detectable without compression.
Frequency-wavenumber domain phase inversion along reflection wavepaths
Yu, Han
2014-12-01
A background velocity model containing the correct low-wavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. To achieve this goal, the velocity is updated along the reflection wavepaths, rather than along both the reflection ellipses and transmission wavepaths as in conventional FWI. This method allows for reconstructing the low-wavenumber part of the background velocity model, even in the absence of long offsets and low-frequency component of the data. Moreover, in gradient-based iterative updates, instead of forming the data error conventionally, we propose to exploit the phase mismatch between the observed and the calculated data. The phase mismatch emphasizes a kinematic error and varies quasi-linearly with respect to the velocity error. The phase mismatch is computed (1) in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain replacing the magnitudes of the calculated common shot gather by those of the observed one, and (2) in the temporal-spatial domain to form the difference between the transformed calculated common-shot gather and the observed one. The background velocity model inverted according to the proposed methods can serve as an improved initial velocity model for conventional waveform inversion. Tests with synthetic and field data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.
Evaluation of Damping Using Frequency Domain Operational Modal Analysis Techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bajric, Anela; Georgakis, Christos T.; Brincker, Rune
2015-01-01
Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques provide in most cases reasonably accurate estimates of structural frequencies and mode shapes. In contrast though, they are known to often produce uncertain structural damping estimates, which is mainly due to inherent random and/or bias errors...... domain techniques, the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and the Frequency Domain Polyreference (FDPR). The response of a two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system is numerically established with specified modal parameters subjected to white noise loading. The system identification is evaluated with well...
Iterative procedures for wave propagation in the frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Seongjai [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Symes, W.W.
1996-12-31
A parallelizable two-grid iterative algorithm incorporating a domain decomposition (DD) method is considered for solving the Helmholtz problem. Since a numerical method requires choosing at least 6 to 8 grid points per wavelength, the coarse-grid problem itself is not an easy task for high frequency applications. We solve the coarse-grid problem using a nonoverlapping DD method. To accelerate the convergence of the iteration, an artificial damping technique and relaxation parameters are introduced. Automatic strategies for finding efficient parameters are discussed. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the method. It is numerically verified that the rate of convergence of the algorithm depends on the wave number sub-linearly and does not deteriorate as the mesh size decreases.
Causality between Regional Stock Markets: A Frequency Domain Approach
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Nikola Gradojevic; Eldin Dobardzic
2013-01-01
...), this paper presents a frequency domain analysis of a causal relationship between the returns on the CROBEX, SBITOP, CETOP and DAX indices, and the return on the major Serbian stock exchange index, BELEX 15...
Frequency domain synthesis of trajectory learning controllers for robot manipulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Kavli
1993-07-01
Full Text Available Trajectory learning control is a method for generating near to optimal feedforward control for systems that are controlled along a reference trajectory in repeated cycles. Iterative refinements of a stored feedforward control sequence corresponding to one cycle of the control trajectory is computed based upon the recorded trajectory error from the previous cycle. Several learning operators have been proposed in earlier work, and convergence proofs are developed for certain classes of systems, but no satisfactory method for design and analysis of learning operators under the presence of uncertainties in the system model have been presented. This article presents frequency domain methods for analysing the convergence properties and performance of the learning controller when the amplitude and phase of the system transfer function is assumed to be within specified windows. Experimental results with an industrial robot manipulator confirm the theoretical results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai; Mørup, Morten
2009-01-01
We propose the Time Frequency Gradient Method (TFGM) which forms a framework for optimization of models that are constrained in the time domain while having efficient representations in the frequency domain. Since the constraints in the time domain in general are not transparent in a frequency...... representation we demonstrate how the class of objective functions that are separable in either time or frequency instances allow the gradient in the time or frequency domain to be converted to the opposing domain. We further demonstrate the usefulness of this framework for three different models; Shifted Non......-negative Matrix Factorization, Convolutive Sparse Coding as well as Smooth and Sparse Matrix Factorization. Matlab implementation of the proposed algorithms are available for download at www.erpwavelab.org....
Estimation of luminescence lifetime in frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Fu-Jun; Xu Zheng; Zhao Su-Ling; Lou Zhi-Dong; Yang Sheng-Yi; Xu Xu-Rong
2006-01-01
Absorption is the origin of luminescence. But it must be noticed that the lifetime of luminescence might reversely influence the rate of absorption. In this paper, it is reported that the luminescence intensity of copper and manganese changes with the driving frequency at constant voltage. The variation of luminescent intensity depends only on the lifetime of luminescence but not on the type of quenching or other factors. Generally the rate of absorption is dominantly determined by the material property and the lifetime of luminescence centres, the absorption of shorter lifetime centre will be larger than that of the longer lifetime centre at the same excited condition.
Hoving, J.S.; Metrikine, A.
2015-01-01
To minimize the calculation time required by numerical models that de- scribe dynamic interactions involving nonlinear behaviour, it is useful to divide the model into two separate domains. One domain close to the interaction point, which consists of a sophisticated model capable of describing
Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Chao
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.
High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging
Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; Boer; Iftimia, N. V.; Bouma, B. E.
2003-01-01
We demonstrate high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution optical imaging based on optical frequency-domain interferometry using a rapidly-tuned wavelength-swept laser. We derive and show experimentally that frequency-domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography. A high sensitivity of −110 dB was obtained with a 6 mW source at an axial resolution of 13.5 µm and an A-line rate of 15.7 kHz, rep...
Broadband ultrasonic sensor array via optical frequency domain reflectometry
Gabai, Haniel; Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay
2015-03-01
We introduce a new approach for multiplexing fiber-based ultrasound sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR). In the present demonstration of the method, each sensor was a short section of Polyimide-coated single-mode fiber. One end of the sensing fiber was pigtailed to a mirror and the other end was connected, via a fiber optic delay line, to a 1X4 fiber coupler. The multiplexing was enabled by using a different delay to each sensor. Ultrasonic excitation was performed by a 1MHz transducer which transmitted 4μs tone-bursts above the sensor array. The ultrasound waves generated optical phase variations in the fibers which were detected using the OFDR method. The ultrasound field at the sensors was successfully reconstructed without any noticeable cross-talk.
Accurate reconstruction of digital holography using frequency domain zero padding
Shin, Jun Geun; Kim, Ju Wan; Lee, Jae Hwi; Lee, Byeong Ha
2017-04-01
We propose an image reconstruction method of digital holography for getting more accurate reconstruction. Digital holography provides both the light amplitude and the phase of a specimen through recording the interferogram. Since the Fresenl diffraction can be efficiently implemented by the Fourier transform, zero padding technique can be applied to obtain more accurate information. In this work, we report the method of frequency domain zero padding (FDZP). Both in computer-simulation and in experiment made with a USAF 1951 resolution chart and target, the FDZD gave the more accurate rconstruction images. Even though, the FDZD asks more processing time, with the help of graphics processing unit (GPU), it can find good applications in digital holography for 3-D profile imaging.
Time delay measurement in the frequency domain
Durbin, Stephen M.; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan
2015-01-01
Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (∼100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ∼1 ps. Improved precision is possible by simply extending the data acquisition time. PMID:26289282
Phase shifting in the spatial frequency domain
Yazdani, Roghayeh; Petsch, Sebastian; Fallah, Hamidreza; Hajimahmoodzadeh, Morteza; Zappe, Hans
2016-03-01
We present a simple mathematical method for phase shifting that overcomes some phase shift errors and limitations of commonly used methods. The method is used to generate a sequence of phase-shifted interferograms from a single interferogram. The generated interferograms are employed to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations, as an application. The approach yields results with only very small deviations compared to both simulated wavefront aberrations, including the first 25 Zernike polynomials (0.05%) and those measured with a Shack-Hartmann sensor (0.5%).
A frequency domain based rigid motion artifact reduction algorithm
Luo, Hai; Huang, Xiaojie; Pan, Wenyu; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing
2009-10-01
During a CT scan, patients' conscious or unconscious motions would result in motion artifacts which undermine the image quality and hamper doctors' accurate diagnosis and therapy. It is desirable to develop a precise motion estimation and artifact reduction method in order to produce high-resolution images. Rigid motion can be decomposed into two components: translational motion and rotational motion. Since considering the rotation and translation simultaneously is very difficult, most former studies on motion artifact reduction ignore rotation. The extended HLCC based method considering the rotation and translation simultaneously relies on a searching algorithm which leads to expensive computing cost. Therefore, a novel method which does not rely on searching is desirable. In this paper, we focus on parallel-beam CT. We first propose a frequency domain based method to estimate rotational motion, which is not affected by translational motion. It realizes the separation of rotation estimation and translation estimation. Then we combine this method with the HLCC based method to construct a new method for general rigid motion called separative estimation and collective correction method. Furthermore, we present numerical simulation results to show the accuracy and robustness of our approach.
Efficiency Improvement of the frequency-domain BEM for Rapid transient elastodynamic analysis
Xiao, Jinyou; Wen, Lihua
2012-01-01
The frequency-domain fast boundary element method (BEM) combined with the exponential window technique leads to an efficient yet simple method for elastodynamic analysis. In this paper, the efficiency of this method is further enhanced by three strategies. Firstly, we propose to use exponential window with large damping parameter to improve the conditioning of the BEM matrices. Secondly, the frequency domain windowing technique is introduced to alleviate the severe Gibbs oscillations in time-domain responses caused by large damping parameters. Thirdly, a solution extrapolation scheme is applied to obtain better initial guesses for solving the sequential linear systems in the frequency domain. Numerical results of three typical examples with the problem size up to 0.7 million unknowns clearly show that the first and third strategies can significantly reduce the computational time. The second strategy can effectively eliminate the Gibbs oscillations and result in accurate time-domain responses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Wang; Zhitao Huang; Yiyu Zhou
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the blind separation of nonstation-ary sources and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation in the under-determined case, when there are more sources than sensors. We assume the sources to be time-frequency (TF) disjoint to a certain extent. In particular, the number of sources presented at any TF neighborhood is strictly less than that of sensors. We can identify the real number of active sources and achieve separation in any TF neighborhood by the sparse representation method. Compared with the subspace-based algorithm under the same sparseness assumption, which suffers from the extra noise effect since it can-not estimate the true number of active sources, the proposed algorithm can estimate the number of active sources and their cor-responding TF values in any TF neighborhood simultaneously. An-other contribution of this paper is a new estimation procedure for the DOA of sources in the underdetermined case, which combines the TF sparseness of sources and the clustering technique. Sim-ulation results demonstrate the validity and high performance of the proposed algorithm in both blind source separation (BSS) and DOA estimation.
Filtering in the time and frequency domains
Blinchikoff, Herman
2001-01-01
Long regarded as a classic of filter theory and design, this book stands as the most comprehensive treatment of filtering techniques, devices and concepts as well as pertinent mathematical relationships. Analysis and theory are supplemented by detailed design curves, fully explained examples and problem and answer sections. Discussed are the derivation of filtering functions, Fourier, Laplace, Hilbert and z transforms, lowpass responses, the transformation of lowpass into other filter types, the all-pass function, the effect of losses on theoretical responses, matched filtering, methods of tim
An Improved Frequency Domain Technique for Determining Soil Water Content
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Yu-Rui; MA Dao-Kun; LIN Jian-Hui; P. SCHULZE LAMMERS; L. DAMEROW
2005-01-01
For many years a soil water content sensor with low cost, reliability and sufficient accuracy has been desirable. Thus,an improved measurement method based on the frequency domain (FD) principle for determining soil water content was considered. Unlike other measurement principles, a new measurable index, η, which was independent of the output impedance and the amplitude of the oscillator while relying on the electrical impedance of a multi-pin probe, was proposed. Moreover, a model for processing the impedance of the multi-pin soil probe was developed, and several important electrical parameters for establishing their operating ranges applicable to this probe were evaluated. In order to confirm the theoretical analysis, an experiment was conducted with a 4-pin probe. Using the developed model, the relationship between the proposed indexηand soil volumetric water content was shown to be linear (R2 = 0.9921). Thus, as the measurable index, ηseemed satisfactory.
Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin
2016-01-01
-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐中明; 周小林; 余烽; 张芳; 谭建林
2012-01-01
Based on international standard ISO2631 and national standard GB/T4970 Method of random input running test-Automotive ride comfort, the ride comfort tests are conducted on a bus with a study focused on the applicability discrepancy between different algorithms in ride comfort analysis. By applying Parseval theorem, both time and frequency domain algorithms are implemented with FAMOS and VC&MATLAB software development platforms. The results show that the outcomes of calculation with different algorithms don't have significant differences, but each algorithm has its own distinguishing feature. The time domain algorithm is more sensitive to peak factor and can be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle from the perspective of human body comfort, while the frequency domain algorithm is suitable for analyzing the influence of each frequency of one-third octave band on human body vibration and providing bases for ride comfort improvement, but with die defects in lower accuracy and processing efficiency. And in frequency domain, the results of comparison between two spectrum estimation schemes indicate that the Welch classic spectrum estimation technique has poor consistency while the Yule-Walker method using AR model has relatively stable performance.%依据国际标准ISO2631和国标GB/T4970《汽车平顺性随机输入行驶试验方法》,对某客车进行了行驶平顺性试验,重点研究了不同算法在平顺性分析中的差别.以FAMOS、VC&MATLAB为软件开发平台,在Parse-val定理基础上实现了时、频域两种算法.结果表明,各种算法计算结果差别不大但各有特点,时域法对峰值系数更加敏感,可用于从人体舒适性角度评价平顺性；频域法则适用于分析1/3倍频程各频带对人体振动的影响并为改善汽车平顺性提供依据,但存在精度较低、处理效率不高等问题.而频率法中两种谱估计法的对比结果表明,Welch经典谱估计法的一致
Imaging scattering orientation with spatial frequency domain imaging.
Konecky, Soren D; Rice, Tyler; Durkin, Anthony J; Tromberg, Bruce J
2011-12-01
Optical imaging techniques based on multiple light scattering generally have poor sensitivity to the orientation and direction of microscopic light scattering structures. In order to address this limitation, we introduce a spatial frequency domain method for imaging contrast from oriented scattering structures by measuring the angular-dependence of structured light reflectance. The measurement is made by projecting sinusoidal patterns of light intensity on a sample, and measuring the degree to which the patterns are blurred as a function of the projection angle. We derive a spatial Fourier domain solution to an anisotropic diffusion model. This solution predicts the effects of bulk scattering orientation on the amplitude and phase of the projected patterns. We introduce a new contrast function based on a scattering orientation index (SOI) which is sensitive to the degree to which light scattering is directionally dependent. We validate the technique using tissue simulating phantoms, and ex vivo samples of muscle and brain. Our results show that SOI is independent of the overall amount of bulk light scattering and absorption, and that isotropic versus oriented scattering structures can be clearly distinguished. We determine the orientation of subsurface microscopic scattering structures located up to 600 μm beneath highly scattering (μ(') (s) = 1.5 mm(-1)) material.
Non-stationary frequency domain system identification using time-frequency representations
Guo, Yanlin; Kareem, Ahsan
2016-05-01
System properties of buildings and bridges may vary with time due to temperature changes, aging or extreme loadings. To identify these time-varying system properties, this study proposes a new output-only non-stationary system identification (SI) framework based on instantaneous or marginal spectra derived from the time-frequency representation, e.g., short time Fourier or wavelet transform. Spectra derived from these time-frequency representations are very popular in tracking time-varying frequencies; however, they have seldom been used to identify the time-varying damping ratio because a short window needed to capture the time-varying information amplifies the bandwidth significantly, which may lead to considerably overestimating the damping ratio. To overcome this shortcoming, this study modifies the theoretical frequency response function (FRF) to explicitly account for the windowing effect, and therefore enables SI directly using instantaneous or marginal spectra derived from the wavelet or short time Fourier transform. The response spectrum estimated using the short time window and the modified FRF are both influenced by the same time window, thus the instantaneous or time-localized marginal spectrum of response can be fitted to the modified FRF to identify frequency and damping ratio at each time instant. This spectral-based SI framework can reliably identify damping in time-varying systems under non-stationary excitations. The efficacy of the proposed framework is demonstrated by both numerical and full-scale examples, and also compared to the time-domain SI method, stochastic subspace identification (SSI), since the time-domain SI approaches and their extensions are popular in identifying time-varying systems utilizing recursive algorithms or moving windows.
Time and frequency domain models for multiaxial fatigue life estimation under random loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Carpinteri
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Engineering structures and components are often subjected to random fatigue loading produced, for example, by wind turbulences, marine waves and vibrations. The methods available in the literature for fatigue assessment under random loading are formulated in time domain or, alternatively, in frequency domain. The former methods require the knowledge of the loading time history, and a large number of experimental tests/numerical simulations is needed to obtain statistically reliable results. The latter methods are generally more advantageous with respect to the time domain ones, allowing a rapid fatigue damage evaluation. In the present paper, a multiaxial criterion formulated in the frequency-domain is presented to estimate the fatigue lives of smooth metallic structures subjected to combined bending and torsion random loading. A comparison in terms of fatigue life prediction by employing a time domain methods, previously proposed by the authors, is also performed.
Frequency domain simultaneous algebraic reconstruction techniques: algorithm and convergence
Wang, Jiong; Zheng, Yibin
2005-03-01
We propose a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) in the frequency domain for linear imaging problems. This algorithm has the advantage of efficiently incorporating pixel correlations in an a priori image model. First it is shown that the generalized SART algorithm converges to the weighted minimum norm solution of a weighted least square problem. Then an implementation in the frequency domain is described. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated with fan beam computed tomography (CT) examples. Compared to the traditional SART and its major alternative ART, the new algorithm offers superior image quality and potential application to other modalities.
Determination of beam coupling impedance in the frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niedermayer, Uwe
2016-07-01
The concept of beam coupling impedance describes the electromagnetic interaction of uniformly moving charged particles with their surrounding structures in the Frequency Domain (FD). In synchrotron accelerators, beam coupling impedances can lead to beam induced component heating and coherent beam instabilities. Thus, in order to ensure the stable operation of a synchrotron, its impedances have to be quantified and their effects have to be controlled. Nowadays, beam coupling impedances are mostly obtained by Fourier transform of wake potentials, which are the results of Time Domain (TD) simulations. However, at low frequencies, low beam velocity, or for dispersive materials, TD simulations become unhandy. In this area, analytical calculations of beam coupling impedance in the FD, combined with geometry approximations, are still widely used. This thesis describes the development of two electromagnetic field solvers to obtain the beam coupling impedance directly in the FD, where the beam velocity is only a parameter and dispersive materials can be included easily. One solver is based on the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) on a staircase mesh. It is implemented both in 2D and 3D. However, the staircase mesh is inefficient on curved structures, which is particularly problematic for the modeling of a dipole source, that is required for the computation of the transverse beam coupling impedance. This issue is overcome by the second solver developed in this thesis, which is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) on an unstructured triangular mesh. It is implemented in 2D and includes an optional Surface Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC). Thus, it is well suited for the computation of longitudinal and transverse impedances of long beam pipe structures of arbitrary cross-section. Besides arbitrary frequency and beam velocity, also dispersive materials can be chosen, which is crucial for the computation of the impedance of ferrite kicker magnets. Numerical impedance
Frequency domain analysis of noise in autoregulated gene circuits
Simpson, Michael L.; Cox, Chris D.; Sayler, Gary S.
2003-01-01
We describe a frequency domain technique for the analysis of intrinsic noise within negatively autoregulated gene circuits. This approach is based on the transfer function around the feedback loop (loop transmission) and the equivalent noise bandwidth of the system. The loop transmission, T, is shown to be a determining factor of the dynamics and the noise behavior of autoregulated gene circuits, and this T-based technique provides a simple and flexible method for the analysis of noise arising from any source within the gene circuit. We show that negative feedback not only reduces the variance of the noise in the protein concentration, but also shifts this noise to higher frequencies where it may have a negligible effect on the noise behavior of following gene circuits within a cascade. This predicted effect is demonstrated through the exact stochastic simulation of a two-gene cascade. The analysis elucidates important aspects of gene circuit structure that control functionality, and may provide some insights into selective pressures leading to this structure. The resulting analytical relationships have a simple form, making them especially useful as synthetic gene circuit design equations. With the exception of the linearization of Hill kinetics, this technique is general and may be applied to the analysis or design of networks of higher complexity. This utility is demonstrated through the exact stochastic simulation of an autoregulated two-gene cascade operating near instability. PMID:12671069
Frequency domain identification of grinding stiffness and damping
Leonesio, Marco; Parenti, Paolo; Bianchi, Giacomo
2017-09-01
As equivalent stiffness and damping of the grinding process dominate cutting stability, their identification is essential to predict and avoid detrimental chatter occurrence. The identification of these process constants is not easy in large cylindrical grinding machines, e.g. roll grinders, since there are no practical ways to measure cutting force normal component. This paper presents a novel frequency domain approach for identifying these process parameters, exploiting in-process system response, measured via impact testing. This method adopts a sub-structuring approach to couple the wheel-workpiece relative dynamic compliance with a two-dimensional grinding force model that entails both normal and tangential directions. The grinding specific energy and normal force ratio, that determine grinding stiffness and damping, are identified by fitting the closed loop FRF (Frequency Response Function) measured during specific plunge-grinding tests. The fitting quality supports the predictive capability of the model. Eventually, the soundness of the proposed identification procedure is further assessed by comparing the grinding specific energy identified through standard cutting power measurements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王建勋; 刘会金; 韩丰收; 王占雷
2012-01-01
To detect interharmonics whose frequencies are near to those of harmonics and fundamental harmonic, a hybrid time-frequency domain method is proposed to analyze harmonics and interharmonics. Firstly, the detection of harmonics and fundamental harmonic in time-domain is performed by parallel enhanced phase-locked loop (PLL) structure, in which the main PLL is used to measure fundamental component signal with higher amplitude and the measured fundamental component is input to parallel sub-PLL structure to segregate harmonic components; then in frequency-domain the post-segregation signals, in which only interharmonics are contained, are analyzed by interpolated fast Fourier transformation (IFFT), thus accurate parameters of interharmonics whose frequencies are near to those of harmonics and fundamental harmonic can be attained when the spectral leakage of harmonics and fundamental harmonic are excluded. An online monitoring platform of harmonics and fundamental harmonic based on the proposed method is implemented by Lab VIEW software, and both results from experiments and simulation show that the proposed method is effective.%为了检测靠近基波和谐波的间谐波,提出了一种时频混合方法来分析谐波和间谐波.首先在时域上通过并联的加强锁相环结构进行基波与谐波检测,该结构通过主锁相环测量幅值较大的基频分量,并将测得的基频输入到并行的子锁相环结构以完成对各谐波分量的分离;然后在频域上对分离所得的只含间谐波的信号使用插值快速傅里叶变换的方法进行分析,能在排除基波与谐波频谱泄漏影响的情况下得到靠近基波和谐波的间谐波的精确参数.在LabVIEW上实现了基于所提方法的谐波、间谐波在线监测平台,仿真和实验证明了所提方法的有效性.
Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle
2000-01-01
In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...
Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.
2000-01-01
In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...
Frequency-domain thermal modelling of power semiconductor devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andresen, Markus
2015-01-01
to correctly predict the device temperatures, especially when considering the thermal grease and heat sink attached to the power semiconductor devices. In this paper, the frequency-domain approach is applied to the modelling of thermal dynamics for power devices. The limits of the existing RC lump...
Automated Frequency Domain Decomposition for Operational Modal Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen
2007-01-01
The Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique is known as one of the most user friendly and powerful techniques for operational modal analysis of structures. However, the classical implementation of the technique requires some user interaction. The present paper describes an algorithm for au...
In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media
Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.
2012-10-01
Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.
A frequency domain design of PID controller for an AVR system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Md Nishat ANWAR; Somnath PAN
2014-01-01
We propose a new proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller design method for an automatic voltage regula-tion (AVR) system based on approximate model matching in the frequency domain. The parameters of the PID controller are obtained by approximate frequency response matching between the closed-loop control system and a reference model with the desired specifications. Two low frequency points are required for matching the frequency response, and the design method yields linear algebraic equations, solution of which gives the controller parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through examples taken from the literature and comparison with some popular methods.
Microcirculation monitoring with real time spatial frequency domain imaging
Chen, Xinlin; Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Zhu, Danfeng; Zhu, Xiuwei; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, M.
2017-01-01
We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the forearm of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing. Real time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation - Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) was used to map the optical properties of the subsurface of the forearm continuously. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin at the subsurface of the forearm induced by paced breathing are found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing. The properties of local microcirculation including the blood transit times through capillaries and venules are extracted by fitting to Simplified Hemodynamics Model. Our preliminary results suggest that the real time SSMD-SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭涛; 周亨; 田振勇
2016-01-01
汽车制动时的NVH性能对于乘车舒适性和防治环境噪声污染具有重要意义。目前常规的仿真方法为复特征值（CEA）法，通常CEA法比实际测试出现的制动尖叫频率点更多，容易造成误判。为此，提出采用时-频域耦合动态仿真方法对盘式制动器的NVH性能进行分析。基于有限元平台ABAQUS，根据国际噪声测试标准SAE J 2521规定的工况，分别采用CEA法和时-频域耦合仿真方法，对制动器的非稳态响应进行了分析，得到了制动器的加速度-频率响应曲线以及制动尖叫的频率点；将时-频域耦合仿真及CEA仿真结果与测试结果进行比较，结果表明：传统的CEA仿真得到的的尖叫频率值过多，相比之下时-频域耦合仿真得到的结果与测试数据更为吻合，能够更精准地预测制动器的尖叫噪声频率值。%During car braking, NVH performance is of great significance for ride comfort and environmental noise prevention. Currently, the conventional simulation method is the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) method. But this method usually gets more squeal frequencies than the test results which may cause misjudgments. So, the coupling dynamic simulation method in the time-frequency domain was brought up to analyze the NVH performance of disc brakes. Based on the finite element platform of ABAQUS, and according to the international noise test standard SAE J2521, both the CEA method and the implicit-explicit coupling simulation method were adopted to analyze the unsteady response of a disc brake. And the acceleration-frequency response curve of the brake and the frequency sampling points of the braking squeal were obtained. Both results from implicit-explicit coupling simulation and CEA method were compared with the test results. Results show that the CEA can get more squeal frequencies than the test results, but the results from time-frequency domain coupling method are in good agreement with the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
康熊; 曾宇清
2012-01-01
vehicle is in hunting state. Accordingly, the speed-frequency domain method for the response analysis of vehicle acceleration is given. By analyzing 3D graphs of speed-frequency domain and speed nominal transmission, the local peaks are recognized under three circumstances, namely, basically no change with speed, change linear with speed, and abrupt change in high speed and low frequency region. Engineering solution for system response-characteristics-excitation relevant equations is thus achieved. Application results indicate that speed-frequency domain method has effectively realized the decoupled and coupling analysis between the vehicle characteristics and vehicle excitation.
Channel estimation in space and frequency domain for MIMO-OFDM systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Pei-sheng; ZHENG Bao-yu
2009-01-01
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can be combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems to improve the capacity and quality of wireless communications. In this article, a channel estimation technique in both space and frequency domain for MIMO-OFDM systems is proposed. It is shown that the proposed scheme with space-frequency pilot tones achieve optimal minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method achieves good performance.
Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative
Choi, Yun Seok
2013-09-26
Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.
Statistical multiresolution analysis in amplitude-frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Hong; GUAN Bao; Henri Maitre
2004-01-01
A concept of statistical multiresolution analysis in amplitude-frequency domain is proposed, which is to employ the wavelet transform on the statistical character of a signal in amplitude domain. In terms of the theorem of generalized ergodicity, an algorithm to estimate the transform coefficients based on the amplitude statistical multiresolution analysis (AMA) is presented. The principle of applying the AMA to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing is described, and the good experimental results imply that the AMA is an efficient tool for processing of speckled signals modeled by the multiplicative noise.
Small signal frequency domain model of an HVDC converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osauskas, C.M.; Hume, D.J.; Wood, A.R. [UnIversity of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
2001-11-01
A small-signal analytic frequency domain model of a 6-pulse HVDC converter is presented. The model consists of a set of explicit algebraic equations which relate the transfer of distortion from AC voltage, DC current and firing angle modulation, to AC current and DC voltage. The equations represent the linearisation of the transfers around a base operating point, and are derived from a piecewise linear description of the AC current and DC voltage waveforms. The model provides an understanding of the transfer of distortion by the converter and is in excellent agreement with time domain simulations. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
顾晨辉; 王伦文
2013-01-01
The radio communication signals usually turn out to be some fine character differences. In this paper, a method based on the box-counting dimensions and the maximal Lyapunov exponents of the individual FH radio is presented according to the fine character differences. Firstly, the transient frequency of the FH signals is extracted based on the improved Prony algorithm. Secondly, the transient characteristics including the maximal Lyapunov exponents and the box dimensions are computed. Finally, individual identification of the different FH radio based on the method of the Constructive Neural Network is realized. The ex-perimental results have shown that this method is efficiency.%通信电台发射的信号通常表现出一定的细微特征差异，针对这种细微特征差异，提出了基于最大Lyapunov指数和盒维数的跳频电台个体识别方法。基于改进的Prony算法，提取样本信号跳变时刻的瞬时频率，分离并定量计算其最大Lyapunov指数和盒维数等瞬时特征，采用基于构造型神经网络的分类方法实现不同跳频电台的个体识别。实际数据的实验结果验证了算法的有效性。
Fingerprint Ridge Frequency Estimation in the Fourier Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PATRICIU, V.-V.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Ridge frequency is an important parameter in fingerprint image processing and feature extraction. However, ridge frequency estimation is a difficult task in noisy fingerprint images. A simple and accurate method for the computation of fingerprint ridge frequency using the Fourier spectrum is proposed. The results of the experiments conducted on a collection of fingerprints as well as a quantitative method for performance evaluation based on a Gabor filter-bank are presented. The proposed method is robust with respect to noise and reliable frequency images are obtained.
Compact optical processor for Hough and frequency domain features
Ott, Peter
1996-11-01
Shape recognition is necessary in a broad band of applications such as traffic sign or work piece recognition. It requires not only neighborhood processing of the input image pixels but global interconnection of them. The Hough transform (HT) performs such a global operation and it is well suited in the preprocessing stage of a shape recognition system. Translation invariant features can be easily calculated form the Hough domain. We have implemented on the computer a neural network shape recognition system which contains a HT, a feature extraction, and a classification layer. The advantage of this approach is that the total system can be optimized with well-known learning techniques and that it can explore the parallelism of the algorithms. However, the HT is a time consuming operation. Parallel, optical processing is therefore advantageous. Several systems have been proposed, based on space multiplexing with arrays of holograms and CGH's or time multiplexing with acousto-optic processors or by image rotation with incoherent and coherent astigmatic optical processors. We took up the last mentioned approach because 2D array detectors are read out line by line, so a 2D detector can achieve the same speed and is easier to implement. Coherent processing can allow the implementation of tilers in the frequency domain. Features based on wedge/ring, Gabor, or wavelet filters have been proven to show good discrimination capabilities for texture and shape recognition. The astigmatic lens system which is derived form the mathematical formulation of the HT is long and contains a non-standard, astigmatic element. By methods of lens transformation s for coherent applications we map the original design to a shorter lens with a smaller number of well separated standard elements and with the same coherent system response. The final lens design still contains the frequency plane for filtering and ray-tracing shows diffraction limited performance. Image rotation can be done
MULTILOOP PI CONTROLLER FOR ACHIEVING SIMULTANEOUS TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. SENTHILKUMAR
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Most of the controllers in control system are designed to satisfy either time domain or frequency domain specifications. This work presents the computation of a multiloop PI controller for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously. The desired time and frequency domain measures are to be specified initially to the design. To obtain the desired value of the performance measures the graphical relationship between the PI controller and the performance criteria is given. Thus by using graphical method a set of PI controller parameters to meet the desired performance measures are obtained in an effective and simpler way. The coupled tank has become a classic design of control engineering for multivariable process. The proposed control strategy has been implemented in the same coupled tank process and validated through simulation studies.
Simulation of DLA grating structures in the frequency domain
Egenolf, T.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Niedermayer, U.
2017-07-01
Dielectric laser accelerators (DLA) driven by ultrashort laser pulses can reach orders of magnitude larger gradients than contemporary RF electron accelerators. A new implemented field solver based on the finite element method in the frequency domain allows the efficient calculation of the structure constant, i.e. the ratio of energy gain to laser peak amplitude. We present the maximization of this ratio as a parameter study looking at a single grating period only. Based on this optimized shape the entire design of a beta-matched grating is completed in an iterative process. The period length of a beta-matched grating increases due to the increasing velocity of the electron when a subrelativistic beam is accelerated. The determination of the optimal length of each grating period thus requires the knowledge of the energy gain within all so far crossed periods. Furthermore, we outline to reverse the excitation in the presented solver for beam coupling impedance calculations and an estimation of the beam loading intensity limit.
Incoherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry for Distributed Thermal Sensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karamehmedovic, Emir
2006-01-01
This thesis reports the main results from an investigation of a fibre-optic distributed temperature sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering. The technique used for spatial resolving is the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry, where a pump laser is sine modulated with a stepwise...... increasing frequency, after which the inverse Fourier transform is applied to the signal from the backscattered light. This technique is compared with the more conventional optical time domain reflectometry, where a short pulse is sent through the fibre, and the location of the scattering section...... is determined by the time difference from the emission to the detection of light. A temperature sensor with a range of 2-4km comprising a step-index multi-mode fibre and a high-power 980nm pump laser existed prior to the start of the PhD study. In this study, a sensor range of approximately 10km, and a spatial...
Speaker Identification using Frequency Dsitribution in the Transform Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. H B Kekre
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Speaker Identification using the frequency distribution of various transforms like DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform, DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform, DST (Discrete Sine Transform, Hartley, Walsh, Haar and Kekre transforms. The speech signal spoken by a particular speaker is converted into frequency domain by applying the different transform techniques. The distribution in the transform domain is utilized to extract the feature vectors in the training and the matching phases. The results obtained by using all the seven transform techniques have been analyzed and compared. It can be seen that DFT, DCT, DST and Hartley transform give comparatively similar results (Above 96%. The results obtained by using Haar and Kekre transform are very poor. The best results are obtained by using DFT (97.19% for a feature vector of size 40.
Structural eigenfrequency optimization based on local sub-domain "frequencies"
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2013-01-01
The engineering approach of fully stressed design is a practical tool with a theoretical foundation. The analog approach to structural eigenfrequency optimization is presented here with its theoretical foundation. A numerical redesign procedure is proposed and illustrated with examples.......For the ideal case, an optimality criterion is fulfilled if the design have the same sub-domain ”frequency” (local Rayleigh quotient). Sensitivity analysis shows an important relation between squared system eigenfrequency and squared local sub-domain frequency for a given eigenmode. Higher order...... eigenfrequencies may also be controlled in this manner.The presented examples are based on 2D finite element models with the use of subspace iteration for analysis and a recursive design procedure based on the derived optimality condition. The design that maximize a frequency depend on the total amount...
基于随机减量的运行模态频域分析方法%Operational Modal Analysis Method in Frequency Domain Based on Random Decrement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄琴; 王彤; 张海黎
2011-01-01
A new method based on complex mode indicator function and random decrement technique for operational modal analysis in frequency domain is proposed with a focus on the complex large-scale structures such as high buildings and long-span bridges, which are difficult to be excited artificially. The time-domain random decrement functions are transformed to frequency-domain half power spectral density functions by the Fourier transformation, and then the modal parameters including modal frequencies , damping ratios and mode shapes are identified from the half power spectral density functions, with the classical identification algorithm named as complex mode indicator function. Finally, a simulation example of three-dimensional space structure is utilized to validate the algorithm.%以高层建筑、大跨桥梁等难以进行人工激励的大型复杂结构为对象,提出并实现了一种基于随机减量技术和复模态指示因子函数法的新型频域运行状态模态参数识别方法.由随机运行响应估计随机减量函数,然后通过时频域变换得到频域的半功率谱密度函数,并用复模态指示因子函数法从半功率谱密度函数中识别结构模态参数.最后对1个三维空间结构模型进行算法验证,得到相应的各阶模态参数,证明了将随机减量技术和复模态指示因子函数法相结合的方法识别大型结构模态参数的有效性和合理性.
Research on the frequency domain ∑△-DPCA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shen Mingwei; Zhu Daiyin; Zhu Zhaoda
2008-01-01
The frequency domain ∑△-DPCA processing (F-∑△-DPCA) is investigated in detail, and an im-proved scheme for the F-]EA-DPCA is proposed, which can significantly reduce the computational burden. In practice, because of the sum and difference beam pattern designed independently and other system errors, the clutter suppression of the time domain ∑△-DPCA processing (T-∑△-DPCA) is significantly degraded. However,the F-∑△-DPCA adaptively calculates the optimum gain ratio for motion compensation within each Doppler cell,which is robust to system errors. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are presented to validate that the F-∑△-DPCA can achieve superior performance of clutter cancellation than the time domain processing, and its performance can be significantly increased if more pulses are used for the Doppler filtering. The improved approach is efficient, and feasible for real-time application.
Practical iterative learning control with frequency domain design and sampled data implementation
Wang, Danwei; Zhang, Bin
2014-01-01
This book is on the iterative learning control (ILC) with focus on the design and implementation. We approach the ILC design based on the frequency domain analysis and address the ILC implementation based on the sampled data methods. This is the first book of ILC from frequency domain and sampled data methodologies. The frequency domain design methods offer ILC users insights to the convergence performance which is of practical benefits. This book presents a comprehensive framework with various methodologies to ensure the learnable bandwidth in the ILC system to be set with a balance between learning performance and learning stability. The sampled data implementation ensures effective execution of ILC in practical dynamic systems. The presented sampled data ILC methods also ensure the balance of performance and stability of learning process. Furthermore, the presented theories and methodologies are tested with an ILC controlled robotic system. The experimental results show that the machines can work in much h...
Frequency domain stability criteria for fractional-order control systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This paper concerns about the frequency domain stability criteria for fractional-order control systems. On the base of characteristics of the fractional-order equations solutions, we consider the Nyquist stability criterion in a wider sense and obtain a more common means to analyze the stability of fractional-order systems conveniently. Finally, this paper illustrates the generalized stability criteria with an example to show the effect of the parameters variation on the fractional-order control systems.
An implementation of synthetic aperture focusing technique in frequency domain.
Stepinski, Tadeusz
2007-07-01
A new implementation of a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) based on concepts used in synthetic aperture radar and sonar is presented in the paper. The algorithm, based on the convolution model of the imaging system developed in frequency domain, accounts for the beam pattern of the finite-sized transducer used in the synthetic aperture. The 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for the calculation of a 2D spectrum of the ultrasonic data. The spectrum is then interpolated to convert the polar coordinate system used for the acquisition of ultrasonic signals to the rectangular coordinates used for the presentation of imaging results. After compensating the transducer lobe amplitude profile using a Wiener filter, the transformed spectrum is subjected to the 2D inverse Fourier transform to get the time-domain image again. The algorithm is computationally attractive due to the use of 2D FFT. The performance of the proposed frequency-domain algorithm and the classical time-domain SAFT are compared in the paper using simulated and real ultrasonic data.
Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media
Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.
2011-10-01
Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.
Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase
Choi, Yun Seok
2011-01-01
Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Frequency Hopping Method for Audio Watermarking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Anastasijević
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degradation of audio content for a perceptible removable watermark. Two different approaches to embedding the watermark in the spectral domain were investigated. The frequencies for watermark embedding are chosen according to a pseudorandom sequence making the methods robust. Consequentially, the lower quality audio can be used for promotional purposes. For a fee, the watermark can be removed with a secret watermarking key. Objective and subjective testing was conducted in order to measure degradation level for the watermarked music samples and to examine residual distortion for different parameters of the watermarking algorithm and different music genres.
Low-Bandwidth Channel Quality Indication for OFDMA Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank; Pokhariyal, Akhilesh
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study methods for lowering the bandwidth needed for the UE to transmit channel quality indication (CQI) for time and frequency domain scheduling (FDPS) in OFDMA. We consider smart compression methods, such as threshold based indication, to only include scheduler...
High-Frequency Rayleigh-Wave Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jianghai Xia; Richard D Millerg; Xu Yixian; Luo Yinhe; Chen Chao; Liu Jiangping; Julian Ivanov; Chong Zeng
2009-01-01
High-frequency (≥2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannei recording sys-tem have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave tech-niques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a nou-iuvasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution.
A Modified Normalization Technique for Frequency-Domain Full Waveform Inversion
Hwang, J.; Jeong, G.; Min, D. J.; KIM, S.; Heo, J. Y.
2016-12-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique to estimate subsurface material properties minimizing the misfit function built with residuals between field and modeled data. To achieve computational efficiency, FWI has been performed in the frequency domain by carrying out modeling in the frequency domain, whereas observed data (time-series data) are Fourier-transformed.One of the main drawbacks of seismic FWI is that it easily gets stuck in local minima because of lacking of low-frequency data. To compensate for this limitation, damped wavefields are used, as in the Laplace-domain waveform inversion. Using damped wavefield in FWI plays a role in generating low-frequency components and help recover long-wavelength structures. With these newly generated low-frequency components, we propose a modified frequency-normalization technique, which has an effect of boosting contribution of low-frequency components to model parameter update.In this study, we introduce the modified frequency-normalization technique which effectively amplifies low-frequency components of damped wavefields. Our method is demonstrated for synthetic data for the SEG/EAGE salt model. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20168510030830) and by the Dual Use Technology Program, granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea.
Frequency domain wave equation forward modeling using gaussian elimination with static pivoting
Jian-Yong, Song; Xiao-Dong, Zheng; Yan, Zhang; Ji-Xiang, Xu; Zhen, Qin; Xue-Juan, Song
2011-03-01
Frequency domain wave equation forward modeling is a problem of solving large scale linear sparse systems which is often subject to the limits of computational efficiency and memory storage. Conventional Gaussian elimination cannot resolve the parallel computation of huge data. Therefore, we use the Gaussian elimination with static pivoting (GESP) method for sparse matrix decomposition and multi-source finite-difference modeling. The GESP method does not only improve the computational efficiency but also benefit the distributed parallel computation of matrix decomposition within a single frequency point. We test the proposed method using the classic Marmousi model. Both the single-frequency wave field and time domain seismic section show that the proposed method improves the simulation accuracy and computational efficiency and saves and makes full use of memory. This method can lay the basis for waveform inversion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱丰; 张群; 顾福飞; 李开明
2012-01-01
Combined with sparse SIMO radar array in space domain, the two dimensional sparsity model for radar imaging with high resolution is established in this paper with frequency-stepped chirp signal (FSCS). First, a velocity estimation method for moving targets is introduced for this model based on image entropy criteria, and the accurate velocity estimation is implemented by simple zero-padding for low dimensional data. Second, in combination of the Compressed Sensing (CS) theory, the effective measurement matrix, the sparsity transform matrix and the reconstruction algorithm are designed to obtain the high-resolution range profile (HRRP) , then a phase remain character based new imaging method is proposed for SIMO high-resolution sparse radar by two dimensional sparsity processing in the frequency and the space domains. The model can reduce not only the number of sub-pulses in FSCS burst, but also reduce the number of receivers of SIMO high-resolution radar, in the meanwhile, the high quality HRRP and two dimensional images of targets can be achieved. Effectiveness and robustness of the method are proved by the simulation results.%利用频域稀疏的线性调频步进信号(FSCS)作为雷达发射信号,并结合空域稀疏的SIMO雷达阵列来构建二维稀疏的高分辨雷达成像模型.针对该稀疏模型,首先通过对低维数据简单补零处理,然后利用图像熵准则完成对运动目标速度的有效估计.在此基础上,结合压缩感知理论,构造有效的观测矩阵、稀疏变换矩阵以及重构算法,获得目标高分辨距离像(HRRP),进一步提出基于保相性的频域空域二维稀疏SIMO高分辨雷达成像方法.该方法可以大幅减少FSCS脉冲串的子脉冲个数,大幅减少SIMO高分辨雷达接收天线阵元个数,并获得高质量的HRRP和目标二维像.仿真实验验证了本文方法的有效性和鲁棒性.
Quantitative analysis of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator.
Reichman, Brent O; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Miller, Kyle G
2016-05-01
In this paper, quantitative understanding of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator is developed. The indicator is derived from an ensemble-averaged, frequency-domain version of the generalized Burgers equation, which can be rearranged in order to directly compare the effects of nonlinearity, absorption, and geometric spreading on the pressure spectrum level with frequency and distance. The nonlinear effect is calculated using pressure-squared-pressure quadspectrum. Further theoretical development has given an expression for the role of the normalized quadspectrum, referred to as Q/S by Morfey and Howell [AIAA J. 19, 986-992 (1981)], in the spatial rate of change of the pressure spectrum level. To explore this finding, an investigation of the change in level for initial sinusoids propagating as plane waves through inviscid and thermoviscous media has been conducted. The decibel change with distance, calculated through Q/S, captures the growth and decay of the harmonics and indicates that the most significant changes in level occur prior to sawtooth formation. At large distances, the inviscid case results in a spatial rate of change that is uniform across all harmonics. For thermoviscous media, large positive nonlinear gains are observed but offset by absorption, which leads to a greater overall negative spatial rate of change for higher harmonics.
Quantifying online visuomotor feedback utilization in the frequency domain.
de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc
2016-12-01
The utilization of sensory information during activities of daily living is ubiquitous both prior to and during movements (i.e., related to planning and online control, respectively). Because of the overlapping nature of online corrective processes, the quantification of feedback utilization has proven difficult. In the present study, we primarily sought to evaluate the utility of a novel analysis in the frequency domain for identifying visuomotor feedback utilization (i.e., online control). A second goal was to compare the sensitivity of the frequency analysis to that of currently utilized measures of online control. Participants completed reaching movements to targets located 27, 30, and 33 cm from a start position. During these reaches, vision of the environment was either provided or withheld. Performance was assessed across contemporary measures of online control. For the novel frequency analysis presented in this study, the acceleration profiles of reaching movements were detrended with a 5th-order polynomial fit, and the proportional power spectra were computed from the residuals of these fits. The results indicated that the use of visual feedback during reaching movements increased the contribution of the 4.68-Hz frequency to the residuals of the acceleration profiles. Comparisons across all measures of online control showed that the most sensitive measure was the squared Fisher transform of the correlation between the positions at 75 % and 100 % of the movement time. However, because such correlational measures can be contaminated by offline control processes, the frequency-domain analysis proposed herein represents a viable and promising alternative to detect changes in online feedback utilization.
Frequency domain probe design for high frequency sensing of soil moisture
Accurate moisture sensing is an important need for many research programs as well as in control of industrial processes. This paper covers the development of a frequency domain sensing probe for use in obtaining measurements of material properties suitable for work ranging from 0 to 6GHz. The probe ...
Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media
Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan
2016-04-01
The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡阳健; 林强
2002-01-01
The generalized Collins formula for partially coherent beams through axially non-symmetrical optical systems in the spatial-frequency domain is derived by means of the tensor method. Based on this formula, the tensor ABCD law in the spatial-frequency domain for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beams is derived, which governs the transformation of the twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the spatialfrequency domain. An example of an application is provided.
Analysis of wave packet motion in frequency and time domain: oxazine 1.
Braun, Markus; Sobotta, Constanze; Dürr, Regina; Pulvermacher, Horst; Malkmus, Stephan
2006-08-17
Wave packet motion in the laser dye oxazine 1 in methanol is investigated by spectrally resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The spectral range of 600-690 nm was accessible by amplified broadband probe pulses covering the overlap region of ground-state bleach and stimulated emission signal. The influence of vibrational wave packets on the optical signal is analyzed in the frequency domain and the time domain. For the analysis in the frequency domain an algorithm is presented that accounts for interference effects of neighbored vibrational modes. By this method amplitude, phase and decay time of vibrational modes are retrieved as a function of probe wavelength and distortions due to neighbored modes are reduced. The analysis of the data in the time domain yields complementary information on the intensity, central wavelength, and spectral width of the optical bleach spectrum due to wave packet motion.
Fractional Fourier transform for partially coherent beam in spatial-frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Yang-Jian; Lin Qiang
2004-01-01
By using Fourier transform and the tensor analysis method, the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) in the spatialfrequency domain for partially coherent beams is derived. Based on the FRT in the spatial-frequency domain, an analytical transform formula is derived for a partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beam passing through the FRT system. The connections between the FRT formula and the generalized diffraction integral formulae for partially coherent beams through an aligned optical system and a misaligned optical system in the spatialfrequency domain are discussed, separately. By using the derived formula, the intensity distribution of partially coherent twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the FRT plane are studied in detail. The formula derived provide a convenient tool for analysing and calculating the FRTs of the partially coherent beams in spatial-frequency domain.
Consensus for Linear Multiagent Systems With Time-Varying Delays: A Frequency Domain Perspective.
Chen, Yuanye; Shi, Yang
2016-07-27
This paper investigates the consensus problem for multiagent systems with time-varying delays. The bounded delays can be arbitrarily fast time-varying. The communication topology is assumed to be undirected and fixed. With general linear dynamics under average state feedback protocols, the consensus problem is then transformed into the robust control problem. Further, sufficient frequency domain criteria are established in terms of small gain theorem by analyzing the delay dependent gains for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems. The controller synthesis problems can be solved by applying the frequency domain design methods. Numerical examples are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
USING CROSS-CORRELATION THEORY TO EXTRACT MODAL PARAMETERS IN FREQUENCY-DOMAIN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Conventional modal parameter identifications are usually based on frequency response functions, which require measurements of both the input force and the resulting response. However, in many cases, only response data are available while the actual excitations (such as wind/wave load) are not measurable. Modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. Over the past years, many time-domain modal parameter identification techniques from output-only are proposed. A poly-reference frequency-domain modal identification scheme on response-only is presented. It is based on coupling the cross-correlation theory with conventional frequency-domain modal parameter extraction. An experiment using an airplane model is performed to verify the proposed method.
Baseband feedback for SAFARI-SPICA using Frequency Domain Multiplexing
Bounab, A.; de Korte, P.; Cros, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Monna, B.; Mossel, R.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; Ravera, L.
We report on the performance of the digital baseband feedback circuit developed to readout and process signals from arrays of transition edge sensors for SPICA-SAFARI in frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). The standard procedure to readout the SQUID current amplifiers is to use a feedback loop (flux-locked loop: FLL). However the achievable FFL bandwidth is limited by the cable transport delay t_d, which makes standard feedback inconvenient. A much better approach is to use baseband feedback. We have developed a model of the electronic readout chain for SPICA-SAFARI instrument by using an Anlog-digital co-simulation based on Simulink-System Generator environment.
A frequency-domain derivation of shot-noise
Rice, Frank
2016-01-01
A formula for shot-noise is derived in the frequency-domain. The derivation is complete and reasonably rigorous while being appropriate for undergraduate students; it models a sequence of random pulses using Fourier sine and cosine series, and requires some basic statistical concepts. The text here may serve as a pedagogic introduction to the spectral analysis of random processes and may prove useful to introduce students to the logic behind stochastic problems. The concepts of noise power spectral density and equivalent noise bandwidth are introduced.
High-Performance Computational Electromagnetics in Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain
2015-03-04
aforementioned contributions, for a given 1In view of its applications to seismic wave propagation Dr. Amlani’s PhD thesis received two awards at Cal- tech, one...for wave scattering problems. PhD thesis, California Institute of Technol- ogy, 2014. Available at http://www.its.caltech.edu/~obruno/preprints...solutions for some of the most challenging scattering problems in science and engineering. Electromagnetic scattering . Frequency domain solvers. Integral
Causality between regional stock markets: A frequency domain approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gradojević Nikola
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using a data set from five regional stock exchanges (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Hungary and Germany, this paper presents a frequency domain analysis of a causal relationship between the returns on the CROBEX, SBITOP, CETOP and DAX indices, and the return on the major Serbian stock exchange index, BELEX 15. We find evidence of a somewhat dominant effect of the CROBEX and CETOP stock indices on the BELEX 15 stock index across a range of frequencies. The results also indicate that the BELEX 15 index and the SBITOP index interact in a bi-directional causal fashion. Finally, the DAX index movements consistently drive the BELEX 15 index returns for cycle lengths between 3 and 11 days without any feedback effect.
Qi, Feng; Tavakol, Vahid; Ocket, Ilja; Xu, Peng; Schreurs, Dominique; Wang, Jinkuan; Nauwelaers, Bart
2010-01-01
Active millimeter wave imaging systems have become a promising candidate for indoor security applications and industrial inspection. However, there is a lack of simulation tools at the system level. We introduce and evaluate two modeling approaches that are applied to active millimeter wave imaging systems. The first approach originates in Fourier optics and concerns the calculation in the spatial frequency domain. The second approach is based on wave propagation and corresponds to calculation in the spatial domain. We compare the two approaches in the case of both rough and smooth objects and point out that the spatial frequency domain calculation may suffer from a large error in amplitude of 50% in the case of rough objects. The comparison demonstrates that the concepts of point-spread function and f-number should be applied with careful consideration in coherent millimeter wave imaging systems. In the case of indoor applications, the near-field effect should be considered, and this is included in the spatial domain calculation.
Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform
Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
2000-01-01
We describe a wavelet-based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in
Molenaar, P.C.M.
1987-01-01
Outlines a frequency domain analysis of the dynamic factor model and proposes a solution to the problem of constructing a causal filter of lagged factor loadings. The method is illustrated with applications to simulated and real multivariate time series. The latter applications involve topographic a
Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media
Green’s functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune
2006-01-01
Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for eliminating the influence of these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For various experiments, the quality of the method is assessed and compared to the results obtained using broadband stochastic excitation forces. Good...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王杰; 毛玉泉; 李思佳; 吴崇虎
2012-01-01
针对图像频域滤波中细节信息丢失的问题,提出了一种频域倒数—高斯级联低通滤波去噪方法.该方法在频域利用倒数快速收敛的性质并结合高斯低通滤波器,实现了图像的联合滤波去噪.其在有效滤除高频噪声的同时更大限度地保留了图像的细节分量,进而使处理后的图像具有较高的对比度,对于去除噪声、提高图像质量有显著的效果.仿真结果表明,在相同的有效滤波面积基础上,与传统低通滤波器、倒数一理想级联低通滤波器、倒数—巴特沃斯级联低通滤波器相比,该方法的去噪效果最佳.%To reduce the loss of details in the image frequency domain filtering, this paper proposed a new frequency method that reciprocal—Gaussian cascade low-pass filter. The method utilized the nature of reciprocal fast convergence and combined with Gaussian low-pass filter to achieve the joint filter of the image, it had significant impression on improving image quality by keeping a greater measure of image detail component while filtering the high-frequency noise, it processed the after image having higher contrast. Simulation shows that, comparing with traditional low-pass filter, reciprocal—ideal cascade low-pass filter and reciprocal—Butterworth cascade low-pass filter based on the same effective filter area, the proposed method is the best on denoising effect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S.Ali Ghafari Oskoei; Ghyslaine McClure
2008-01-01
At present,high.speed computing capabilities and advanced nonlinear dynamic finite element procedures enable detailed dynamic analysis of cable structures.Although deterministic approaches require considerable analysis time and effort in relation to modeling,running,and data processing,they seem to be the only alternative to obtain high accuracy.Detailed dynamic analysis of cable roof networks is sophisticated and requires advanced modeling expertise.This paper presents a comparison between detailed nonlinear dynamic analysis and a simplified frequency domain approach to estimate the maximum probable response of weakly nonlinear cable roofs.The approach can be considered as alternative to detailed time-domain analysis in the preliminary design phase,or can be used to validate results obtained from more elaborated numerical models.The proposed method is illustrated with two examples of cable net roofs that were also analysed in the time domain.
Frequency-Domain Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer Model Parameters
Aguglia, D
2014-01-01
This paper presents an offline frequency-domain nonlinear and stochastic identification method for equivalent model parameter estimation of high-voltage pulse transformers. Such kinds of transformers are widely used in the pulsed-power domain, and the difficulty in deriving pulsed-power converter optimal control strategies is directly linked to the accuracy of the equivalent circuit parameters. These components require models which take into account electric fields energies represented by stray capacitance in the equivalent circuit. These capacitive elements must be accurately identified, since they greatly influence the general converter performances. A nonlinear frequency-based identification method, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, is presented, and a sensitivity analysis of the best experimental test to be considered is carried out. The procedure takes into account magnetic saturation and skin effects occurring in the windings during the frequency tests. The presented method is validated by experim...
Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections.
Fantini, S; Franceschini, M A; Gaida, G; Gratton, E; Jess, H; Mantulin, W W; Moesta, K T; Schlag, P M; Kaschke, M
1996-01-01
We have investigated the problem of edge effects in laser-beam transillumination scanning of the human breast. Edge effects arise from tissue thickness variability along the scanned area, and from lateral photon losses through the sides of the breast. Edge effects can be effectively corrected in frequency-domain measurements by employing a two-step procedure: (1) use of the phase information to calculate an effective tissue thickness for each pixel location; (2) application of the knowledge of tissue thickness to calculate an edge-corrected optical image from the ac signal image. The measurements were conducted with a light mammography apparatus (LIMA) designed for feasibility tests in the clinical environment. Operating in the frequency-domain (110 MHz), this instrument performs a transillumination optical scan at two wavelengths (685 and 825 nm). We applied the proposed two-step procedure to data from breast phantoms and from human breasts. The processed images provide higher contrast and detectability in optical mammography with respect to raw data breast images.
Zhou, Si-Da; Heylen, Ward; Sas, Paul; Liu, Li
2014-05-01
This paper investigates the problem of modal parameter estimation of time-varying structures under unknown excitation. A time-frequency-domain maximum likelihood estimator of modal parameters for linear time-varying structures is presented by adapting the frequency-domain maximum likelihood estimator to the time-frequency domain. The proposed estimator is parametric, that is, the linear time-varying structures are represented by a time-dependent common-denominator model. To adapt the existing frequency-domain estimator for time-invariant structures to the time-frequency methods for time-varying cases, an orthogonal polynomial and z-domain mapping hybrid basis function is presented, which has the advantageous numerical condition and with which it is convenient to calculate the modal parameters. A series of numerical examples have evaluated and illustrated the performance of the proposed maximum likelihood estimator, and a group of laboratory experiments has further validated the proposed estimator.
Rolling element bearing faults diagnosis based on kurtogram and frequency domain correlated kurtosis
Gu, Xiaohui; Yang, Shaopu; Liu, Yongqiang; Hao, Rujiang
2016-12-01
Envelope analysis is one of the most useful methods in localized fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. However, there is a challenge in selecting the optimal resonance band. In this paper, a novel method based on kurtogram and frequency domain correlated kurtosis is proposed. To obtain the correct relationship between the node and frequency band in wavelet packet transform, a vital process named frequency ordering is conducted to solve the frequency folding problem due to down sampling. Correlated kurtosis of envelope spectrum instead of correlated kurtosis of envelope signal or kurtosis of envelope spectrum is utilized to generate the kurtogram, in which the maximum value can indicate the optimal band for envelope analysis. Several cases of experimental bearing fault signals are used to evaluate the immunity of the proposed method to strong noise interference. The improved performance has also been compared with two previous developed methods. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the method in fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李安邦; 徐新华
2015-01-01
Analyzing the frequency thermal characteristics of the pipe-embedded radiant floor may give a further insight into its dynamic thermal performance and important guidelines for the system and control design.A frequency-domain finite element model of the pipe-embedded radiant floor is developed.The time-domain model of this structure is also developed by using ANSYS (ANAYS model)for reference.The accuracy of the frequency-domain finite element model of this structure is evaluated by comparing its results with that of the ANSYS model.The frequency thermal characteristics of the pipe-embedded radiant floor are calculated and analyzed by using this frequency-domain finite element model.The frequency thermal responses of the pipe-embedded radiant floor are basically unchanged with the frequency in low-frequency range while change rapidly in high-frequency range.Therefore dynamic calculation method should be adopted in predicting the heat transfer of the pipe-embedded radiant floor especially when high-frequency thermal disturbances are dominant in the room.%分析内嵌管式辐射地板的频域热特性，便于进一步了解内嵌管式辐射地板的动态热特征，为辐射地板的系统和控制设计提供重要的参考依据。建立了内嵌管式辐射地板的频域有限元模型，同时采用 ANSYS 软件建立了内嵌管式辐射地板的时域传热模型，通过2个模型的对比说明了频域有限元模型的准确性。采用频域有限元模型计算并分析了内嵌管式辐射地板的频域热特性。结果表明，在低频区域，地板的频域热响应基本不随频率变化，其传热过程接近于稳态，而在高频区域，地板的频域热响应随频率的变化十分剧烈，地板传热呈现明显的动态特征。当房间内存在较多成分的高频热扰时，关于辐射地板的传热计算应采用动态计算方法。
Patellofemoral pain syndrome: electromyography in a frequency domain analysis
Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.
2011-09-01
The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.
Le, Thien-Phu; Argoul, Pierre
2016-12-01
This paper proposes a new modal identification method of ambient vibration responses. The application of the singular value decomposition to continuous wavelet transform of power spectral density matrix gives singular values and singular vectors in frequency-scale domain. Analytical development shows a direct relation between local maxima in frequency-scale representation of singular values and modal parameters. This relation is then carried on for the identification of modal parameters via a complete practical procedure. The main novelties of this work involve the new formulation in frequency-scale domain and the capacity for the identification of modal parameters without the step of ridges extraction in comparison with previous wavelet-based modal identification methods.
Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Hahn, Gitte H.; Greisen, Gorm
2015-03-01
The aim was to compare two conventional methods used to describe cerebral autoregulation (CA): frequency-domain analysis and time-domain analysis. We measured cerebral oxygenation (as a surrogate for cerebral blood flow) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in 60 preterm infants. In the frequency domain, outcome variables were coherence and gain, whereas the cerebral oximetry index (COx) and the regression coefficient were the outcome variables in the time domain. Correlation between coherence and COx was poor. The disagreement between the two methods was due to the MAP and cerebral oxygenation signals being in counterphase in three cases. High gain and high coherence may arise spuriously when cerebral oxygenation decreases as MAP increases; hence, time-domain analysis appears to be a more robust-and simpler-method to describe CA.
Joint AVO inversion in the time and frequency domain with Bayesian interference
Zong, Zhao-Yun; Yin, Xing-Yao; Li, Kun
2016-12-01
Amplitude variations with offset or incident angle (AVO/AVA) inversion are typically combined with statistical methods, such as Bayesian inference or deterministic inversion. We propose a joint elastic inversion method in the time and frequency domain based on Bayesian inversion theory to improve the resolution of the estimated P- and S-wave velocities and density. We initially construct the objective function using Bayesian inference by combining seismic data in the time and frequency domain. We use Cauchy and Gaussian probability distribution density functions to obtain the prior information for the model parameters and the likelihood function, respectively. We estimate the elastic parameters by solving the initial objective function with added model constraints to improve the inversion robustness. The results of the synthetic data suggest that the frequency spectra of the estimated parameters are wider than those obtained with conventional elastic inversion in the time domain. In addition, the proposed inversion approach offers stronger antinoising compared to the inversion approach in the frequency domain. Furthermore, results from synthetic examples with added Gaussian noise demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach. From the real data, we infer that more model parameter details can be reproduced with the proposed joint elastic inversion.
Time domain Rankine-Green panel method for offshore structures
Li, Zhifu; Ren, Huilong; Liu, Riming; Li, Hui
2017-02-01
To solve the numerical divergence problem of the direct time domain Green function method for the motion simulation of floating bodies with large flare, a time domain hybrid Rankine-Green boundary element method is proposed. In this numerical method, the fluid domain is decomposed by an imaginary control surface, at which the continuous condition should be satisfied. Then the Rankine Green function is adopted in the inner domain. The transient free surface Green function is applied in the outer domain, which is used to find the relationship between the velocity potential and its normal derivative for the inner domain. Besides, the velocity potential at the mean free surface between body surface and control surface is directly solved by the integration scheme. The wave exciting force is computed through the convolution integration with wave elevation, by introducing the impulse response function. Additionally, the nonlinear Froude-Krylov force and hydrostatic force, which is computed under the instantaneous incident wave free surface, are taken into account by the direct pressure integration scheme. The corresponding numerical computer code is developed and first used to compute the hydrodynamic coefficients of the hemisphere, as well as the time history of a ship with large flare; good agreement is obtained with the analytical solutions as well as the available numerical results. Then the hydrodynamic properties of a FPSO are studied. The hydrodynamic coefficients agree well with the results computed by the frequency method; the influence of the time interval and the truncated time is investigated in detail.
Simultaneous storage of medical images in the spatial and frequency domain: A comparative study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Acharya U Rajendra
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. Methods The patient information is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The bio-signals are compressed and subsequently interleaved with the image. This interleaving is carried out in the spatial domain and Frequency domain. The performance of interleaving in the spatial, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT coefficients is studied. Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM is employed for data compression as well as encryption and results are tabulated for a specific example. Results It can be seen from results, the process does not affect the picture quality. This is attributed to the fact that the change in LSB of a pixel changes its brightness by 1 part in 256. Spatial and DFT domain interleaving gave very less %NRMSE as compared to DCT and DWT domain. Conclusion The Results show that spatial domain the interleaving, the %NRMSE was less than 0.25% for 8-bit encoded pixel intensity. Among the frequency domain interleaving methods, DFT was found to be very efficient.
Linearized Aeroelastic Computations in the Frequency Domain Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics
Amsallem, David; Choi, Youngsoo; Farhat, Charbel
2015-01-01
An iterative, CFD-based approach for aeroelastic computations in the frequency domain is presented. The method relies on a linearized formulation of the aeroelastic problem and a fixed-point iteration approach and enables the computation of the eigenproperties of each of the wet aeroelastic eigenmodes. Numerical experiments on the aeroelastic analysis and design optimization of two wing configurations illustrate the capability of the method for the fast and accurate aeroelastic analysis of aircraft configurations and its advantage over classical time-domain approaches.
Frequency-domain imaging algorithm for ultrasonic testing by application of matrix phased arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolmatov Dmitry
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Constantly increasing demand for high-performance materials and systems in aerospace industry requires advanced methods of nondestructive testing. One of the most promising methods is ultrasonic imaging by using matrix phased arrays. This technique allows to create three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging with high lateral resolution. Further progress in matrix phased array ultrasonic testing is determined by the development of fast imaging algorithms. In this article imaging algorithm based on frequency domain calculations is proposed. This approach is computationally efficient in comparison with time domain algorithms. Performance of the proposed algorithm was tested via computer simulations for planar specimen with flat bottom holes.
Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Widlund, O.
1996-12-31
In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.
Efficient integration method for fictitious domain approaches
Duczek, Sascha; Gabbert, Ulrich
2015-10-01
In the current article, we present an efficient and accurate numerical method for the integration of the system matrices in fictitious domain approaches such as the finite cell method (FCM). In the framework of the FCM, the physical domain is embedded in a geometrically larger domain of simple shape which is discretized using a regular Cartesian grid of cells. Therefore, a spacetree-based adaptive quadrature technique is normally deployed to resolve the geometry of the structure. Depending on the complexity of the structure under investigation this method accounts for most of the computational effort. To reduce the computational costs for computing the system matrices an efficient quadrature scheme based on the divergence theorem (Gauß-Ostrogradsky theorem) is proposed. Using this theorem the dimension of the integral is reduced by one, i.e. instead of solving the integral for the whole domain only its contour needs to be considered. In the current paper, we present the general principles of the integration method and its implementation. The results to several two-dimensional benchmark problems highlight its properties. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared to conventional spacetree-based integration techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Chin-Hua
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate prediction of unplanned readmission (UR after discharge from hospital can facilitate physician's decision making processes for providing better quality of care in geriatric patients. The objective of this study was to explore the association of cardiac autonomic functions as measured by frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV and 14-day UR in geriatric patients. Methods Patients admitted to the geriatric ward of a regional hospital in Chiayi county in Taiwan were followed prospectively from July 2006 to June 2007. Those with invasive tubes and those who were heavy smokers, heavy alcohol drinkers, on medications that might influence HRV, or previously admitted to the hospital within 30 days were excluded. Cardiac autonomic functions were evaluated by frequency domain indices of HRV. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between UR and HRV indices adjusted for age and length of hospitalization. Results A total of 78 patients met the inclusion criteria and 15 of them were readmitted within 14 days after discharge. The risk of UR was significantly higher in patients with lower levels of total power (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.04-2.00, low frequency power (LF (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.03-1.49, high frequency power (HF (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.02-1.64, and lower ratios of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF ratio (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.07-3.84. Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate the association between frequency domain heart rate variability and the risk of UR in geriatric patients. Frequency domain heart rate variability indices measured on admission were significantly associated with increased risk of UR in geriatric patients. Additional studies are required to confirm the value and feasibility of using HRV indices on admission as a non-invasive tool to assist the prediction of UR in geriatric patients.
A Frequency Domain Steganography using Z Transform (FDSZT)
Mandal, J K
2012-01-01
Image steganography is art of hiding information onto the cover image. In this proposal a transformed domain based gray scale image authentication/data hiding technique using Z transform (ZT) termed as FDSZT, has been proposed. ZTransform is applied on 2x2 masks of the source image in row major order to transform original sub image (cover image) block to its corresponding frequency domain. One bit of the hidden image is embedded in each mask of the source image onto the fourth LSB of transformed coefficient based on median value of the mask. A delicate handle has also been performed as post embedding operation for proper decoding. Stego sub image is obtained through a reverse transform as final step of embedding in a mask. During the process of embedding, dimension of the hidden image followed by the content of the message/hidden image are embedded. Reverse process is followed during decoding. High PSNR obtained for various images conform the quality of invisible watermark of FDSZT.
A new image cipher in time and frequency domains
Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu; Amin, Mohamed
2012-10-01
Recently, various encryption techniques based on chaos have been proposed. However, most existing chaotic encryption schemes still suffer from fundamental problems such as small key space, weak security function and slow performance speed. This paper introduces an efficient encryption scheme for still visual data that overcome these disadvantages. The proposed scheme is based on hybrid Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) and chaotic systems in hybrid domains. The core idea is to scramble the pixel positions based on 2D chaotic systems in frequency domain. Then, the diffusion is done on the scrambled image based on cryptographic primitive operations and the incorporation of LFSR and chaotic systems as round keys. The hybrid compound of LFSR, chaotic system and cryptographic primitive operations strengthen the encryption performance and enlarge the key space required to resist the brute force attacks. Results of statistical and differential analysis show that the proposed algorithm has high security for secure digital images. Furthermore, it has key sensitivity together with a large key space and is very fast compared to other competitive algorithms.
Boukamp, Bernard A.; Otter, den Matthijs W.; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.
2004-01-01
The conductivity relaxation (CR) method is often used for measuring the surface transfer rate, Ktr, and the bulk diffusion coefficient, $$\\tilde{D},$$ for oxygen transport in mixed conducting oxides (MIECs). The time domain analysis of the obtained CR response is rather complex and is based on lsquo
Lu, Lidong; Sun, Xiaoyan; Bu, Xiande; Li, Binglin
2017-02-01
A scheme using timed random frequency hopping and signal logarithmic mean method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in a coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) system to reduce the fading noise of the OTDR trace and simplify the signal processing procedure. The timed random frequency hopping is realized by randomly changing the driving current of the laser at certain time points. By this method, the fading noise of OTDR trace can be reduced to be 1/5 of that without using it. Also, a radio frequency power detector (RFPD), whose output voltage has linear relationship with the input logarithmic RF power, is used to extract the power of the RF signals from the balanced photodetector. Then, a data acquisition card directly captures and adds the digital voltage signals from the RFPD to reduce the fading noise and improve the measurement dynamic range. Compared with synchronous and asynchronous frequency hopping scheme, the proposed method is of high efficiency.
MULTILOOP PI CONTROLLER FOR ACHIEVING SIMULTANEOUS TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS
2015-01-01
Most of the controllers in control system are designed to satisfy either time domain or frequency domain specifications. This work presents the computation of a multiloop PI controller for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously. The desired time and frequency domain measures are to be specified initially to the design. To obtain the desired value of the performance measures the graphical relationship between the PI controller and the performance criteria is given. T...
Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, Mira
2017-02-01
The nonlinear interaction of a dual frequency flexural wave with a breathing crack generates a peculiar frequency mixing phenomena, which is manifested in form of the side bands or peaks at combinations frequencies in frequency spectrum of the response. Although these peaks have been proven useful in ascertaining the presence of crack, they barely carry any information about the crack location. In this regards, the present article analyzes the time domain representation of the response obtained by employing a wavelet spectral finite element method. The study reveals that the combination tones generated at the crack location travel with dissimilar speeds along the waveguide, owing to its dispersive nature. The separation between the lobes corresponding to these combination tones therefore, depends on the distance that they have travelled. This observation is then used to formulate a method to predict the crack location with respect to the sensor. A brief parametric study shows marginal errors in predicting the crack location, which ascertains the validity of the method. This article also studies the frequency spectrum of the response. The peaks at combination tones are quantified in terms of a modulate parameter which depends on the severity of the crack. The inferences drawn from the time and the frequency domain study can be instrumental in designing a robust strategy for detecting location and severity of the crack.
Permutation Correction in the Frequency Domain in Blind Separation of Speech Mixtures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pham DT
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for blind separation of convolutive mixtures of speech signals, based on the joint diagonalization of the time varying spectral matrices of the observation records. The main and still largely open problem in a frequency domain approach is permutation ambiguity. In an earlier paper of the authors, the continuity of the frequency response of the unmixing filters is exploited, but it leaves some frequency permutation jumps. This paper therefore proposes a new method based on two assumptions. The frequency continuity of the unmixing filters is still used in the initialization of the diagonalization algorithm. Then, the paper introduces a new method based on the time-frequency representations of the sources. They are assumed to vary smoothly with frequency. This hypothesis of the continuity of the time variation of the source energy is exploited on a sliding frequency bandwidth. It allows us to detect the remaining frequency permutation jumps. The method is compared with other approaches and results on real world recordings demonstrate superior performances of the proposed algorithm.
Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin
2012-12-17
We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.
Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.
Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai
2015-05-01
This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement.
On time-domain and frequency-domain MMSE-based TEQ design for DMT transmission
Vanbleu, K; Moonen, M; Ysebaert, G; 10.1109/TSP.2005.851161
2005-01-01
We reconsider the minimum mean square error (MMSE) time-domain equalizer (TEQ), bitrate maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ), and per-tone equalizer design (PTEQ) for discrete multitone (DMT) transmission and cast them in a common least-squares (LS) based framework. The MMSE- TEQ design criterion can be formulated as a constrained linear least-squares (CLLS) criterion that minimizes a time-domain (TD) error energy. From this CLLS-based TD-MMSE-TEQ criterion, we derive two new least-squares (LS) based frequency-domain (FD) MMSE-TEQ design criteria: a CLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ criterion and a so-called separable nonlinear LS (SNLLS) based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. Finally, the original BM-TEQ design is shown to be equivalent to a so-called iteratively-reweighted (IR) version of the SNLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. This LS-based framework then results in the following contributions. The new, IR-SNLLS-based BM-TEQ design criterion gives rise to an elegant, iterative, fast converging, Gauss-Newton-based design algorithm that exploits th...
Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods
Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf
2015-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms. The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics. This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...
Domain Decomposition Methods for Hyperbolic Problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pravir Dutt; Subir Singh Lamba
2009-04-01
In this paper a method is developed for solving hyperbolic initial boundary value problems in one space dimension using domain decomposition, which can be extended to problems in several space dimensions. We minimize a functional which is the sum of squares of the 2 norms of the residuals and a term which is the sum of the squares of the 2 norms of the jumps in the function across interdomain boundaries. To make the problem well posed the interdomain boundaries are made to move back and forth at alternate time steps with sufficiently high speed. We construct parallel preconditioners and obtain error estimates for the method. The Schwarz waveform relaxation method is often employed to solve hyperbolic problems using domain decomposition but this technique faces difficulties if the system becomes characteristic at the inter-element boundaries. By making the inter-element boundaries move faster than the fastest wave speed associated with the hyperbolic system we are able to overcome this problem.
Visco-acoustic transmission waveform inversion of velocity structure in space-frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guihua Long; Xiaofan Li; Meigen Zhang; Tong Zhu
2009-01-01
According to the least square criterion of minimizing the misfit between modeled and observed data, this paper provides a preconditioned gradient method to invert the visco-acoustic velocity structure on the basis of using sparse matrix LU factorization technique to directly solve the visco-acoustic wave forward problem in space-frequency domain. Numerical results obtained in an inclusion model inversion and a layered homogeneous model inversion demonstrate that different scale media have their own frequency responses, and the strategy of using low-frequency inverted result as the starting model in the high-frequency inversion can greatly reduce the non-uniqueness of their solutions. It can also be observed in the experi-ments that the fast convergence of the algorithm can be achieved by using diagonal elements of Hessian matrix as the pre-conditioned operator, which fully incorporates the advantage of quadratic convergence of Gauss-Newton method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong eZhou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Brain activity can follow the rhythms of dynamic sensory stimuli, such as speech and music, a phenomenon called neural entrainment. It has been hypothesized that low-frequency neural entrainment in the neural delta and theta bands provides a potential mechanism to represent and integrate temporal information. Low-frequency neural entrainment is often studied using periodically changing stimuli and is analyzed in the frequency domain using the Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis decomposes a periodic signal into harmonically related sinusoids. However, it is not intuitive how these harmonically related components are related to the response waveform. Here, we explain the interpretation of response harmonics, with a special focus on very low-frequency neural entrainment near 1 Hz. It is illustrated why neural responses repeating at f Hz do not necessarily generate any neural response at f Hz in the Fourier spectrum. A strong neural response at f Hz indicates that the time scales of the neural response waveform within each cycle match the time scales of the stimulus rhythm. Therefore, neural entrainment at very low frequency implies not only that the neural response repeats at f Hz but also that each period of the neural response is a slow wave matching the time scale of a f Hz sinusoid.
Quasi-analytical method for frequency-to-time conversion in CSEM applications
Moradi Tehrani, A.; Slob, E.C.; Mulder, W.
2012-01-01
Frequency-to-time transformations are of interest to controlled-source electromagnetic methods when time-domain data are inverted for a subsurface resistivity model by numerical frequency-domain modeling at a selected, small number of frequencies whereas the data misfit is determined in the time dom
Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform.
Westenberg, M A; Roerdink, J M
2000-01-01
We describe a wavelet based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in the frequency domain. The wavelet X-ray transform is derived, and the corresponding Fourier-wavelet volume rendering algorithm (FWVR) is introduced, FWVR uses Haar or B-spline wavelets and linear or cubic spline interpolation. Various combinations are tested and compared with wavelet splatting (WS). We use medical MR and CT scan data, as well as a 3-D analytical phantom to assess the accuracy, time complexity, and memory cost of both FWVR and WS. The differences between both methods are enumerated.
Spatial and frequency domain interferometry using the MU radar - A tutorial and recent developments
Fukao, Shoichiro; Palmer, Robert D.
Fundamental notions of spatial and frequency-domain interferometry are reviewed, and a novel method is proposed for steering the antenna beam after the data are stored. Also presented is a comparison of techniques for wind-vector determination with emphasis given to a method based on the linear variation of the phase of the cross-spectra. Recent applications of spatial interferometry (SI) and frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) are listed including an implementation of FDI with MU radar. The vertical wind velocity estimated from the Doppler technique is shown to be a measure of the wind perpendicular to tilted refractivity surfaces. The bias generated by horizontal wind is found to have a significant effect on the Doppler estimate in SI. The use of MU radar in FDI can facilitate measurements of the positions of high reflectivity layers smaller than the resolution volume.
Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain
Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun
2016-03-01
The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses
Linear systems modeling of adaptive optics in the spatial-frequency domain.
Ellerbroek, Brent L
2005-02-01
Spatial-frequency domain techniques have traditionally been applied to obtain estimates for the independent effects of a variety of individual error sources in adaptive optics (AO). Overall system performance is sometimes estimated by introducing the approximation that these individual error terms are statistically independent, so that their magnitudes may be summed in quadrature. More accurate evaluation methods that account for the correlations between the individual error sources have required Monte Carlo simulations or large matrix calculations that can take much longer to compute, particularly as the order of the AO system increases beyond a few hundred degrees of freedom. We describe an approach to evaluating AO system performance in the spatial-frequency domain that is relatively computationally efficient but still accounts for many of the interactions between the fundamental error sources in AO. We exploit the fact that (in the limits of an infinite aperture and geometrical optics) all the basic wave-front propagation, sensing, and correction processes that describe the behavior of an AO system are spatial-filtering operations in the Fourier domain. Essentially all classical wave-front control algorithms and evaluation formulas are expressed in terms of these filters and may therefore be evaluated one spatial-frequency component at a time. Performance estimates for very-high-order AO systems may be obtained in 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less time than needed when detailed simulations or analytical models in the spatial domain are used, with a relative discrepancy of 5% to 10% for typical sample problems.
Multiscale Point Correspondence Using Feature Distribution and Frequency Domain Alignment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeng-Shun Zhao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid scheme is proposed to find the reliable point-correspondences between two images, which combines the distribution of invariant spatial feature description and frequency domain alignment based on two-stage coarse to fine refinement strategy. Firstly, the source and the target images are both down-sampled by the image pyramid algorithm in a hierarchical multi-scale way. The Fourier-Mellin transform is applied to obtain the transformation parameters at the coarse level between the image pairs; then, the parameters can serve as the initial coarse guess, to guide the following feature matching step at the original scale, where the correspondences are restricted in a search window determined by the deformation between the reference image and the current image; Finally, a novel matching strategy is developed to reject the false matches by validating geometrical relationships between candidate matching points. By doing so, the alignment parameters are refined, which is more accurate and more flexible than a robust fitting technique. This in return can provide a more accurate result for feature correspondence. Experiments on real and synthetic image-pairs show that our approach provides satisfactory feature matching performance.
Optimal Frequency-Domain System Realization with Weighting
Juang, Jer-Nan; Maghami, Peiman G.
1999-01-01
Several approaches are presented to identify an experimental system model directly from frequency response data. The formulation uses a matrix-fraction description as the model structure. Frequency weighting such as exponential weighting is introduced to solve a weighted least-squares problem to obtain the coefficient matrices for the matrix-fraction description. A multi-variable state-space model can then be formed using the coefficient matrices of the matrix-fraction description. Three different approaches are introduced to fine-tune the model using nonlinear programming methods to minimize the desired cost function. The first method uses an eigenvalue assignment technique to reassign a subset of system poles to improve the identified model. The second method deals with the model in the real Schur or modal form, reassigns a subset of system poles, and adjusts the columns (rows) of the input (output) influence matrix using a nonlinear optimizer. The third method also optimizes a subset of poles, but the input and output influence matrices are refined at every optimization step through least-squares procedures.
Spectral evolution of two-dimensional kinetic plasma turbulence in the wavenumber-frequency domain
Comişel, H; Narita, Y; Motschmann, U
2013-01-01
We present a method for studying the evolution of plasma turbulence by tracking dispersion relations in the energy spectrum in the wavenumber-frequency domain. We apply hybrid plasma simulations in a simplified two-dimensional geometry to demonstrate our method and its applicability to plasma turbulence in the ion kinetic regime. We identify four dispersion relations: ion-Bernstein waves, oblique whistler waves, oblique Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves, and a zero-frequency mode. The energy partition and frequency broadening are evaluated for these modes. The method allows us to determine the evolution of decaying plasma turbulence in our restricted geometry and shows that it cascades along the dispersion relations during the early phase with an increasing broadening around the dispersion relations.
Estimation of tire-road friction coefficient based on frequency domain data fusion
Chen, Long; Luo, Yugong; Bian, Mingyuan; Qin, Zhaobo; Luo, Jian; Li, Keqiang
2017-02-01
Due to the noise of sensing equipment, the tire states, such as the sideslip angle and the slip ratio, cannot be accurately observed under the conditions with small acceleration, which results in the inapplicability of the time domain data based tire-road friction coefficient (TRFC) estimation method. In order to overcome this shortcoming, frequency domain data fusion is proposed to estimate the TRFC based on the natural frequencies of the steering system and the in-wheel motor driving system. Firstly, a relationship between TRFC and the steering system natural frequency is deduced by investigating its frequency response function (FRF). Then the lateral TRFC is determined by the steering natural frequency which is only identified using the information of the assist motor current and the steering speed of the column. With spectral comparison between the steering and driving systems, the data fusion is carried out to get a comprehensive TRFC result, using the different frequency information of the longitudinal and lateral value. Finally, simulations and experiments on different road surfaces validated the correctness of the steering system FRF and the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal
2008-01-01
Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal
2008-01-01
Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...
Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota
2008-09-23
A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.
Frequency domain transfer function identification using the computer program SYSFIT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trudnowski, D.J.
1992-12-01
Because the primary application of SYSFIT for BPA involves studying power system dynamics, this investigation was geared toward simulating the effects that might be encountered in studying electromechanical oscillations in power systems. Although the intended focus of this work is power system oscillations, the studies are sufficiently genetic that the results can be applied to many types of oscillatory systems with closely-spaced modes. In general, there are two possible ways of solving the optimization problem. One is to use a least-squares optimization function and to write the system in such a form that the problem becomes one of linear least-squares. The solution can then be obtained using a standard least-squares technique. The other method involves using a search method to obtain the optimal model. This method allows considerably more freedom in forming the optimization function and model, but it requires an initial guess of the system parameters. SYSFIT employs this second approach. Detailed investigations were conducted into three main areas: (1) fitting to exact frequency response data of a linear system; (2) fitting to the discrete Fourier transformation of noisy data; and (3) fitting to multi-path systems. The first area consisted of investigating the effects of alternative optimization cost function options; using different optimization search methods; incorrect model order, missing response data; closely-spaced poles; and closely-spaced pole-zero pairs. Within the second area, different noise colorations and levels were studied. In the third area, methods were investigated for improving fitting results by incorporating more than one system path. The following is a list of guidelines and properties developed from the study for fitting a transfer function to the frequency response of a system using optimization search methods.
Spacial and Frequency Domain Calculation of Terrain Roughness Metric Root-Mean-Square (RMS)
2014-11-01
TARDEC Technical Report No. 26042 November 2014 SPACIAL AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN CALCULATION OF TERRAIN ROUGHNESS METRIC ROOT-MEAN...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 11-15-2014 2. REPORT TYPE TECHNICAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2013-2014 SPACIAL AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN CALCULATION OF TERRAIN...roughness. Based on mathematics of the Fourier transform and duality, calculations are performed in the spacial and frequency domains to show equivalent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Wang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Frequency-domain blind source separation (BSS performs poorly in high reverberation because the independence assumption collapses at each frequency bins when the number of bins increases. To improve the separation result, this paper proposes a method which combines two techniques by using beamforming as a preprocessor of blind source separation. With the sound source locations supposed to be known, the mixed signals are dereverberated and enhanced by beamforming; then the beamformed signals are further separated by blind source separation. To implement the proposed method, a superdirective fixed beamformer is designed for beamforming, and an interfrequency dependence-based permutation alignment scheme is presented for frequency-domain blind source separation. With beamforming shortening mixing filters and reducing noise before blind source separation, the combined method works better in reverberation. The performance of the proposed method is investigated by separating up to 4 sources in different environments with reverberation time from 100 ms to 700 ms. Simulation results verify the outperformance of the proposed method over using beamforming or blind source separation alone. Analysis demonstrates that the proposed method is computationally efficient and appropriate for real-time processing.
Thalmayr, Florian; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Omori, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune
2010-07-01
This paper demonstrates a novel frequency domain analysis (FDA) to evaluate the scattering behavior of a waveguide mode at arbitrary scattering geometries by a time harmonic simulation based on the finite element method (FEM). To this end, we add an injection-damping mechanism (IDM) to avoid interference at the acoustic input port. The IDM can be easily constructed by a numerical operation. Our approach offers improved time consumption and calculation power necessary over the established method in the time domain. After checking the validity of the proposed method, we discuss the importance of considering wave scattering phenomena in film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) devices by applying the proposed method to two simplified models of an FBAR device.
Comparison of pulse and SFCW GPR in time, frequency and wavelet domain
De Pue, Jan; Van De Vijver, Ellen; Cornelis, Wim; Van Meirvenne, Marc
2014-05-01
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems operating in the time- or frequency domain are two fundamentally different concepts, pursuing the same objective: non-invasive characterization of the subsurface. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of these two GPR systems in the time, frequency and wavelet domain. The time domain GPR investigated is the Utilityscan DF. This is a ground coupled GPR with a digital dual-frequency antenna (300 and 800 MHz). The Geoscope GS3F and VX1213 antenna array from 3DRadar is the frequency domain GPR used in this comparison. It is an air coupled stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) GPR with a frequency bandwidth from 200 MHz to 3000 MHz. Using data from several test sites of various soil types, the data is evaluated in the time domain, the frequency domain and the wavelet domain. Each of these domains contains specific information regarding the data quality. Presenting the data in the time domain, allows visualizing the subsurface reflections. This makes it visible how strong the data is affected by internal interference, ringing and other noise. To compensate for the attenuation of the signal in time, automatic gain control is applied. The maximum of this gain function indicates the time where the signal is attenuated completely and noise becomes more dominant, corresponding with the maximal penetration depth of the different GPR systems. In the frequency domain, the data allows to investigate which frequencies contain most valuable information and which ones are affected by noise. Finally, by performing a wavelet transformation the data is transformed to the time-frequency domain. Due to frequency dependent attenuation of electromagnetic signals in the soil, low frequencies will be more dominant in deeper layers, and high frequencies will not be present anymore. This is determining for the range resolution of the data throughout the traveltime of the signal. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil
Suspension parameter estimation in the frequency domain using a matrix inversion approach
Thite, A. N.; Banvidi, S.; Ibicek, T.; Bennett, L.
2011-12-01
The dynamic lumped parameter models used to optimise the ride and handling of a vehicle require base values of the suspension parameters. These parameters are generally experimentally identified. The accuracy of identified parameters can depend on the measurement noise and the validity of the model used. The existing publications on suspension parameter identification are generally based on the time domain and use a limited degree of freedom. Further, the data used are either from a simulated 'experiment' or from a laboratory test on an idealised quarter or a half-car model. In this paper, a method is developed in the frequency domain which effectively accounts for the measurement noise. Additional dynamic constraining equations are incorporated and the proposed formulation results in a matrix inversion approach. The nonlinearities in damping are estimated, however, using a time-domain approach. Full-scale 4-post rig test data of a vehicle are used. The variations in the results are discussed using the modal resonant behaviour. Further, a method is implemented to show how the results can be improved when the matrix inverted is ill-conditioned. The case study shows a good agreement between the estimates based on the proposed frequency-domain approach and measurable physical parameters.
Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin
2016-01-01
Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State-of-the-art t......Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodrigues, J.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.
2004-01-01
from the time series, are due to the noise reduction that results from the time averaging procedure of the random decrement technique, and from avoiding leakage in the spectral densities, as long as the random decrement functions are evaluated with sufficient time length to have a complete decay within......This paper explores the idea of estimating the spectral densities as the Fourier transform of the random decrement functions for the application of frequency domain output-only modal identification methods. The gains in relation to the usual procedure of computing the spectral densities directly...... that length. The idea is applied in the analysis of ambient vibration data collected in a ¼ scale model of a 4-story building. The results show that a considerable improvement is achieved, in terms of noise reduction in the spectral density functions and corresponding quality of the frequency domain modal...
The research on recognition and extraction of river feature in IKNOS based on frequency domain
Wang, Ke; Feng, Xuezhi; Xiao, Pengfeng; Wu, Guoping
2009-10-01
Because the resolution of remotely sensed imagery becomes higher, new methods are introduced to process the high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. The algorithms introduced in this paper to recognize and extract the river features based on the frequency domain. This paper uses the Gabor filter in frequency domain to enhance the texture of river and remove the noise from remotely sensed imagery. And then according to the theory of phase congruency, this paper retrieves the PC of every point such that features such as edge of river, building and farmland in the remotely sensed imagery. Lastly, the skeletal methodology is introduced to determine the edge of river within the help of the trend of river.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pei-Chen Lin
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In the ICU, fluid therapy is conventional strategy for the patient in shock. However, only half of ICU patients have well-responses to fluid therapy, and fluid loading in non-responsive patient delays definitive therapy. Prediction of fluid responsiveness (FR has become intense topic in clinic. Most of conventional FR prediction method based on time domain analysis, and it is limited ability to indicate FR. This study proposed a method which predicts FR based on frequency domain analysis, named instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV. iPRV provides a new indication in very high frequency (VHF range (0.4-0.8Hz of spectrum for peripheral responses. Twenty six healthy subjects participated this study and photoplethysmography signal was recorded in supine baseline, during head-up tilt (HUT, and passive leg raising (PLR, which induces variation of venous return and helps for quantitative assessment of FR individually. The result showed the spectral power of VHF decreased during HUT (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 348.00±434.92 ms2 in HUT and increased during PLR (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 718.92±973.70 ms2 in PLR, which present the compensated regulation of venous return and FR. This study provides an effective indicator for assessing FR in frequency domain and has potential to be a reliable system in ICU.
Single trial time-frequency domain analysis of error processing in post-traumatic stress disorder.
Clemans, Zachary A; El-Baz, Ayman S; Hollifield, Michael; Sokhadze, Estate M
2012-09-13
Error processing studies in psychology and psychiatry are relatively common. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used as measures of error processing, two such response-locked ERPs being the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error-related positivity (Pe). The ERN and Pe occur following committed error in reaction time tasks as low frequency (4-8 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations registered at the midline fronto-central sites. We created an alternative method for analyzing error processing using time-frequency analysis in the form of a wavelet transform. A study was conducted in which subjects with PTSD and healthy control completed a forced-choice task. Single trial EEG data from errors in the task were processed using a continuous wavelet transform. Coefficients from the transform that corresponded to the theta range were averaged to isolate a theta waveform in the time-frequency domain. Measures called the time-frequency ERN and Pe were obtained from these waveforms for five different channels and then averaged to obtain a single time-frequency ERN and Pe for each error trial. A comparison of the amplitude and latency for the time-frequency ERN and Pe between the PTSD and control group was performed. A significant group effect was found on the amplitude of both measures. These results indicate that the developed single trial time-frequency error analysis method is suitable for examining error processing in PTSD and possibly other psychiatric disorders.
Praveena, K.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Sadhana, K.; Murthy, S. R.
2016-12-01
Nowadays electronic industries prerequisites magnetic materials, i.e., iron rich materials and their magnetic alloys. However, with the advent of high frequency applications, the standard techniques of reducing eddy current losses, using iron cores, were no longer efficient or cost effective. Current market trends of the switched mode power supplies industries required even low energy losses in power conversion with maintenance of adequate initial permeability. From the above point of view, in the present study we aimed at the production of Manganese-Zinc ferrites prepared via solution combustion method using mixture of fuels and achieved low loss, high saturation magnetization, high permeability, and high magnetic domain relaxation frequency. The as-synthesized Zn2+ substituted MnFe2O4 were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fractions of Mn2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+ cations occupying tetrahedral sites along with Fe occupying octahedral sites within the unit cell of all ferrite samples were estimated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. The magnetic domain relaxation was investigated by inductance spectroscopy (IS) and the observed magnetic domain relaxation frequency (fr) was increased with the increase in grain size. The real and imaginary part of permeability (μ‧ and μ″) increased with frequency and showed a maximum above 100 MHz. This can be explained on the basis of spin rotation and domain wall motion. The saturation magnetization (Ms), remnant magnetization (Mr) and magneton number (μB) decreased gradually with increasing Zn2+ concentration. The decrease in the saturation magnetization was discussed with Yafet-Kittel (Y-K) model. The Zn2+ concentration increases the relative number of ferric ions on the A sites, reduces the A-B interactions. The frequency dependent total power losses decreased as the zinc concentration increased. At 1 MHz, the total power loss (Pt) changed from 358 mW/cm3 for x=0-165 mW/cm3
Microwave signal processing in two-frequency domain for ROF systems implementation: training course
Morozov, Oleg G.; Morozov, Gennady A.
2014-04-01
This article is presented materials from two tutorials: "Optical two-frequency domain reflectometry1, 2" and "Microwave technologies in industry, living systems and telecommunications3". These materials were prepared for master training courses and listed in the "SPIE Optical Education Directory" for 2013/2014. The main its theme is microwave photonics. Microwave photonics has been defined as the study of photonic devices operating at microwave frequencies and their application to microwave and optical systems. Its initial rationale was to use the advantages of photonic technologies to provide functions in microwave systems that are very complex or even impossible to carry out directly in the radiofrequency domain. But microwave photonics is also succeeding in incorporating a variety of techniques used in microwave engineering to improve the performance of photonic communication networks and systems. Three parts of this chapter are devoted to applications and construction principles of systems forming microwave photonic filters, measuring instantaneous frequency of microwave heterodyne signals and characterizing stimulated Mandelstam- Brillouin scattering spectrum in ROF systems. The main emphasis is on the use of the two-frequency symmetric radiation, generated by the Il'in-Morozov's method4, in given systems. It is forming radiation for the synthesis of optical filters coefficients, it's application and processing determine the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio during heterodyne frequencies monitoring and characterization of nonlinear effects spectrum.
Fast Frequency-domain Waveforms for Spin-Precessing Binary Inspirals
Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicolás
2014-01-01
The detection and characterization of gravitational wave signals from compact binary coalescence events relies on accurate waveform templates in the frequency domain. The stationary phase approximation (SPA) can be used to compute closed-form frequency-domain waveforms for non-precessing, quasi-circular binary inspirals. However, until now, no fast frequency-domain waveforms have existed for generic, spin-precessing quasi-circular compact binary inspirals. Templates for these systems have had to be computed via a discrete Fourier transform of finely sampled time-domain waveforms, which is far more computationally expensive than those constructed directly in the frequency-domain, especially for those systems that are dominated by the inspiral part. There are two obstacles to deriving frequency-domain waveforms for precessing systems: (i) the spin-precession equations do not admit closed-form solutions for generic systems; (ii) the SPA fails catastrophically. Presently there is no general solution to the first ...
A Method to Examine Content Domain Structures
D'Agostino, Jerome; Karpinski, Aryn; Welsh, Megan
2011-01-01
After a test is developed, most content validation analyses shift from ascertaining domain definition to studying domain representation and relevance because the domain is assumed to be set once a test exists. We present an approach that allows for the examination of alternative domain structures based on extant test items. In our example based on…
Jing, Xingjian
2015-01-01
This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain. The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...
Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method
Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.
Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors
Martin, Louis P [San Ramon, CA
2012-05-15
A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.
A NONOVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR EXTERIOR 3-D PROBLEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
De-hao Yu; Ji-ming Wu; Ji-ming Wu
2001-01-01
In this paper, a nonoverlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction(cf. [4, 13, 15]), is developed to solve the boundary value problem in exterior three-dimensional domain of general shape. Convergence analyses both for the exterior spherical domain and the general exterior domain are made. Some numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the method.
Quantifying Stability Using Frequency Domain Data from Wireless Inertial Measurement Units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Slaughter
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The quantification of gait stability can provide valuable information when evaluating subjects for age related and neuromuscular disease changes. Using tri-axial inertial measurement units (IMU for acceleration and rotational data provide a non-linear profile for this type of movement. As subjects traverse various surfaces representing decreasing stability, the different phasing of gait data make comparisons difficult. By converting from time to frequency domain data, the phase effects can be ignored, allowing for significant correlations. In this study, 12 subjects provided gait information over various surfaces while wearing an IMU. Instabilities were determined by comparing frequency domain data over less stable surfaces to frequency domain data of neural network (NN models representing the normal gait for any given participant. Time dependent data from 2 axes of acceleration and 2 axes of rotation were converted using a discrete Fourier transform (FFT algorithm. The data over less stable surfaces were compared to the normal gait NN model by averaging the Pearson product moment correlation (r values. This provided a method to quantify the decreased stability. Data showed progressively decreasing correlation coefficient values as subjects encountered progressively less stable surface environments. This methodology has allowed for the quantification of instability in gait situations for application in real-time fall prevention situations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Wei; Shi Zhongke; Chen Jie
2008-01-01
Recently, frequency-based least-squares (LS) estimators have found wide application in identifying aircraft flutter parameters. However, the frequency methods are often known to suffer from numerical difficulties when identifying a continuous-time model, espe-cially, of broader frequency or higher order. In this article, a numerically robust LS estimator based on vector orthogonal polynomial is proposed to solve the numerical problem of multivariable systems and applied to the flutter testing. The key idea of this method is to represent the frequency response function (FRF) matrix by a right matrix fraction description (RMFD) model, and expand the numerator and denominator polynomial matrices on a vector onhogonal basis. As a result, a perfect numerical condition (numerical condition equals 1) can be obtained for linear LS estimator. Finally, this method is verified by flutter test of a wing model in a wind tunnel and real flight flutter test of an aircraft. The results are compared to those with notably LMS PolyMAX, which is not troubled by the numerical problem as it is established in z domain (e.g. derived from a discrete-time model). The verification has evidenced that this method, apart from overcoming the numerical problem, yields the results comparable to those acquired with LMS PolyMAX, or even considerably better at some frequency bands.
Automated frequency domain analysis of oxygen saturation as a screening tool for SAHS.
Morillo, Daniel Sánchez; Gross, Nicole; León, Antonio; Crespo, Luis F
2012-09-01
Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is significantly underdiagnosed and new screening systems are needed. The analysis of oxygen desaturation has been proposed as a screening method. However, when oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) is used as a standalone single channel device, algorithms working in time domain achieve either a high sensitivity or a high specificity, but not usually both. This limitation arises from the dependence of time-domain analysis on absolute SpO(2) values and the lack of standardized thresholds defined as pathological. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of concordance between SAHS screening using offline frequency domain processing of SpO(2) signals and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and the diagnostic performance of such a new method. SpO(2) signals from 115 subjects were analyzed. Data were divided in a training data set (37) and a test set (78). Power spectral density was calculated and related to the desaturation index scored by physicians. A frequency desaturation index (FDI) was then estimated and its accuracy compared to the classical desaturation index and to the apnea-hypopnea index. The findings point to a high diagnostic agreement: the best sensitivity and specificity values obtained were 83.33% and 80.44%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method does not rely on absolute SpO(2) values and is highly robust to artifacts.
Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain
Wu, Zedong
2016-09-06
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current RWI methods are mostly based on isotropic media assumption. We extend the idea of the combining inversion for the background model and perturbations to address transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) media taking into consideration of the optimal parameter sensitivity information. As a result, we apply Born modeling corresponding to perturbations in only for the variable e to derive the relative reflected waveform inversion formulation. To reduce the number of parameters, we assume the background part of η = ε and work with a single variable to describe the anisotropic part of the wave propagation. Thus, the optimization variables are the horizontal velocity v, η = ε and the e perturbation. Application to the anisotropic version of Marmousi model with a single frequency of 2.5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate result starting from a linearly increasing isotropic initial velocity. Application to a real dataset demonstrates the versatility of the approach.
Multiobjective Optimization for Electronic Circuit Design in Time and Frequency Domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Dobes
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The multiobjective optimization provides an extraordinary opportunity for the finest design of electronic circuits because it allows to mathematically balance contradictory requirements together with possible constraints. In this paper, an original and substantial improvement of an existing method for the multiobjective optimization known as GAM (Goal Attainment Method is suggested. In our proposal, the GAM algorithm itself is combined with a procedure that automatically provides a set of parameters -- weights, coordinates of the reference point -- for which the method generates noninferior solutions uniformly spread over an appropriately selected part of the Pareto front. Moreover, the resulting set of obtained solutions is then presented in a suitable graphic form so that the solution representing the most satisfactory tradeoff can be easily chosen by the designer. Our system generates various types of plots that conveniently characterize results of up to four-dimensional problems. Technically, the procedures of the multiobjective optimization were created as a software add-on to the CIA (Circuit Interactive Analyzer program. This way enabled us to utilize many powerful features of this program, including the sensitivity analyses in time and frequency domains. As a result, the system is also able to perform the multiobjective optimization in the time domain and even highly nonlinear circuits can be significantly improved by our program. As a demonstration of this feature, a multiobjective optimization of a C-class power amplifier in the time domain is thoroughly described in the paper. Further, a four-dimensional optimization of a video amplifier is demonstrated with an original graphic representation of the Pareto front, and also some comparison with the weighting method is done. As an example of improving noise properties, a multiobjective optimization of a low-noise amplifier is performed, and the results in the frequency domain are shown
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈刚; 吴小辰; 柳勇军; 李鹏; 廖瑞金; 王予疆; 何潜
2011-01-01
Frequency Domain Decomposition(FDD) is introduced to identify low-frequency oscillation modes by analysis of steady-state ambient measurements in power system and some modifications to FDD are made.The relation expression between maximum singular value of PSD matrix and system eigenvalue under poorly damped mode is presented by detailed derivation of the relations among frequency response funcfion(FRF), output power spectral density (PSD), and system eigenvalues.Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAC) is used to determine mode area size in the neighborhood of peak point on maximum SVD curve.Finally, the exact modal frequency and damping ratio can be estimated using least square method.The technique is illustrated on linear time-invariant system, WECC 9-bus system and ambient PMU measurements, to show its effectiveness.The suggested method is suitable for identification of poorly damped oscillatory modes, and is robust to noise, and has important value for real-time application.%对广域稳态量测信号将频域分解方法引入电网低频振荡模式辨识并进行了改进完善.推导了系统的频响函数、输出功率谱密度矩阵、特征量之间的关系,给出了弱阻尼模式下功率谱密度矩阵的最大奇异值与特征量之间的关系表达式;采用模态幅值相干系数以确定奇异值曲线谱峰附近单模态区域大小,最后采用最小二乘方法求取准确的模式频率和阻尼系数.线性时不变系统时域仿真、WECC 9节点系统时域仿真以及实测PMU数据分析表明,所提方法适用于弱阻尼振荡模式辨识,对噪声具有较强鲁棒性,是一种极具实用价值的在线应用方法.
New parallel SOR method by domain partitioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Dexuan [Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences New York Univ., NY (United States)
1996-12-31
In this paper, we propose and analyze a new parallel SOR method, the PSOR method, formulated by using domain partitioning together with an interprocessor data-communication technique. For the 5-point approximation to the Poisson equation on a square, we show that the ordering of the PSOR based on the strip partition leads to a consistently ordered matrix, and hence the PSOR and the SOR using the row-wise ordering have the same convergence rate. However, in general, the ordering used in PSOR may not be {open_quote}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. So, there is a need to analyze the convergence of PSOR directly. In this paper, we present a PSOR theory, and show that the PSOR method can have the same asymptotic rate of convergence as the corresponding sequential SOR method for a wide class of linear systems in which the matrix is {open_quotes}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. Finally, we demonstrate the parallel performance of the PSOR method on four different message passing multiprocessors (a KSR1, the Intel Delta, an Intel Paragon and an IBM SP2), along with a comparison with the point Red-Black and four-color SOR methods.
Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong
2016-04-01
Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.
Characterization of static bifurcations for n-dimensional flows in the frequency domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li ZENG; Yi ZHAO
2006-01-01
In this paper n-dimensional flows (described by continuous-time system) with static bifurcations are considered with the aim of classification of different elementary bifurcations using the frequency domain formalism. Based on frequency domain approach, we prove some criterions for the saddle-node bifurcation, transcritical bifurcation and pitchfork bifurcation, and give an example to illustrate the efficiency of the result obtained.
Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine
Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng
2014-12-01
The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.
Hein, Annette; Larsen, Jakob Juul; Parsekian, Andrew D.
2017-02-01
Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a unique geophysical method due to its direct sensitivity to water. A key limitation to overcome is the difficulty of making surface NMR measurements in environments with anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, particularly constant frequency sources such as powerlines. Here we present a method of removing harmonic noise by utilizing frequency domain symmetry of surface NMR signals to reconstruct portions of the spectrum corrupted by frequency-domain noise peaks. This method supplements the existing NMR processing workflow and is applicable after despiking, coherent noise cancellation, and stacking. The symmetry based correction is simple, grounded in mathematical theory describing NMR signals, does not introduce errors into the data set, and requires no prior knowledge about the harmonics. Modelling and field examples show that symmetry based noise removal reduces the effects of harmonics. In one modelling example, symmetry based noise removal improved signal-to-noise ratio in the data by 10 per cent. This improvement had noticeable effects on inversion parameters including water content and the decay constant T2*. Within water content profiles, aquifer boundaries and water content are more accurate after harmonics are removed. Fewer spurious water content spikes appear within aquifers, which is especially useful for resolving multilayered structures. Within T2* profiles, estimates are more accurate after harmonics are removed, especially in the lower half of profiles.
Resolution enhancement of robust Bayesian pre-stack inversion in the frequency domain
Yin, Xingyao; Li, Kun; Zong, Zhaoyun
2016-10-01
AVO/AVA (amplitude variation with an offset or angle) inversion is one of the most practical and useful approaches to estimating model parameters. So far, publications on AVO inversion in the Fourier domain have been quite limited in view of its poor stability and sensitivity to noise compared with time-domain inversion. For the resolution and stability of AVO inversion in the Fourier domain, a novel robust Bayesian pre-stack AVO inversion based on the mixed domain formulation of stationary convolution is proposed which could solve the instability and achieve superior resolution. The Fourier operator will be integrated into the objective equation and it avoids the Fourier inverse transform in our inversion process. Furthermore, the background constraints of model parameters are taken into consideration to improve the stability and reliability of inversion which could compensate for the low-frequency components of seismic signals. Besides, the different frequency components of seismic signals can realize decoupling automatically. This will help us to solve the inverse problem by means of multi-component successive iterations and the convergence precision of the inverse problem could be improved. So, superior resolution compared with the conventional time-domain pre-stack inversion could be achieved easily. Synthetic tests illustrate that the proposed method could achieve high-resolution results with a high degree of agreement with the theoretical model and verify the quality of anti-noise. Finally, applications on a field data case demonstrate that the proposed method could obtain stable inversion results of elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in conformity with the real logging data.
Frequency-domain algorithm for the Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force
Akcay, Sarp; Barack, Leor
2013-01-01
State-of-the-art computations of the gravitational self-force (GSF) on massive particles in black hole spacetimes involve numerical evolution of the metric perturbation equations in the time-domain, which is computationally very costly. We present here a new strategy, based on a frequency-domain treatment of the perturbation equations, which offers considerable computational saving. The essential ingredients of our method are (i) a Fourier-harmonic decomposition of the Lorenz-gauge metric perturbation equations and a numerical solution of the resulting coupled set of ordinary equations with suitable boundary conditions; (ii) a generalized version of the method of extended homogeneous solutions [Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 78}, 084021 (2008)] used to circumvent the Gibbs phenomenon that would otherwise hamper the convergence of the Fourier mode-sum at the particle's location; and (iii) standard mode-sum regularization, which finally yields the physical GSF as a sum over regularized modal contributions. We present a work...
Fast Frequency-Weighted Formant Tracking Using Analysis by Synthesis Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGJianping; YANYonghong
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present our current research on formant trajectory estimation using analysis by synthesis method for English Dysarthric speech. The algorithm is implemented in both frequency domain and time domain. Theoretic background and implementation issues are discussed in detail. Experiments show that the frequency-domain implementation is faster than the timedomain implementation. Our algorithm performance is comparable to those from LPC pole-zero analysis method using Esps/Xwaves+. The frequency domain algorithm is also applied to analyze speakers' vowel tri-angle properties using our dysarthria database.
Moghimirad, Elahe; Mahloojifar, Ali; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Babak
2016-05-01
A new frequency-domain implementation of a synthetic aperture focusing technique is presented in the paper. The concept is based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and sonar that is a developed version of the convolution model in the frequency domain. Compared with conventional line-by-line imaging, synthetic aperture imaging has a better resolution and contrast at the cost of more computational load. To overcome this problem, point-by-point reconstruction methods have been replaced by block-processing algorithms in radar and sonar; however, these techniques are relatively unknown in medical imaging. In this paper, we extended one of these methods called wavenumber to medical ultrasound imaging using a simple model of synthetic aperture focus. The model, derived here for monostatic mode, can be generalized to multistatic as well. The method consists of 4 steps: a 2D fast Fourier transform of the data, frequency shift of the data to baseband, interpolation to convert polar coordinates to rectangular ones, and returning the data to the spatial-domain using a 2D inverse Fourier transform. We have also used chirp pulse excitation followed by matched filtering and spotlighting algorithm to compensate the effect of differences in parameters between radar and medical imaging. Computational complexities of the two methods, wavenumber and delay-and-sum (DAS), have been calculated. Field II simulated point data have been used to evaluate the results in terms of resolution and contrast. Evaluations with simulated data show that for typical phantoms, reconstruction by the wavenumber algorithm is almost 20 times faster than classical DAS while retaining the resolution. © The Author(s) 2015.
Modeling of earthquake ground motion in the frequency domain
Thrainsson, Hjortur
In recent years, the utilization of time histories of earthquake ground motion has grown considerably in the design and analysis of civil structures. It is very unlikely, however, that recordings of earthquake ground motion will be available for all sites and conditions of interest. Hence, there is a need for efficient methods for the simulation and spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In addition to providing estimates of the ground motion at a site using data from adjacent recording stations, spatially interpolated ground motions can also be used in design and analysis of long-span structures, such as bridges and pipelines, where differential movement is important. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for rapid generation of horizontal earthquake ground motion at any site for a given region, based on readily available source, path and site characteristics, or (sparse) recordings. The research includes two main topics: (i) the simulation of earthquake ground motion at a given site, and (ii) the spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In topic (i), models are developed to simulate acceleration time histories using the inverse discrete Fourier transform. The Fourier phase differences, defined as the difference in phase angle between adjacent frequency components, are simulated conditional on the Fourier amplitude. Uniformly processed recordings from recent California earthquakes are used to validate the simulation models, as well as to develop prediction formulas for the model parameters. The models developed in this research provide rapid simulation of earthquake ground motion over a wide range of magnitudes and distances, but they are not intended to replace more robust geophysical models. In topic (ii), a model is developed in which Fourier amplitudes and Fourier phase angles are interpolated separately. A simple dispersion relationship is included in the phase angle interpolation. The accuracy of the interpolation
Frequency-domain trade-offs for dielectric elastomer generators
Zanini, Plinio; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Homer, Martin
2017-04-01
Dielectric Elastomer Generators (DEGs) are an emerging energy harvesting technology based on a the cyclic stretching of a rubber-like membrane. However, most design processes do not take into account different excitation frequencies; thus limits the applicability studies since in real-world situations forcing frequency is not often constant. Through the use of a practical design scenario we use modeling and simulation to determine the material frequency response and, hence, carefully investigate the excitation frequencies that maximize the performance (power output, efficiency) of DEGs and the factors that influence it.
Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies
Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren
2010-03-16
A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.
Processing Methods for Conical Scan Hopped-Frequency Signal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiao-hong; LONG Teng
2006-01-01
The new radar system of combination of the hopped-frequency with the conical scanis presented. According to the principle and expression of the conical scan hopped-frequency signal, the angle processing method in which angle information is obtained by taking discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for the conical envelop o f each scattering centre by means of high range resolution profile (HRRP) is presented,and the corresponding formula is derived. The influence of non-ideal factors, such as amplitude fluctuation noise and system noise, leakage of time and frequency domain, unstable rotation of antenna, and missile rotation, on angle-measurement precision and the possible solving methods are also focused on. The simulation results show that the combination of the hopped-frequency and conical scan system could get satisfactory angle information, which could ensure good quality when used in practical tracking radar.
Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method
Chu, Chunlei
2012-07-01
Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Frequency domain analysis of errors in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise
Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri
2016-12-01
We analyse random errors (variances) in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise in the frequency domain, which differ from previous time domain methods. Extending previous theoretical results on ensemble averaged cross-spectrum, we estimate confidence interval of stacked cross-spectrum of finite amount of data at each frequency using non-overlapping windows with fixed length. The extended theory also connects amplitude and phase variances with the variance of each complex spectrum value. Analysis of synthetic stationary ambient noise is used to estimate the confidence interval of stacked cross-spectrum obtained with different length of noise data corresponding to different number of evenly spaced windows of the same duration. This method allows estimating Signal/Noise Ratio (SNR) of noise cross-correlation in the frequency domain, without specifying filter bandwidth or signal/noise windows that are needed for time domain SNR estimations. Based on synthetic ambient noise data, we also compare the probability distributions, causal part amplitude and SNR of stacked cross-spectrum function using one-bit normalization or pre-whitening with those obtained without these pre-processing steps. Natural continuous noise records contain both ambient noise and small earthquakes that are inseparable from the noise with the existing pre-processing steps. Using probability distributions of random cross-spectrum values based on the theoretical results provides an effective way to exclude such small earthquakes, and additional data segments (outliers) contaminated by signals of different statistics (e.g. rain, cultural noise), from continuous noise waveforms. This technique is applied to constrain values and uncertainties of amplitude and phase velocity of stacked noise cross-spectrum at different frequencies, using data from southern California at both regional scale (˜35 km) and dense linear array (˜20 m) across the plate-boundary faults. A block bootstrap resampling method
On the Approaching Domain Obtained by Finite Element Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹青松; 李永海
2002-01-01
The use of finite element method leads to replacing the initial domain by an approaching domain,Under some appropriate assumptions,we prove that there exists a W1,+∞-diffeomorphism from the original domain to the approaching domain.
Time and Frequency Domain Identification and Analysis of a Gas Turbine Engine
Boaghe, O.M.; S. A. Billings; L. M. Li; Fleming, P J; Liu, J
2000-01-01
The NARMAX (Nonlinear Auto Regressive Moving Average model with eXogenous inputs) approach has been used to analyse the dynamics of a gas turbine engine. The fuel flow-shaft speed relationship is analysed by identifying both time and frequency domain models of the system. The frequency domain analysis is studied by mapping the discrete-time NARMAX models into the Generalised Frequency Response Functions (GFRF's) to reveal the nonlinear coupling between the various input spectral components an...
Frequency-domain analysis of intrinsic neuronal properties using high-resistant electrodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Rössert
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in culture or slices are usually studied by the whole cell clamp method using low-resistant patch pipettes. These electrodes allow detailed analyses with standard electrophysiological methods such as current- or voltage-clamp. However, in these preparations large parts of the network and dendritic structures may be removed, thus preventing an adequate study of synaptic signal processing. Therefore, intact in vivo preparations or isolated in vitro whole brains have been used in which intracellular recordings are usually made with sharp, high-resistant electrodes to optimize the impalement of neurons. The general non-linear resistance properties of these electrodes, however, severely limit accurate quantitative studies of membrane dynamics especially needed for precise modelling. Therefore, we have developed a frequency-domain analysis of membrane properties that uses a Piece-wise Non-linear Electrode Compensation (PNEC method. The technique was tested in second-order vestibular neurons and abducens motoneurons of isolated frog whole brain preparations using sharp potassium chloride- or potassium acetate-filled electrodes. All recordings were performed without online electrode compensation. The properties of each electrode were determined separately after the neuronal recordings and were used in the frequency-domain analysis of the combined measurement of electrode and cell. This allowed detailed analysis of membrane properties in the frequency-domain with high-resistant electrodes and provided quantitative data that can be further used to model channel kinetics. Thus, sharp electrodes can be used for the characterization of intrinsic properties and synaptic inputs of neurons in intact brains.
Integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics
Solin, Pavel; Karban, Pavel; Ulrych, Bohus
2009-01-01
A modern presentation of integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge on integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics. Blending theory with numerous examples, it introduces key aspects of the integral methods used in engineering as a powerful alternative to PDE-based models. Readers will get complete coverage of: The electromagnetic field and its basic characteristics An overview of solution methods Solutions of electromagnetic fields by integral expressions Integral and integrodifferential methods
Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy
Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J B
2016-01-01
Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasi-static frequency and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation.
A perspective on single-channel frequency-domain speech enhancement
Benesty, Jacob
2010-01-01
This book focuses on a class of single-channel noise reduction methods that are performed in the frequency domain via the short-time Fourier transform (STFT). The simplicity and relative effectiveness of this class of approaches make them the dominant choice in practical systems. Even though many popular algorithms have been proposed through more than four decades of continuous research, there are a number of critical areas where our understanding and capabilities still remain quite rudimentary, especially with respect to the relationship between noise reduction and speech distortion. All exis
Y-STR frequency surveying method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer;
2011-01-01
reached a new quality with the establishment of the comprehensive neatly quality-controlled reference database YHRD. Grounded on such unrivalled empirical material from hundreds of populations studies the core assumption of the Haplotype Frequency Surveying Method originally described 10 years ago can...... be tested and improved. Here we provide new approaches to calculate the parameters used in the frequency surveying method: a maximum likelihood estimation of the regression parameters (r1, r2, s1 and s2) and a revised Frequency Surveying framework with variable binning and a database preprocessing to take...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Romano
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Monitoring of foetal heart rate and its variability (FHRV covers an important role in assessing health of foetus. Many analysis methods have been used to get quantitative measures of FHRV. FHRV has been studied in time and in frequency domain and interesting clinical results have been obtained. Nevertheless, a standardized definition of FHRV and a precise methodology to be used for its evaluation are lacking. We carried out a literature overview about both frequency domain analysis (FDA and time domain analysis (TDA. Then, by using simulated FHR signals, we defined the methodology for FDA. Further, employing more than 400 real FHR signals, we analysed some of the most common indexes, Short Term Variability for TDA and power content of the spectrum bands and sympathovagal balance for FDA, and evaluated their ranges of values, which in many cases are a novelty. Finally, we verified the relationship between these indexes and two important parameters: week of gestation, indicator of foetal growth, and foetal state, classified as active or at rest. Our results indicate that, according to literature, it is necessary to standardize the procedure for FHRV evaluation and to consider week of gestation and foetal state before FHR analysis.
Microwave Frequency Ferroelectric Domain Imaging of Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate Crystals
Steinhauer, David E.; Anlage, Steven M.
2001-03-01
We have used a near-field scanning microwave microscope(D. E. Steinhauer, C. P. Vlahacos, F. C. Wellstood, Steven M. Anlage, C. Canedy, R. Ramesh, A. Stanishevsky, and J. Melngailis, "Quantitative Imaging of Dielectric Permittivity and Tunability with a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71), 2751-2758 (2000). to image domain structure and quantitatively measure dielectric permittivity and nonlinearity in ferroelectric crystals at 8.1 GHz with a spatial resolution of 1 μm. We imaged ferroelectric domains in periodically-poled LiNbO_3, BaTiO_3, and deuterated triglycine sulfate (DTGS) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. Measurement of the permittivity and nonlinearity of DTGS in the temperature range 300--400 K shows a peak at the Curie temperature, TC ≈ 340 K, as well as reasonable agreement with thermodynamic theory. In addition, the domain growth relaxation time shows a minimum near T_C. We observe coarsening of ferroelectric domains in DTGS after a temperature quench from 360 K to 330 K, and evaluate the structure factor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanus Robert
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of the structure of a flow is really significant for the proper conduct a number of industrial processes. In this case a description of a two-phase flow regimes is possible by use of the time-series analysis e.g. in frequency domain. In this article the classical spectral analysis based on Fourier Transform (FT and Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT were applied for analysis of signals obtained for water-air flow using gamma ray absorption. The presented method was illustrated by use data collected in experiments carried out on the laboratory hydraulic installation with a horizontal pipe of 4.5 m length and inner diameter of 30 mm equipped with two 241Am radioactive sources and scintillation probes with NaI(Tl crystals. Stochastic signals obtained from detectors for plug, bubble, and transitional plug – bubble flows were considered in this work. The recorded raw signals were analyzed and several features in the frequency domain were extracted using autospectral density function (ADF, cross-spectral density function (CSDF, and the STFT spectrogram. In result of a detail analysis it was found that the most promising to recognize of the flow structure are: maximum value of the CSDF magnitude, sum of the CSDF magnitudes in the selected frequency range, and the maximum value of the sum of selected amplitudes of STFT spectrogram.
Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Jaszczur, Marek; Hanus, Paweł
2016-03-01
Knowledge of the structure of a flow is really significant for the proper conduct a number of industrial processes. In this case a description of a two-phase flow regimes is possible by use of the time-series analysis e.g. in frequency domain. In this article the classical spectral analysis based on Fourier Transform (FT) and Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) were applied for analysis of signals obtained for water-air flow using gamma ray absorption. The presented method was illustrated by use data collected in experiments carried out on the laboratory hydraulic installation with a horizontal pipe of 4.5 m length and inner diameter of 30 mm equipped with two 241Am radioactive sources and scintillation probes with NaI(Tl) crystals. Stochastic signals obtained from detectors for plug, bubble, and transitional plug - bubble flows were considered in this work. The recorded raw signals were analyzed and several features in the frequency domain were extracted using autospectral density function (ADF), cross-spectral density function (CSDF), and the STFT spectrogram. In result of a detail analysis it was found that the most promising to recognize of the flow structure are: maximum value of the CSDF magnitude, sum of the CSDF magnitudes in the selected frequency range, and the maximum value of the sum of selected amplitudes of STFT spectrogram.
Single carrier frequency domain equalization and diversity combining for cooperative systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiong Haitao; Xu Jing; Wang Ping
2009-01-01
A low-complexity single carrier frequency-domain equalizer (SC/FDE) and diversity combining method for cooperative systems with demodulate-and-forward relaying over frequency-selective channels is proposed. At the relay nodes, linear SC/FDE is adopted and normalized correlation coefficient is introduced to derive an equivalent source-to-relay-destination (S-R-D) channel that is highlighted in this study. At the destination, a joint SC/FDE and diversity combining receiver is proposed by utilizing the equivalent S-R-D channel. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed SC/FDE scheme over the straightforward SC/FDE which ignores the decisions errors at the intermediate relay nodes.
Frequency Domain MMSE one-tap Equalizer for FBMC-OQAM System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nisha Varghese
2005-07-01
Full Text Available The need for higher data rate in the modern communication world leads to the development of multicarrier modulation. OFDM, the most popular MCM technique, has some disadvantages like inefficiency due to the insertion of cyclic prefix, spectral leakage among the subchannels due to the poor stopband attenuation of prototype filter etc. Due to these drawbacks of OFDM, a Filter Bank based Multi Carrier system with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation has been proposed. The analysis and synthesis filter banks in FBMC- OQAM system is designed using exponential modulation of a single prototype filter which is designed using frequency sampling method of filter design. In the presence of fading channels, Frequency Domain MMSE one-tap equalizer is designed. Simulation results for Vehicular A and Pedestrian B channels show that the proposed equalizer gives better results for BER performance for the system.
Frequency domain model for transient analysis of lightning protection systems of buildings.
Gómez, Pablo
2016-10-01
A frequency domain modeling approach for lightning protection systems (LPS) of buildings is described and validated in this paper. The model is based on a 2-port transmission line representation of each conductor, and the further assembling of a network representing the complete structure. Horizontal and vertical conductors are modeled using formulas based on the complex images method, in order to take into account frequency dependence. Variation of electrical parameters with height is also considered for vertical conductors. This is accomplished by means of a non-uniform modeling approach based on conductor subdivision and cascaded connection of chain matrices computed for each segment. The results from the model are validated by means of comparisons with measurements reported elsewhere, as well as simulations using PSCAD/EMTDC.
Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2017-01-10
Solution of the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE), which is obtained by the classical marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme, becomes inaccurate when the time step is large, i.e., under low-frequency excitation. It is shown here that the inaccuracy stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components under low-frequency excitation.
Medina, J. S.; Prosmiti, R.; Villarreal, P.; Delgado-Barrio, G.; Alemán, J. V.
2011-12-01
An approximation to the Fourier transform (FT) of the Kohlrausch function (stretched exponential) with shape parameter 0<β⩽1 is presented by using Havriliak-Negami-like functions. Mathematical expressions to fit their parameters α, γ, and τ, as functions of β (0<β⩽1 and 1<β<2) are given, which allows a quick identification in the frequency domain of the corresponding shape factor β. Reconstruction via fast Fourier transform of frequency approximants to time domain are shown as good substitutes in short times though biased in long ones (increasing discrepancies as β→1). The method is proposed as a template to commute time and frequency domains when analyzing complex data. Such a strategy facilitates intensive algorithmic search of parameters while adjusting the data of one or several Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxations.
Kimura, Tomoki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru
2009-07-01
We employed frequency domain interferometry (FDI) for use as a medical acoustic imager to detect multiple targets with high range resolution. The phase of each frequency component of an echo varies with the frequency, and target intervals can be estimated from the phase variance. This processing technique is generally used in radar imaging. When the interference within a range gate is coherent, the cross correlation between the desired signal and the coherent interference signal is nonzero. The Capon method works under the guiding principle that output power minimization cancels the desired signal with a coherent interference signal. Therefore, we utilize frequency averaging to suppress the correlation of the coherent interference. The results of computational simulations using a pseudoecho signal show that the Capon method with adaptive frequency averaging (AFA) provides a higher range resolution than a conventional method. These techniques were experimentally investigated and we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of processing by FDI.
Frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion using encoded simultaneous sources
Jeong, W.; Son, W.; Pyun, S.; Min, D.
2011-12-01
Currently, numerous studies have endeavored to develop robust full waveform inversion and migration algorithms. These processes require enormous computational costs, because of the number of sources in the survey. To avoid this problem, the phase encoding technique for prestack migration was proposed by Romero (2000) and Krebs et al. (2009) proposed the encoded simultaneous-source inversion technique in the time domain. On the other hand, Ben-Hadj-Ali et al. (2011) demonstrated the robustness of the frequency-domain full waveform inversion with simultaneous sources for noisy data changing the source assembling. Although several studies on simultaneous-source inversion tried to estimate P- wave velocity based on the acoustic wave equation, seismic migration and waveform inversion based on the elastic wave equations are required to obtain more reliable subsurface information. In this study, we propose a 2-D frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion technique using phase encoding methods. In our algorithm, the random phase encoding method is employed to calculate the gradients of the elastic parameters, source signature estimation and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix. The crosstalk for the estimated source signature and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix are suppressed with iteration as for the gradients. Our 2-D frequency-domain elastic waveform inversion algorithm is composed using the back-propagation technique and the conjugate-gradient method. Source signature is estimated using the full Newton method. We compare the simultaneous-source inversion with the conventional waveform inversion for synthetic data sets of the Marmousi-2 model. The inverted results obtained by simultaneous sources are comparable to those obtained by individual sources, and source signature is successfully estimated in simultaneous source technique. Comparing the inverted results using the pseudo Hessian matrix with previous inversion results
Koroma, S. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.; Ntotsios, E.
2017-07-01
This paper presents a methodology for studying ground vibration in which the railway track is modelled in the space-time domain using the finite element method (FEM) and, for faster computation, discretisation of the ground using either FEM or the boundary element method (BEM) is avoided by modelling it in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The railway track is coupled to the ground through a series of rectangular strips located at the surface of the ground; their vertical interaction is described by a frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness matrix whose elements are represented by discrete lumped parameter models. The effectiveness of this approach is assessed firstly through frequency domain analysis using as excitation a stationary harmonic load applied on the rail. The interaction forces at the ballast/ground interface are calculated using the FE track model in the space-time domain, transformed to the wavenumber domain, and used as input to the ground model for calculating vibration in the free field. Additionally, time domain simulations are also performed with the inclusion of nonlinear track parameters. Results are presented for the coupled track/ground model in terms of time histories and frequency spectra for the track vibration, interaction forces and free-field ground vibration. For the linear track model, the results from the mixed formulation are in excellent agreement with those from a semi-analytical model formulated in the wavenumber-frequency domain, particularly in the vicinity of the loading point. The accuracy of the mixed formulation away from the excitation point depends strongly on the inclusion of through-ground coupling in the lumped parameter model, which has been found to be necessary for both track dynamics and ground vibration predictions.
Curvelet Transform-Based Denoising Method for Doppler Frequency Extraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Shu-juan; WU Si-liang
2007-01-01
A novel image denoising method based on curvelet transform is proposed in order to improve the performance of Doppler frequency extraction in low signal-noise-ratio (SNR) environment. The echo can be represented as a gray image with spectral intensity as its gray values by time-frequency transform. And the curvelet coefficients of the image are computed. Then an adaptive soft-threshold scheme based on dual-median operation is implemented in curvelet domain. After that, the image is reconstructed by inverse curvelet transform and the Doppler curve is extracted by a curve detection scheme. Experimental results show the proposed method can improve the detection of Doppler frequency in low SNR environment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Escolano-Carrasco, José; Jacobsen, Finn; López, J.J.
2008-01-01
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method provides a simple and accurate way of solving initial boundary value problems. However, most acoustic problems involve frequency dependent boundary conditions, and it is not easy to include such boundary conditions in an FDTD model. Although solutio...
Lithospheric imaging from teleseismic data by frequency-domain elastic full-waveform tomography
Pageot, D.; Operto, S.; Vallée, M.; Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Seiscope
2010-12-01
Teleseismic data recorded by dense multicomponent surveys are potentially amenable to multichannel processing such as full waveform inversion to develop high-resolution lithospheric models. In this study, 2D frequency-domain full waveform tomography (FWT) is tailored to suit teleseismic geometries. Frequency-domain FWT seeks to estimate the elastic properties of the Earth by minimizing a misfit function between recorded and modeled full wavefields. FWT is designed to invert few discrete frequencies by proceeding hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones, following a multiscale approach useful to mitigate the inversion nonlinearity. In teleseismic framework, seismic sources are planar incident wavefields impinging the base of the lithosphere with arbitrary incidence and obliquity angles. The full wavefield is computed using a scattered-field formulation in the frequency domain. First, an analytical wavefield is computed in a homogeneous background model with free surface on the topside for an incident compressional plane wave. Then, a scattering source is formed by the product of the analytical planewave with the difference of the forward problem operators associated with the homogeneous background and lithospheric models. The scattered wavefield is then computed by performing a simulation in the lithospheric model using the scattering source, and, finally, the full wavefield is built by summation of the analytical wavefield and of the scattered wavefield. The 2D P-SV wave modeling is performed with a finite element discontinuous Galerkin method allowing for unstructured triangular meshes. Teleseismic experiments are characterized by a narrow illumination of aperture angles because of the limited number of planewave sources related to the teleseismic earthquake distribution. This narrow aperture bandwith requires the use of finely-sampled frequencies to prevent spatial aliasing in the reconstructed FWT models. Moreover, planewave propagation from
Hays, J. R.
1969-01-01
Lumped parametric system models are simplified and computationally advantageous in the frequency domain of linear systems. Nonlinear least squares computer program finds the least square best estimate for any number of parameters in an arbitrarily complicated model.
Ferri, A. A.; Dowell, E. H.
1985-01-01
The anticipated low damping level in large space structures (LSS) has been a major concern for the designers of these structures. Low damping degrades the free response and complicates the design of shape and attitude controllers for flexible spacecraft. Dry friction damping has been considered as a means of increasing the passive damping of LSS, by placing it in the joints and connecting junctures of structures. However, dry friction is highly nonlinear and, hence, analytical investigations are difficult to perform. Here, a multi-harmonic, frequency domain solution technique is developed and applied to a multi-DOF, dry friction damped system. It is seen that the multi-harmonic method is much more accurate than traditional, one harmonic solution methods. The method also compares well with time integration. Finally, comparisons are made with experimental results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A new method of resolving overlapped peak, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) using approximation CN obtained from frequency domain wavelet transform of F(ω) yielded by Fourier transform of overlapped peak signals f(t) as the linear function, was presented in this paper.Compared with classical FSD, the new method exhibits excellent resolution for different overlapped peak signals such as HPLC signals, and have some characteristics such as an extensive applicability for any overlapped peak shape signals and a simple operation because of no selection procedure of the linear function. Its excellent resolution for those different overlapped peak signals is mainly because F(ω) obtained from Fourier transform of f(t) and CN obtained from wavelet transform of F(ω) have the similar linearity and peak width. The effect of those fake peaks can be eliminated by the algorithm proposed by authors. This method has good potential in the process of different overlapped peak signals.
The Capability of Time- And Frequency-domain Algorithms for Bistatic SAR Processing
Vu, Viet; Sjögren, Thomas; Pettersson, Mats
2013-01-01
The paper presents a study of the capability of time- And frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing. Two typical algorithms, Bistatic Fast Backprojection (BiFBP) and Bistatic Range Doppler (BiRDA), which are both available for general bistatic geometry, are selected as the examples of time- And frequency-domain algorithms in this study. Their capability is evaluated based on some criteria such as processing time required by the algorithms to reconstruct SAR images from bistatic ...
BER Performance of Frequency Domain Differential Demodulation OFDM in Flat Fading Channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Lijun; TANG Youxi; LI Shaoqian; HUANG Shunji
2003-01-01
A closed form expression for the bit error rate (BER) performance of frequency domain differential demodulation(FDDD) for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system in flat fading channel is derived. The performance is evaluated by computer simulation and compared with the time domain differential demodulation(TDDD). The results indicate that the performance of FDDD is better than that of TDDD, and the lower band of BER in the former is lower than that of the latter.
Poggi, Valerio; Ermert, Laura; Burjanek, Jan; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat
2015-01-01
Frequency domain decomposition (FDD) is a well-established spectral technique used in civil engineering to analyse and monitor the modal response of buildings and structures. The method is based on singular value decomposition of the cross-power spectral density matrix from simultaneous array recordings of ambient vibrations. This method is advantageous to retrieve not only the resonance frequencies of the investigated structure, but also the corresponding modal shapes without the need for an absolute reference. This is an important piece of information, which can be used to validate the consistency of numerical models and analytical solutions. We apply this approach using advanced signal processing to evaluate the resonance characteristics of 2-D Alpine sedimentary valleys. In this study, we present the results obtained at Martigny, in the Rhône valley (Switzerland). For the analysis, we use 2 hr of ambient vibration recordings from a linear seismic array deployed perpendicularly to the valley axis. Only the horizontal-axial direction (SH) of the ground motion is considered. Using the FDD method, six separate resonant frequencies are retrieved together with their corresponding modal shapes. We compare the mode shapes with results from classical standard spectral ratios and numerical simulations of ambient vibration recordings.
Ji, Yongzhen; Yuan, Sanyi; Wang, Shangxu; Deng, Li
2016-10-01
The prestack amplitude variation with angle (AVA) inversion method utilising angle information to obtain the elastic parameters estimation of subsurface rock is vital to reservoir characterisation. Under the assumption of blocky layered media, an AVA inversion algorithm combining prestack spectral reflectivity inversion with sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) is presented. Prior information of the model parameters is involved in the inversion through the hierarchical Gaussian distribution where each parameter has a unique variance instead of sharing a common one. The frequency-domain prestack SBL inversion method retrieves sparse P- and S-wave impedance reflectivities by sequentially adding, deleting or re-estimating hyper-parameters without pre-setting the number of non-zero P- and S-wave reflectivity spikes. The selection of frequency components can help get rid of noise outside the selected frequency band. The precondition of the parameters helps to balance the weight of different parameters and incorporate the relationship between those parameters into the inversion process, thus improves the inversion result. Synthetic and real data examples illustrate the effectiveness of the method.
Grandchild of the frequency: Decomposition multigrid method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dendy, J.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tazartes, C.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1994-12-31
Previously the authors considered the frequency decomposition multigrid method and rejected it because it was not robust for problems with discontinuous coefficients. In this paper they show how to modify the method so as to obtain such robustness while retaining robustness for problems with anisotropic coefficients. They also discuss application of this method to a problem arising in global ocean modeling on the CM-5.
Stability estimates for hybrid coupled domain decomposition methods
Steinbach, Olaf
2003-01-01
Domain decomposition methods are a well established tool for an efficient numerical solution of partial differential equations, in particular for the coupling of different model equations and of different discretization methods. Based on the approximate solution of local boundary value problems either by finite or boundary element methods, the global problem is reduced to an operator equation on the skeleton of the domain decomposition. Different variational formulations then lead to hybrid domain decomposition methods.
Microball lens integrated fiber probe for optical frequency domain imaging
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jae-Ho Han; J.U.Kang
2011-01-01
An integrated microball lens fiber catheter probe is demonstrated, which has better lateral resolution and longer working distance than a corresponding bare fiber probe with diverging beam for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT). Simulation results are shown to gain the effect of the distance between the microball lens and the bare fiber to the focusing plane and beam width. The freedom of modifying the working distance and lateral resolution is shown. This is achieved by changing the gap distance between the single-mode fiber and the microball lens within the packaged surgical needle catheter without using an additional beam expander having a fixed length. The probe successfully acquired cross-sectional images of ocular tissues from an animal sample with the proposed miniaturized imaging probe.%@@ An integrated microball lens fiber catheter probe is demonstrated,which has better lateral resolution and longer working distance than a corresponding bare fiber probe with diverging beam for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography(FDOCT).Simulation results are shown to gain the effect of the distance between the microball lens and the bare fiber to the focusing plane and beam width.The freedom of modifying the working distance and lateral resolution is shown.This is achieved by changing the gap distance between the single-mode fiber and the microball lens within the packaged surgical needle catheter without using an additional beam expander having a fixed length.The probe successfully acquired crosssectional images of ocular tissues from an animal sample with the proposed miniaturized imaging probe.
Mode separation in frequency-wavenumber domain through compressed sensing of far-field Lamb waves
Gao, Fei; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Luo, Zhi
2017-07-01
This method based on Lamb waves shows great potential for long-range damage detection. Mode superposition resulting from multi-modal and dispersive characteristics makes signal interpretation and damage feature extraction difficult. Mode separation in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain using a 1D sparse sensing array is a promising solution. However, due to the lack of prior knowledge about damage location, this method based on 1D linear measurement, for the mode extraction of arbitrary reflections caused by defects that are not in line with the sensor array, is restricted. In this paper, an improved compressed sensing method under the far-field assumption is established, which is beneficial to the reconstruction of reflections in the f-k domain. Hence, multiple components consisting of structure and damage features could be recovered via a limited number of measurements. Subsequently, a mode sweeping process based on theoretical dispersion curves has been designed for mode characterization and direction of arrival estimation. Moreover, 2D f-k filtering and inverse transforms are applied to the reconstructed f-k distribution in order to extract the purified mode of interest. As a result, overlapping waveforms can be separated and the direction of defects can be estimated. A uniform linear sensor array consisting of 16 laser excitations is finally employed for experimental investigations and the results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Frequency-Domain Method for Determining HEMP Standard Waveform Parameters%确定高空电磁脉冲标准波形参数的频域方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程引会; 马良; 李进玺; 吴伟; 赵墨; 郭景海
2014-01-01
通过对数值计算的高空电磁脉冲（HEMP）波形函数拟合，确定了 HEMP标准波形的函数形式。以标准电磁脉冲波形频谱的各频率分量最大值为原则，得到标准波形的幅度谱，利用希尔伯特变换，用频谱相位重建方法获得标准时域波形；最后以部分数据为例，对获得标准参数的频域方法进行了详细讨论。%The equation which defines the HEMP standard waveform was determined by fit-ting and analyzing different HEMP waveforms coming from numerical calculation . The fre-quency spectrum of standard waveform was obtained by enveloping all reasonable physical waveform spectra . According to the Hilbert transform , the standard HEMP waveform pa-rameters were carried out utilizing the signal reconstruction method based on the amplitude spectrum . In this paper , some limited physical data are presented as examples to illustrate the method in detail .
Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number
Gdeisat, Munther A.; Burton, David R.; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen
2016-10-01
The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications.
Template-based CTA X-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain
Aksoy, Timur; Demirci, Stefanie; Degertekin, Muzaffer; Navab, Nassir; Unal, Gozde
2013-03-01
This study performs 3D to 2D rigid registration of segmented pre-operative CTA coronary arteries with a single segmented intra-operative X-ray Angio frame in both frequency and spatial domains for real-time Angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy. Most of the work on rigid registration in literature required a close initial- ization of poses and/or positions because of the abundance of local minima and high complexity that searching algorithms face. This study avoids such setbacks by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. First, template DRRs as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented CTA are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a wide range as in C-arm setup. We have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the real X-ray after equalizing the scales (due to disparities in focal length distances) in 3 domains, namely Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase and Fourier polar. The best pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that these methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by our results. Translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of our objective function without local minima due to distance maps. Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space rather than with actual values in 3D due to lack of ground truth, ill-posedness of the problem which we intend to address in future.
Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic
2016-10-01
uc(Context): Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. uc(Goal): We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. uc(Method): The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. uc(Results): The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.
Broadband absorption spectroscopy by combining frequency-domain and steady-state techniques
Berger, Andrew J.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota B.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Butler, John A.; Hsiang, D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2001-06-01
A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media is presented using a combination of frequency-domain (FD) and steady-state (SS) reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light SS measurement, while the FD data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption ((mu) a) and reduced scattering ((mu) s') derived from the FD data are used to intensity-calibrate the SS measurements and to estimate (mu) s' at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. After these steps are performed, (mu) a can be determined by comparing the SS reflectance values to the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. We present an application of this method to breast tumor characterization. A case study of a fibroadenoma is shown, where different absorption spectra were found between the normal and the tumor sides.
Frequency-domain identification of aircraft structural modes from short-duration flight tests
Vayssettes, J.; Mercère, G.; Vacher, P.; De Callafon, R. A.
2014-07-01
This article presents identification algorithms dedicated to the modal analysis of civil aircraft structures during in-flight flutter tests. This particular operational framework implies several specifications for the identification procedure. To comply with these requirements, the identification problem is formulated in the frequency domain as an output-error problem. Iterative identification methods based on structured matrix fraction descriptions are used to solve this problem and to identify a continuous-time model. These iterative methods are specifically designed to deal with experiments where short-duration tests with multiple-input excitations are used. These algorithms are first discussed and then evaluated through a simulation example illustrative of the in-flight modal analysis of a civil aircraft. Based on these evaluation results, an efficient iterative algorithm is suggested and applied to real flight-test data measured on board a military aircraft.
NOVEL COLOR FILTER ARRAY DEMOSAICING IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN WITH SPATIAL REFINEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Niruban
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The main idea behind wavelet based demosaicing with spatial refinement is to reconstruct the full resolution color image from the mosaiced image. In this study, a new effective wavelet based demosaicing algorithm for interpolating the missing color components in Bayer’s Color Filter Array (CFA pattern is proposed. This interpolation technique uses the interchannel correlation among the high frequency subbands to determine the missing pixels in each color channel, followed by a refining step in spatial domain which uses non-iterative technique that enforces color difference rule with fewer computations. As a result, the proposed demosaicing method yields better performance than bilinear, edge based and subband based demosaicing methods.
Xiao, Pei; Lin, Zihuai; Fagan, Anthony; Cowan, Colin; Vucetic, Branka; Wu, Yi
2011-12-01
In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.
Statistics and frequency-domain moveout for multiple-taper receiver functions
Park, J.; Levin, V.
2016-10-01
The multiple-taper correlation (MTC) algorithm for the estimation of teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) has desirable statistical properties. This paper presents several adaptations to the MTC algorithm that exploit its frequency-domain uncertainty estimates to generate stable RFs that include moveout corrections for deeper interfaces. Narrow-band frequency averaging implicit in spectral cross-correlation restricts the MTC-based RF estimates to resolve Ps converted phases only at short delay times, appropriate to the upper 100 km of Earth's lithosphere. The Ps conversions from deeper interfaces can be reconstructed by the MTC algorithm in two ways. Event cross-correlation computes a cross-correlation of single-taper spectrum estimates for a cluster of events rather than for a set of eigenspectrum estimates of a single P coda. To extend the reach of the algorithm, pre-stack moveout corrections in the frequency domain preserves the formal uncertainties of the RF estimates, which are used to weight RF stacks. Moving-window migration retains the multiple-taper approach, but cross-correlates the P-polarized motion with time-delayed SH and SV motion to focus on a Ps phase of interest. The frequency-domain uncertainties of bin-averaged RFs do not translate directly into the time domain. A jackknife over data records in each bin stack offers uncertainty estimates in the time domain while preserving uncertainty weighting in the frequency-domain RF stack.
Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo
-signal analysis in the frequency domain allows a calculation of the range of operation without mode hopping around the grating reflectivity peak. This region should be as large as possible for proper operation of the tunable laser source. The analysis shows this stabilizing effect of mode coupling and gain......The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small...... copression in the lasing mode. An integral equation for the electrical field is derived from the frequency domain model and used for time domain simulations of large-signal behavior....
An Implementation of the Frequency Matching Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lange, Katrine; Frydendall, Jan; Hansen, Thomas Mejer
During the last decade multiple-point statistics has become in-creasingly popular as a tool for incorporating complex prior infor-mation when solving inverse problems in geosciences. A variety of methods have been proposed but often the implementation of these is not straightforward. One of these......During the last decade multiple-point statistics has become in-creasingly popular as a tool for incorporating complex prior infor-mation when solving inverse problems in geosciences. A variety of methods have been proposed but often the implementation of these is not straightforward. One...... of these methods is the recently proposed Frequency Matching method to compute the maximum a posteriori model of an inverse problem where multiple-point statistics, learned from a training image, is used to formulate a closed form expression for an a priori probability density function. This paper discusses...... aspects of the implementation of the Fre-quency Matching method and the techniques adopted to make it com-putationally feasible also for large-scale inverse problems. The source code is publicly available at GitHub and this paper also provides an example of how to apply the Frequency Matching method...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genatios, C.; Lafuente, M.; Garces, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, IMME, Caracas (Venezuela); Ferrante, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE (Brazil)
1998-12-01
This paper presents a simplified procedure for the deterministic dynamic analysis of offshore structures with inclined members in the frequency domain. This simplified procedure requires the linearization of the velocity term of the Morison formula. A direct time integration method is implemented in the time domain, in order to verify the efficiency of the frequency domain procedure and the consequences of the involved simplifications. Three typical structures: a caisson, a steel jacket and a reinforced concrete lacustrine structure, are analyzed. Linearization of the velocity term, leads to more conservative results with a maximal error of 15 % for the three analyzed structures. (authors) 19 refs.
Gizon, Laurent; Barucq, Hélène; Duruflé, Marc; Hanson, Chris S.; Leguèbe, Michael; Birch, Aaron C.; Chabassier, Juliette; Fournier, Damien; Hohage, Thorsten; Papini, Emanuele
2017-03-01
Context. Local helioseismology has so far relied on semi-analytical methods to compute the spatial sensitivity of wave travel times to perturbations in the solar interior. These methods are cumbersome and lack flexibility. Aims: Here we propose a convenient framework for numerically solving the forward problem of time-distance helioseismology in the frequency domain. The fundamental quantity to be computed is the cross-covariance of the seismic wavefield. Methods: We choose sources of wave excitation that enable us to relate the cross-covariance of the oscillations to the Green's function in a straightforward manner. We illustrate the method by considering the 3D acoustic wave equation in an axisymmetric reference solar model, ignoring the effects of gravity on the waves. The symmetry of the background model around the rotation axis implies that the Green's function can be written as a sum of longitudinal Fourier modes, leading to a set of independent 2D problems. We use a high-order finite-element method to solve the 2D wave equation in frequency space. The computation is embarrassingly parallel, with each frequency and each azimuthal order solved independently on a computer cluster. Results: We compute travel-time sensitivity kernels in spherical geometry for flows, sound speed, and density perturbations under the first Born approximation. Convergence tests show that travel times can be computed with a numerical precision better than one millisecond, as required by the most precise travel-time measurements. Conclusions: The method presented here is computationally efficient and will be used to interpret travel-time measurements in order to infer, e.g., the large-scale meridional flow in the solar convection zone. It allows the implementation of (full-waveform) iterative inversions, whereby the axisymmetric background model is updated at each iteration.
Time-domain analysis of frequency dependent inertial wave forces on cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2013-01-01
-number, and the relevant range of waves shorter than about six times the diameter typically corresponds to deep water waves. This permits a universal non-dimensional frequency representation, that is converted to rational form to provide the relevant filter equation. Simple time-domain simulations demonstrate...... a simple time-domain procedure for the inertial force, in which the frequency dependence is represented via a simple explicit time filter on the wave particle acceleration or velocity. The frequency dependence of the inertia coefficient is known analytically as a function of the wave...
Fatigue of wind turbines in the frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bishop, N.W.M. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
1996-09-01
Fatigue damage is traditionally determined from time signals of loading, usually in the form of stress or strain. However, there are three design scenarios when a spectral form of loading is more appropriate. In this case the loading is defined in terms of its magnitude at different frequencies in the form of a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot. First, the measurement engineer recording responses from in-service components or structures may be interested in PSD`s because they are a efficient way of defining a random stress or strain time history. Secondly, the test engineer assessing the reliability of prototypes may be interested in spectral tools because such an approach allows the structural condition of the component to be monitored by continuous inspection of the system transfer function. However, the most important benefit of working with PSD`s is relevant to the structural analysis or designer because of the more sophisticated analysis options with which they can be use. For all three of these design scenarios the fatigue designer is presented with a PSD of stress or strain with which to perform his fatigue calculation. There is therefore a requirement for a reliable, accurate and robust spectral fatigue design tool. Such a tool allows the designer to estimate the rainflow range content and hence content and hence fatigue damage from the PSD. (EG)
Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spieler, Helmuth G; Dobbs, Matt; Bissonnette, Eric; Spieler, Helmuth G.
2007-07-23
An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250 mK and 4 K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The signal bandwidth of 0.050Hz-100 Hz places extreme requirements on stability and requires powerful filtering techniques to recover the sky-signal from the MHz carriers.
Analysis of the Peak Resistance Frequency Method.
Wang, Boshuo; Weiland, James D
2016-10-01
This study analyzes the peak resistance frequency (PRF) method described by Mercanzini et al., a method that can easily extract the tissue resistance from impedance spectroscopy for many neural engineering applications but has no analytical description thus far. Mathematical analyses and computer simulations were used to explore underlying principles, accuracy, and limitations of the PRF method. The mathematical analyses demonstrated that the PRF method has an inherent but correctable deviation dependent on the idealness of the electrode-tissue interface, which is validated by simulations. Further simulations show that both frequency sampling and noise affect the accuracy of the PRF method, and in general, it performs less accurately than least squares methods. However, the PRF method achieves simplicity and reduced measurement and computation time at the expense of accuracy. From the qualitative results, the PRF method can work with reasonable precision and simplicity, although its limitation and the idealness of the electrode-tissue interface involved should be taken into consideration. This paper provides a mathematical foundation for the PRF method and its practical implementation.
A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator......The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... estimator. In the simulation, the relative mean standard deviation of the velocity estimates over the vessel was 2.43% when using the FD method and the relative mean absolute bias was 1.84%. For the reference 8 oscillation pulse, the relative mean standard deviation over the vessel was 4...
Gimeno, B; Sorolla, E; Anza, S; Vicente, C; Gil, J; Pérez, A M; Boria, V E; Pérez-Soler, F J; Quesada, F; Alvarez, A; Raboso, D
2009-04-01
A technique for the accurate computation of the electromagnetic fields radiated by a charged particle moving within a parallel-plate waveguide is presented. Based on a transformation of the time-varying current density of the particle into a time-harmonic current density, this technique allows the evaluation of the radiated electromagnetic fields both in the frequency and time domains, as well as in the near- and far-field regions. For this purpose, several accelerated versions of the parallel-plate Green's function in the frequency domain have been considered. The theory has been successfully applied to the multipactor discharge occurring within a two metal-plates region. The proposed formulation has been tested with a particle-in-cell code based on the finite-difference time-domain method, obtaining good agreement.
Extended radar observations with the frequency radar domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique
Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Crochet, M.
2001-07-01
In this paper, we present high-resolution observations obtained with the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan, /34.85°N, /136.10°E) using the frequency radar domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique. This technique has recently been introduced for improving the range resolution capabilities of the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars which are limited by their minimum pulse length. The Fourier-based imaging, the Capon method have been performed with 5 equally spaced frequencies between 46.25 and 46.75MHz and with an initial range resolution of 300m. These results have been compared firstly to results obtained using the frequency domain interferometry (FDI) technique with Δf=0.5MHz and, secondly, to results from a classical Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode applied with a range resolution of 150m. Thin echoing structures could be tracked owing to the improved radar range resolution and some complex structures possibly related to Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities have been detected. Indeed, these structures appeared within the core of a wind shear and were associated with intense vertical wind fluctuations. Moreover, a well-defined thin echo layer was found in an altitude range located below the height of the wind shear. The radar observations have not been fully interpreted yet because the radar configuration was not adapted for this kind of study and because of the lack of complementary information provided by other techniques when the interesting echoing phenomena occurred. However, the results confirm the high potentialities of the FII technique for the study of atmospheric dynamics at small scales.
A Group-Period Phase Comparison Method Based on Equivalent Phase Comparison Frequency
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Bao-Qiang; ZHOU Wei; DONG Shao-Feng; ZHOU Hai-Niu
2009-01-01
Based on the principle of equivalent phase comparison frequency, we propose a group-period phase comparison method. This method can be used to reveal the inherent relations between periodic signals and the change laws of the phase difference. If these laws are applied in the processing of the mutual relations between frequency signals, phase comparison can be accomplished without frequency normalization. Experimental results show that the method can enhance the measurement resolution to 10-13/s in the time domain.
Efficient 2D and 3D multiparameters frequency-domain full waveform inversion (Invited)
Virieux, J.; Operto, S.; Ribodetti, A.; Ben Hadj Ali, H.; Brossier, R.; Etienne, V.; Gholami, Y.; Hu, G.; Jia, Y.; Pageot, D.; Prieux, V.
2010-12-01
With the tremendous increase of the computational power provided by large-scale distributed-memory platforms and the development of dense 3D multi-component wide-aperture/wide-azimuth surveys, full waveform inversion (FWI) introduced in geophysics by Albert Tarantola has become a re-emerging technique to build high-resolution velocity models of the subsurface. Because of the cost of the forward modeling and the high dimensionality of the model space, full waveform inversion is actually a local optimization problem, the aim of which is the minimization of the misfit between the recorded and modeled seismic wavefields. Among all possible minimization criteria, the L1 norm provides the most robust and easy-to-tune criterion. With such criterion, white noise in all seismograms with outliers does not prevent the convergence to the nearly same minimum as for noise-free data. The frequency formulation of the FWI allows coarse sampling of the frequencies data over few frequencies for the reconstruction of the medium when wide-aperture geometries are considered. A preconditioned quasi-Newton L-BFGS modified algorithm provides scaled gradients of the misfit function for each class of parameters. The gradient is computed by the adjoint-state method where the forward field is stored in the core memory of the computer while computing the backpropagation of residuals for cross-correlation at each point of the medium, thanks to the frequency-domain approach. We are using a sequential multiscale hierarchical inversion algorithm with two nested levels of data preconditioning with respect to frequency and first-arrival time. We are able to reconstruct both Vp and Vs velocity structures in various offshore and onshore environments various configurations of crustal investigation where both body waves (and surface) waves are progressively included in the inversion scheme. Solving the forward problem for 2D geometry could be efficiently performed in frequency by using a direct solver
Siemon, Bernhard; Steuer, Annika; Ullmann, Angelika; Vasterling, Margarete; Voß, Wolfgang
Airborne geophysical methods have been used successfully in groundwater exploration over the last decades. Particularly airborne electromagnetics is appropriate for large-scale and efficient groundwater surveying. Due to the dependency of the electrical conductivity on both the clay content of the host material and the mineralisation of the water, airborne electromagnetics is suitable for providing information on groundwater resources, water quality, aquifer conditions and protection levels. Frequency-domain helicopter-borne electromagnetic systems are used to investigate near-surface groundwater occurrences in detail even in rough terrain and populated areas. In order to reveal the subsurface conductivity distribution, the quantities measured, the secondary magnetic fields, are generally inverted into resistivity-depth models. Due to the skin-effect the penetration depths of the electromagnetic fields depend on the system characteristics used: high-frequency data describe the shallower parts of the conducting subsurface and the low-frequency data the deeper parts. Typical maximum investigation depths range from some ten metres (highly conductive saltwater saturated sediments) to several hundred metres (resistive hard rocks). In urban areas there are a number of man-made sources affecting the electromagnetic measurements. These effects on the secondary field values are discussed on the basis of synthetic data as well as uncorrected and corrected field data. The case histories of different hydrogeological setups in Indonesia, The Netherlands and Germany demonstrate that airborne electromagnetics can be applied to groundwater exploration purposes even in urban areas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Radhakrishnan
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The dielectric relaxation of benzyl alcohol substitutents (benzyl alcohol, m-methylbenzyl alcohol and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol with methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency domain (X-band technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (ε׳, dielectric loss factor (ε״ at Microwave frequency, static dielectric constant (ε0 and dielectric constant at infinite dilution (ε∞ at optical frequency have been determined. From the measured dielectric data, the relaxation time (t calculated using Higasi method and activation energies (∆Ft and ∆Fη have been determined. All the dielectric parameters that are vary with the substitutent change in benzyl alcohol andchain length of acrylic esters. Suggests that, the proton donating ability is varying with the substitution of benzyl alcohol and proton accepting ability is varying with the chain length of acrylic esters. The relaxation time and molar free energy activation of 1:1 molar ratio is greater than other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3 confirm that the existence of most likely 1:1 complex formation between the studied systems and also complex formation formed between free hydroxyl group of substituted benzyl alcohols and carbonyl group of acrylic esters (MMA and EMA.
Sharma, Vikas; Parey, Anand
2017-02-01
In the purview of fluctuating speeds, gear fault diagnosis is challenging due to dynamic behavior of forces. Various industrial applications employing gearbox which operate under fluctuating speed conditions. For diagnostics of a gearbox, various vibrations based signal processing techniques viz FFT, time synchronous averaging and time-frequency based wavelet transform, etc. are majorly employed. Most of the time, theories about data or computational complexity limits the use of these methods. In order to perform fault diagnosis of a gearbox for fluctuating speeds, frequency domain averaging (FDA) of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) after their dynamic time warping (DTW) has been done in this paper. This will not only attenuate the effect of fluctuating speeds but will also extract the weak fault feature those masked in vibration signal. Experimentally signals were acquired from Drivetrain Diagnostic Simulator for different gear health conditions i.e., healthy pinion, pinion with tooth crack, chipped tooth and missing tooth and were analyzed for the different fluctuating profiles of speed. Kurtosis was calculated for warped IMFs before DTW and after DTW of the acquired vibration signals. Later on, the application of FDA highlights the fault frequencies present in the FFT of faulty gears. The result suggests that proposed approach is more effective towards the fault diagnosing with fluctuating speed.
Ruge, P.; Birk, C.
2007-07-01
This paper deals with the dynamic analysis of infinite beam models. The translational and the rotational dynamic stiffness of both Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli beams on Winkler foundation are derived and compared in the frequency-domain. The situation of vanishing elastic foundation is included as a special case. Here, special emphasis is placed on the asymptotic behaviour of the derived stiffness expressions for high frequencies, since this is of importance in case of transient excitations. It is shown that the dynamic stiffness of the infinite Timoshenko beam follows a linear function of iω, whereas rational powers of iω are involved in case of Euler-Bernoulli's model. The stiffness formulations can be transformed into the time-domain using the mixed-variables technique. This is based on a rational approximation of the low-frequency force-displacement relationship and a subsequent algebraic splitting process. At the same time, the high-frequency asymptotic dynamic stiffness is transformed into the time-domain in closed-form. It is shown that the Timoshenko beam is equivalent to a simple dashpot in the high-frequency limit, whereas Euler-Bernoulli's beam model leads to fractional derivatives of the unknown state variables in an equivalent time-domain description. This finding confirms the superiority of Timoshenko's model especially for high frequencies and transient excitations. Numerical examples illustrate the differences with respect to the two beam models and demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method for the time-domain transformation of force-displacement relationships.
Real-time frequency domain temperature and oxygen sensor with a single optical fiber.
Liao, S C; Xu, Z; Izatt, J A; Alcala, J R
1997-11-01
The combined excited-state phosphorescence life-times of an alexandrite crystal and platinum tetraphenylporphyrin Pt(TPP) in a single-fiber sensor are used to monitor temperature and oxygen concentration in the physiological range from 15-45 degrees C and 0-50% O2 with precision of 0.24 degree C and 0.15% O2 and accuracy of 0.28 degree C and 0.2% O2. A 500-micron cubic alexandrite crystal bound to the distal end of a 750-micron-diameter optical fiber core and the Pt(TPP) coated circumferentially with a length of 1 cm from the end of the same fiber are excited with pulsed super-bright blue LED light. This apparatus uses a 125-kHz sampler for data acquisition and frequency domain methods for signal processing. The instrument amplifies both the dc and ac components of the photomultiplier output and band limits the signal to 20 kHz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is set to 488.3 Hz and the highest harmonic used is the 35th. This bandlimited signal is sampled and averaged over a few hundred cycles in the time domain. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio of each sampled harmonic are then computed. At least four log-spaced harmonic phases or modulations are averaged before decoding the two lifetimes of temperature and oxygen phosphorescent sensors. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the excitation backscatter leakage through optical interference filters seen by the photodetector. Linear and second-order empirical polynomials are employed to compute the temperatures and oxygen concentrations from the inverse lifetimes. In the situation of constant oxygen concentration, the lifetime of Pt(TPP) changes with temperature but can be compensated using the measured temperature lifetime. The system drift is 0.24 degree C for the temperature measurement and 0.59% for the oxygen concentration measurement over 30 h of continuous operation
Structural Damage Detection Using Frequency Domain Error Localization.
1994-12-01
113 rn ~l-,I T X ~oy Ul C 114 APPENDIX D. FE MODEL / COMPUTER CODES The following is a brief description of MATLAB routines employed in this thesis...R.R., Structural Dynamics, An Introduction to Computer Methods , pp. 383-387, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1981. 8. Guyan , R.J., "Reduction of Stiffness...official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE
SPECTRON, a neutron noise measurement system in frequency domain.
de Izarra, G; Jammes, C; Geslot, B; Di Salvo, J; Destouches, C
2015-11-01
This paper is dedicated to the presentation and validation of SPECTRON, a novel neutron noise measurement system developed at CEA Cadarache. The device is designed for the measurement of the β(eff) parameter (effective fraction of delayed neutrons) of experimental nuclear reactors using the Cohn-α method. An integrated electronic system is used to record the current from fission chambers. Spectra computed from measurement data are processed by a dedicated software in order to estimate the reactor transfer function and then the effective fraction of delayed neutrons as well as the prompt neutron generation time. After a review of the pile noise measurement method in current mode, the SPECTRON architecture is presented. Then, the validation procedure is described and experimental results are shown, supporting the proper functioning of this new measurement system. It is shown that every technical requirement needed for correct measurement of neutron noise is fulfilled. Measurements performed at MINERVE and EOLE, two experimental nuclear reactors at CEA Cadarache, in real conditions allowed us to validate SPECTRON.
Frequency domain analysis of lightning protection using four lightning protection rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javor Vesna
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the lightning discharge channel is modeled as a vertical monopole antenna excited by a pulse generator at its base. The lightning electromagnetic field of a nearby lightning discharge in the case of lightning protection using four vertical lightning protection rods was determined in the frequency domain. Unknown current distributions were determined by numerical solving of a system of integral equations of two potentials using the Point Matching Method and polynomial approximation of the current distributions. The influence of the real ground, treated as homogeneous loss half-space of known electrical parameters, expressed through a Sommerfeld integral kernel, was modeled using a new Two-image approximation which gives good results in both near and far fields.
A fictitious domain method for particulate flows with heat transfer
Yu, Z.; Yu, Zhaosheng; Shao, Xueming; Wachs, Anthony
2006-01-01
The distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) method of Glowinski et al. [R. Glowinski, T.-W. Pan, T.I. Hesla, D.D. Joseph, A distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method for particulate flows, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (1999) 755–794] is extended to deal with heat
A fictitious domain method for particulate flows with heat transfer
Yu, Zhaosheng; Shao, Xueming; Wachs, Anthony
2006-01-01
The distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) method of Glowinski et al. [R. Glowinski, T.-W. Pan, T.I. Hesla, D.D. Joseph, A distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method for particulate flows, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (1999) 755–794] is extended to deal with heat tran
Acoustic Imaging Frequency Dynamics of Ferroelectric Domains by Atomic Force Microscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Kun-Yu; Shunji Takekawa; Kenji Kitamura; ZENG Hua-Rong; SONG Hong-Zhang; HUI Sen-Xing; LI Guo-Rong; YIN Qing-Rui; Kiyoshi Shimamura; Chinna Venkadasamy Kannan; Encarnacion Antonia Garcia Villora
2008-01-01
We report the acoustic imaging frequency dynamics of ferroelectric domains by low-frequency acoustic probe microscopy based on the commercial atomic force microscopy. It is found that ferroelectric domain could be firstly visualized at lower frequency down to 0.h kHz by AFM-based acoustic microscopy. The frequency-dependent acoustic signal revealed a strong acoustic response in the frequency range from 7 kHz to lO kHz, and reached maximum at 8.1 kHz. The acoustic contrast mechanism can be ascribed to the different elastic response of ferroelectric microstructures to local elastic stress fields, which is induced by the acoustic wave transmitting in the sample when the piezoelectric transducer is vibrating and exciting acoustic wave under ac electric fields due to normal piezoelectric effects.
Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain
Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Z.J.YANG; A.J.DEEKS
2008-01-01
A frequency-domain approach based on the semi-analytical scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) was developed to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) at bimaterial interface cracks subjected to transient loading. Be-cause the stress solutions of the SBFEM in the frequency domain are analytical in the radial direction, and the complex stress singularity at the bimaterial interface crack tip is explicitly represented in the stress solutions, the mixed-mode DSIFs were calculated directly by definition. The complex frequency-response functions of DSIFs were then used by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the inverse FFT to calculate time histories of DSIFs. A benchmark example was modelled. Good re-sults were obtained by modelling the example with a small number of degrees of freedom due to the semi-analytical nature of the SBFEM.
Zhai, Ding; Lu, Anyang; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Qingling
2016-10-01
This paper deals with the problem of the fault detection (FD) for continuous-time singular switched linear systems with multiple time-varying delay. In this paper, the actuator fault is considered. Besides, the systems faults and unknown disturbances are assumed in known frequency domains. Some finite frequency performance indices are initially introduced to design the switched FD filters which ensure that the filtering augmented systems under switching signal with average dwell time are exponentially admissible and guarantee the fault input sensitivity and disturbance robustness. By developing generalised Kalman-Yakubovic-Popov lemma and using Parseval's theorem and Fourier transform, finite frequency delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of such a filter which can guarantee the finite-frequency H- and H∞ performance are derived and formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Four examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed finite frequency method.
Li, Gang; Li, Yuguo
2017-01-01
We present a joint inversion method for the transmitter navigation and the seafloor resistivity for frequency domain marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The inversion approach is based on the modified BFGS scheme, which has an advantage that one can update the Hessian matrix by using the BFGS scheme rather than computing the Hessian matrix itself during the inversion process. The partial derivatives of the electromagnetic field responses with respect to both the seafloor resistivity and the transmitter navigation parameters including the azimuth, dip and horizontal positions of the transmitter antenna are analytically calculated. We invert for both the navigation parameters of the towed dipole source (including antenna azimuth, dip, and horizontal positions) and seafloor resistivity by using the whole range of data instead of the near-field data (usually source-receiver offset navigation parameters can be independently resolved, and a better reconstruction can be obtained with multiple frequency data. The inversions of both the synthetical and field data sets indicate that our inversion method can simultaneously reconstruct seafloor resistivity structures and transmitter navigation parameters.
Improving time-frequency domain sleep EEG classification via singular spectrum analysis.
Mahvash Mohammadi, Sara; Kouchaki, Samaneh; Ghavami, Mohammad; Sanei, Saeid
2016-11-01
Manual sleep scoring is deemed to be tedious and time consuming. Even among automatic methods such as time-frequency (T-F) representations, there is still room for more improvement. To optimise the efficiency of T-F domain analysis of sleep electroencephalography (EEG) a novel approach for automatically identifying the brain waves, sleep spindles, and K-complexes from the sleep EEG signals is proposed. The proposed method is based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA). The single-channel EEG signal (C3-A2) is initially decomposed and then the desired components are automatically separated. In addition, the noise is removed to enhance the discrimination ability of features. The obtained T-F features after preprocessing stage are classified using a multi-class support vector machines (SVMs) and used for the identification of four sleep stages over three sleep types. Furthermore, to emphasise on the usefulness of the proposed method the automatically-determined spindles are parameterised to discriminate three sleep types. The four sleep stages are classified through SVM twice: with and without preprocessing stage. The mean accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for before the preprocessing stage are: 71.5±0.11%, 56.1±0.09% and 86.8±0.04% respectively. However, these values increase significantly to 83.6±0.07%, 70.6±0.14% and 90.8±0.03% after applying SSA. The new T-F representation has been compared with the existing benchmarks. Our results prove that, the proposed method well outperforms the previous methods in terms of identification and representation of sleep stages. Experimental results confirm the performance improvement in terms of classification rate and also representative T-F domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frequency-Domain Adaptive Algorithm for Network Echo Cancellation in VoIP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick A. Naylor
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a new low complexity, low delay, and fast converging frequency-domain adaptive algorithm for network echo cancellation in VoIP exploiting MMax and sparse partial (SP tap-selection criteria in the frequency domain. We incorporate these tap-selection techniques into the multidelay filtering (MDF algorithm in order to mitigate the delay inherent in frequency-domain algorithms. We illustrate two such approaches and discuss their tradeoff between convergence performance and computational complexity. Simulation results show an improvement in convergence rate for the proposed algorithm over MDF and significantly reduced complexity. The proposed algorithm achieves a convergence performance close to that of the recently proposed, but substantially more complex improved proportionate MDF (IPMDF algorithm.
DCT domain filtering method for multi-antenna code acquisition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaojie Li; Luping Xu; Shibin Song; Hua Zhang
2013-01-01
For global navigation satel ite system (GNSS) signals in Gaussian and Rayleigh fading channel, a novel signal detection al-gorithm is proposed. Under the low frequency uncertainty case, af-ter performing discrete cosine transform (DCT) to the outputs of the partial matched filter (PMF) for every antenna, the high order com-ponents in the transforming domain wil be filtered, then the equal-gain (EG) combination for the inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT) reconstructed signal would be done subsequently. Thus, due to the different frequency distribution characteristics between the noise and signals, after EG combination, the energy of signals has almost no loss and the noise energy is greatly reduced. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the detection algorithm can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the captured signal and increase the probability of detection under the same false alarm probability. In addition, it should be pointed out that this method can also be applied to Rayleigh fading channels with moving antenna.
Saotome, Rie; Hai, Tran Minh; Matsuda, Yasuto; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa
2015-01-01
In order to explore marine natural resources using remote robotic sensor or to enable rapid information exchange between ROV (remotely operated vehicles), AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle), divers, and ships, ultrasonic underwater communication systems are used. However, if the communication system is applied to rich living creature marine environment such as shallow sea, it suffers from generated Impulsive Noise so-called Shrimp Noise, which is randomly generated in time domain and seriously degrades communication performance in underwater acoustic network. With the purpose of supporting high performance underwater communication, a robust digital communication method for Impulsive Noise environments is necessary. In this paper, we propose OFDM ultrasonic communication system with diversity receiver. The main feature of the receiver is a newly proposed Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller. The OFDM receiver utilizes 20–28 KHz ultrasonic channel and subcarrier spacing of 46.875 Hz (MODE3) and 93.750 Hz (MODE2) OFDM modulations. In addition, the paper shows Impulsive Noise distribution data measured at a fishing port in Okinawa and at a barge in Shizuoka prefectures and then proposed diversity OFDM transceivers architecture and experimental results are described. By the proposed Impulsive Noise Canceller, frame bit error rate has been decreased by 20–30%. PMID:26351656
Saotome, Rie; Hai, Tran Minh; Matsuda, Yasuto; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa
2015-01-01
In order to explore marine natural resources using remote robotic sensor or to enable rapid information exchange between ROV (remotely operated vehicles), AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle), divers, and ships, ultrasonic underwater communication systems are used. However, if the communication system is applied to rich living creature marine environment such as shallow sea, it suffers from generated Impulsive Noise so-called Shrimp Noise, which is randomly generated in time domain and seriously degrades communication performance in underwater acoustic network. With the purpose of supporting high performance underwater communication, a robust digital communication method for Impulsive Noise environments is necessary. In this paper, we propose OFDM ultrasonic communication system with diversity receiver. The main feature of the receiver is a newly proposed Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller. The OFDM receiver utilizes 20-28 KHz ultrasonic channel and subcarrier spacing of 46.875 Hz (MODE3) and 93.750 Hz (MODE2) OFDM modulations. In addition, the paper shows Impulsive Noise distribution data measured at a fishing port in Okinawa and at a barge in Shizuoka prefectures and then proposed diversity OFDM transceivers architecture and experimental results are described. By the proposed Impulsive Noise Canceller, frame bit error rate has been decreased by 20-30%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rie Saotome
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to explore marine natural resources using remote robotic sensor or to enable rapid information exchange between ROV (remotely operated vehicles, AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle, divers, and ships, ultrasonic underwater communication systems are used. However, if the communication system is applied to rich living creature marine environment such as shallow sea, it suffers from generated Impulsive Noise so-called Shrimp Noise, which is randomly generated in time domain and seriously degrades communication performance in underwater acoustic network. With the purpose of supporting high performance underwater communication, a robust digital communication method for Impulsive Noise environments is necessary. In this paper, we propose OFDM ultrasonic communication system with diversity receiver. The main feature of the receiver is a newly proposed Frequency Domain Diversity Combined Impulsive Noise Canceller. The OFDM receiver utilizes 20–28 KHz ultrasonic channel and subcarrier spacing of 46.875 Hz (MODE3 and 93.750 Hz (MODE2 OFDM modulations. In addition, the paper shows Impulsive Noise distribution data measured at a fishing port in Okinawa and at a barge in Shizuoka prefectures and then proposed diversity OFDM transceivers architecture and experimental results are described. By the proposed Impulsive Noise Canceller, frame bit error rate has been decreased by 20–30%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李修文; 阳建宏; 黎敏; 徐金梧
2013-01-01
声发射检测技术以其灵敏度高、频响范围宽、信息量大等优点,为机械故障诊断提供了一条新的检测途径,但应用于旋转机械设备时,容易混入各种有色噪声.当噪声频率与声发射信号重叠时,传统的降噪方法难以满足要求.将形态滤波应用到信号频域,可以有效消除有色噪声的干扰.根据声发射频响特性,对频谱进行拟合平滑高斯白噪声的影响,最后重构到时域.仿真和实际低速轴承信号表明此方法具有较好的降噪效果,有利于信号后续的处理和分析.%Acoustic emission technique provides a new measuring approach for machinery fault diagnosis because of its characteristics of high sensitivity, wide frequency response range and containing much information. An acoustic emission signal often is mixed with a variety of color noise when applied to a rotating machinery. Traditional noise reduction methods can not meet the measuring requirements when the frequencies of noise and those of acoustic emission signals overlap. Here, morphological filtering was applied to eliminate color noise in frequency domain. According to the acoustic emission frequency response characteristic, a spectrum was fitted in order to smooth white Gaussian noise. Finally, a time domain waveform was reconstructed. The simulation results and the real signals of rolling bearings with low speed showed that the proposed methodology can achieve good effect of noise reduction, and is beneficial to the subsequent processing and analysis of signals.
Performance of Downlink Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling for the UTRAN Long Term Evolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Kolding, Troels E.; Mogensen, Preben
2006-01-01
In this paper we investigate the potential of downlink frequency-domain packet scheduling (FDPS) for the 3GPP UTRAN long term evolution. Utilizing frequency-domain channel quality reports, the scheduler flexibly multiplexes users on different portions of the system bandwidth. Compared to frequen...... Urban channel profile, studies show that the scheduling resolution should preferably be as low as 375 kHz to yield significant FDPS gain and the std. of the error of radio state reports need to be kept within 1.5-2 dB....
The capability of time- and frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing
Vu, Viet T.; Sjögren, Thomas K.; Pettersson, Mats I.
2013-05-01
The paper presents a study of the capability of time- and frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing. Two typical algorithms, Bistatic Fast Backprojection (BiFBP) and Bistatic Range Doppler (BiRDA), which are both available for general bistatic geometry, are selected as the examples of time- and frequency-domain algorithms in this study. Their capability is evaluated based on some criteria such as processing time required by the algorithms to reconstruct SAR images from bistatic SAR data and the quality assessments of those SAR images.
Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements
Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.
1993-05-01
A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.
Frequency domain fluorescence lifetime microwell-plate platform for respirometry measurements
Chatni, M. R.; Yale, G.; Van Ryckeghem, A.; Porterfield, D. M.
2010-04-01
Traditionally micro-well plate based platforms used in biology utilize fluorescence intensity based methods to measure processes of biological relevance. However, fluorescence intensity measurements suffer from calibration drift due to a variety of factors. Photobleaching and self-quenching of the fluorescent dyes cause the intensity signal to drop over the lifetime of sensor immobilized inside the well. Variation in turbidity of the sample during the course of the measurement affects the measured fluorescence intensity. In comparison, fluorescence lifetime measurements are not significantly affected by these factors because fluorescence lifetime is a physico-chemical property of the fluorescent dye. Reliable and inexpensive frequency domain fluorescence lifetime instrumentation platforms are possible because the greater tolerance for optical alignment, and because they can be performed using inexpensive light sources such as LEDs. In this paper we report the development of a frequency domain fluorescence lifetime well-plate platform utilizing an oxygen sensitive transition-metal ligand complex fluorophore with a lifetime in the microsecond range. The fluorescence lifetime dye is incorporated in a polymer matrix and immobilized on the base of micro-well of a 60 well micro-well plate. Respiration measurements are performed in both aqueous and non-aqueous environment. Respirometry measurements were recorded from single Daphnia magna egg in hard water. Daphnia is an aquatic organism, important in environmental toxicology as a standard bioassay and early warning indicator for water quality monitoring. Also respirometry measurements were recorded from Tribolium castaneum eggs, which are common pests in the processed flour industry. These eggs were subjected to mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor such as potassium cyanide (KCN) and its effects on egg respiration were measured in real-time.
Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies
Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.
2006-12-01
We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.
Space-time domain decomposition method for scalar conservation laws
Doucoure, S
2012-01-01
The Space-Time Integrated Least-Squares (STILS) method is considered to analyze a space-time domain decomposition algorithm for scalar conservation laws. Continuous and discrete convergence estimates are given. Next using a time-marching finite element formulation, the STILS solution and its domain decomposition form are numerically compared.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
campione, salvatore; Warne, Larry K.; Schiek, Richard; Basilio, Lorena I.
2017-09-01
This report details the modeling results for the response of a finite-length dissipative conductor interacting with a conducting ground to a hypothetical nuclear device with the same output energy spectrum as the Fat Man device. We use a frequency-domain method based on transmission line theory and implemented it in a code we call ATLOG - Analytic Transmission Line Over Ground. Select results are compared to ones computed using the circuit simulator Xyce. Intentionally Left Blank
Nakamura, Satoshi; Goto, Hayato; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ichimura, Kouichi
2016-12-01
We propose a scheme for frequency-domain quantum computation (FDQC) in which the errors due to crosstalk are suppressed using extra physical systems coupled to a cavity. FDQC is a promising method to realize large-scale quantum computation, but crosstalk is a major problem. When physical systems employed as qubits satisfy specific resonance conditions, gate errors due to crosstalk increase. In our scheme, the errors are suppressed by controlling the resonance conditions using extra physical systems.
Fast simulation approaches for power fluctuation model of wind farm based on frequency domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Jin; Gao, Wen-zhong; Sun, Yuan-zhang
2012-01-01
This paper discusses one model developed by Riso, DTU, which is capable of simulating the power fluctuation of large wind farms in frequency domain. In the original design, the “frequency-time” transformations are time-consuming and might limit the computation speed for a wind farm of large size....... is more than 300 times if all these approaches are adopted, in any low, medium and high wind speed test scenarios....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Yi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.
Gizon, Laurent; Duruflé, Marc; Hanson, Chris S; Leguèbe, Michael; Birch, Aaron C; Chabassier, Juliette; Fournier, Damien; Hohage, Thorsten; Papini, Emanuele
2016-01-01
Local helioseismology has so far relied on semi-analytical methods to compute the spatial sensitivity of wave travel times to perturbations in the solar interior. These methods are cumbersome and lack flexibility. Here we propose a convenient framework for numerically solving the forward problem of time-distance helioseismology in the frequency domain. The fundamental quantity to be computed is the cross-covariance of the seismic wavefield. We choose sources of wave excitation that enable us to relate the cross-covariance of the oscillations to the Green's function in a straightforward manner. We illustrate the method by considering the 3D acoustic wave equation in an axisymmetric reference solar model, ignoring the effects of gravity on the waves. The symmetry of the background model around the rotation axis implies that the Green's function can be written as a sum of longitudinal Fourier modes, leading to a set of independent 2D problems. We use a high-order finite-element method to solve the 2D wave equati...
A hybrid method for identification of structural domains
Hua, Yongpan; Zhu, Min; Wang, Yuelong; Xie, Zhaoyang; Li, Menglong
2014-12-01
Structural domains in proteins are the basic units to form various proteins. In the protein's evolution and functioning, domains play important roles. But the definition of domain is not yet precisely given, and the update cycle of structural domain databases is long. The automatic algorithms identify domains slowly, while protein entities with great structural complexity are on the rise. Here, we present a method which recognizes the compact and modular segments of polypeptide chains to identify structural domains, and contrast some data sets to illuminate their effect. The method combines support vector machine (SVM) with K-means algorithm. It is faster and more stable than most current algorithms and performs better. It also indicates that when proteins are presented as some Alpha-carbon atoms in 3D space, it is feasible to identify structural domains by the spatially structural properties. We have developed a web-server, which would be helpful in identification of structural domains (http://vis.sculab.org/~huayongpan/cgi-bin/domainAssignment.cgi).
Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Szmacinski, Henryk; Nowaczyk, Kazimierz; Johnson, Michael L.
1992-02-01
During the past seven years, there have been remarkable advances in the frequency-domain method for measurement of time-resolved emission or light scattering. In this presentation we describe the recent extension of the frequency range to 10 GHz using a specially designed microchannel plate PMT. Experimental data will be shown for measurement of picosecond rotational diffusion and for sub-picosecond resolution of time delays. The resolution of ps to ns timescale processes is not obtained at the expense of sensitivity or is it shown by measurements on the intrinsic tryptophan emission from hemoglobin. We also describe a time- resolved reflectance imaging experiment on a scattering medium containing an absorbing object. Time-resolved imaging of the back-scattered light is realized by means of a RF-phase- sensitive camera, synchronized to the laser pulses. By processing the stored images, a final image can be created, the contrast of which is based only on time differences of the back- scattered photons. This image reveals the presence and position of the absorber within the scattering medium. And finally, we describe a new methodology, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), in which the contrast depends on the fluorescence lifetime at each point in a two-dimensional image, and not the local concentration and/or intensity of the fluorophore. We used FLIM to create lifetime images of NADH when free in solution and when bound to malate dehydrogenase. FLIM has numerous potential applications in cell biology and imaging.
Higher-order modulations of fs laser pulses for GHz frequency domain photon migration system.
Lin, Huang-Yi; Cheng, Nanyu; Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Chan, Ming-Che
2014-02-24
Except the fundamental modulation frequency, by higher-order-harmonic modulations of mode-locked laser pulses and a simple frequency demodulation circuit, a novel approach to GHz frequency-domain-photon-migration (FDPM) system was reported. With this novel approach, a wide-band modulation frequency comb is available without any external modulation devices and the only electronics to extract the optical attenuation and phase properties at a selected modulation frequency in FDPM systems are good mixers and lock-in devices. This approach greatly expands the frequency range that could be achieved by conventional FDPM systems and suggests that our system could extract much more information from biological tissues than the conventional FDPM systems. Moreover, this demonstration will be beneficial for discerning the minute change of tissue properties.
Li, Ping
2014-07-01
This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.
Fast LCMV-based Methods for Fundamental Frequency Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Glentis, George-Othon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2013-01-01
Recently, optimal linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) filtering methods have been applied to fundamental frequency estimation. Such estimators often yield preferable performance but suffer from being computationally cumbersome as the resulting cost functions are multimodal with narrow...... as such either the classic time domain averaging covariance matrix estimator, or, if aiming for an increased spectral resolution, the covariance matrix resulting from the application of the recent iterative adaptive approach (IAA). The proposed exact implementations reduce the required computational complexity...... be efficiently updated when new observations become available. The resulting time-recursive updating can reduce the computational complexity even further. The experimental results show that the performances of the proposed methods are comparable or better than that of other competing methods in terms of spectral...
Hui, Xiaonan; Ye, Taihang; Zheng, Shilie; Zhou, Jinhai; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin
2014-10-01
For a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕ-OTDR) distributed sensor system, space-frequency analysis can reduce the false alarm by analyzing the frequency distribution compared with the traditional difference value method. We propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel computing method to perform multichannel fast Fourier transform (FFT) and realize the real-time space-frequency analysis. The experiment results show that the time taken by the multichannel FFT decreased considerably based on this GPU parallel computing. The method can be completed with a sensing fiber up to 16 km long and an entry-level GPU. Meanwhile, the GPU can reduce the computing load of the central processing unit from 70% down to less than 20%. We carried out an experiment on a two-point space-frequency analysis, and the results clearly and simultaneously show the vibration point locations and frequency components. The sensor system outputs the real-time space-frequency spectra continuously with a spatial resolution of 16.3 m and frequency resolution of 2.25 Hz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trautmann Steffen
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a zero-forcing frequency domain block equalizer for discrete multitone (DMT systems with a guard interval of insufficient length. In addition to the insufficient guard interval in the time domain, the equalizer takes advantage of frequency domain redundancy in the form of subcarriers that do not transmit any data. After deriving sufficient conditions for zero-forcing equalization, that is, complete removal of intersymbol and intercarrier interference, we calculate the noise enhancement of the equalizer by evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for each subcarrier. The SNRs are used by an adaptive loading algorithm. It decides how many bits are assigned to each subcarrier in order to achieve a maximum data rate at a fixed error probability. We show that redundancy in the time domain can be traded off for redundancy in the frequency domain resulting in a transceiver with a lower system latency time. The derived equalizer matrix is sparse, thus resulting in a low computational complexity.
Taki, Hirofumi; Taki, Kousuke; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Motoi; Sato, Toru
2014-01-01
We have proposed an ultrasound imaging method based on frequency domain interferometry (FDI) with an adaptive beamforming technique to depict real-time high-resolution images of human carotid artery. Our previous study has investigated the performance of the proposed imaging method under an ideal condition with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the present study, we propose a technique that has the potential to improve accuracy in estimating echo intensity using the FDI imaging method. We investigated the performance of the proposed technique in a simulation study that two flat interfaces were located at depths of 15.0 and 15.2 mm and white noise was added. Because the -6 dB bandwidth of the signal used in this simulation study is 2.6 MHz, the conventional B-mode imaging method failed to depict the two interfaces. Both the conventional and proposed FDI imaging methods succeeded to depict the two interfaces when the SNR ranged from 15 to 30 dB. However, the average error of the estimated echo intensity at the interfaces using the conventional FDI imaging method ranged from 7.2 to 10.5 dB. In contrast, that using the FDI imaging method with the proposed technique ranged from 2.0 to 2.2 dB. The present study demonstrates the potential of the FDI imaging method in depicting robust and high-range-resolution ultrasound images of arterial wall, indicating the possibility to improve the diagnosis of atherosclerosis in early stages.
Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling Under Fractional Load for the UTRAN LTE Downlink
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Monghal, Guillaume Damien; Pedersen, Klaus I.
2007-01-01
In this paper we investigate performance of frequency domain packet scheduling (FDPS) under fractional load (FL), based on the UTRAN Long Term Evolution downlink. FL may be regarded as an inter-cell interference (ICI) mitigation technique, which can improve the user experienced SINR. We consider...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
We interpret the purely spectral forward Maxwell equation with up to third-order induced polarizations for pulse propagation and interactions in quadratic nonlinear crystals. The interpreted equation, also named the nonlinear wave equation in the frequency domain, includes quadratic and cubic...
Modal Identification of Output-Only Systems using Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.
2000-01-01
In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical ...
Frequency-Domain Thermal Modelling and Characterization of Power Semiconductor Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; He, Ning; Liserre, Marco
2016-01-01
their limits to correctly predict the device temperatures, especially when considering the thermal grease and heat sink attached to the power semiconductor devices. In this paper, frequency-domain approach is applied to the modelling of the thermal dynamics for power devices. The limits of the existing RC lump...
Comparison between time-and frequency-domain induced polarisation parameters
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Van Schoor, Abraham M
2009-09-01
Full Text Available of mineralised rocks and of the contrast between different rock types. It is further shown that a multi-frequency (spectral) approach can be used to avoid this pitfall; similarly, the calculation of different time-domain induced polarisation (IP) parameters...
van Munster, E.B.; Goedhart, J.; Kremers, G.J.; Manders, E.M.M.; Gadella, Th.W.J.
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Wide-field frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is an established technique to determine fluorescence lifetimes. Disadvantage of wide-field imaging is that measurements are compromised by out-of-focus blur. Conventional scanning confocal typically means long
Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain
De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.
1991-06-01
PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.
Postural Analysis in Time and Frequency Domains in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Celletti, Claudia; Mainardi, Luca; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo
2011-01-01
The goal of this work is to analyze postural control in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) participants in time and frequency domain. This study considered a pathological group composed by 22 EDS participants performing a postural test consisting in maintaining standing position over a force platform for 30 s in two conditions: open eyes (OE) and closed…
Investigation of Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain Free-Space Material Measurements
2006-03-01
permeability values of a mag- netic radar absorbing material ( MRAM ) sample for the three measuring devices are presented. The two transmission method is...the interfacial reflection and transmission coefficients. 11 3.1. (a) S-band (2.6-3.95 GHz) rectangular waveguide shown with MRAM sample, acrylic...sample, and sample holder. (b) X-band (8.2-12.4 GHZ) rectangular waveguide shown with MRAM sample, acrylic sample, and sample holder. . . . . . . 21 3.2
Florez, H. M.; González, C.; Martinelli, M.
2016-07-01
Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in the time domain the steep dispersion in the EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a Λ transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first-order term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sideband resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.I.Khalil
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Steganography is the discipline of invisible communication by hiding the exchanged secret information (message in another digital information media (image, video or audio. The existence of the message is kept indiscernible in sense that no one, other than the intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. The majority of steganography techniques are implemented either in spatial domain or in frequency domain of the digital images while the embedded information can be in the form of plain or cipher message. Medical image steganography is classified as a distinctive case of image steganography in such a way that both the image and the embedded information have special requirements such as achieving utmost clarity reading of the medical images and the embedded messages. There is a contention between the amount of hidden information and the caused detectable distortion of image. The current paper studies the degradation of the medical image when undergoes the steganography process in the frequency domain.
Florez, H M; Martinelli, M
2016-01-01
Correlation spectroscopy has been proposed as a spectroscopic technique for measuring the coherence between the ground states in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). While in time domain the steep dispersion in EIT condition accounts for the robustness of the correlation linewidth against power broadening, such physical insight was not directly established in the frequency domain. We propose a perturbative approach to describe the correlation spectroscopy of two noisy lasers coupled to a $\\Lambda$-transition in cold atoms, leading to EIT. Such approach leads to an analytical expression that maps the intensity correlation directly in terms of the absorption and dispersion of the light fields. Low and high perturbative regimes are investigated and demonstrate that, for coherent light sources, the first oder term in perturbation expansion represents a sufficient description for the correlation. Sidebands resonances are also observed, showing the richness of the frequency domain approach.
Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra
2014-09-01
We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies.
Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in horses at rest and during exercise.
Physick-Sheard, P W; Marlin, D J; Thornhill, R; Schroter, R C
2000-05-01
The pattern of variation in heart rate on a beat-to-beat basis contains information concerning sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) contributions to autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation of heart rate (HR). In the present study, heart period (RR interval) time series data were collected at rest and during 3 different treadmill exercise protocols from 6 Thoroughbred horses. Frequency and spectral power were determined in 3 frequency bands: very low (VLF) 0-0.01-0.07-< or = 0.5 cycles/beat. Indicators of sympathetic (SNSI = LO/HI) and parasympathetic (PNSI = HI/TOTAL) activity were calculated. Power in all bands fell progressively with increasing exercise intensity from rest to trot. At the gallop VLF and LO power continued to fall but HI power rose. SNSI rose from rest to walk, then fell with increasing effort and was lowest at the gallop. PNSI fell from rest to walk, then rose and was highest at the gallop. Normalised HI power exceeded combined VLF and LO power at all gaits, with the ratio HI to LO power being lowest at the walk and highest at the gallop. ANS indicators showed considerable inter-horse variation, and varied less consistently than raw power with increasing physical effort. In the horses studied, the relationship between power and HR changed at exercise intensities associated with heart rates above approximately 120-130 beats/min. At this level, humoral and other non-neural mechanisms may become more important than autonomic modulation in influencing heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV at intense effort may be influenced by respiratory-gait entrainment, energetics of locomotion and work of breathing. HRV analysis in the frequency domain would appear to be of potential value as a noninvasive means of assessing autonomic modulation of heart rate at low exercise intensities, only. The technique may be a sensitive method for assessing exercise response to experimental manipulations and disease states.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ji-ming Wu; De-hao Yu
2000-01-01
In this paper, the overlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction[1] and first suggested in [2], is applied to slove the exterior boundary value problem of harmonic equation over three-dimensional domain. The convergence and error estimates both for the continuous case and the discrete case are given. The contraction factor for the exterior spherical domain is also discussed. Moreover, numerical results are given which show that the accuracy and the convergence are in accord with the theoretical analyses.
Spencer, E. A.
2014-12-01
We describe the development of a Time Domain Plasma Impedance Probe for the measurement of plasma properties in the ionosphere. It is being designed and developed to fly on cubesat platforms. The new instrument will be capable of making measurements of absolute electron density and electron neutral collision frequency at temporal and spatial resolutions not previously attained. A single measurement can be made in a time as short as 50 microseconds, which yields a spatial resolution of 0.35 meters for a satellite orbital velocity of 7 km/s. By averaging over 100 samples we expect an average spatial resolution of 35 meters. The method essentially consists of applying a small amplitude time limited voltage signal into a probe and measuring the resulting current response. The electron resonant frequencies of interest in the ionosphere are between are typically between 100 kHz and 20 MHz, which sets the required bandwidth. The new time domain method will present a significant improvement over the frequency domain method currently in use. The RF impedance probe has a distinct advantage over other methods used to measure plasma properties, in that it's measurements are not strongly affected by spacecraft charging effects that contaminate measurements made in the plasma environment. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of the instrument using data from sounding rocket missions, give details of the new instrument methodology, and suggest some possible areas of application of the method to measuring space plasmas. The difficulties associated with performing the measurements in a cubesat platform, and subsequently interpreting the measurements, will also be presented.
Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems
Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng
2016-04-01
It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.
Zhou, Haiyang; Sun, Yurui; Tyree, Melvin T; Sheng, Wenyi; Cheng, Qiang; Xue, Xuzhang; Schumann, Henrik; Schulze Lammers, Peter
2015-04-01
One role of stems is that of water storage. The water content of stems increases and decreases as xylem water potential increases and decreases, respectively. Hence, a nondestructive method to measure stem water content (StWC) = (volume of water) : (volume of stem), could be useful in monitoring the drought stress status of plants. We introduce a frequency domain inner fringing capacitor-sensor for measuring StWC which operates at 100 MHz frequency. The capacitor-sensor consists of two wave guides (5-mm-wide braided metal) that snugly fit around the surface of a stem with a spacing of 4-5 mm between guides. Laboratory measurements on analog stems reveals that the DC signal output responds linearly to the relative dielectric constant of the analog stem, is most sensitive to water content between the waveguides to a depth of c. 3 mm from the stem surface, and calibrations based on the gravimetric water loss of excised stems of plants revealed a resolution in StWC of < ± 0.001 v/ v. The sensor performed very well on whole plants with a 100-fold increased resolution compared with previous frequency domain and time domain reflectometry methods and, hence, may be very useful for future research requiring nondestructive measurements of whole plants. © European Union 2014. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Inverse polynomial reconstruction method in DCT domain
Dadkhahi, Hamid; Gotchev, Atanas; Egiazarian, Karen
2012-12-01
The discrete cosine transform (DCT) offers superior energy compaction properties for a large class of functions and has been employed as a standard tool in many signal and image processing applications. However, it suffers from spurious behavior in the vicinity of edge discontinuities in piecewise smooth signals. To leverage the sparse representation provided by the DCT, in this article, we derive a framework for the inverse polynomial reconstruction in the DCT expansion. It yields the expansion of a piecewise smooth signal in terms of polynomial coefficients, obtained from the DCT representation of the same signal. Taking advantage of this framework, we show that it is feasible to recover piecewise smooth signals from a relatively small number of DCT coefficients with high accuracy. Furthermore, automatic methods based on minimum description length principle and cross-validation are devised to select the polynomial orders, as a requirement of the inverse polynomial reconstruction method in practical applications. The developed framework can considerably enhance the performance of the DCT in sparse representation of piecewise smooth signals. Numerical results show that denoising and image approximation algorithms based on the proposed framework indicate significant improvements over wavelet counterparts for this class of signals.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borg, Michael; Collu, M.
2015-01-01
The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency-domain character......The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency-domain...... characteristics of floating vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic loads. The impact of platform induced motion on aerodynamic loads is discussed in detail, with results indicating an increase in aerodynamic loads of several orders of magnitude over the range of frequencies usually containing significant wave...
FILDIG: a program to filter brain electrical signals in the frequency domain.
Guevara, M A; Ramos, J; Hernández-González, M; Corsi-Cabrera, M
2005-11-01
A software program to filter brain electrical signals in the frequency domain has been developed and is presently reported. Many other filters are commercially available; however, most of them are linked to data acquisition and/or analysis programs rendering them costly. Depending on the experimental field, the full programs are not always needed. To overcome the need to obtain narrow bands in EEG research and other biological signals in an easy, fast and cheap way, we developed a computer program (FILDIG) that renders an almost ideal in-phase filter in the frequency domain and can be used in all types of personal microcomputers (PC and Mac's) and with few resources. The system uses an interactive graphic display and, with a minimum interface, it is capable of filtering multiple channels and simultaneously obtaining electrical signals (EEG, EMG, EOG, etc.) without noise or specific frequency bands.
Numerical Calculation of Beam Coupling Impedances in the Frequency Domain using FIT
Niedermayer, U
2012-01-01
The transverse impedance of kicker magnets is considered to be one of the main beam instability sources in the projected SIS-100 at FAIR and also in the SPS at CERN. The longitudinal impedance can contribute to the heat load, which is especially a concern in the cold sections of SIS-100 and LHC. In the high frequency range, commercially available time domain codes like CST Particle Studio serve to calculate the impedance but they are inapplicable at medium and low frequencies which become more important for larger size synchrotrons. We present the ongoing work of developing a Finite Integration Technique (FIT) solver in frequency domain which is based on the Parallel and Extensible Toolkit for Scientific computing (PETSc) framework in C++. Proper beam adapted boundary conditions are important to validate the concept. The code is applied to an inductive insert used to compensate the longitudinal space charge impedance in low energy machines. Another application focuses on the impedance contribution of a ferrit...
A Novel Frequency Measurement Method Suitable for a Large Frequency Ratio Condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Wei; XUAN Zong-Qiang; YU Jian-Guo; WANG Hai; ZHOU Hui; LI Zhi-Qi
2004-01-01
@@ As for the obstacles to direct comparison between superhigh and lower frequencies, we accomplish the accurate comparison between low and microwave frequencies with the 105 ratios of the operating frequencies on the basis of phase comparison between the signals whose frequencies are related by an arbitrary integer. This method is simple and accurate, and will be widely used as a special frequency comparison approach.
Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yuan, Jianzheng; Ke, Rui; Yang, Yan; Hu, Ying
2016-01-01
The Laplace-Fourier domain full waveform inversion can simultaneously restore both the long and intermediate short-wavelength information of velocity models because of its unique characteristics of complex frequencies. This approach solves the problem of conventional frequency-domain waveform inversion in which the inversion result is excessively dependent on the initial model due to the lack of low frequency information in seismic data. Nevertheless, the Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion requires substantial computational resources and long computation time because the inversion must be implemented on different combinations of multiple damping constants and multiple frequencies, namely, the complex frequencies, which are much more numerous than the Fourier frequencies. However, if the entire target model is computed on every complex frequency for the Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (as in the conventional frequency domain inversion), excessively redundant computation will occur. In the Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion, the maximum depth penetrated by the seismic wave decreases greatly due to the application of exponential damping to the seismic record, especially with use of a larger damping constant. Thus, the depth of the area effectively inverted on a complex frequency tends to be much less than the model depth. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative estimation of the effective inversion depth in the Laplace-Fourier domain inversion based on the principle of seismic wave propagation and mathematical analysis. According to the estimated effective inversion depth, we can invert and update only the model area above the effective depth for every complex frequency without loss of accuracy in the final inversion result. Thus, redundant computation is eliminated, and the efficiency of the Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion can be improved. The proposed method was tested in numerical experiments. The experimental results show that
Frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system%频率域光声成像系统的研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨虹; 黄远辉; 苗少峰; 宫睿; 邵晓鹏; 毕祥丽
2016-01-01
Frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging is a new imaging modality, which uses the output amplitude information periodically modulated by a continuous-wave laser as a light source to stimulate biological tissues and to produce photoacoustic signals processed at frequency-domain and used to image the tissues. Firstly, the principles, developments and research status of photoacoustic imaging and frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging were introduced, and then the specific test methods and basic reconstruction algorithms of the frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging filed were described. In order to make up for time domain photoacoustic imaging with high costs, great harmful, poor portability and so on shortcomings, two imaging modalities were proposed and two complete experimental system structure diagrams were exhibited, showing different features and developing directions of photoacoustic imaging with respect to the traditional domain-photoacoustic imaging. At last, the outlook of the frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging was made to provide some references and guidance for our research and development about photoacoustic imaging.%频率域光声成像是指使用连续波激光器输出激光光源,利用该调制后的激光信号辐射组织,在频率域对激励的光声信号进行处理并成像的方式.首先阐述光声成像和频率域光声成像的原理、发展以及研究现状,然后介绍频率域光声成像的具体实验方法和基本重建算法.为了弥补时域光声成像成本高、伤害性大、便携性差等缺点,提出了频率域光声成像的两种成像方式,给出了完整的实验系统结构图,展示其相对于传统时域光声成像不同的研究特点与方向.最后对频率域光声成像进行展望,为光声成像在国内的研究和发展提供一定的借鉴和引导.
Nadeau, Kyle P.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2014-05-01
We have developed a method for extracting spatial frequency information content from biological tissue, which is used to calculate tissue optical properties and determine tissue structural orientation. This demodulation method employs a two-dimensional Hilbert transform using a spiral phase function in Fourier space. The approach presented here allows for the determination of tissue optical properties using a single frame of data for each modulation frequency, increasing imaging speed by two to threefold versus conventional, three-phase spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). This new single-phase Hilbert transform approach recovers optical property and scattering orientation index values within 1% and 10% of three-phase SFDI, respectively. These results suggest that, using the Hilbert demodulation technique, SFDI data acquisition speed can be increased significantly while preserving data quality, which will help us move forward toward the implementation of a real-time SFDI platform.
An Efficient Grid Generation Method for Arbitrary Domains
Orme, Melissa; Huang, Changzheng
1997-11-01
This paper describes an efficient grid generation method for arbitrary or multiply connected domains. Our method, essentially based on the edge swapping techniques, combines the advantages of the Delaunay triangulation method and the advancing front method. The latter two methods are in popular use nowadays. But both suffer some limitations. Delaunay method generates high quality grid but grid may cut across the boundary in concave regions. Advancing front method works for general domain but may encounter difficulties where fronts have to be merged. The current method garantees the boundary integrity and attains the nice Delaunay features into the domain. This is achieved by carefully documenting the grid information so that each edge is readily identified to be inside or outside the domain; and (2) continuously swapping out those bad edges that destroy the Delaunay properties. The computer program built on this method allows users to control the grid density distribution by specifying typical grid sizes on a few chosen points. Interesting examples are demonstrated here. One of them is a circular domain with three letters APS inside. (see figure 1 and figure 2 ). Given a grid size for APS and another size for the circle, the program automatically generates a smooth triangular grid regardless of the complex multiply connected geometry.
21st International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods
Gander, Martin; Halpern, Laurence; Pichot, Géraldine; Sassi, Taoufik; Widlund, Olof
2014-01-01
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 21st international conference on domain decomposition methods in science and engineering held in Rennes, France, June 25-29, 2012. Domain decomposition is an active and interdisciplinary research discipline, focusing on the development, analysis and implementation of numerical methods for massively parallel computers. Domain decomposition methods are among the most efficient solvers for large scale applications in science and engineering. They are based on a solid theoretical foundation and shown to be scalable for many important applications. Domain decomposition techniques can also naturally take into account multiscale phenomena. This book contains the most recent results in this important field of research, both mathematically and algorithmically and allows the reader to get an overview of this exciting branch of numerical analysis and scientific computing.
Volterra series truncation and kernel estimation of nonlinear systems in the frequency domain
Zhang, B.; Billings, S. A.
2017-02-01
The Volterra series model is a direct generalisation of the linear convolution integral and is capable of displaying the intrinsic features of a nonlinear system in a simple and easy to apply way. Nonlinear system analysis using Volterra series is normally based on the analysis of its frequency-domain kernels and a truncated description. But the estimation of Volterra kernels and the truncation of Volterra series are coupled with each other. In this paper, a novel complex-valued orthogonal least squares algorithm is developed. The new algorithm provides a powerful tool to determine which terms should be included in the Volterra series expansion and to estimate the kernels and thus solves the two problems all together. The estimated results are compared with those determined using the analytical expressions of the kernels to validate the method. To further evaluate the effectiveness of the method, the physical parameters of the system are also extracted from the measured kernels. Simulation studies demonstrates that the new approach not only can truncate the Volterra series expansion and estimate the kernels of a weakly nonlinear system, but also can indicate the applicability of the Volterra series analysis in a severely nonlinear system case.
Klose, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Netz, U.; Blaschke, S.; Zwaka, P. A.; Mueller, G. A.; Beuthan, J.; Hielscher, A. H.
2009-02-01
Novel methods that can help in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint disease are essential for efficient use of novel arthritis therapies that are currently emerging. Building on previous studies that involved continuous wave imaging systems we present here first clinical data obtained with a new frequency-domain imaging system. Three-dimensional tomographic data sets of absorption and scattering coefficients were generated for 107 fingers. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, MANOVA, Discriminant Analysis DA, and a machine-learning algorithm that is based on self-organizing mapping (SOM) for clustering data in 2-dimensional parameter spaces. Overall we found that the SOM algorithm outperforms the more traditional analysis methods in terms of correctly classifying finger joints. Using SOM, healthy and affected joints can now be separated with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.91. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that if a combination of multiple image properties is used, statistical significant differences can be found between RA-affected finger joints that show different clinical features (e.g. effusion, synovitis or erosion).
Frequency Domain Multi-parameter Full Waveform Inversion for Acoustic VTI Media
Djebbi, R.
2017-05-26
Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for transversely isotropic (TI) media with vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) suffers from the trade-off between the parameters. The trade-off results in the leakage of one parameter\\'s update into the other during the inversion. It affects the accuracy and convergence of the inversion. The sensitivity analyses suggested a parameterisation using the horizontal velocity vh, epsilon and eta to reduce the trade-off for surface recorded seismic data.We test the (vh, epsilon, eta) parameterisation for acoustic VTI media using a scattering integral (SI) based inversion. The data is modeled in frequency domain and the model is updated using a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. We applied the method to the VTI Marmousi II model and in the inversion, we keep eta parameter fixed as the background initial model and we invert simultaneously for both vh and epsilon. The results show the suitability of the parameterisation for multi-parameter VTI acoustic inversion as well as the accuracy of the inversion approach.
Frequency and Spatial Domains Adaptive-based Enhancement Technique for Thermal Infrared Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debasis Chaudhuri
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Low contrast and noisy image limits the amount of information conveyed to the user. With the proliferation of digital imagery and computer interface between man-and-machine, it is now viable to consider digital enhancement in the image before presenting it to the user, thus increasing the information throughput. With better contrast, target detection and discrimination can be improved. The paper presents a sequence of filtering operations in frequency and spatial domains to improve the quality of the thermal infrared (IR images. Basically, two filters – homomorphic filter followed by adaptive Gaussian filter are applied to improve the quality of the thermal IR images. We have systematically evaluated the algorithm on a variety of images and carefully compared it with the techniques presented in the literature. We performed an evaluation of three filter banks such as homomorphic, Gaussian 5×5 and the proposed method, and we have seen that the proposed method yields optimal PSNR for all the thermal images. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is efficient for enhancement of thermal IR images.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.451-457, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6873
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongde Qin; Jing Shen; Xiaobo Chen
2011-01-01
The free-surface Green function method is widely used in solving the radiation or diffraction problems caused by a ship or ocean structure oscillating on the waves.In the context of inviscid potential flow,hydrodynamic problems such as multi-body interaction and tank side wall effect cannot be properly dealt with based on the traditional free-surface frequency domain Green function method,in which the water viscosity is omitted and the energy dissipation effect is absent.In this paper,an open-sea Green function with viscous dissipation was presented within the theory of visco-potential flow.Then the tank Green function with a partial reflection from the side walls in wave tanks was formulated as a formal sum of open-sea Green functions representing the infinite images between two parallel side walls of the source in the tank.The new far-field characteristics of the tank Green function is vitally important for improving the validity of side-wall effects evaluation,which can be used in supervising the tank model tests.
How to Apply a Filter Defined in the Frequency Domain by a Continuous Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thibaud Briand
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We propose algorithms for filtering real-valued images, when the filter is provided as a continuous function defined in the Nyquist frequency domain. This problem is ambiguous because images are discrete entities and there is no unique way to define the filtering. We provide a theoretical framework designed to analyse the classical and computationally efficient filtering implementations based on discrete Fourier transforms (DFT. In this framework, the filtering is interpreted as the convolution of a distribution, standing for the filter, with a trigonometric polynomial interpolator of the image. The various plausible interpolations and choices of the distribution lead to three equally licit algorithms which can be seen as method variants of the same standard filtering algorithm. In general none should be preferred to the others and the choice depends on the application. In practice, the method differences, which come from the boundary DFT coefficients, are not visible to the naked eye. We demonstrate that claim on several experimental configurations by varying the input image and the considered filter. In some cases however, we discuss how the choice of the variant may affect fundamental properties of the filtering.
Qin, Hongde; Shen, Jing; Chen, Xiaobo
2011-09-01
The free-surface Green function method is widely used in solving the radiation or diffraction problems caused by a ship or ocean structure oscillating on the waves. In the context of inviscid potential flow, hydrodynamic problems such as multi-body interaction and tank side wall effect cannot be properly dealt with based on the traditional free-surface frequency domain Green function method, in which the water viscosity is omitted and the energy dissipation effect is absent. In this paper, an open-sea Green function with viscous dissipation was presented within the theory of visco-potential flow. Then the tank Green function with a partial reflection from the side walls in wave tanks was formulated as a formal sum of open-sea Green functions representing the infinite images between two parallel side walls of the source in the tank. The new far-field characteristics of the tank Green function is vitally important for improving the validity of side-wall effects evaluation, which can be used in supervising the tank model tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李智; 王圣毫; 赵勇; 王祥凤; 李耀铮
2014-01-01
At present ,because the blending coal was taken in some power stations as the major fuel which has too complex physical and chemical characters to build accurate normal near infrared quantitative models in some cases ,which brought difficulties for on-line electric coal calorific value detection .For this reason ,it was care-fully studied that the time domain and frequency domain properties of the power generation coal near infrared spectra ,and was proposed that a new quantitative near infrared method named frequency domain self-adaption analysis .The first step ,time domain near infrared spectra are converted into frequency domain near infrared signal by Fast Fourier Transform ;The second step ,the suitable frequency information range by means of valid spectra energy parameter ηE was obtained by this method ;The third step ,it was constructed that an informa-tion volume parameter which is formed by correlation coefficient ,standard deviation spectra and coordinate of harmonic in frequency domain to initialize the regression model input parameters ’ position;Finally ,the opti-mal model is established by way of discrete frequency domain scooping and synthesized performance function . At the same time ,compared with the principle component regression ,partial least squares regression ,back propagation artificial network ,support vector regression and partial least squares regression optimized by ge-netic algorithm models ,it is acquired that a more accurate method which can effectively avoid over fitting and virtual effective models and has a very useful application prospect by verifying the electric coal calorific value . Additionally ,this method can be used in other quantitative spectra analysis .%目前由于部分电站锅炉所用到的燃煤大多为配煤，在有些情况下，其复杂的物理化学特性导致难以获得高精确度的常规近红外定量分析模型，这给电煤发热量的在线检测带来了一定困难。针对该问题，
Wiegers, Evita C; Philips, Bart W J; Heerschap, Arend; van der Graaf, Marinette
2017-06-01
J-difference editing is often used to select resonances of compounds with coupled spins in (1)H-MR spectra. Accurate phase and frequency alignment prior to subtracting J-difference-edited MR spectra is important to avoid artefactual contributions to the edited resonance. In-vivo J-difference-edited MR spectra were aligned by maximizing the normalized scalar product between two spectra (i.e., the correlation over a spectral region). The performance of our correlation method was compared with alignment by spectral registration and by alignment of the highest point in two spectra. The correlation method was tested at different SNR levels and for a broad range of phase and frequency shifts. In-vivo application of the proposed correlation method showed reduced subtraction errors and increased fit reliability in difference spectra as compared with conventional peak alignment. The correlation method and the spectral registration method generally performed equally well. However, better alignment using the correlation method was obtained for spectra with a low SNR (down to ~2) and for relatively large frequency shifts. Our correlation method for simultaneously phase and frequency alignment is able to correct both small and large phase and frequency drifts and also performs well at low SNR levels.
Bilateral collicular interaction: modulation of auditory signal processing in frequency domain.
Cheng, L; Mei, H-X; Tang, J; Fu, Z-Y; Jen, P H-S; Chen, Q-C
2013-04-01
In the ascending auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from a variety of lower auditory nuclei, intrinsic projections within the IC, contralateral IC through the commissure of the IC and the auditory cortex. All these connections make the IC a major center for subcortical temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. In this study, we examine bilateral collicular interaction in the modulation of frequency-domain signal processing of mice using electrophysiological recording and focal electrical stimulation. Focal electrical stimulation of neurons in one IC produces widespread inhibition and focused facilitation of responses of neurons in the other IC. This bilateral collicular interaction decreases the response magnitude and lengthens the response latency of inhibited IC neurons but produces an opposite effect on the response of facilitated IC neurons. In the frequency domain, the focal electrical stimulation of one IC sharpens or expands the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of neurons in the other IC to improve frequency sensitivity and the frequency response range. The focal electrical stimulation also produces a shift in the best frequency (BF) of modulated IC (ICMdu) neurons toward that of electrically stimulated IC (ICES) neurons. The degree of bilateral collicular interaction is dependent upon the difference in the BF between the ICES neurons and ICMdu neurons. These data suggest that bilateral collicular interaction is a part of dynamic acoustic signal processing that adjusts and improves signal processing as well as reorganizes collicular representation of signal parameters according to the acoustic experience.
Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie
2011-01-01
With the capacity of installed wind power generators steadily increasing in China, power fluctuation from wind farms will significantly affect the security and reliability of the power system. Traditional modeling of power fluctuation is based on the time domain or statistics methodology which...... the power spectral density of wind speed, the frequency domain model of a wind power generator and the information on weather and geography of the wind farms. The correctness and effectiveness of the model are verified by comparing the measurement data with simulation results of a certain wind farm. © 2011...
Kumar, Sunil; Kamaraju, N; Karthikeyan, B; Tondusson, M; Freysz, E; Sood, A K
2010-07-01
Terahertz time domain spectroscopy has been used to study low frequency confined acoustic phonons of silver nanoparticles embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix in the spectral range of 0.1-2.5 THz. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function show two bands at 0.60 and 2.12 THz attributed to the spheroidal and toroidal modes of silver nanoparticles, thus demonstrating the usefulness of terahertz time domain spectroscopy as a complementary technique to Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the nanoparticles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gul Ar Navi Khan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder characterized by development of hypertension to the extent of 140/90 mmHg or more with proteinuria after 20th weeks of pregnancy in a previously normotensive and non proteinuric woman. Physiologically blood pressure is controlled by Autonomic Nervous System (ANS so study of ANS during pregnancy plays a significant role to extract some vital information which may be helpful to deal with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH or preeclampsia. The autonomic nervous system and changes in ANS during different pathophysiological conditions could be evaluated with heart rate variability analysis test. The modification in the autonomic control occurs during pregnancy and its evaluation through Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis is very informative technique now a day but studied little thus the main objective of our project is to compare the maternal HRV changes between normal pregnancy and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Methods: 48 subjects (33 of normotensive pregnant women i.e., control group and 15 pre-eclamptic pregnant women i.e, study group of more than 20 weeks pregnancy were recruited from the outpatients, antenatal unit and wards of obstetrics and gynaecology department of JNMC, AMU, Aligarh. Physical examination was done and anthropometric measurement like height and weight were taken. BMI was calculated as per Quetlet's index. Urine test was conducted to every pregnant woman for urine albumin and we designated the pregnant women as pre-eclamptic women on the basis of definition. The subject was advised to take complete bed rest in supine position for 15 minutes in a cool and calm environment. The recording of short term HRV was done according to recommendation of the task force on HRV. The data was transferred from Medicaid machine to window based computer with HRV analysis software. Frequency domain analysis of HRV was taken for further statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference of
Matsuki, Yoh; Eddy, Matthew T; Herzfeld, Judith
2009-04-08
A simple and effective method, SIFT (spectroscopy by integration of frequency and time domain information), is introduced for processing nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data. Applying the computationally efficient Gerchberg-Papoulis (G-P) algorithm, used previously in picture processing and medical imaging, SIFT supplements data at nonuniform points in the time domain with the information carried by known "dark" points (i.e., empty regions) in the frequency domain. We demonstrate that this rapid integration not only removes the severe pseudonoise characteristic of the Fourier transforms of nonuniformly sampled data, but also provides a robust procedure for using frequency information to replace time measurements. The latter can be used to avoid unnecessary sampling in sampling-limited experiments, and the former can be used to take advantage of the ability of nonuniformly sampled data to minimize trade-offs between the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolution in sensitivity-limited experiments. Processing 2D and 3D data sets takes about 0.1 and 2 min, respectively, on a personal computer. With these several attractive features, SIFT offers a novel, model-independent, flexible, and user-friendly tool for efficient and accurate processing of multidimensional NMR data.
Matsuki, Yoh; Eddy, Matthew T.; Herzfeld, Judith
2009-01-01
A simple and effective method, SIFT (Spectroscopy by Integrating Frequency and Time domain information) is introduced for processing non-uniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data. Applying the computationally efficient Gerchberg-Papoulis (G-P) algorithm, used previously in picture processing and medical imaging, SIFT supplements data at non-uniform points in the time domain with the information carried by known “dark” points (i.e. empty regions) in the frequency domain. We demonstrate that this rapid integration not only removes the severe pseudo-noise characteristic of the Fourier transforms of non-uniformly sampled data, but also provides a robust procedure for using frequency information to replace time measurements. The latter can be used to avoid unnecessary sampling in sampling-limited experiments and the former can be used to take advantage of the ability of non-uniformly sampled data to minimize trade-offs between the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolution in sensitivity-limited experiments. Processing 2D and 3D datasets takes about 0.1 and 2 min, respectively, on a personal computer. With these several attractive features, SIFT offers a novel, model-independent, flexible, and user-friendly tool for efficient and accurate processing of multidimensional NMR data. PMID:19284727
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokoi, Koki [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Raicu, Valerică, E-mail: vraicu@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
2017-06-28
Relaxation in fractal structures was investigated theoretically starting from a simple model of a Cantorian tree and kinetic equations linking the change in the number of particles (e.g., electrical charges) populating each branch of the tree and their transfer to other branches or to the ground state. We numerically solved the system of differential equations obtained and determined the so-called cumulative distribution function of particles, which, in dielectric or mechanical relaxation parlance, is the same as the relaxation function of the system. As a physical application, we studied the relationship between the dielectric relaxation in time-domain and the dielectric dispersion in the frequency-domain. Upon choosing appropriate rate constants, our model described accurately well-known non-exponential and non-Debye time- and frequency-domain functions, such as stretched exponentials, Havrilliak–Negami, and frequency power law. Our approach opens the door to applying kinetic models to describe a wide array of relaxation processes, which traditionally have posed great challenges to theoretical modeling based on first principles. - Highlights: • Relaxation was investigated for a system of particles flowing through a Cantorian tree. • A set of kinetic equations was formulated and used to compute the relaxation function of the system. • The dispersion function of the system was computed from the relaxation function. • An analytical method was used to recover the original relaxation function from the dispersion function. • This formalism was used to study dielectric relaxation and dispersion in fractal structures.
Comparison of misfit functions for phase-only inversion in the frequency domain
Jeong, G.; Jeong, W.; Min, D. J.
2014-12-01
Full waveform inversion suffers from non-uniqueness and non-linearity problems. By using kinematic property of wavefield rather than dynamic property, we can mitigate such problems because the phase is linear and robust (Kamei et al. 2013). For the phase-only inversion, several misfit functions were suggested. Bednar et al. (2007) compared the logarithmic phase-only inversion proposed by Shin and Min (2006) with the conventional phase-only inversion. On the other hand, Kamei et al. (2014) introduced another method that uses the exponential of phase by normalizing the wavefield with respect to the amplitude. In this study, we compare the aforementioned three phase-only inversion methods in the frequency domain: i) the logarithmic phase-only inversion, ii) the conventional phase-only inversion I (briefly conventional I method) that normalizes wavefield with respect to the amplitude variation, and iii) the conventional phase-only inversion II (briefly conventional II method) that replaces the amplitude of the modeled data with that of field data. In the cases of the logarithmic and conventional I methods, if the modeled signal function is close to 0 or becomes large, the gradients of the misfit function diverge to infinity or converge to 0, respectively. In contrast, the conventional II method does not suffer from these problems. For fair comparison, we removed extremely small or large values with Gaussian filtering to avoid the instability problem in the logarithmic and conventional I methods. In addition, we assumed that the phase of the field data is unwrapped to the same degree as the phase of the modeled data in all the cases. On the other hand, the logarithmic and conventional II methods require the additional assumption that amplitudes of the field data are the same as those of the modeled data. However, the conventional I method does not require such an assumption. Our numerical examples show that the conventional I method yields more robust and accurate
Semiclassical methods for high frequency wave propagation in periodic media
Delgadillo, Ricardo A.
We will study high-frequency wave propagation in periodic media. A typical example is given by the Schrodinger equation in the semiclassical regime with a highly oscillatory periodic potential and external smooth potential. This problem presents a numerical challenge when in the semiclassical regime. For example, conventional methods such as finite differences and spectral methods leads to high numerical cost, especially in higher dimensions. For this reason, asymptotic methods like the frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) was developed to provide an efficient computational tool. Prior to the development of the FGA, the geometric optics and Gaussian beam methods provided an alternative asymptotic approach to solving the Schrodinger equation efficiently. Unlike the geometric optics and Gaussian beam methods, the FGA does not lose accuracy due to caustics or beam spreading. In this thesis, we will briefly review the geometric optics, Gaussian beam, and FGA methods. The mathematical techniques used by these methods will aid us in formulating the Bloch-decomposition based FGA. The Bloch-decomposition FGA generalizes the FGA to wave propagation in periodic media. We will establish the convergence of the Bloch-decomposition based FGA to the true solution for Schrodinger equation and develop a gauge-invariant algorithm for the Bloch-decomposition based FGA. This algorithm will avoid the numerical difficulty of computing the gauge-dependent Berry phase. We will show the numerical performance of our algorithm by several one-dimensional examples. Lastly, we will propose a time-splitting FGA-based artificial boundary conditions for solving the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) on an unbounded domain. The NLS will be split into two parts, the linear and nonlinear parts. For the linear part we will use the following absorbing boundary strategy: eliminate Gaussian functions whose centers are too distant to a fixed domain.
Decomposition method for solving parabolic equations in finite domains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
This paper presents a comparison among Adomian decomposition method (ADM), Wavelet-Galerkin method (WGM),the fully explicit (1,7) finite difference technique (FTCS), the fully implicit (7,1) finite difference method (BTCS), (7,7)Crank-Nicholson type finite difference formula (C-N), the fully explicit method (1,13) and 9-point finite difference method, for solving parabolic differential equations with arbitrary boundary conditions and based on weak form functionals in finite domains.The problem is solved rapidly, easily and elegantly by ADM. The numerical results on a 2D transient heat conducting problem and 3D diffusion problem are used to validate the proposed ADM as an effective numerical method for solving finite domain parabolic equations. The numerical results showed that our present method is less time consuming and is easier to use than other methods. In addition, we prove the convergence of this method when it is applied to the nonlinear parabolic equation.
Digital Frequency Domain Fluorometry and the Study of Hoechst 33258 Dye-Dna Interactions
Feddersen, Brett Andrew
Fluorescence is a powerful tool for the study of chemical and biological processes. The typical decay times of fluorescence are ideal to study events in the pico to nanosecond range. On these time scales, the motions of many biological processes can be studied. The use of frequency domain fluorometry to measure the lifetime of the excited state has been used for many years. However, the development of an acquisition system based on modern digital techniques, presented in this thesis, has opened the door to different types of experiments that previously were either too time consuming or could not be done. The use of digital techniques and the development of a method to modulate an image intensifier have made it possible to incorporate linear and matrix detectors in frequency domain fluorometry. The extension of time -resolved fluorescence measurements to linear arrays has made it possible to follow the time evolution of the emission spectra while the use of matrix detectors has permitted the measurement of the lifetime at every "pixel" of an image. The dye Hoechst 33258 has been used for many years in the study of DNA and DNA binding. However, the fluorescent properties of Hoechst 33258 are not well understood. The dye is highly quenched in aqueous solutions and becomes brightly fluorescent when bound to Acdot T rich sequences of DNA or placed in non-aqueous solutions. The fluorescence of Hoechst 33258 seems to arise from two different solvation states of the molecule. When Hoechst 33258 binds to calf thymus DNA or poly(d(A cdotT)), the molecule becomes highly fluorescent, yet the two states can still be distinguished. The two states are attributed to different binding modes of the dye. The loose binding allows access of water molecules which results in different emission properties. On the other hand, when Hoechst binds onto d(CGCGAATTCGCG) only one lifetime is observed. The single lifetime has been attributed to strong binding of the Hoechst molecule onto the AATT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Guoyu; Li Yan [Institute of Information Engineering, Handan College, Handan, 056005 (China); Zhao Peng, E-mail: guoyu_li@yahoo.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2011-02-01
In optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) system, the spatial resolution is obtained by using the total frequency-sweep span of the tunable laser. However, in practice, the spatial resolution is severely limited by nonlinearity in the lightwave-frequency sweep of the tunable laser. A closed-loop PZT modulated DBR linear fiber laser is proposed to improve the spatial resolution of the OFDR system. Experimental results show that the spatial resolution of OFDR system has improved greatly. When the frequency sweep excursion is 66GHz and the fiber under test (FUT) is 7 m, the OFDR system has a spatial resolution of 1.5 m with open-loop PZT modulated laser. But the spatial resolution increases to 35 cm with closed-loop PZT modulated laser.
22nd International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods
Gander, Martin; Halpern, Laurence; Krause, Rolf; Pavarino, Luca
2016-01-01
These are the proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods, which was held in Lugano, Switzerland. With 172 participants from over 24 countries, this conference continued a long-standing tradition of internationally oriented meetings on Domain Decomposition Methods. The book features a well-balanced mix of established and new topics, such as the manifold theory of Schwarz Methods, Isogeometric Analysis, Discontinuous Galerkin Methods, exploitation of modern HPC architectures, and industrial applications. As the conference program reflects, the growing capabilities in terms of theory and available hardware allow increasingly complex non-linear and multi-physics simulations, confirming the tremendous potential and flexibility of the domain decomposition concept.
Osburn, Thomas; Evans, Charles; Hopper, Seth
2014-01-01
We present an algorithm for calculating the metric perturbations and gravitational self-force for extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) with eccentric orbits. The massive black hole is taken to be Schwarzschild and metric perturbations are computed in Lorenz gauge. The perturbation equations are solved as coupled systems of ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. Accurate local behavior of the metric is attained through use of the method of extended homogeneous solutions and mode-sum regularization is used to find the self-force. We focus on calculating the self-force with sufficient accuracy to ensure its error contributions to the phase in a long term orbital evolution will be $\\delta\\Phi \\lesssim 10^{-2}$ radians. This requires the orbit-averaged force to have fractional errors $\\lesssim 10^{-8}$ and the oscillatory part of the self-force to have errors $\\lesssim 10^{-3}$ (a level frequently easily exceeded). Our code meets this error requirement in the oscillatory part, extending the reach...
Haverkort, Maurits W.
2016-05-01
Depending on the material and edge under consideration, core level spectra manifest themselves as local excitons with multiplets, edge singularities, resonances, or the local projected density of states. Both extremes, i.e., local excitons and non-interacting delocalized excitations are theoretically well under control. Describing the intermediate regime, where local many body interactions and band-formation are equally important is a challenge. Here we discuss how Quanty, a versatile quantum many body script language, can be used to calculate a variety of different core level spectroscopy types on solids and molecules, both in the frequency as well as the time domain. The flexible nature of Quanty allows one to choose different approximations for different edges and materials. For example, using a newly developed method merging ideas from density renormalization group and quantum chemistry [1-3], Quanty can calculate excitons, resonances and band-excitations in x-ray absorption, photoemission, x-ray emission, fluorescence yield, non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and many more spectroscopy types. Quanty can be obtained from: http://www.quanty.org.
Empirical frequency domain model for fixed-pattern noise in infrared focal plane arrays
Pérez, Francisco; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Torres, Sergio N.
2014-11-01
In this paper, a new empirical model for the spatial structure of the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) observed in infrared (IR) focal-plane arrays (FPA) is presented. The model was conceived after analyzing, in the spatial frequency domain, FPN calibration data from different IR cameras and technologies. The analysis showed that the spatial patterns of the FPN are retained in the phase spectrum, while the noise intensity is determined by the magnitude spectrum. Thus, unlike traditional representations, the proposed model abstracts the FPN structure using one matrix for its magnitude spectrum and another matrix for its phase spectrum. Three applications of the model are addressed here. First, an algorithm is provided for generating random samples of the FPN with the same spatial pattern of the actual FPN. Second, the model is used to assess the performance of non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms in the presence of spatially correlated and uncorrelated FPN. Third, the model is used to improve the NUC capability of a method that requires, as a reference, a proper FPN sample.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pittalà, Fabio; Hauske, Fabian N.; Ye, Yabin;
2011-01-01
CD and DGD monitoring from Frequency- Domain Zero-Forcing and MMSE filter functions adapted with the aid of short CAZAC training sequences is demonstrated.......CD and DGD monitoring from Frequency- Domain Zero-Forcing and MMSE filter functions adapted with the aid of short CAZAC training sequences is demonstrated....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi
2007-01-01
As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... of a modal model with a total of 408 degrees of freedom. Six modes were identified in the frequency range from 0 to 16.7 Hz. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique for modal identification of large structures. A second objective...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Zhang, L.
2002-01-01
As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification...... of a modal model with a total of 408 degrees of freedom. Six modes were identified in the frequency range from 0 to 16.7 Hz. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique for modal identification of large structures. A second objective...
Investigation of Frequency-Domain Link Adaptation for a 5-MHz OFDMA/HSDPA system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank
2005-01-01
In this paper, we investigate frequency domain link adaptation (FDLA), e.g. utilizing the frequency selectivity of the channel in an OFDMA system. To make the study specific and based on realistic parameters, we re-use the specifications from a recent 3GPP 5-MHz OFDMA study item. The link...... find that optimum waterfilling power distribution only provides a marginal gain over a simpler on/off equal power distribution algorithm per sub-carrier pool when signaling imperfections are taken into account....
Reducing Dataset Size in Frequency Domain for Brain Computer Interface Motor Imagery Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch.Aparna
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Brain computer interface is an emerging area of research where the BCI system is able to detect and interpret the mental activity into computer interpretable signals opening a wide area of applications where activities can be completed without using muscular movement. In Brain Computer Interface research, for classification of EEG signals the raw signals captured has to undergo some preprocessing, to obtain the right attributes for classification. In this paper, we present a system which allows for classification of mental tasks based on a statistical data obtained in frequency domain using Discrete cosine transform and extracting useful frequencies from the same with application of decision tree algorithms for classification.
Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren
2014-07-01
Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques.
Performance of Spatial Division Multiplexing MIMO with Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Na; Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;
2008-01-01
This paper addresses the performance of Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDM) Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) techniques together with Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling (FDPS) in both theory and practice. We start with a theoretical analysis under some ideal assumptions to derive the perform......This paper addresses the performance of Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDM) Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) techniques together with Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling (FDPS) in both theory and practice. We start with a theoretical analysis under some ideal assumptions to derive...... is to investigate the impact of realistic factors on performance. Results confirm that the combination of SDM and FDPS can increase the spectral efficiency significantly, particularly in a micro-cell scenario, and up to 30%-60% gain is observed over 1x2 with FDPS depending on the traffic models considered. Finally...
Tanay, Sashwat; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2016-01-01
Inspiraling compact binaries with non-negligible orbital eccentricities are plausible gravitational wave (GW) sources for the upcoming network of GW observatories. In this paper, we present two prescriptions to compute post-Newtonian (PN) accurate inspiral templates for such binaries. First, we adapt and extend the post-circular scheme of Yunes {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] to obtain a Fourier-domain inspiral approximant that incorporates the effects of PN-accurate orbital eccentricity evolution. This results in a fully analytic frequency-domain inspiral waveform with Newtonian amplitude and 2PN order Fourier phase while incorporating eccentricity effects up to sixth order at each PN order. The importance of incorporating eccentricity evolution contributions to the Fourier phase in a PN consistent manner is also demonstrated. Second, we present an accurate and efficient prescription to incorporate orbital eccentricity into the quasi-circular time-domain {\\texttt{TaylorT4}} approximant at 2PN o...
Quantum Image Encryption Based on Iterative Framework of Frequency-Spatial Domain Transforms
Wang, Han; Wang, Jian; Geng, Ya-Cong; Song, Yan; Liu, Ji-Qiang
2017-10-01
A novel quantum image encryption and decryption algorithm based on iteration framework of frequency-spatial domain transforms is proposed. In this paper, the images are represented in the flexible representation for quantum images (FRQI). Previous quantum image encryption algorithms are realized by spatial domain transform to scramble the position information of original images and frequency domain transform to encode the color information of images. But there are some problems such as the periodicity of spatial domain transform, which will make it easy to recover the original images. Hence, we present the iterative framework of frequency-spatial domain transforms. Based on the iterative framework, the novel encryption algorithm uses Fibonacci transform and geometric transform for many times to scramble the position information of the original images and double random-phase encoding to encode the color information of the images. The encryption keys include the iterative time t of the Fibonacci transform, the iterative time l of the geometric transform, the geometric transform matrix G i which is n × n matrix, the classical binary sequences K (k0k1{\\ldots } k_{2^{2n}-1}) and D(d0d1{\\ldots } d_{2^{2n}-1}). Here the key space of Fibonacci transform and geometric transform are both estimated to be 226. The key space of binary sequences is (2 n× n ) × (2 n× n ). Then the key space of the entire algorithm is about 2^{2{n2}+52}. Since all quantum operations are invertible, the quantum image decryption algorithm is the inverse of the encryption algorithm. The results of numerical simulation and analysis indicate that the proposed algorithm has high security and high sensitivity.
A pseudospectral collocation time-domain method for diffractive optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dinesen, P.G.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter
2000-01-01
We present a pseudospectral method for the analysis of diffractive optical elements. The method computes a direct time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations and is applied to solving wave propagation in 2D diffractive optical elements. (C) 2000 IMACS. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...
Doppler calibration method for Spectral Domain OCT spectrometers
D.J. Faber; T.G. van Leeuwen
2009-01-01
We present a calibration method for SD-OCT domain spectrometers based on the M-scan of a moving mirror. This method allows determination of the wavenumber sampling increment which determines the depth axis assigned to the structural image. It also allows wavelength calibration of individual pixels w
DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHODS WITH NONMATCHING GRIDS FOR THE UNILATERAL PROBLEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping Luo; Guo-ping Liang
2002-01-01
This paper is devoted to the construction of domain decomposition methods with nonmatching grids based on mixed finite element methods for the unilateral problem. The existence and uniqueness of solution are discussed and optimal error bounds are obtained.Furthermore, global superconvergence estimates are given.
Mosher, Mark
Within a wave energy converter's operational bandwidth, device operation tends to be optimal in converting mechanical energy into a more useful form at an incident wave period that is proximal to that of a power-producing mode of motion. Point absorbers, a particular classification of wave energy converters, tend to have a relative narrow optimal bandwidth. When not operating within the narrow optimal bandwidth, a point absorber's response and efficiency is attenuated. Given the wide range of sea-states that can be expected during a point absorber's operational life, these devices require a means to adjust, or control, their natural response to maximize the amount of energy absorbed in the large population of non-optimal conditions. In the field of wave energy research, there is considerable interest in the use of non-linear control techniques to this end. Non-linear control techniques introduce time-varying and state dependent control parameters into the point absorber motion equations, which usually motivates a computationally expensive numerical integration to determine the response of the device - important metrics such as gross converted power and relative travels of the device's pieces are extracted through post processing of the time series data. As an alternative, the work presented in this thesis was based on a closed form perturbation based approach for analysis of the response of a device with periodically-varying control parameters, subject to regular wave forcing, in the frequency domain. The proposed perturbation based method provides significant savings in computational time and enables the device's response to be represented in a closed form manner with a relatively small number of solution components - each component is comprised of a complex amplitude and oscillation frequency. This representation of the solution was found to be very concise and descriptive, and to lend itself to the calculation of gross absorbed power and travel constraint
Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications.
Telenkov, Sergey; Alwi, Rudolf; Mandelis, Andreas; Worthington, Arthur
2011-12-01
We report the development of a frequency-domain biomedical photoacoustic imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection, and processing coupled with a beam-forming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Sensitivity to optical contrast was demonstrated using tissue-mimicking phantoms and in-vivo tissue samples.
High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing
MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.
2009-01-01
Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large ...
Design of UWB pulse radio transceiver using statistical correlation technique in frequency domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Anis
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new technique to extract low power UWB pulse radio signals, near to noise level, using statistical correlation technique in frequency domain. The receiver consists of many narrow bandpass filters which extract energy either from transmitted UWB signal, interfering channels or noise. Transmitted UWB data can be eliminated by statistical correlation of multiple bandpass filter outputs. Super-regenerative oscillators, tuned within UWB spectrum, are designed as bandpass filters. Summers and comparators perform statistical correlation.
Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Daniel GOYEAU; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar
2013-01-01
International audience; The present paper analyse the relationship between the volume of transactions with futures equity index products and the return volatility of their underlying assets. The study addresses the case of five stock markets, members of the Euronext.liffe: London, Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels and Lisbon. We employ a frequency domain analysis, using monthly data for the period 2001.09 – 2010.06, which allows us to identify the direction of the causality between the derivatives v...
High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing
MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.
2009-01-01
Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large ...
Lee, Intae; Jang, Gil-Jin
2012-12-01
A novel method is proposed to improve the performance of independent vector analysis (IVA) for blind signal separation of acoustic mixtures. IVA is a frequency-domain approach that successfully resolves the well-known permutation problem by applying a spherical dependency model to all pairs of frequency bins. The dependency model of IVA is equivalent to a single clique in an undirected graph; a clique in graph theory is defined as a subset of vertices in which any pair of vertices is connected by an undirected edge. Therefore, IVA imposes the same amount of statistical dependency on every pair of frequency bins, which may not match the characteristics of real-world signals. The proposed method allows variable amounts of statistical dependencies according to the correlation coefficients observed in real acoustic signals and, hence, enables more accurate modeling of statistical dependencies. A number of cliques constitutes the new dependency graph so that neighboring frequency bins are assigned to the same clique, while distant bins are assigned to different cliques. The permutation ambiguity is resolved by overlapped frequency bins between neighboring cliques. For speech signals, we observed especially strong correlations across neighboring frequency bins and a decrease in these correlations with an increase in the distance between bins. The clique sizes are either fixed, or determined by the reciprocal of the mel-frequency scale to impose a wider dependency on low-frequency components. Experimental results showed improved performances over conventional IVA. The signal-to-interference ratio improved from 15.5 to 18.8 dB on average for seven different source locations. When we varied the clique sizes according to the observed correlations, the stability of the proposed method increased with a large number of cliques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao-Qing Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Embedding the irregular doubly connected domain into an annular regular region, the unknown functions can be approximated by the barycentric Lagrange interpolation in the regular region. A highly accurate regular domain collocation method is proposed for solving potential problems on the irregular doubly connected domain in polar coordinate system. The formulations of regular domain collocation method are constructed by using barycentric Lagrange interpolation collocation method on the regular domain in polar coordinate system. The boundary conditions are discretized by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. An additional method is used to impose the boundary conditions. The least square method can be used to solve the overconstrained equations. The function values of points in the irregular doubly connected domain can be calculated by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. Some numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the presented method.
Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao
2013-01-01
The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.
Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.
2001-04-01
Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.
Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations
Johnson, Matthew; McCullough, John
2017-01-01
The Space Launch System (SLS) Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these
Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations
VanZwieten, Tannen; Johnson, Matthew D.; McCullough, John P.; Gilligan, Eric T.
2014-01-01
The SLS GNC team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these considerations and will present a framework for responding to
Design of a multivariable RF control system using gain-shaping in the frequency domain
Ziomek, C. D.; Jachim, S. P.; Natter, E. F.
1991-05-01
Due to the time-varying nature of the radio-frequency (RF) accelerator, RF field amplitude and phase parameters must be precisely controlled in order to confine and accelerate the charged particle beam. Typically, a feedback control system regulates the RF field, rejects noise and disturbances, and maintains operational stability over changes in the electrical structure of the accelerator. This paper describes a multivariable control system that compensates the electrical structure of the accelerator by using gain-shaping in the frequency domain. The amplitude and phase quantities have been resolved into in-phase and quadrature (I and Q) variables. These orthogonal variables have simple mathematical relationships, and can be analyzed using linear transfer function matrices. The transfer matrix theory has been applied to the design of the multivariable control system that regulates the RF field in-phase and quadrature components. Frequency-domain controllers compensate these two signals to provide desired frequency response characteristics. A control predistorter performs an inverse coupling function, so that the I and Q components are effectively decoupled by the accelerator. Furthermore, computer interface circuitry allows the adaptive optimization of the mathematical transfer functions of the compensators.
Searching-and-averaging method of underdetermined blind speech signal separation in time domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Underdetermined blind signal separation (BSS) (with fewer observed mixtures than sources) is discussed. A novel searching-and-averaging method in time domain (SAMTD) is proposed. It can solve a kind of problems that are very hard to solve by using sparse representation in frequency domain. Bypassing the disadvantages of traditional clustering (e.g., K-means or potential-function clustering), the durative- sparsity of a speech signal in time domain is used. To recover the mixing matrix, our method deletes those samples, which are not in the same or inverse direction of the basis vectors. To recover the sources, an improved geometric approach to overcomplete ICA (Independent Component Analysis) is presented. Several speech signal experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.
Approximation method to compute domain related integrals in structural studies
Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Raicu, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Axinte, T.
2015-11-01
Various engineering calculi use integral calculus in theoretical models, i.e. analytical and numerical models. For usual problems, integrals have mathematical exact solutions. If the domain of integration is complicated, there may be used several methods to calculate the integral. The first idea is to divide the domain in smaller sub-domains for which there are direct calculus relations, i.e. in strength of materials the bending moment may be computed in some discrete points using the graphical integration of the shear force diagram, which usually has a simple shape. Another example is in mathematics, where the surface of a subgraph may be approximated by a set of rectangles or trapezoids used to calculate the definite integral. The goal of the work is to introduce our studies about the calculus of the integrals in the transverse section domains, computer aided solutions and a generalizing method. The aim of our research is to create general computer based methods to execute the calculi in structural studies. Thus, we define a Boolean algebra which operates with ‘simple’ shape domains. This algebraic standpoint uses addition and subtraction, conditioned by the sign of every ‘simple’ shape (-1 for the shapes to be subtracted). By ‘simple’ shape or ‘basic’ shape we define either shapes for which there are direct calculus relations, or domains for which their frontiers are approximated by known functions and the according calculus is carried out using an algorithm. The ‘basic’ shapes are linked to the calculus of the most significant stresses in the section, refined aspect which needs special attention. Starting from this idea, in the libraries of ‘basic’ shapes, there were included rectangles, ellipses and domains whose frontiers are approximated by spline functions. The domain triangularization methods suggested that another ‘basic’ shape to be considered is the triangle. The subsequent phase was to deduce the exact relations for the
Identification of the Swiss Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.
2002-01-01
This paper presents the result of the modal identification of the Swiss highway bridge Z24. A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on the bridge before it was demolished in autumn 1998, and the ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. In this paper the modal...... properties are identified from the ambient responses by frequency domain decomposition. 6 modes were identified for all 15 damage cases. The identification was carried out for the full 3D data case i.e. including all measurements, a total of 291 channels, a reduced data case in 2D including 153 channels......, and finally, a 1D case including 20 channels. The modal properties for the different damage cases are compared with the modal properties of the undamaged bridge. Deviations for frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values are used as monitoring variables. From these results it can be concluded, that frequencies...
Effects of laser frequency drift in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry fiber sensors
Zhirnov, Andrey; Stepanov, Konstantin; Nesterov, Evgeny; Karasik, Valery; Svelto, Cesare; Pnev, Alexey
2016-01-01
The present work studies the influence of laser frequency drifts on operating of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry ($\\Phi$-OTDR) fiber sensors. A mathematical model and numerical simulations are employed to highlight the influence of frequency drifts of light sources on two characteristic scales: large-time (minutes) and short-time (milliseconds) frequency drifts. Numerical simulation results are compared with predictions given by the fluctuation ratio coefficient (FRC), and they are in a qualitative agreement. In addition to qualitative criteria for light sources given by the FRC, quantitive requirements for optimal light sources for $\\Phi$-OTDR sensors are obtained. Numerical simulation results are verified by comparison with experimental data for three significantly different types of light source.
Photon acceleration versus frequency-domain interferometry for laser wakefield diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias, J.M.; Oliveira e Silva, L.; Mendonca, J.T. [GoLP/Centro de Fisica de Plasmas, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)
1998-03-01
A detailed comparison between the photon acceleration diagnostic technique and the frequency-domain interferometric technique for laser wakefield diagnostics, by using ray-tracing equations is presented here. The dispersion effects on the probe beam and the implications of an arbitrary phase velocity of the plasma wave are discussed for both diagnostic techniques. In the presence of large amplitude plasma wave and long interaction distances significant frequency shifts can be observed. The importance of this effect on the determination of the phase and frequency shifts measurements given by each of the two diagnostic techniques, is also analyzed. The accuracy of both diagnostic techniques is discussed and some of their technical problems are reviewed. (author)
Fantini, Sergio; Hueber, Dennis; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Rosenfeld, Warren; Stubblefield, Phillip G.; Maulik, Dev; Stankovic, Miljan R.
1999-06-01
We have used continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the newborn piglet brain in vivo and non-invasively. Three anaesthetized, intubated, ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were placed into a stereotaxic instrument for optimal experimental stability, reproducible probe-to-scalp optical contact and 3D adjustment of the optical probe. By measuring the absolute values of the brain absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), frequency-domain spectroscopy provided absolute readings (in contrast to the relative readings of CW spectroscopy) of cerebral haemoglobin concentration and saturation during experimentally induced perturbations in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. Such perturbations included a modulation of the inspired oxygen concentration, transient brain asphyxia, carotid artery occlusion and terminal brain asphyxia. The baseline cerebral haemoglobin saturation and concentration, measured with frequency-domain spectroscopy, were about 60% and 42 µM respectively. The cerebral saturation values ranged from a minimum of 17% (during transient brain asphyxia) to a maximum of 80% (during recovery from transient brain asphyxia). To analyse the CW optical data, we have (a) derived a mathematical relationship between the cerebral optical properties and the differential pathlength factor and (b) introduced a method based on the spatial dependence of the detected intensity (dc slope method). The analysis of the cerebral optical signals associated with the arterial pulse and with respiration demonstrates that motion artefacts can significantly affect the intensity recorded from a single optode pair. Motion artefacts can be strongly reduced by combining data from multiple optodes to provide relative readings in the dc slope method. We also report significant biphasic changes (initial decrease and successive increase) in the reduced scattering coefficient measured
Phase Analysis for Frequency Standards in the Microwave and Optical Domains
Kazda, M; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Weyers, S
2015-01-01
Coherent manipulation of atomic states is a key concept in high-precision spectroscopy and used in atomic fountain clocks and a number of optical frequency standards. Operation of these standards can involve a number of cyclic switching processes, which may induce cycle synchronous phase excursions of the interrogation signal and thus lead to shifts in the output of the frequency standard. We have built a FPGA-based phase analyzer to investigate these effects and conducted measurements on two frequency standards. For the caesium fountain PTB-CSF2 we were able to exclude phase variations of the microwave source at the level of a few $\\mu$rad, corresponding to relative frequency shifts of less than 10$^{-16}$. In the optical domain, we investigated phase variations in PTB's Yb$^+$ optical frequency standard and made detailed measurements of AOM chirps and their scaling with duty cycle and driving power. We ascertained that cycle-synchronous as well as long-term phase excursion do not cause frequency shifts larg...
Phase Analysis for Frequency Standards in the Microwave and Optical Domains.
Kazda, Michael; Gerginov, Vladislav; Huntemann, Nils; Lipphardt, Burghard; Weyers, Stefan
2016-07-01
Coherent manipulation of atomic states is a key concept in high-precision spectroscopy and used in atomic fountain clocks and a number of optical frequency standards. Operation of these standards can involve a number of cyclic switching processes, which may induce cycle-synchronous phase excursions of the interrogation signal and thus lead to shifts in the output of the frequency standard. We have built a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based phase analyzer to investigate these effects and conducted measurements on two kinds of frequency standards. For the caesium fountains PTB-CSF1 and PTB-CSF2, we were able to exclude phase variations of the microwave source at the level of a few microradians, corresponding to relative frequency shifts of less than [Formula: see text]. In the optical domain, we investigated phase variations in PTB's Yb (+) optical frequency standard and made detailed measurements of acousto-optic modulator (AOM) chirps and their scaling with duty cycle and driving power. We ascertained that cycle-synchronous as well as long-term phase excursion do not cause frequency shifts larger than [Formula: see text].
Richmond, J. H.
1974-01-01
Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.
The domain interface method in non-conforming domain decomposition multifield problems
Lloberas-Valls, O.; Cafiero, M.; Cante, J.; Ferrer, A.; Oliver, J.
2017-04-01
The Domain Interface Method (DIM) is extended in this contribution for the case of mixed fields as encountered in multiphysics problems. The essence of the non-conforming domain decomposition technique consists in a discretization of a fictitious zero-thickness interface as in the original methodology and continuity of the solution fields across the domains is satisfied by incorporating the corresponding Lagrange Multipliers. The multifield DIM inherits the advantages of its irreducible version in the sense that the connections between non-matching meshes, with possible geometrically non-conforming interfaces, is accounted by the automatic Delaunay interface discretization without considering master and slave surfaces or intermediate surface projections as done in many established techniques, e.g. mortar methods. The multifield enhancement identifies the Lagrange multiplier field and incorporates its contribution in the weak variational form accounting for the corresponding consistent stabilization term based on a Nitsche method. This type of constraint enforcement circumvents the appearance of instabilities when the Ladyzhenskaya-Babu\\vska-Brezzi (LBB) condition is not fulfilled by the chosen discretization. The domain decomposition framework is assessed in a large deformation setting for mixed displacement/pressure formulations and coupled thermomechanical problems. The continuity of the mixed field is studied in well selected benchmark problems for both mixed formulations and the objectivity of the response is compared to reference monolithic solutions. Results suggest that the presented strategy shows sufficient potential to be a valuable tool in situations where the evolving physics at particular domains require the use of different spatial discretizations or field interpolations.
The domain interface method in non-conforming domain decomposition multifield problems
Lloberas-Valls, O.; Cafiero, M.; Cante, J.; Ferrer, A.; Oliver, J.
2016-12-01
The Domain Interface Method (DIM) is extended in this contribution for the case of mixed fields as encountered in multiphysics problems. The essence of the non-conforming domain decomposition technique consists in a discretization of a fictitious zero-thickness interface as in the original methodology and continuity of the solution fields across the domains is satisfied by incorporating the corresponding Lagrange Multipliers. The multifield DIM inherits the advantages of its irreducible version in the sense that the connections between non-matching meshes, with possible geometrically non-conforming interfaces, is accounted by the automatic Delaunay interface discretization without considering master and slave surfaces or intermediate surface projections as done in many established techniques, e.g. mortar methods. The multifield enhancement identifies the Lagrange multiplier field and incorporates its contribution in the weak variational form accounting for the corresponding consistent stabilization term based on a Nitsche method. This type of constraint enforcement circumvents the appearance of instabilities when the Ladyzhenskaya-Babu\\vska-Brezzi (LBB) condition is not fulfilled by the chosen discretization. The domain decomposition framework is assessed in a large deformation setting for mixed displacement/pressure formulations and coupled thermomechanical problems. The continuity of the mixed field is studied in well selected benchmark problems for both mixed formulations and the objectivity of the response is compared to reference monolithic solutions. Results suggest that the presented strategy shows sufficient potential to be a valuable tool in situations where the evolving physics at particular domains require the use of different spatial discretizations or field interpolations.
Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Fragkoulis, V. C.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.
2017-09-01
A frequency domain methodology is developed for stochastic response determination of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) linear and nonlinear structural systems with singular matrices. This system modeling can arise when a greater than the minimum number of coordinates/DOFs is utilized, and can be advantageous, for instance, in cases of complex multibody systems where the explicit formulation of the equations of motion can be a nontrivial task. In such cases, the introduction of additional/redundant DOFs can facilitate the formulation of the equations of motion in a less labor intensive manner. Specifically, relying on the generalized matrix inverse theory, a Moore-Penrose (M-P) based frequency response function (FRF) is determined for a linear structural system with singular matrices. Next, relying on the M-P FRF a spectral input-output (excitation-response) relationship is derived in the frequency domain for determining the linear system response power spectrum. Further, the above methodology is extended via statistical linearization to account for nonlinear systems. This leads to an iterative determination of the system response mean vector and covariance matrix. Furthermore, to account for singular matrices, the generalization of a widely utilized formula that facilitates the application of statistical linearization is proved as well. The formula relates to the expectation of the derivatives of the system nonlinear function and is based on a Gaussian response assumption. Several linear and nonlinear MDOF structural systems with singular matrices are considered as numerical examples for demonstrating the validity and applicability of the developed frequency domain methodology.
Bramanti, Mauro
1992-08-01
A nondestructive diagnostic technique is proposed to measure depth and thickness of unwanted inclusions inside laminate-type materials (gaps, delaminations, and cracks, for example). The method is based on the frequency-domain analysis of transmission and reflection coefficient measured on the material under test when it is irradiated by a CW ultrasound beam whose frequency varies over a suitable frequency range. By measuring the frequency distance between two adjacent minima in the attenuation and reflection coefficients the thickness and depth of the inclusion can be obtained. A practical implementation of the technique is suggested, and the first experimental results obtained by a laboratory setup are reported.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Fan; YANG Jian-min; LI Run-pei; CHEN Gang
2008-01-01
For the floating structures in deepwater, the coupling effects of the mooring lines and risers on the motion responses of the structures become increasingly significant. Viscous damping, inertial mass, current loading and restoring, etc. from these slender structures should be carefully handled to accurately predict the motion responses and line tensions. For the spar platforms, coupling the mooring system and riser with the vessel motion typically results in a reduction in extreme motion responses. This article presents numerical simulations and model tests on a new cell-truss spar platform in the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering in Shanghai Jiaotong University. Results from three calculation methods, including frequency-domain analysis, time-domain semi-coupled and fully-coupled analyses, were compared with the experimental data to find the applicability of different approaches. Proposals for the improvement of numerical calculations and experimental technique were tabled as well.
Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)
1999-01-01
A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.
Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins
Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.
1997-01-01
A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.
Using domain decomposition in the Jacobi-Davidson method
Genseberger, M.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der
2000-01-01
The Jacobi-Davidson method is suitable for computing solutions of large $n$-dimensional eigenvalue problems. It needs (approximate) solutions of specific $n$-dimensional linear systems. Here we propose a strategy based on a nonoverlapping domain decomposition technique in order to reduce the wall cl
Using domain decomposition in the Jacobi-Davidson method
Genseberger, M.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der
2001-01-01
The JacobiDavidson method is suitable for computing solutions of large ndimensional eigen value problems. It needs (approximate) solutions of specific ndimensional linear systems. Here we propose a strategy based on a nonoverlapping domain decomposition technique in order to reduce the wall c
Using domain decomposition in the Jacobi-Davidson method
Genseberger, M.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der
2000-01-01
The JacobiDavidson method is suitable for computing solutions of large ndimensional eigen value problems. It needs (approximate) solutions of specific ndimensional linear systems. Here we propose a strategy based on a nonoverlapping domain decomposition technique in order to reduce the
Renormalized scattering series for frequency-domain waveform modelling of strong velocity contrasts
Jakobsen, M.; Wu, R. S.
2016-08-01
An improved description of scattering and inverse scattering processes in reflection seismology may be obtained on the basis of a scattering series solution to the Helmoltz equation, which allows one to separately model primary and multiple reflections. However, the popular scattering series of Born is of limited seismic modelling value, since it is only guaranteed to converge if the global contrast is relatively small. For frequency-domain waveform modelling of realistic contrasts, some kind of renormalization may be required. The concept of renormalization is normally associated with quantum field theory, where it is absolutely essential for the treatment of infinities in connection with observable quantities. However, the renormalization program is also highly relevant for classical systems, especially when there are interaction effects that act across different length scales. In the scattering series of De Wolf, a renormalization of the Green's functions is achieved by a split of the scattering potential operator into fore- and backscattering parts; which leads to an effective reorganization and partially re-summation of the different terms in the Born series, so that their order better reflects the physics of reflection seismology. It has been demonstrated that the leading (single return) term in the De Wolf series (DWS) gives much more accurate results than the corresponding Born approximation, especially for models with high contrasts that lead to a large accumulation of phase changes in the forward direction. However, the higher order terms in the DWS that are associated with internal multiples have not been studied numerically before. In this paper, we report from a systematic numerical investigation of the convergence properties of the DWS which is based on two new operator representations of the DWS. The first operator representation is relatively similar to the original scattering potential formulation, but more global and explicit in nature. The second
Stankovski, Tomislav; Cooke, William H; Rudas, László; Stefanovska, Aneta; Eckberg, Dwain L
2013-12-01
We experimentally altered the timing of respiratory motoneuron activity as a means to modulate and better understand otherwise hidden human central neural and hemodynamic oscillatory mechanisms. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, tidal carbon dioxide concentrations, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in 13 healthy supine young men who gradually increased or decreased their breathing frequencies between 0.05 and 0.25 Hz over 9-min periods. We analyzed results with traditional time- and frequency-domain methods, and also with time-frequency methods (wavelet transform, wavelet phase coherence, and directional coupling). We determined statistical significance and identified frequency boundaries by comparing measurements with randomly generated surrogates. Our results support several major conclusions. First, respiration causally modulates both sympathetic (weakly) and vagal motoneuron (strongly) oscillations over a wide frequency range-one that extends well below the frequency of actual breaths. Second, breathing frequency broadly modulates vagal baroreflex gain, with peak gains registered in the low frequency range. Third, breathing frequency does not influence median levels of sympathetic or vagal activity over time. Fourth, phase relations between arterial pressure and sympathetic and vagal motoneurons are unaffected by breathing, and are therefore likely secondary to intrinsic responsiveness of these motoneurons to other synaptic inputs. Finally, breathing frequency does not affect phase coherence between diastolic pressure and muscle sympathetic oscillations, but it augments phase coherence between systolic pressure and R-R interval oscillations over a limited portion of the usual breathing frequency range. These results refine understanding of autonomic oscillatory processes and those physiological mechanisms known as the human respiratory gate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱凯光; 杨建文
2008-01-01
We present the theoretical investigations of magnetometric resistivity and frequency domain electromagnetic methods in monitoring and mapping contaminant transport in groundwater systems. Taking the uniform media conceptualized model with a contaminant source in the ground surface as an example, numerical geo-electrical models are constructed based on the hydrological simulation results of contaminant concentration evolutions. The time-lapse 2-D forward modeling of MMR and the 1-D inversion results of FEM prove that these two geophysical methods are effective in contaminant plume monitoring. Based on geophysical simulations, the instructions for instrument design are given.%本文对磁电阻率法与频率域电磁法在地下水污染监测中的应用进行了理论研究.以污染物位于地表的均匀介质模型为例,根据污染物扩散的水文地质动态仿真结果,计算出与各监测时刻对应的地下水污染地电模型.通过各地电模型的二维磁电阻率法正演模拟结果以及一维频率域电磁法的反演结果,验证了这两种地球物理方法在地下水污染物运移监测中的有效性.
The least-square method in complex number domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The classical least-square method was extended from the real number into the complex number domain, which is called the complex least-square method. The mathematical derivation and its applications show that the complex least-square method is different from one that the real number and the imaginary number are separately calculated with the classical least-square, by which the actual leastsquare estimation cannot be obtained in practice. Applications of this new method to an arbitrarily given series and to the precipitation in rainy season at 160 meteorological stations in China mainland show advantages of this method over other conventional statistical models.
MRTD (Multi Resolution Time Domain) Method in Electromagnetics
Bushyager, Nathan; Balanis, Constantine
2006-01-01
Modern RF devices are built on a variety of technologies for a wide array of functionalities (cellular telephony, wireless data systems, radar, and many others). Design turnaround and performance gains found in the semiconductor device market are now expected in the RF circuit arena. Such work generally requires a full-wave electromagnetic simulator, and time domain techniques are particularly well suited to these devices.This lecture presents techniques that can be used to model complex microwave structures in multiresolution time domain method (MRTD). The authors' purpose is to present the M
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinbao Yao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Shock pulse method is a widely used technique for condition monitoring of rolling bearing. However, it may cause erroneous diagnosis in the presence of strong background noise or other shock sources. Aiming at overcoming the shortcoming, a pulse adaptive time-frequency transform method is proposed to extract the fault features of the damaged rolling bearing. The method arranges the rolling bearing shock pulses extracted by shock pulse method in the order of time and takes the reciprocal of the time interval between the pulse at any moment and the other pulse as all instantaneous frequency components in the moment. And then it visually displays the changing rule of each instantaneous frequency after plane transformation of the instantaneous frequency components, realizes the time-frequency transform of shock pulse sequence through time-frequency domain amplitude relevancy processing, and highlights the fault feature frequencies by effective instantaneous frequency extraction, so as to extract the fault features of the damaged rolling bearing. The results of simulation and application show that the proposed method can suppress the noises well, highlight the fault feature frequencies, and avoid erroneous diagnosis, so it is an effective fault feature extraction method for the rolling bearing with high time-frequency resolution.
Jeon, R. J.; Mandelis, A.; Sanchez, V.; Abrams, S. H.
2005-06-01
Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659- nm and 830-nm laser sources to detect artificial and natural sub-surface defects in human teeth. Fifty-two human teeth were examined with simultaneous measurements of PTR and LUM and compared to conventional diagnostic methods including continuous (dc) luminescence (DIAGNOdent), visual inspection and radiographs by calculating sensitivities and specificities. With the combined criteria of four PTR and LUM signals (two amplitudes and two phases), it was found that the sensitivity of this method was much higher than any of the other methods used in this study, whereas the specificity was comparable to that of dc luminescence diagnostics. Therefore, PTR and LUM, used together as a combined technique, have the potential to be a reliable tool to diagnose early pit and fissure caries and could provide detailed information about deep lesions with its depth profilometric character. Also, from experiments with natural or artificial defects, some depth profilometric characteristics were confirmed.
A PARALLEL NONOVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR STOKES PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mei-qun Jiang; Pei-liang Dai
2006-01-01
A nonoverlapping domain decomposition iterative procedure is developed and analyzed for generalized Stokes problems and their finite element approximate problems in RN(N=2,3). The method is based on a mixed-type consistency condition with two parameters as a transmission condition together with a derivative-free transmission data updating technique on the artificial interfaces. The method can be applied to a general multi-subdomain decomposition and implemented on parallel machines with local simple communications naturally.
Takida, Yuma; Minamide, Hiroaki
2017-05-01
The development of reliable, high-power, frequency-tunable terahertz (THz)-wave sources is crucial for a wide variety of applications, such as spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. In order to generate frequency-tunable THz waves at room temperature, one of the most promising methods is a wavelength conversion in nonlinear optical crystals. Here, we present our recent results on high-power, widely-tunable, frequency-agile THz-wave sources based on nonlinear parametric processes in MgO:LiNbO3 crystals. By changing the noncollinear phase-matching condition in MgO:LiNbO3, the tunability of sub-nanosecond-pumped injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generators (is-TPGs) covers the 3.65-octave frequency range from 0.37 THz up to 4.65 THz. The monochromatic THz-wave output from is-TPGs is greater than 10 kW peak power with the linewidth of approximately 3 GHz and the stability of 1%. These is-TPG systems are reliable and promising high-power tunable THz-wave sources for frequency-domain spectroscopic measurements towards THz sensing and detector sensitivity calibration.
Frequency-domain electromagnetic sounding with combination wave in near-field zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏发; 何继善
1996-01-01
By analysing the propagation law of electromagnetic wave,the distribution pattern of the field and the theory of frequency electromagnetic sounding,the physical mechanisms that make the frequency electromagnetic sounding in near-field zone difficult are discussed.Based on the theory of near source field,a new method of dual-frequency electromagnetic sounding of combination wave in near-field zone is advanced.Meanwhile,the method of measurement of fields,the definition of apparent resistivity and the numerical algorithm are approached.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheshyekani, K. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, S.H.H.; Moini, R. [Electromagnetics Research Laboratory of Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rachidi, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)
2011-02-15
A frequency-domain method is proposed for the transient analysis of grounding systems with ionized soil. The method involves two stages. First, the grounding system is transformed into a nonlinear equivalent circuit, in which the frequency-domain circuit parameters of the grounding electrodes are extracted by the method of moment (MoM) and the nonlinear part of the equivalent circuit represents the soil ionization. Soil ionization is represented by a nonlinear load whose characteristics can be specified based on either experimental data or theoretical models, without any limitations in the order of nonlinearity. In the second stage the nonlinear equivalent circuit is treated using the arithmetic operator method (AOM). The AOM uses a linear matrix transformation of spectra to perform basic arithmetic operations in the frequency-domain. The main feature of the proposed method is its efficiency in dealing with the nonlinear behavior of soil ionization in the frequency-domain solution of grounding systems by the MoM. It also enables one to consider the actual nonlinear behavior of soil ionization specified by experimental data or appropriate theoretical models. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Shao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at the frequency-domain packet scheduling (FDPS problem in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA system. Under users’ data queue size constraints, a new swap-based FDPS algorithm is proposed to achieve further improvement in system throughput. In this algorithm, the swap of physical resource blocks (PRBs between different users is introduced to give a comprehensive view of the overall scheduling process. Moreover, the proposed algorithm optimizes the choosing method of swap candidates and always tries to select the user who can maximize the throughput improvement. Simulation results demonstrate that this new algorithm can improve the system throughput significantly as well as reduce the resource waste effectively.
Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J
2010-01-01
Emotion discrimination from electroencephalogram (EEG) has gained attention the last decade as a user-friendly and effective approach to EEG-based emotion recognition (EEG-ER) systems. Nevertheless, challenging issues regarding the emotion elicitation procedure, especially its effectiveness, raise. In this work, a novel method, which not only evaluates the degree of emotion elicitation but localizes the emotion information in the time-frequency domain, as well, is proposed. The latter, incorporates multidimensional directed information at the time-frequency EEG representation, extracted using empirical mode decomposition, and introduces an asymmetry index for adaptive emotion-related EEG segment selection. Experimental results derived from 16 subjects visually stimulated with pictures from the valence/arousal space drawn from the International Affective Picture System database, justify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its potential contribution to the enhancement of EEG-ER systems.
Zhang, Jianbo; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Ding, Zhanming
2015-01-01
This study develops a method to internally preheat lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures with sinusoidal alternating current (AC). A heat generation rate model in frequency domain is developed based on the equivalent electrical circuit. Using this model as the source term, a lumped energy conservation model is adopted to predict the temperature rise. These models are validated against the experimental results of preheating an 18650 cell at different thermal insulation conditions. The effects of current amplitude and frequency on the heating rate are illustrated with a series of simulated contours of heating time. These contours indicate that the heating rate increases with higher amplitude, lower frequency and better thermal insulation. The cell subjected to an alternating current with an amplitude of 7 A (2.25 C) and a frequency of 1 Hz, under a calibrated heat transfer coefficient of 15.9 W m-2 K-1, can be heated from -20 °C to 5 °C within 15 min and the temperature distribution remains essentially uniform. No capacity loss is found after repeated AC preheating tests, indicating this method incurs little damage to the battery health. These models are computationally-efficient and can be used in real time to control the preheating devices in electric vehicles.
Cross-Domain Personalized Learning Resources Recommendation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Long Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available According to cross-domain personalized learning resources recommendation, a new personalized learning resources recommendation method is presented in this paper. Firstly, the cross-domain learning resources recommendation model is given. Then, a method of personalized information extraction from web logs is designed by making use of mixed interest measure which is presented in this paper. Finally, a learning resources recommendation algorithm based on transfer learning technology is presented. A time function and the weight constraint of wrong classified samples can be added to the classic TrAdaBoost algorithm. Through the time function, the importance of samples date can be distinguished. The weight constraint can be used to avoid the samples having too big or too small weight. So the Accuracy and the efficiency of algorithm are improved. Experiments on the real world dataset show that the proposed method could improve the quality and efficiency of learning resources recommendation services effectively.
Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S. [Hong Kong Baptist College (Hong Kong)
1994-12-31
The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.
An Estimation Method for number of carrier frequency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiong Peng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method that utilizes AR model power spectrum estimation based on Burg algorithm to estimate the number of carrier frequency in single pulse. In the modern electronic and information warfare, the pulse signal form of radar is complex and changeable, among which single pulse with multi-carrier frequencies is the most typical one, such as the frequency shift keying (FSK signal, the frequency shift keying with linear frequency (FSK-LFM hybrid modulation signal and the frequency shift keying with bi-phase shift keying (FSK-BPSK hybrid modulation signal. In view of this kind of single pulse which has multi-carrier frequencies, this paper adopts a method which transforms the complex signal into AR model, then takes power spectrum based on Burg algorithm to show the effect. Experimental results show that the estimation method still can determine the number of carrier frequencies accurately even when the signal noise ratio (SNR is very low.
Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2012-02-01
Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.
Spatial and frequency domain effects of defects in 1D photonic crystal
Rudziński, A; Szczepański, P; 10.1007/s11082-007-9095-3
2009-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of influence of defects in 1D photonic crystal (PC) on the density of states and simultaneously spontaneous emission, in both spatial and frequency domains. In our investigations we use an analytic model of 1D PC with defects. Our analysis reveals how presence of a defect causes a defect mode to appear. We show that a defect in 1D PC has local character, being negligible in regions of PC situated far from the defected elementary cell. We also analyze the effect of multiple defects, which lead to photonic band gap splitting.
Functional cerebral activation detected by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy
Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Webb, Andrew G.; Choi, Jee H.; Wolf, Martin; Safonova, Larisa P.; Wolf, Ursula; Gratton, Enrico
2002-07-01
The aim of our study was to explore the possibility of detecting haemodynamic changes in the brain using frequency- domain near-IR spectroscopy by exploiting the phase of the intensity modulated optical signal. To obtain optical signals with eh highest possible signal-to-noise ratio, we performed simultaneous NIRS-fMRI measurements, with subsequent correlation of the time courses of both measurements. The cognitive paradigm used arithmetic calculations, with optical signals acquired with sensors placed on the forehead. In three subjects we demonstrated correlation between the haemodynamic signals obtained using NIRS and BOLD fMRI.
SDCMA BLIND DETECTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN FOR MC DS-CDMA SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ju Meiyan; Feng Guangzeng
2006-01-01
This paper proposes Steepest Decreasing Constant Modulus Algorithm (SDCMA) detection in frequency domain for MultiCarrier Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) systems.The proposed algorithm is used to equalize independent fadings of all subcarriers. At the same time we compare the SDCMA blind detection with subspace-based Minimum Mean-Squared Error (MMSE) detection. The simulation results show that the performance of SDCMA blind detection is superior to. that of subspace-based MMSE detection and the complexity of the former is much lower than that of the latter.
Optical frequency domain reflectometry: principles and applications in fiber optic sensing
Kreger, Stephen T.; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Garg, Naman; Klute, Sandra M.; Metrey, Daniel R.; Beaty, Noah; Jeans, James W.; Gamber, Robert
2016-05-01
Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is the basis of an emerging high-definition distributed fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS) technique that provides an unprecedented combination of resolution and sensitivity. OFDR employs swept laser interferometry to produce strain or temperature vs. sensor length with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) or Rayleigh scatter as the source signal. We look at the influence of HD-FOS on design and test of new, lighter weight, stronger and more fuel efficient vehicles. Examples include defect detection, model verification and structural health monitoring of composites, and temperature distribution monitoring of battery packs and inverters in hybrid and electric powertrains.
Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke
2008-03-01
We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Optical frequency domain phase conjugation(FDPC) is based on phase conjuga-tion of spectrum of an input signal.It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal.The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed.Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically.It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC.The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BU Yang; WANG XiangZhao
2008-01-01
Optical frequency domain phase conjugation (FDPC) is based on phase conjugation of spectrum of an input signal. It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal. The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed. Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically. It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC. The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.
Jeon, Raymond J.; Mandelis, Andreas; Sanchez, Victor; Abrams, Stephen H.
2004-07-01
Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659-nm and 830-nm laser sources to detect artificial and natural sub-surface defects in human teeth. Fifty-two human teeth were examined with simultaneous measurements of PTR and LUM with the 659-nm laser and compared to conventional diagnostic methods including continuous (dc) luminescence (DIAGNOdent), visual inspection and radiographs. To compare each method, sensitivities and specificities were calculated by using histological observations as the gold standard. With the combined criteria of four PTR and LUM signals (two amplitudes and two phases), it was found that the sensitivity of this method was much higher than any of the other methods used in this study, whereas the specificity was comparable to that of dc luminescence diagnostics. Therefore, PTR and LUM, as a combined technique, has the potential to be a reliable tool to diagnose early pit and fissure caries and could provide detailed information about deep lesions with its depth profilometric character. Also, from the experiments with the teeth having natural or aritficial defect, some depth profilometric characteristics were confirmed. The major findings are (i) PTR is sensitive to very deep (>5 mm) defects at low modulation frequencies (5 Hz). Both PTR and LUM amplitudes exhibit a peak at tooth thicknesses ca. 1.4 - 2.7 mm. Furthermore the LUM amplitude exhibits a small trough at ca. 2.5~3.5 mm; (ii) PTR is sensitive to various defects such as a deep carious lesion, a demineralized area, and a crack while LUM exhibits low sensitivity and spatial resolution.
Use of Time- and Frequency-Domain Approaches for Damage Detection in Civil Engineering Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. H. Nguyen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply both time- and frequency-domain-based approaches on real-life civil engineering structures and to assess their capability for damage detection. The methodology is based on Principal Component Analysis of the Hankel matrix built from output-only measurements and of Frequency Response Functions. Damage detection is performed using the concept of subspace angles between a current (possibly damaged state and a reference (undamaged state. The first structure is the Champangshiehl Bridge located in Luxembourg. Several damage levels were intentionally created by cutting a growing number of prestressed tendons and vibration data were acquired by the University of Luxembourg for each damaged state. The second example consists in reinforced and prestressed concrete panels. Successive damages were introduced in the panels by loading heavy weights and by cutting steel wires. The illustrations show different consequences in damage identification by the considered techniques.
Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic
2016-12-01
Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. Results: The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.