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Sample records for frequency dependent viscoelastic

  1. Inverse identification of the frequency-dependent mechanical parameters of viscoelastic materials based on the measured FRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Yan, Xianfei; Zhu, Mingwei

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical parameters of viscoelastic materials, such as storage modulus and loss factor, have frequency-dependent characteristic and the combination of different polymers usually exhibits various mechanical characteristics, which make the identification of the mechanical parameters of viscoelastic materials become a routine and challenging task. In this study, based on the measured resonance frequencies and frequency response functions (FRFs) of a viscoelastic damping plate, an inverse approach was developed to identify the aforementioned parameters with frequency-dependent characteristic. An analysis model was established with both the viscoelastic material damping and the remaining equivalent viscous damping considered. A response surface method was provided to achieve the matching calculation, which can identify the storage modulus and loss factor simultaneously. A cantilever plate attached with ZN_1 viscoelastic material was chosen to demonstrate the proposed method and the measured and the predicted FRFs were compared with the purpose of assessing the rationality of identification results. The results show that the loss factor of viscoelastic materials would be overestimated if only the material damping was included in the analysis model.

  2. Viscoelastic characterization of compacted pharmaceutical excipient materials by analysis of frequency-dependent mechanical relaxation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K.; Mousavi, S.; Lundberg, B.; Strømme, M.

    2005-09-01

    A newly developed method for determining the frequency-dependent complex Young's modulus was employed to analyze the mechanical response of compacted microcrystalline cellulose, sorbitol, ethyl cellulose and starch for frequencies up to 20 kHz. A Debye-like relaxation was observed in all the studied pharmaceutical excipient materials and a comparison with corresponding dielectric spectroscopy data was made. The location in frequency of the relaxation peak was shown to correlate to the measured tensile strength of the tablets, and the relaxation was interpreted as the vibrational response of the interparticle hydrogen and van der Waals bindings in the tablets. Further, the measured relaxation strength, holding information about the energy loss involved in the relaxation processes, showed that the weakest material in terms of tensile strength, starch, is the material among the four tested ones that is able to absorb the most energy within its structure when exposed to external perturbations inducing vibrations in the studied frequency range. The results indicate that mechanical relaxation analysis performed over relatively broad frequency ranges should be useful for predicting material properties of importance for the functionality of a material in applications such as, e.g., drug delivery, drug storage and handling, and also for clarifying the origin of hitherto unexplained molecular processes.

  3. Viscoelastic effects on frequency tuning of a dielectric elastomer membrane resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    As a recent application of dielectric elastomers (DEs), DE resonators have become an alternative to conventional silicon-based resonators used in MEMS and have attracted much interest from the research community. However, most existing modeling works for the DE resonators ignore the intrinsic viscoelastic effect of the material that may strongly influence their dynamic performance. Based on the finite-deformation viscoelasticity theory for dielectrics, this paper theoretically examines the in-plane oscillation of a DE membrane resonator to demonstrate how the material viscoelasticity affects the actuation and frequency tuning processes of the resonator. From the simulation results, it is concluded that not only the applied voltage can change the natural frequency of the resonator, but also the inelastic deformation contributes to frequency tuning. Due to the viscoelasticity of the material, the electrical loading rate influences the actuation process of the DE resonator, while it has little effect on the final steady frequency tuned by the prescribed voltage within the safety range. With the consideration of the typical failure modes of the resonator and the evolution process of the material, the tunable frequency range and the safe range of the applied voltage of the DE membrane resonator with different dimension parameters are determined in this work, which are found to be dependent on the electrical loading rate. This work is expected to provide a better understanding on the frequency tuning of viscoelastic DE membrane resonators and a guideline for the design of DE devices

  4. High-frequency viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold tissues: implications for vocal fold tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Sean S; Farran, Alexandra J E; Xiao, Longxi; Jiao, Tong; Duncan, Randall L; Clifton, Rodney J; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-10-01

    The biomechanical function of the vocal folds (VFs) depends on their viscoelastic properties. Many conditions can lead to VF scarring that compromises voice function and quality. To identify candidate replacement materials, the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of native tissues need to be understood at phonation frequencies. Previously, the authors developed the torsional wave experiment (TWE), a stress-wave-based experiment to determine the linear viscoelastic shear properties of small, soft samples. Here, the viscoelastic properties of porcine and human VFs were measured over a frequency range of 10-200 Hz. The TWE utilizes resonance phenomena to determine viscoelastic properties; therefore, the specimen test frequency is determined by the sample size and material properties. Viscoelastic moduli are reported at resonance frequencies. Structure and composition of the tissues were determined by histology and immunochemistry. Porcine data from the TWE are separated into two groups: a young group, consisting of fetal and newborn pigs, and an adult group, consisting of 6-9-month olds and 2+-year olds. Adult tissues had an average storage modulus of 2309±1394 Pa and a loss tangent of 0.38±0.10 at frequencies of 36-200 Hz. The VFs of young pigs were significantly more compliant, with a storage modulus of 394±142 Pa and a loss tangent of 0.40±0.14 between 14 and 30 Hz. No gender dependence was observed. Histological staining showed that adult porcine tissues had a more organized, layered structure than the fetal tissues, with a thicker epithelium and a more structured lamina propria. Elastin fibers in fetal VF tissues were immature compared to those in adult tissues. Together, these structural changes in the tissues most likely contributed to the change in viscoelastic properties. Adult human VF tissues, recovered postmortem from adult patients with a history of smoking or disease, had an average storage modulus of 756±439 Pa and a loss tangent of 0

  5. Viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage attached to subchondral bone at high frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Duncan ET

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic material, but its exact behaviour under the full range of physiological loading frequencies is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure the viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage at loading frequencies of up to 92 Hz. Methods Intact tibial plateau cartilage, attached to subchondral bone, was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. A sinusoidally varying compressive force of between 16 N and 36 N, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 92 Hz, was applied to the cartilage surface by a flat indenter. The storage modulus, loss modulus and phase angle (between the applied force and the deformation induced were determined. Results The storage modulus, E', increased with increasing frequency, but at higher frequencies it tended towards a constant value. Its dependence on frequency, f, could be represented by, E' = Aloge (f + B where A = 2.5 ± 0.6 MPa and B = 50.1 ± 12.5 MPa (mean ± standard error. The values of the loss modulus (4.8 ± 1.0 MPa mean ± standard deviation were much less than the values of storage modulus and showed no dependence on frequency. The phase angle was found to be non-zero for all frequencies tested (4.9 ± 0.6°. Conclusion Articular cartilage is viscoelastic throughout the full range of frequencies investigated. The behaviour has implications for mechanical damage to articular cartilage and the onset of osteoarthritis. Storage modulus increases with frequency, until the plateau region is reached, and has a higher value than loss modulus. Furthermore, loss modulus does not increase with loading frequency. This means that more energy is stored by the tissue than is dissipated and that this effect is greater at higher frequencies. The main mechanism for this excess energy to be dissipated is by the formation of cracks.

  6. High-speed broadband monitoring of cell viscoelasticity in real time shows myosin-dependent oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Ren, Juan; Zheng, Xi; Liu, Yue; Zou, Qingze

    2017-12-01

    Study of the dynamic evolutions of cell viscoelasticity is important as during cell activities such as cell metastasis and invasion, the rheological behaviors of the cells also change dynamically, reflecting the biophysical and biochemical connections between the outer cortex and the intracellular structures. Although the time variations of the static modulus of cells have been investigated, few studies have been reported on the dynamic variations of the frequency-dependent viscoelasticity of cells. Measuring and monitoring such dynamic evolutions of cells at nanoscale can be challenging as the measurement needs to meet two objectives inherently contradictory to each other-the measurement must be broadband (to cover a large frequency spectrum) but also rapid (to capture the time-elapsed changes). In this study, we exploited a recently developed control-based nanomechanical protocol of atomic force microscope to monitor in real time the dynamic evolutions of the viscoelasticity of live human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 cells) and study its dependence on myosin activities. We found that the viscoelasticity of PC-3 cells, followed the power law, and oscillated at a period of about 200 s. Both the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillation strongly depended on the intracellular calcium and blebbistatin-sensitive motor proteins.

  7. Explicit solution for the natural frequency of structures with partial viscoelastic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    The free vibration characteristics of structures with viscoelastic treatment are represented by the complex-valued natural frequencies. The assumed single mode representation associated with the low-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment is modified by a correction term representing...... the influence from residual vibration modes. The correction term is eliminated in terms of the corresponding natural frequency associated with the high-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment, whereby an expression is obtained for the complex-valued natural frequency, which only requires the solution...

  8. Arterial viscoelasticity: role in the dependency of pulse wave velocity on heart rate in conduit arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hanguang; Tan, Isabella; Butlin, Mark; Li, Decai; Avolio, Alberto P

    2017-06-01

    Experimental investigations have established that the stiffness of large arteries has a dependency on acute heart rate (HR) changes. However, the possible underlying mechanisms inherent in this HR dependency have not been well established. This study aimed to explore a plausible viscoelastic mechanism by which HR exerts an influence on arterial stiffness. A multisegment transmission line model of the human arterial tree incorporating fractional viscoelastic components in each segment was used to investigate the effect of varying fractional order parameter (α) of viscoelasticity on the dependence of aortic arch to femoral artery pulse wave velocity (afPWV) on HR. HR was varied from 60 to 100 beats/min at a fixed mean flow of 100 ml/s. PWV was calculated by intersecting tangent method (afPWV Tan ) and by phase velocity from the transfer function (afPWV TF ) in the time and frequency domain, respectively. PWV was significantly and positively associated with HR for α ≥ 0.6; for α = 0.6, 0.8, and 1, HR-dependent changes in afPWV Tan were 0.01 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.22 ± 0.09 m/s per 5 beats/min; HR-dependent changes in afPWV TF were 0.02 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.00, and 0.34 ± 0.01 m/s per 5 beats/min, respectively. This crosses the range of previous physiological studies where the dependence of PWV on HR was found to be between 0.08 and 0.10 m/s per 5 beats/min. Therefore, viscoelasticity of the arterial wall could contribute to mechanisms through which large artery stiffness changes with changing HR. Physiological studies are required to confirm this mechanism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study used a transmission line model to elucidate the role of arterial viscoelasticity in the dependency of pulse wave velocity on heart rate. The model uses fractional viscoelasticity concepts, which provided novel insights into arterial hemodynamics. This study also provides a means of assessing the clinical manifestation of the association of pulse wave velocity and heart rate

  9. Viscoelastic properties and efficient acoustic damping in confined polymer nano-layers at GHz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettich, Mike; Jacob, Karl; Ristow, Oliver; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Gusev, Vitalyi; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the viscoelastic properties of confined molecular nano-layers by time resolved optical pump-probe measurements. Access to the elastic properties is provided by the damping time of acoustic eigenmodes of thin metal films deposited on the molecular nano-layers which show a strong dependence on the molecular layer thickness and on the acoustic eigen-mode frequencies. An analytical model including the viscoelastic properties of the molecular layer allows us to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity as well as the acoustic absorption coefficient of the layer. Our experiments and theoretical analysis indicate for the first time that the molecular nano-layers are much more viscous than elastic in the investigated frequency range from 50 to 120 GHz and thus show pronounced acoustic absorption. The longitudinal acoustic wavenumber has nearly equal real and imaginary parts, both increasing proportional to the square root of the frequency. Thus, both acoustic velocity and acoustic absorption are proportional to the square root of frequency and the propagation of compressional/dilatational acoustic waves in the investigated nano-layers is of the diffusional type, similar to the propagation of shear waves in viscous liquids and thermal waves in solids.

  10. Frequency dependence of sonophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, A; Sens, A; Tuchscherer, J; Mitragotri, S

    2001-12-01

    Application of low-frequency ultrasound has been shown to increase skin permeability, thereby facilitating delivery of macromolecules (low-frequency sonophoresis). In this study, we sought to determine the dependence of low-frequency sonophoresis on ultrasound frequency, intensity and energy density. Pig skin was exposed to low-frequency ultrasound over a range of ultrasound frequency and intensity conditions. The degree of skin permeabilization was measured using its conductivity. Imaging experiments were also carried out to visualize the transport pathways created by ultrasound. The data showed that for each frequency (in the range of 19.6-93.4 kHz), there exists a threshold intensity below which no detectable conductivity enhancement was observed. The threshold intensity increased with frequency. It is feasible to achieve the desired conductivity (permeability) enhancement regardless of the choice of frequency, although the necessary energy density is higher at higher frequencies. Low frequencies (approximately 20 kHz) induced localized transport compared to a more dispersed effect seen with higher frequencies (approximately 58.9 kHz). This study provides a quantitative understanding of the effects of low-frequency ultrasound on skin permeability.

  11. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  12. Time and Temperature Dependence of Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation in Gold and Gold Alloy Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolsuttirat, Kittisun

    Radio frequency (RF) switches based on capacitive MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) devices have been proposed as replacements for traditional solid-state field effect transistor (FET) devices. However, one of the limitations of the existing capacitive switch designs is long-term reliability. Failure is generally attributed to electrical charging in the capacitor's dielectric layer that creates an attractive electrostatic force between a moving upper capacitor plate (a metal membrane) and the dielectric. This acts as an attractive stiction force between them that may cause the switch to stay permanently in the closed state. The force that is responsible for opening the switch is the elastic restoring force due to stress in the film membrane. If the restoring force decreases over time due to stress relaxation, the tendency for stiction failure behavior will increase. Au films have been shown to exhibit stress relaxation even at room temperature. The stress relaxation observed is a type of viscoelastic behavior that is more significant in thin metal films than in bulk materials. Metal films with a high relaxation resistance would have a lower probability of device failure due to stress relaxation. It has been shown that solid solution and oxide dispersion can strengthen a material without unacceptable decreases in electrical conductivity. In this study, the viscoelastic behavior of Au, AuV solid solution and AuV2O5 dispersion created by DC magnetron sputtering are investigated using the gas pressure bulge testing technique in the temperature range from 20 to 80°C. The effectiveness of the two strengthening approaches is compared with the pure Au in terms of relaxation modulus and 3 hour modulus decay. The time dependent relaxation curves can be fitted very well with a four-term Prony series model. From the temperature dependence of the terms of the series, activation energies have been deduced to identify the possible dominant relaxation mechanism. The measured

  13. Viscoelastic characterization of woven Dacron for aortic grafts by using direction-dependent quasi-linear viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabili, Marco; Balasubramanian, Prabakaran; Breslavsky, Ivan; Ferrari, Giovanni; Tubaldi, Eleonora

    2018-03-30

    In case of direction-dependent viscoelasticity, a simplified formulation of the three-dimensional quasi-linear viscoelasticity has been obtained manipulating the original Fung equation. The experimental characterization of the static hyperelastic behaviour, the relaxation, the dynamic modulus and the loss factor of woven Dacron from a commercial aortic prosthesis has been performed. An 11% difference of the reduced relaxation (after infinite time) between axial and circumferential directions has been observed for the woven Dacron. A very large increase in stiffness is obtained in case of harmonic loading with respect to the static loading. These findings are particularly relevant for dynamic modelling of currently used aortic grafts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated. The simu......Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated...

  15. Time-dependent ultrasound echo changes occur in tendon during viscoelastic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

    2012-11-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of tendons has been extensively studied in vitro. A noninvasive method by which to acquire mechanical data would be highly beneficial, as it could lead to the collection of viscoelastic data in vivo. Our lab has previously presented acoustoelasticity as an alternative ultrasound-based method of measuring tendon stress and strain by reporting a relationship between ultrasonic echo intensity (B mode ultrasound image brightness) and mechanical behavior of tendon under pseudoelastic in vitro conditions [Duenwald, S., Kobayashi, H., Frisch, K., Lakes, R., and Vanderby Jr, R., 2011, "Ultrasound Echo is Related to Stress and Strain in Tendon," J. Biomech., 44(3), pp. 424-429]. Viscoelastic properties of the tendons were not examined in that study, so the presence of time-dependent echo intensity changes has not been verified. In this study, porcine flexor tendons were subjected to relaxation and cyclic testing while ultrasonic echo response was recorded. We report that time- and strain history-dependent mechanical properties during viscoelastic testing are manifested in ultrasonic echo intensity changes. We also report that the patterns of the echo intensity changes do not directly mimic the patterns of viscoelastic load changes, but the intensity changed in a repeatable (and therefore predictable) fashion. Although mechanisms need further elucidation, viscoelastic behavior can be anticipated from echo intensity changes. This phenomenon could potentially lead to a more extensive characterization of in vivo tissue behavior.

  16. The Effect of Viscosity of a Fluid on the Frequency Response of a Viscoelastic Plate Loaded by This Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanov, A. D.; Ismailov, M. I.; Akbarov, S. D.

    2018-03-01

    A hydroviscoelastic system consisting of a viscoelastic plate and a half-plane filled with a viscous fluid is considered. The effect of viscosity of the fluid on the frequency response of the system and its dependence on the rheological parameters of plate material are estimated. The problem on forced vibrations of the system in the plane strain state is investigated using the exact equations of viscoelastodynamics for describing the motion of the plate and linearized Navier-Stokes equations for describing the flow of the fluid. The results found in the cases of nonviscous compressible and Newtonian compressible viscous fluids are compared.

  17. Mechanical properties of viscoelastic media by local frequency estimation of divergence-free wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Erik H; Okamoto, Ruth J; Bayly, Philip V

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an imaging modality with which mechanical properties can be noninvasively measured in living tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography relies on the fact that the elastic shear modulus determines the phase velocity and, hence the wavelength, of shear waves which are visualized by motion-sensitive MR imaging. Local frequency estimation (LFE) has been used to extract the local wavenumber from displacement wave fields recorded by MRE. LFE -based inversion is attractive because it allows material parameters to be estimated without explicitly invoking the equations governing wave propagation, thus obviating the need to numerically compute the Laplacian. Nevertheless, studies using LFE have not explicitly addressed three important issues: (1) tissue viscoelasticity; (2) the effects of longitudinal waves and rigid body motion on estimates of shear modulus; and (3) mechanical anisotropy. In the current study we extend the LFE technique to (1) estimate the (complex) viscoelastic shear modulus in lossy media; (2) eliminate the effects of longitudinal waves and rigid body motion; and (3) determine two distinct shear moduli in anisotropic media. The extended LFE approach is demonstrated by analyzing experimental data from a previously-characterized, isotropic, viscoelastic, gelatin phantom and simulated data from a computer model of anisotropic (transversely isotropic) soft material.

  18. Asymptotic behaviors of solutions for viscoelastic wave equation with space-time dependent damping term

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a viscoelastic wave equation with an absorbing term and space-time dependent damping term. Based on the weighted energy method, and by assuming that the kernel decaying exponentially, we obtain the L2 decay rates of the solutions. More precisely, we show that the decay rates are the same as those obtained in Lin et al. (2010) [15] for the semilinear wave equation with absorption term. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Wang, Cheng Yuan [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea Wales (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system.

  20. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin; Wang, Cheng Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system

  1. Frequency dependent polarization in blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, C.I.

    1984-10-01

    It is argued that the intrinsic frequency dependent polarization in blazars finds its most straightforward explanations in terms of a single rather than a multicomponent sourcemodel. In order to reproduce the observations, under the assumption that the emission mechanism is optically thin synchrotron radiation, both a well ordered magnetic field and an electron distribution with a sharp break or cuttoff are necessary. Non-uniform pitch angle distribution and/or environments where synchrotron losses are important are both conducive to producing strong frequency dependent polarization. Reasons are put forth as to why such conditions ar expected to occur in blazars. Two specific models are discussed in detail and it is shown that they are both able to produce strong frequency dependent polarization, even when the spectral index changes by a small amount only. (orig.)

  2. The viscoelastic properties of chromatin and the nucleoplasm revealed by scale-dependent protein mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdel, Fabian; Baum, Michael; Rippe, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus harbours the DNA genome that is organized in a dynamic chromatin network and embedded in a viscous crowded fluid. This environment directly affects enzymatic reactions and target search processes that access the DNA sequence information. However, its physical properties as a reaction medium are poorly understood. Here, we exploit mobility measurements of differently sized inert green fluorescent tracer proteins to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the nuclear interior of a living human cell. We find that it resembles a viscous fluid on small and large scales but appears viscoelastic on intermediate scales that change with protein size. Our results are consistent with simulations of diffusion through polymers and suggest that chromatin forms a random obstacle network rather than a self-similar structure with fixed fractal dimensions. By calculating how long molecules remember their previous position in dependence on their size, we evaluate how the nuclear environment affects search processes of chromatin targets.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF VISCOELASTICITY ON VELOCITY-DEPENDENT RESTITUTIONS IN THE OBLIQUE IMPACT OF SPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Willert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the oblique impact of linear-viscoelastic spheres by numerical models based on the Method of Dimensionality Reduction and the Boundary Element Method. Thereby we assume quasi-stationarity, the validity of the half-space hypothesis, short impact times and Amontons-Coulomb friction with a constant coefficient for both static and kinetic friction. As under these assumptions both methods are equivalent, their results differ only within the margin of a numerical error. The solution of the impact problem written in proper dimensionless variables will only depend on the two parameters necessary to describe the elastic problem and a sufficient set of variables to describe the influence of viscoelastic material behaviour; in the case of a standard solid this corresponds to two additional variables. The full solution of the impact problem is finally determined by comprehensive parameter studies and partly approximated by simple analytic expressions.

  4. Effects of core position of locally resonant scatterers on low-frequency acoustic absorption in viscoelastic panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jie; Wen Ji-Hong; Zhao Hong-Gang; Yin Jian-Fei; Yang Hai-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Locally resonant sonic materials, due to their ability to control the propagation of low-frequency elastic waves, have become a promising option for underwater sound absorption materials. In this paper, the finite element method is used to investigate the absorption characteristics of a viscoelastic panel periodically embedded with a type of infinite-long non-coaxially cylindrical locally resonant scatterers (LRSs). The effect of the core position in the coating layer of the LRS on the low-frequency (500 Hz–3000 Hz) sound absorption property is investigated. With increasing the longitudinal core eccentricity e, there occur few changes in the absorptance at the frequencies below 1500 Hz, however, the absorptance above 1500 Hz becomes gradually better and the valid absorption (with absorptance above 0.8) frequency band (VAFB) of the viscoelastic panel becomes accordingly broader. The absorption mechanism is revealed by using the displacement field maps of the viscoelastic panel and the steel slab. The results show two typical resonance modes. One is the overall resonance mode (ORM) caused by steel backing, and the other is the core resonance mode (CRM) caused by LRS. The absorptance of the viscoelastic panel by ORM is induced mainly by the vibration of the steel slab and affected little by core position. On the contrary, with increasing the core eccentricity, the CRM shifts toward high frequency band and decouples with the ORM, leading to two separate absorption peaks and the broadened VAFB of the panel. (paper)

  5. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREVstatic, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREVflexibility and time dependent material properties (viscoelasticity) on aerodynamic derivatives and on lateral, longitudinal, directional and spin stability derivatives. Cases of both constant and variable flight and maneuver velocities are considered. Analytical results for maneuvers involving constant and time dependent rolling velocities are analyzed, discussed and evaluated. The relationships between rolling velocity p and aileron angular

  6. Memory-dependent derivatives theory of thermo-viscoelasticity involving two-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzat, M. A. [Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); El-Bary, A. A. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2015-10-15

    A new model of two-temperature generalized thermo-viscoelasticity theory based on memory-dependent derivative is constructed. The equations of the new model are applied to one-dimensional problem of a half-space. The bounding surface is taken to be traction free and subjected to a time dependent thermal shock. Laplace transforms technique is used. A direct approach is applied to obtain the exact formulas of heat flux, temperature, stresses, displacement and strain in the Laplace transform domain. Application is employed to our problem to get the solution in the complete form. The considered variables are presented graphically and discussions are made.

  7. Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Holdsworth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the initiation and progression of diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to surrounding tissue matrices or artificial biomaterials is crucial in regenerative medicine and in influencing cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that some cells may be most sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency (i.e., 1–100 Hz mechanical stimulation. Advances in finite-element modeling have made it possible to simulate high-frequency mechanical loading of cells. We have developed a viscoelastic finite-element model of an osteoblastic cell (including cytoskeletal actin stress fibers, attached to an elastomeric membrane undergoing cyclic isotropic radial strain with a peak value of 1,000 µstrain. The results indicate that cells experience significant stress and strain amplification when undergoing high-frequency strain, with peak values of cytoplasmic strain five times higher at 45 Hz than at 1 Hz, and peak Von Mises stress in the nucleus increased by a factor of two. Focal stress and strain amplification in cells undergoing high-frequency mechanical stimulation may play an important role in mechanotransduction.

  8. Frequency Dependence of Damping and Compliance in Loudspeaker Suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Knud; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    ]. It is an empirical model mathematically describing the effects of visco-elasticity in loudspeaker suspensions. The evaluation is to a high degree based on test loudspeakers with rubber surrounds with a high content of plasticizer combining high compliance and high damping. This is very effective to reduce rim...... resonances, but less used in high quality loudspeakers today – where “Low Loss Rubber Surround” is currently seen as a marketing feature, as it is expected to have positive impact on sound quality. The plasticized type of surround shows significant creep, followed by compliance and damping increasing towards...... - with the additives normally used to adjust stiffness and damping - neither frequency dependency of compliance nor creep are significant problems. Despite this, experience shows that frequency dependent mechanical damping nevertheless might be present. In this paper some modifications to the LOG-model are proposed...

  9. Frequency Dependent Attenuation in Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-20

    WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 62714E 7A10 DA DA 1𔃻 T. ,E (Incude Security Clasification ) Frequency Dependent Attenuation in Rocks Ŗ 0E;SO’.A_...P., and L. Peselnick, Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel , plexiglass, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10- to 10...P., and L. Peselnick, Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel , plexiglas, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10-8 to 10

  10. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, Alexander P. [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Merrett, Craig G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton Univ., 1125 Col. By Dr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hilton, Harry H. [Aerospace Engineering Department in the College of Engineering and Private Sector Program Division at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at

  11. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  12. Modeling of viscoelastic properties of nonpermeable porous rocks saturated with highly viscous fluid at seismic frequencies at the core scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zizhen; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Wang, Ruihe

    2017-08-01

    A core scale modeling method for viscoelastic properties of rocks saturated with viscous fluid at low frequencies is developed based on the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli dispersion of viscous fluid is described by the Maxwell's spring-dash pot model. Based on this modeling method, we numerically test the effects of frequency, fluid viscosity, porosity, pore size, and pore aspect ratio on the storage moduli and the stress-strain phase lag of saturated rocks. And we also compared the modeling results to the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The dynamic moduli calculated from the modeling are lower than the predictions of CPA, and both of these fall between the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The modeling results indicate that the frequency and the fluid viscosity have similar effects on the dynamic moduli dispersion of fully saturated rocks. We observed the Debye peak in the phase lag variation with the change of frequency and viscosity. The pore structure parameters, such as porosity, pore size, and aspect ratio affect the rock frame stiffness and result in different viscoelastic behaviors of the saturated rocks. The stress-strain phase lags are larger with smaller stiffness contrasts between the rock frame and the pore fluid. The viscoelastic properties of saturated rocks are more sensitive to aspect ratio compared to other pore structure parameters. The results suggest that significant seismic dispersion (at about 50-200 Hz) might be expected for both compressional and shear waves passing through rocks saturated with highly viscous fluids.Plain Language SummaryWe develop a core scale modeling method to simulate the viscoelastic properties of rocks saturated with viscous fluid at low frequencies based on the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli dispersion of viscous fluid is described by the Maxwell's spring-dash pot model. By using this modeling method, we numerically test the effects of frequency, fluid viscosity

  13. Bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets viscoelasticity and temperature dependency in the draping process

    CERN Document Server

    Ropers, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Within the scope of this work, Steffen Ropers evaluates the viscoelastic and temperature-dependent nature of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets in order to further enhance the predictability of the draping simulation. This simulation is a useful tool for the development of robust large scale processes for continuously fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). The bending behavior thereby largely influences the size and position of wrinkles, which are one of the most common processing defects for continuously fiber-reinforced parts. Thus, a better understanding of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composite sheets as well as an appropriate testing method along with corresponding material models contribute to a wide-spread application of CFRPs in large scale production. Contents Thermoplastic Prepregs Draping Simulation of Thermoplastic Prepregs Bending Characterization of Textile Composites Modeling of Bending Behavior Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of polymer, lightweight,...

  14. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...... and as a thermometer. The aim of the work is to improve and understand this planar heater experiment. I find: • Carbon has advantages as heater material over the traditionally used metal (nickel) heaters. • The thermal coupling to the surrounding temperature bath should not be made through the liquid but through...... the substrate. • Edge effects, as a result of the finite size of the heater, play an important role. The traditionally way of dealing with these effects are not entirely correct. • The Cole–Davidson function with bCD...

  15. Time-dependent algorithms for the simulation of viscoelastic flows with spectral element methods: applications and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietier, Nicolas; Deville, Michel O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of spectral element methods to simulate unsteady flows of viscoelastic fluids using a closed-form differential constitutive equation. The generation and decay Poiseuille planar flows are considered as benchmark problems to test the abilities of our computational method to deal with truly time-dependent flows. Satisfactory results converging toward steady-state regimes have been obtained for the flow through a four-to-one planar abrupt contraction with unsteady algorithms. Time-dependent simulations of viscoelastic flows are prone to numerical instabilities even for simple geometrical configurations. Possible methods to improve the numerical stability of the computational algorithms are discussed in view of the results carried out with numerical simulations for the flows through a straight channel and the four-to-one contraction

  16. Viscoelastic fluid-structure interactions between flexible circular cylinder and wormlike micelle solution: Role of structural natural frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anita; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that when a flexible or flexibly-mounted structure is placed perpendicular to a Newtonian fluid flow, it can oscillate due to the shedding of separated vortices at high Reynolds numbers. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the flow of viscoelastic fluids can become unstable even at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability. We have recently shown that these elastic flow instabilities can drive the motion of different flexible structures including sheets and cylinders. In this talk, we will present an investigation into the influence of a varying natural frequency of a flexible circular cylinder on the form, frequency and amplitude of the viscoelastic fluid-structure interactions with the goal of understanding lock-in behavior for these interactions. The static and dynamic responses of the cylinder will be presented for a range of flow velocities for wormlike micelle solutions with varying viscosity and relaxation time. The time variation and state of stress of the flow field will be shown using particle image velocimetry and flow-induced birefringence images. Finally, the non-linear dynamics of the structural motion will be investigated to understand an observed transition from a symmetric to an asymmetric flow field and oscillation behavior.

  17. Frequency Dependence of Damping and Compliance in Loudspeaker Suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Knud; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    textiles used for spiders - have more or less visco-elastic properties; best known is the “creep” effect. This phenomenon in itself is normally of little interest in the audio frequency range. It is mainly a DC phenomenon. As such it manifests itself when a static (DC) force probes the speaker voice coil....... At first, it moves fast very close to the expected position, but then it “creeps” slowly a little further (see [1, Fig.1]) A widely accepted model giving account for the visco-elastic effects in loudspeaker surrounds is the so called LOG-model evaluated by M.H. Knudsen and J. G. Jensen [1...

  18. Two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving viscoelastic beam with time-dependent axial speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco; Farokhi, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the coupled nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving viscoelastic beam with time-dependent axial speed is investigated employing a numerical technique. The equations of motion for both the transverse and longitudinal motions are obtained using Newton’s second law of motion and the constitutive relations. A two-parameter rheological model of the Kelvin–Voigt energy dissipation mechanism is employed in the modelling of the viscoelastic beam material, in which the material time derivative is used in the viscoelastic constitutive relation. The Galerkin method is then applied to the coupled nonlinear equations, which are in the form of partial differential equations, resulting in a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with time-dependent coefficients due to the axial acceleration. A change of variables is then introduced to this set of ODEs to transform them into a set of first-order ordinary differential equations. A variable step-size modified Rosenbrock method is used to conduct direct time integration upon this new set of first-order nonlinear ODEs. The mean axial speed and the amplitude of the speed variations, which are taken as bifurcation parameters, are varied, resulting in the bifurcation diagrams of Poincaré maps of the system. The dynamical characteristics of the system are examined more precisely via plotting time histories, phase-plane portraits, Poincaré sections, and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs)

  19. Effect of temperature and frequency of dynamic loading in the viscoelastic properties of aluminium alloy 7075-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Aguiar, Albert; Crespo, Daniel [Escola d' Enginyeria de Telecomunicacio i Aeroespacial de Castelldefels (EPSC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC Barcelona Tech), Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    The viscoelastic response of a material offers an alternative method for analyzing its microstructure, phase transformations and fatigue behaviour. In this work, the viscoelastic properties of commercial aluminium alloy (AA) 7075-T6 are studied with a Dynamic-Mechanical Analyzer (DMA), and results are combined with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. In accordance with this analysis, we propose an analytical model for the storage modulus E' as a function of temperature, frequency of the dynamic loading and the concentration of Guinier-Preston Zones (GPZ). The latter parameter is obtained as a function of temperature after integration and fitting of the model. It is shown that the proposed model fits the experimental data for the storage modulus reasonably well in the prescribed region, and that this fact supports the hypothesis that the change in the storage modulus slope at about 130-160 C is due to GPZ decomposition. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Lagrangian Finite Element Method for 3D Time-Dependent Viscoelastic Flow Computations using Integral Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2000-01-01

    The 3D-LIM has as yet been used to simulate the following two three-dimensional problems. First, the method has been used to simulete for viscoelastic end-plate instability that occurs under certain conditions in the transient filament stretching apparatus for pressure sensitive adhesives...... (polymeric melts) and polymeric solutions. Secondly, the 3D-LIM has also been applied to calculate the inflation of a thick sheet of a polymer melt into an elliptic cylinder. These problems all include free surfaces. As the governing equations are solved for the particle positions, the motion of surfaces can...... be followed easily even in 3D viscoelastic flow....

  1. Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. December 2014 physics pp. 945–953. Dependence of synchronization frequency of Kuramoto oscillators on symmetry of intrinsic frequency in ring ... In this article, we study the difference between networks with sym- ... The dynamics of a general ith oscillator in a system of N Kuramoto oscillators is given as.

  2. Numerical Simulation of an Indentation Process for Defining the Viscoelastic Characteristics of Time-Dependent Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minster, Jiří; Micka, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-89 ISSN 2161-6221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710801 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : microindentation * numerical simulation * viscoelastic characteristics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  3. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  4. Time-dependent deformation of a nonlinear viscoelastic rubber-toughened fiber composite with growing damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchieri, Robert Thomas

    One important factor in the durability of polymeric composites is their loss in stiffness over time due to many softening mechanisms, including nonlinear viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity and damage. Damage here refers to all ply-level microstructural changes such as matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding and shear yielding. This dissertation uses the theory previously established by Schapery (1999) to develop experimental and data analysis methods for isolating these softening effects. Schapery's constitutive theory is first tailored for a continuous fiber composite and evaluated for creep/recovery loading where nonlinear viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity and damage growth have a significant effect on strain. Numerical methods, implementing a Genetic Algorithm, are developed to fit material parameters in the recovery equations. This method successfully fits simulated recovery data with hereditary damage effects, but was not implemented on real data due to the unusually complex recovery behavior of the material studied. A method of Acoustic emission monitoring and waveform analysis is developed as a means for tracking two of the primary damage mechanisms in these materials, matrix-cracking and fiber/matrix debond. With direct monitoring, the extent of damage in the material does not need to be inferred from its effect on the stress-strain response. Unidirectional 30°, 45° and 90° coupons of a rubber-toughened carbon/epoxy are monitored in this way for various loading histories. A method of comparing waveforms from different samples is also suggested. An interpretation of the AE data is pro posed based on an initial population of existing flaws. Then a cumulative distribution function (CDF) of microcracking is defined and used to study effects of stress history. After developing an idealized model of the material consisting of two viscoelastic phases, a single loading parameter, which is theoretically independent of loading history and derived from viscoelastic

  5. Noncontact Viscoelastic Imaging of Living Cells Using a Long-Needle Atomic Force Microscope with Dual-Frequency Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongshi; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Qi, Robert Z.; Tong, Penger

    2017-10-01

    Imaging of surface topography and elasticity of living cells can provide insight into the roles played by the cells' volumetric and mechanical properties and their response to external forces in regulating the essential cellular events and functions. Here, we report a unique technique of noncontact viscoelastic imaging of live cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a long-needle glass probe. Because only the probe tip is placed in a liquid medium near the cell surface, the AFM cantilever in air functions well under dual-frequency modulation, retaining its high-quality resonant modes. The probe tip interacts with the cell surface through a minute hydrodynamic flow in the nanometer-thin gap region between them without physical contact. Quantitative measurements of the cell height, volume, and Young's modulus are conducted simultaneously. The experiment demonstrates that the long-needle AFM has a wide range of applications in the study of cell mechanics.

  6. Noise Reduction Evaluation of Multi-Layered Viscoelastic Infinite Cylinder under Acoustical Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mofakhami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper sound transmission through the multilayered viscoelastic air filled cylinders subjected to the incident acoustic wave is studied using the technique of separation of variables on the basis of linear three dimensional theory of elasticity. The effect of interior acoustic medium on the mode maps (frequency vs geometry and noise reduction is investigated. The effects of internal absorption and external moving medium on noise reduction are also evaluated. The dynamic viscoelastic properties of the structure are rigorously taken into account with a power law technique that models the viscoelastic damping of the cylinder. A parametric study is also performed for the two layered infinite cylinders to obtain the effect of viscoelastic layer characteristics such as thickness, material type and frequency dependency of viscoelastic properties on the noise reduction. It is shown that using constant and frequency dependent viscoelastic material with high loss factor leads to the uniform noise reduction in the frequency domain. It is also shown that the noise reduction obtained for constant viscoelastic material property is subjected to some errors in the low frequency range with respect to those obtained for the frequency dependent viscoelastic material.

  7. Local frequency dependence in transcranial ultrasound transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, P J; Clement, G T; Hynynen, K [Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2006-05-07

    The development of large-aperture multiple-source transducer arrays for ultrasound transmission through the human skull has demonstrated the possibility of controlled and substantial acoustic energy delivery into the brain parenchyma without the necessitation of a craniotomy. The individual control of acoustic parameters from each ultrasound source allows for the correction of distortions arising from transmission through the skull bone and also opens up the possibility for electronic steering of the acoustic focus within the brain. In addition, the capability to adjust the frequency of insonation at different locations on the skull can have an effect on ultrasound transmission. To determine the efficacy and applicability of a multiple-frequency approach with such a device, this study examined the frequency dependence of ultrasound transmission in the range of 0.6-1.4 MHz through a series of 17 points on four ex vivo human skulls. Effects beyond those that are characteristic of frequency-dependent attenuation were examined. Using broadband pulses, it was shown that the reflected spectra from the skull revealed information regarding ultrasound transmission at specific frequencies. A multiple-frequency insonation with optimized frequencies over the entirety of five skull specimens was found to yield on average a temporally brief 230% increase in the transmitted intensity with an 88% decrease in time-averaged intensity transmission within the focal volume. This finding demonstrates a potential applicability of a multiple-frequency approach in transcranial ultrasound transmission.

  8. Time-dependent solution for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed visco-elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyang; van der Wal, Wouter; Vermeersen, Bert

    2017-04-01

    Many icy satellites or planets contain features which suggest a (past) reorientation of the body, such as the tiger stripes on Enceladus and the heart-shaped Sputnik Planum on Pluto. Most of these icy bodies are tidally locked and this creates a large tidal bulge which is about three times of its centrifugal (equatorial) bulge. To study the reorientation of such rotating tidally deformed body is complicated and most previous studies apply the so-called fluid limit method. The fluid limit approach ignores the viscous response of the body and assumes that it immediately reaches its fluid limit when simulating the reorientation due to a changing load. As a result, this method can only simulate cases when the change in the load is much slower than the dominant viscous modes of the body. For other kinds of load, for instance, a Heaviside load due to an impact which creates an instant relocation of mass, it does not give us a prediction of how the reorientation is accomplished (e.g. How fast? Along which path?). We establish a new method which can give an accurate time-dependent solution for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed bodies. Our method can be applied both semi-analytically or numerically (with finite element method) to include features such as lateral heterogeneity or non-linear material. We also present an extension of our method to simulate the effect of a fossil bulge. With our method, we show that reorientation of a tidally deformed body driven by a positive mass anomaly near the poles has a preference for rotating around the tidal axis instead of towards it, contrary to predictions in previous studies. References Hu, H., W. van der Wal and L.L.A. Vermeersen (2017). A numerical method for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed visco-elastic bodies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, doi:10.1002/2016JE005114, 2016JE005114. Matsuyama, I. and Nimmo, F. (2007). Rotational stability of tidally deformed planetary bodies. Journal of Geophysical

  9. Frequency-dependent Escherichia coli chemotaxis behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xuejun; Si, Guangwei; Deng, Nianpei; Ouyang, Qi; Wu, Tailin; He, Zhuoran; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Chunxiong; Tu, Yuhai

    2012-01-01

    We study Escherichia coli chemotaxis behaviors in environments with spatially and temporally varying attractant sources by developing a unique microfluidic system. Our measurements reveal a frequency-dependent chemotaxis behavior. At low frequency, the E. coli population oscillate in synchrony with the attractant. In contrast, in fast-changing environments, the population response becomes smaller and out of phase with the attractant waveform. These observations are inconsistent with the well-...

  10. Modelling nonlinear viscoelastic behaviours of loudspeaker suspensions-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillou, Balbine; Lotton, Pierrick; Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical properties of an electrodynamic loudspeaker are mainly determined by its suspensions (surround and spider) that behave nonlinearly and typically exhibit frequency dependent viscoelastic properties such as creep effect. The paper aims at characterizing the mechanical behaviour of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspensions at low frequencies using nonlinear identification techniques developed in recent years. A Generalized Hammerstein based model can take into account both frequency dependency and nonlinear properties. As shown in the paper, the model generalizes existing nonlinear or viscoelastic models commonly used for loudspeaker modelling. It is further experimentally shown that a possible input-dependent law may play a key role in suspension characterization.

  11. Compressive viscoelasticity of freshly excised mouse skin is dependent on specimen thickness, strain level and rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    Full Text Available Although the skin's mechanical properties are well characterized in tension, little work has been done in compression. Here, the viscoelastic properties of a population of mouse skin specimens (139 samples from 36 mice, aged 5 to 34 weeks were characterized upon varying specimen thickness, as well as strain level and rate. Over the population, we observed the skin's viscoelasticity to be quite variable, yet found systematic correlation of residual stress ratio with skin thickness and strain, and of relaxation time constants with strain rates. In particular, as specimen thickness ranged from 211 to 671 μm, we observed significant variation in both quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV parameters, the relaxation time constant (τ1 = 0.19 ± 0.10 s and steady-state residual stress ratio (G∞ = 0.28 ± 0.13. Moreover, when τ1 was decoupled and fixed, we observed that G∞ positively correlated with skin thickness. Second, as steady-state stretch was increased (λ∞ from 0.22 to 0.81, we observed significant variation in both QLV parameters (τ1 = 0.26 ± 0.14 s, G∞ = 0.47 ± 0.17, and when τ1 was fixed, G∞ positively correlated with stretch level. Third, as strain rate was increased from 0.06 to 22.88 s-1, the median time constant τ1 varied from 1.90 to 0.31 s, and thereby negatively correlated with strain rate. These findings indicate that the natural range of specimen thickness, as well as experimental controls of compression level and rate, significantly influence measurements of skin viscoelasticity.

  12. Compressive viscoelasticity of freshly excised mouse skin is dependent on specimen thickness, strain level and rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Gerling, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Although the skin's mechanical properties are well characterized in tension, little work has been done in compression. Here, the viscoelastic properties of a population of mouse skin specimens (139 samples from 36 mice, aged 5 to 34 weeks) were characterized upon varying specimen thickness, as well as strain level and rate. Over the population, we observed the skin's viscoelasticity to be quite variable, yet found systematic correlation of residual stress ratio with skin thickness and strain, and of relaxation time constants with strain rates. In particular, as specimen thickness ranged from 211 to 671 μm, we observed significant variation in both quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) parameters, the relaxation time constant (τ1 = 0.19 ± 0.10 s) and steady-state residual stress ratio (G∞ = 0.28 ± 0.13). Moreover, when τ1 was decoupled and fixed, we observed that G∞ positively correlated with skin thickness. Second, as steady-state stretch was increased (λ∞ from 0.22 to 0.81), we observed significant variation in both QLV parameters (τ1 = 0.26 ± 0.14 s, G∞ = 0.47 ± 0.17), and when τ1 was fixed, G∞ positively correlated with stretch level. Third, as strain rate was increased from 0.06 to 22.88 s-1, the median time constant τ1 varied from 1.90 to 0.31 s, and thereby negatively correlated with strain rate. These findings indicate that the natural range of specimen thickness, as well as experimental controls of compression level and rate, significantly influence measurements of skin viscoelasticity.

  13. Resolving the viscoelasticity and anisotropy dependence of the mechanical properties of skin from a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W L E; Joyce, T J; Goh, K L

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical response of skin to external loads is influenced by anisotropy and viscoelasticity of the tissue, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report a study of the main effects of tissue orientation (TO, which is linked to anisotropy) and strain rate (SR, a measure of viscoelasticity), as well as the interaction effects between the two factors, on the tensile properties of skin from a porcine model. Tensile testing to rupture of porcine skin tissue was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of the tissue modulus of elasticity (E) and fracture-related properties, namely maximum stress (σU) and strain (εU) at σU, to varying SR and TO. Specimens were excised from the abdominal skin in two orientations, namely parallel (P) and right angle (R) to the torso midline. Each TO was investigated at three SR levels, namely 0.007-0.015 s(-1) (low), 0.040 s(-1) (mid) and 0.065 s(-1) (high). Two-factor analysis of variance revealed that the respective parameters responded differently to varying SR and TO. Significant changes in the σU were observed with different TOs but not with SR. The εU decreased significantly with increasing SR, but no significant variation was observed for different TOs. Significant changes in E were observed with different TOs; E increased significantly with increasing SR. More importantly, the respective mechanical parameters were not significantly influenced by interactions between SR and TO. These findings suggest that the trends associated with the changes in the skin mechanical properties may be attributed partly to differences in the anisotropy and viscoelasticity but not through any interaction between viscoelasticity and anisotropy.

  14. Compressive Viscoelasticity of Freshly Excised Mouse Skin Is Dependent on Specimen Thickness, Strain Level and Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Gerling, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the skin’s mechanical properties are well characterized in tension, little work has been done in compression. Here, the viscoelastic properties of a population of mouse skin specimens (139 samples from 36 mice, aged 5 to 34 weeks) were characterized upon varying specimen thickness, as well as strain level and rate. Over the population, we observed the skin’s viscoelasticity to be quite variable, yet found systematic correlation of residual stress ratio with skin thickness and strain, and of relaxation time constants with strain rates. In particular, as specimen thickness ranged from 211 to 671 μm, we observed significant variation in both quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) parameters, the relaxation time constant (τ1 = 0.19 ± 0.10 s) and steady-state residual stress ratio (G∞ = 0.28 ± 0.13). Moreover, when τ1 was decoupled and fixed, we observed that G∞ positively correlated with skin thickness. Second, as steady-state stretch was increased (λ∞ from 0.22 to 0.81), we observed significant variation in both QLV parameters (τ1 = 0.26 ± 0.14 s, G∞ = 0.47 ± 0.17), and when τ1 was fixed, G∞ positively correlated with stretch level. Third, as strain rate was increased from 0.06 to 22.88 s−1, the median time constant τ1 varied from 1.90 to 0.31 s, and thereby negatively correlated with strain rate. These findings indicate that the natural range of specimen thickness, as well as experimental controls of compression level and rate, significantly influence measurements of skin viscoelasticity. PMID:25803703

  15. Shape oscillations of a viscoelastic drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khismatullin, Damir B.; Nadim, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Small-amplitude axisymmetric shape deformations of a viscoelastic liquid drop in microgravity are theoretically analyzed. Using the Jeffreys constitutive equation for linear viscoelasticity, the characteristic equation for the frequency and decay factor of the shape oscillations is derived. Asymptotic analysis of this equation is performed in the low- and high-viscosity limits and for the cases of small, moderate, and large elasticities. Elastic effects are shown to give rise to a type of shape oscillation that does not depend on the surface tension. The existence of such oscillations is confirmed by numerical solution of the characteristic equation in various regimes. A method for determining the viscoelastic properties of highly viscous liquids based upon experimental measurements of the frequency and damping rate of such shape oscillations is suggested

  16. Frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility of weakly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility of weakly contaminated soil sediments. Low field magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out on soil sediments at Bomo irrigation dam, Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, (ABU), Zaria, using the MS2D field loop.

  17. Viscoelastic fingering with a pulsed pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvera Poire, E; Rio, J A del

    2004-01-01

    We derive a generalized Darcy's law in the frequency domain for a linear viscoelastic fluid flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell. This leads to an analytic expression for the dynamic permeability that has maxima which are several orders of magnitude larger than the static permeability. We then follow an argument of de Gennes (1987 Europhys. Lett. 2 195) to obtain the smallest possible finger width when viscoelasticity is important. Using this and a conservation law, we obtain the lowest bound for the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. When the driving force consists of a constant pressure gradient plus an oscillatory signal, our results indicate that the finger width varies in time following the frequency of the incident signal. Also, the amplitude of the finger width in time depends on the value of the dynamic permeability at the imposed frequency. When the finger is driven with a frequency that maximizes the permeability, variations in the amplitude are also maximized. This gives results that are very different for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. For the former ones the amplitude of the oscillation decays with frequency. For the latter ones on the other hand, the amplitude has maxima at the same frequencies that maximize the dynamic permeability

  18. Time-frequency analyses of fluid–solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Viscoelastic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.G. de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of control of sound and vibration of mechanical systems, the use of viscoelastic materials has been regarded as a convenient strategy in many types of industrial applications. Numerical models based on finite element discretization have been frequently used in the analysis and design of complex structural systems incorporating viscoelastic materials. Such models must account for the typical dependence of the viscoelastic characteristics on operational and environmental parameters, such as frequency and temperature. In many applications, including optimal design and model updating, sensitivity analysis based on numerical models is a very usefull tool. In this paper, the formulation of first-order sensitivity analysis of complex frequency response functions is developed for plates treated with passive constraining damping layers, considering geometrical characteristics, such as the thicknesses of the multi-layer components, as design variables. Also, the sensitivity of the frequency response functions with respect to temperature is introduced. As an example, response derivatives are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate and the results obtained are compared with first-order finite-difference approximations.

  20. Effects of frequency- and direction-dependent elastic materials on linearly elastic MRE image reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreard, I M; Weaver, J B; Paulsen, K D; Pattison, A J; McGarry, M D J; Doyley, M; Barani, Z; Van Houten, E E

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical model commonly used in magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is linear elasticity. However, soft tissue may exhibit frequency- and direction-dependent (FDD) shear moduli in response to an induced excitation causing a purely linear elastic model to provide an inaccurate image reconstruction of its mechanical properties. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of reconstructing FDD data using a linear elastic inversion (LEI) algorithm. Linear and FDD phantoms were manufactured and LEI images were obtained from time-harmonic MRE acquisitions with variations in frequency and driving signal amplitude. LEI responses to artificially imposed uniform phase shifts in the displacement data from both purely linear elastic and FDD phantoms were also evaluated. Of the variety of FDD phantoms considered, LEI appeared to tolerate viscoelastic data-model mismatch better than deviations caused by poroelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties in terms of visual image contrast. However, the estimated shear modulus values were substantially incorrect relative to independent mechanical measurements even in the successful viscoelastic cases and the variations in mean values with changes in experimental conditions associated with uniform phase shifts, driving signal frequency and amplitude were unpredictable. Overall, use of LEI to reconstruct data acquired in phantoms with FDD material properties provided biased results under the best conditions and significant artifacts in the worst cases. These findings suggest that the success with which LEI is applied to MRE data in tissue will depend on the underlying mechanical characteristics of the tissues and/or organs systems of clinical interest.

  1. Viscoelastic properties of differentiating blood cells are fate- and function-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Ekpenyong

    Full Text Available Although cellular mechanical properties are known to alter during stem cell differentiation, understanding of the functional relevance of such alterations is incomplete. Here, we show that during the course of differentiation of human myeloid precursor cells into three different lineages, the cells alter their viscoelastic properties, measured using an optical stretcher, to suit their ultimate fate and function. Myeloid cells circulating in blood have to be advected through constrictions in blood vessels, engendering the need for compliance at short time-scales (minutes, compared to undifferentiated cells. These findings suggest that reduction in steady-state viscosity is a physiological adaptation for enhanced migration through tissues. Our results indicate that the material properties of cells define their function, can be used as a cell differentiation marker and could serve as target for novel therapies.

  2. Lagrangian Finite Element Method for 3D time-dependent viscoelastic flow computation using integral constitutive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2000-01-01

    A new technique for the numerical 3D simulation of time dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. The fluid is described by the Rivlin Sawyer integral constitutive equation. The method (referred to as the 3D...... Lagrangian Integral Method) is a finite element method where Galerkons method is used for solving the governing equation in rectangular coordinates numerically. In the present implementation the velocity and pressure fields are approximated with tri-linear and constant shape functions, respectivly.The 3D LIM......) and polymeric solutions. Secondly, the 3D-LIM has also been applied to calculate the inflation of a thick sheet of a polymeric melt into a elliptic cylinder. These problems all include free surfaces. As the governing equations are solved for the particle positions, the motion of surfaces can be followed easily...

  3. Evolutionary Graphs with Frequency Dependent Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory was recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. In the previous papers about evolutionary graphs (EGs), the fitness of the residents in the EGs is in general assumed to be unity, and the fitness of a mutant is assumed to be a constant r. We aim to extend EG to general cases in this paper, namely, the fitness of a mutant is heavily dependent upon frequency. The corresponding properties for these new EGs are analyzed, and the fixation probability is obtained for large population.

  4. Frequency dependence of complex moduli of brain tissue using a fractional Zener model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohandel, M; Sivaloganathan, S; Tenti, G; Darvish, K

    2005-01-01

    Brain tissue exhibits viscoelastic behaviour. If loading times are substantially short, static tests are not sufficient to determine the complete viscoelastic behaviour of the material, and dynamic test methods are more appropriate. The concept of complex modulus of elasticity is a powerful tool for characterizing the frequency domain behaviour of viscoelastic materials. On the other hand, it is well known that classical viscoelastic models can be generalized by means of fractional calculus to describe more complex viscoelastic behaviour of materials. In this paper, the fractional Zener model is investigated in order to describe the dynamic behaviour of brain tissue. The model is fitted to experimental data of oscillatory shear tests of bovine brain tissue to verify its behaviour and to obtain the material parameters

  5. Temperature dependence of viscoelasticity of crystalline cellulose with different molecular weights added to silicone elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Naoto; Nakajima, Shinya; Kameda, Takao; Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    Silicone elastomers ( polydimethylsiloxane _ PDMS) are widely used in the field of imprint lithography and microcontactprinting (μCP). When performing microcontactprinting, the mechanical properties of the PCMS as a base material have a great influence on the performance of the device. Cellulose nanofibers having features of high strength, high elasticity and low coefficient of linear expansion have attracted attention in recent years due to their characteristics. Therefore, three types of crystalline cellulose having different molecular weights were added to PDMS to prepare a composite material, and dynamic viscoelasticity was measured using a rheometer. The PDMS with the highest molecular weight crystalline cellulose added exhibited smaller storage modulus than PDMS with other molecular weight added in all temperature ranges. Furthermore, when comparing PDMS to which crystalline cellulose was added and PDMS which is not added, the storage modulus of PDMS to which cellulose was added in the low temperature region was higher than that of PDMS to which it was not added, but it was reversed in the high temperature region It was a result. When used in a low temperature range (less than 150 ° C.), it can be said that cellulose can function as a reinforcing material for PDMS.

  6. Nonlocal vibration and biaxial buckling of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C. [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Y.Q., E-mail: cyqzhang@zju.edu.cn [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fan, L.F. [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-04-11

    The general equation for transverse vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between and each nanoplate subjected to in-plane edge loads is formulated on the basis of the Eringen's nonlocal elastic theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of the structural damping, medium damping, small size effect, loading ratio, and Winkler modulus and shear modulus of the medium are incorporated in the formulation. Based on the Navier's method, the analytical solutions for vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The influences of these factors on vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system are discussed. It is demonstrated that the vibrational frequency of the system for the out-of-phase vibration is dependent upon the structural damping, small size effect and viscoelastic Pasternak medium, whereas the vibrational frequency for the in-phase vibration is independent of the viscoelastic Pasternak medium. While the buckling load of the system for the in-phase buckling case has nothing to do with the viscoelastic Pasternak medium, the buckling load for the out-of-phase case is related to the small size effect, loading ratio and Pasternak medium. - Highlights: • Vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system under in-plane edge loads is investigated. • Biaxial buckling of the system with simply supported boundary conditions is analyzed. • Explicit expression for the vibrational frequency and buckling load is obtained. • Impacts of viscoelastic Pasternak medium on vibrational frequency and buckling load are discussed. • Influences of structural damping, small size effect and loading ratio are also considered.

  7. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  8. Acoustic wave rectification in viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukihiro; Shimomura, Yukito; Nishiguchi, Norihiko

    2018-03-01

    We have numerically investigated the propagation of acoustic waves in a periodic array of triangular holes embedded in a matrix composed of viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, using an extended finite-difference time-domain method. Although the viscoelasticity of the substrate in acoustic wave rectifiers smears out the fine structures observed at the transmission rate, the rectifying effect of acoustic waves survives. Moreover, the transmittance for longitudinal wave incidence broadly shows a vivid rectification effect in a wide frequency range when the difference between the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves is large. In addition, the extreme sensitivity of shear rate with respect to time (or frequency) gives rise to the marked modulation of the frequency dependence of the transmission rate.

  9. Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Individual Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Rodriguez, Virginia; Dutcher, John

    2009-03-01

    We have used an AFM-based approach to probe the mechanical properties of single bacterial cells (gram-negative Escherichia coli K12) by applying a constant compressive force to the cell under fluid conditions while measuring the time-dependent displacement (creep) of a colloidal AFM tip due to the viscoelastic properties of the cell. We observed that the cells exhibited a viscoelastic solid-like behavior with retarded elasticity, i.e. both an instantaneous and a delayed elastic deformation, which is well described by a three-parameter mechanical model. Using the best fit parameter values, we have calculated the dynamic viscoelastic behavior of the cells over a wide range of frequencies based on a numerical time-frequency transform technique and we have compared the calculated behavior with that measured experimentally. Comparison of the results obtained for E. coli with previously reported data on the mechanical properties of others gram-negative cells and their isolated surface layers suggests that the elastic component of the cell viscoelastic response is dominated by the properties of the peptidoglycan layer, whereas the viscous component likely arises from the liquid-like character of the cell membranes.

  10. DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.

  11. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  12. Variation in female morph frequencies and mating frequencies : random, frequency-dependent harassment or male mimicry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Van Gossum, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Female-limited colour polymorphisms occur in a variety of species, where often one female morph (androchrome) resembles the body coloration of the conspecific male, whereas the other (gynochrome) does not. We tested predictions of two frequency-dependent hypotheses that are commonly invoked to

  13. Analysis of a Dynamic Viscoelastic Contact Problem with Normal Compliance, Normal Damped Response, and Nonmonotone Slip Rate Dependent Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Barboteu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with a combination of a normal compliance and a normal damped response law associated with a slip rate-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. We derive a variational formulation and an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution of the problem is presented. Next, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on an implicit time integration scheme. We study this fully discrete approximation schemes and bound the errors of the approximate solutions. Under regularity assumptions imposed on the exact solution, optimal order error estimates are derived for the fully discrete solution. Finally, after recalling the solution of the frictional contact problem, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behavior of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the theoretical error estimate result.

  14. Dynamic Electromechanical Response of a Viscoelastic Dielectric Elastomer under Cycle Electric Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer (DE is able to produce large electromechanical deformation which is time-dependent due to the viscoelasticity. In the current study, a thermodynamic model is set up to characterize the influence of viscoelasticity on the electromechanical and dynamic response of a viscoelastic DE. The time-dependent dynamic deformation, the hysteresis, and the dynamic stability undergoing viscoelastic dissipative processes are investigated. The results show that the electromechanical stability has strong frequency dependence; the viscoelastic DE can attain a larger stretch in the dynamic response than the quasistatic actuation. Furthermore, with the decreasing frequency of the applied electric load, the viscoelastic DE system will present dynamic stability evolution from an aperiodic motion to the quasiperiodic motion. The DE system may also experience a stability evolution from a single cycle motion to multicycle motion with the increasing relaxation times. The value and variation trend of the amplitude of the stretch are highly dependent on the excitation frequency and the relaxation time.

  15. Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Densmore, Jeffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Thompson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbatish, Todd J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-17

    Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.

  16. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  17. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  18. Modeling of Shock Propagation and Attenuation in Viscoelastic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rusovici

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection from the potentially damaging effects of shock loading is a common design requirement for diverse mechanical structures ranging from shock accelerometers to spacecraft. High damping viscoelastic materials are employed in the design of geometrically complex, impact-absorbent components. Since shock transients are characterized by a broad frequency spectrum, it is imperative to properly model frequency dependence of material behavior over a wide frequency range. The Anelastic Displacement Fields (ADF method is employed herein to model frequency-dependence within a time-domain finite element framework. Axisymmetric, ADF finite elements are developed and then used to model shock propagation and absorption through viscoelastic structures. The model predictions are verified against longitudinal wave propagation experimental data and theory.

  19. Generalization of exponential based hyperelastic to hyper-viscoelastic model for investigation of mechanical behavior of rate dependent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narooei, K; Arman, M

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the exponential stretched based hyperelastic strain energy was generalized to the hyper-viscoelastic model using the heredity integral of deformation history to take into account the strain rate effects on the mechanical behavior of materials. The heredity integral was approximated by the approach of Goh et al. to determine the model parameters and the same estimation was used for constitutive modeling. To present the ability of the proposed hyper-viscoelastic model, the stress-strain response of the thermoplastic elastomer gel tissue at different strain rates from 0.001 to 100/s was studied. In addition to better agreement between the current model and experimental data in comparison to the extended Mooney-Rivlin hyper-viscoelastic model, a stable material behavior was predicted for pure shear and balance biaxial deformation modes. To present the engineering application of current model, the Kolsky bars impact test of gel tissue was simulated and the effects of specimen size and inertia on the uniform deformation were investigated. As the mechanical response of polyurea was provided over wide strain rates of 0.0016-6500/s, the current model was applied to fit the experimental data. The results were shown more accuracy could be expected from the current research than the extended Ogden hyper-viscoelastic model. In the final verification example, the pig skin experimental data was used to determine parameters of the hyper-viscoelastic model. Subsequently, a specimen of pig skin at different strain rates was loaded to a fixed strain and the change of stress with time (stress relaxation) was obtained. The stress relaxation results were revealed the peak stress increases by applied strain rate until the saturated loading rate and the equilibrium stress with magnitude of 0.281MPa could be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  1. On the influence of microscopic architecture elements to the global viscoelastic properties of soft biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnansky, Oleg P.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we introduce a 2D minimal model of random scale-invariant network structures embedded in a matrix to study the influence of microscopic architecture elements on the viscoelastic behavior of soft biological tissue. Viscoelastic properties at a microscale are modeled by a cohort of basic elements with varying complexity integrated into multi-hierarchic lattice obeying self-similar geometry. It is found that this hierarchy of structure elements yields a global nonlinear frequency dependent complex-valued shear modulus. In the dynamic range of external frequency load, the modeled shear modulus proved sensitive to the network concentration and viscoelastic characteristics of basic elements. The proposed model provides a theoretical framework for the interpretation of dynamic viscoelastic parameters in the context of microstructural variations under different conditions.

  2. Rotation of a synchronous viscoelastic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyelles, Benoît

    2018-03-01

    Several natural satellites of the giant planets have shown evidence of a global internal ocean, coated by a thin, icy crust. This crust is probably viscoelastic, which would alter its rotational response. This response would translate into several rotational quantities, i.e. the obliquity, and the librations at different frequencies, for which the crustal elasticity reacts differently. This study aims at modelling the global response of the viscoelastic crust. For that, I derive the time-dependence of the tensor of inertia, which I combine with the time evolution of the rotational quantities, thanks to an iterative algorithm. This algorithm combines numerical simulations of the rotation with a digital filtering of the resulting tensor of inertia. The algorithm works very well in the elastic case, provided the problem is not resonant. However, considering tidal dissipation adds different phase lags to the oscillating contributions, which challenge the convergence of the algorithm.

  3. Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Jeremy; Windmill, James; Agbeze-Onuma, Maduka; Kalin, Robert M; Argondizza, Peter; Knapp, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-enhanced gene transfer (UEGT) is continuing to gain interest across many disciplines; however, very few studies investigate UEGT efficiency across a range of frequencies. Using a variable frequency generator, UEGT was tested in E. coli at six ultrasonic frequencies. Results indicate frequency can significantly influence UEGT efficiency positively and negatively. A frequency of 61 kHz improved UEGT efficiency by ~70 % higher, but 99 kHz impeded UEGT to an extent worse than no ultrasound exposure. The other four frequencies (26, 133, 174, and 190 kHz) enhanced transformation compared to no ultrasound, but efficiencies did not vary. The influence of frequency on UEGT efficiency was observed across a range of operating frequencies. It is plausible that frequency-dependent dynamics of mechanical and chemical energies released during cavitational-bubble collapse (CBC) are responsible for observed UEGT efficiencies.

  4. The time-dependent magneto-visco-elastic behavior of a magnetostrictive fiber actuated viscoelastic polymer matrix composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogea, Cosmina S; Armstrong, William D

    2002-11-01

    The paper develops a one-dimensional magneto-elastic model of a magnetostrictive fiber actuated polymer matrix composite material which accounts for a strong viscoelastic response in the polymer matrix. The viscoelastic behavior of the composite polymer matrix is modeled with a three parallel Maxwell element viscoelastic model, the magnetoelastic behavior of the composite fibers is modeled with an anhysteric directional potential based domain occupation theory. Example calculations are performed to identify and explain the dynamical behavior of the composite. These calculations assume that a constant stress and the oscillating magnetic field are applied in the fiber longitudinal direction. The inclusion of matrix viscosity results in an apparent hysteresis loop in the magnetization and magnetostriction curves even though the model does not include magnetoelastic hysteresis in the fibers. The apparent hysteresis is a consequence of the interaction of the time varying fiber stress caused by matrix viscosity with a multidomain state in the fiber. The small increase in fiber longitudinal compressive stress due to matrix viscosity under increasing field inhibits the occupation of domains with magnetization orientations near the fiber longitudinal [112] direction. As a consequence, the summed longitudinal magnetization and magnetostriction is reduced as compared to the decreasing field limb.

  5. Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Roy

    Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.

  6. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Siegmund, G.P.; Schouten, A.C.; Blouin, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular

  7. Approximate relationship between frequency-dependent skin depth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Approximate relationship between frequency-dependent skin depth resolved from geoelectromagnetic pedotransfer function and depth of investigation resolved from geoelectrical measurements: A case study of coastal formation, southern Nigeria.

  8. Ultrasonic Characterization of Tissues via Backscatter Frequency Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Phantom and patient studies were performed to assess the potential of backscatter frequency dependence as a useful parameter for tissue characterization. A commercial phased-array ultrasonic scanner was adapted to allow digitization of the intermediate-frequency ultrasonic data, Studies of agar p...

  9. Acoustic Volume Scattering: Its Dependence on Frequency and Biological Scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the dependence of acoustic valume scattering on frequency and biological scatterers in the Westfall Seamount Area, 200 miles off... the coast of San Diego, California. Theoretical calculations and experimental data both showed a correlation between the frequency dependence of...scattering (from 1 to 20 kilohertz) and midwater gas-bladder fishes. It is the hypothesis of the report that the size limitation of the swimbladders

  10. Broadband nanoindentation of glassy polymers: Part I Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesph E. Jakes; Rod S. Lakes; Don S. Stone

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are developed to assess viscoelastic moduli from unloading slopes in Berkovich nanoindentation across four orders of magnitude in time scale (0.01-100 s unloading time). Measured viscoelastic moduli of glassy polymers poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, and polycarbonate follow the same trends with frequency (1/unloading time) as viscoelastic moduli...

  11. The forward undulatory locomotion of Ceanorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Amy; Ulrich, Xialing

    2013-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil dwelling roundworm that has served as model organisms for studying a multitude of biological and engineering phenomena. We study the undulatory locomotion of nematode in viscoelastic fluids with zero-shear viscosity varying from 0.03-75 Pa .s and relaxation times ranging from 0-350 s. We observe that the averaged normalized wavelength of swimming worm is essentially the same as that in Newtonian fluids. The undulatory frequency f shows the same reduction rate with respect to zero-shear viscosity in viscoelastic fluids as that found in the Newtonian fluids, meaning that the undulatory frequency is mainly controlled by the fluid viscosity. However, the moving speed Vm of the worm shows more distinct dependence on the elasticity of the fluid and exhibits a 4% drop with each 10-fold increase of the Deborah number De, a dimensionless number characterizing the elasticity of a fluid. To estimate the swimming efficiency coefficient and the ratio K =CN /CL of resistive coefficients of the worm in various viscoelastic fluids, we show that whereas it would take the worm around 7 periods to move a body length in a Newtonian fluid, it would take 27 periods to move a body length in a highly viscoelastic fluid.

  12. Frequency-Dependent Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticle Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majetich, Sara [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-05-17

    In the proposed research program we will investigate the time- and frequency-dependent behavior of ordered nanoparticle assemblies, or nanoparticle crystals. Magnetostatic interactions are long-range and anisotropic, and this leads to complex behavior in nanoparticle assemblies, particularly in the time- and frequency-dependent properties. We hypothesize that the high frequency performance of composite materials has been limited because of the range of relaxation times; if a composite is a dipolar ferromagnet at a particular frequency, it should have the advantages of a single phase material, but without significant eddy current power losses. Arrays of surfactant-coated monodomain magnetic nanoparticles can exhibit long-range magnetic order that is stable over time. The magnetic domain size and location of domain walls is governed not by structural grain boundaries but by the shape of the array, due to the local interaction field. Pores or gaps within an assembly pin domain walls and limit the domain size. Measurements of the magnetic order parameter as a function of temperature showed that domains can exist at high temoerature, and that there is a collective phase transition, just as in an exchange-coupled ferromagnet. Dipolar ferromagnets are not merely of fundamental interest; they provide an interesting alternative to exchange-based ferromagnets. Dipolar ferromagnets made with high moment metallic particles in an insulating matrix could have high permeability without large eddy current losses. Such nanocomposites could someday replace the ferrites now used in phase shifters, isolators, circulators, and filters in microwave communications and radar applications. We will investigate the time- and frequency-dependent behavior of nanoparticle crystals with different magnetic core sizes and different interparticle barrier resistances, and will measure the magnetic and electrical properties in the DC, low frequency (0.1 Hz - 1 kHz), moderate frequency (10 Hz - 500

  13. Operational Risk Aggregation across Business Lines Based on Frequency Dependence and Loss Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In loss distribution approach (LDA, the most popular approach in operational risk modeling, frequency dependence and loss distribution dependence across business lines are two dependences which banks should consider. In practice, mainly for simplicity, many banks only model frequency dependence although they think that the impact of frequency dependence is insignificant. In this study, two approaches, respectively, models frequency dependence and loss distribution dependence, are introduced. Both approaches are modeled by copula function, which is capable of capturing nonlinear correlation. Based on the most comprehensive operational risk dataset of Chinese banking as far as we know, the operational risk capital charge of the overall Chinese banking is calculated by the two approaches. The results show that there is an obvious distinction between the capital calculated by modeling frequency dependence and the capital calculated by modeling loss dependence. The approach with very limited attention exactly yields a much larger capital result. So it is advised in this paper that banks should not just rely on the approach to modeling frequency dependence for it is natural and easy to deal with. A safer and more effective way for banks is to comprehensively take the results of the two kinds of approach into consideration.

  14. Comment on “Frequency-dependent dispersion in porous media”

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Yohan

    2012-07-10

    In a recent paper, Valdès-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez used the technique of volume averaging to derive a "frequency-dependent" dispersion tensor, Dγ*, the goal of which is to describe solute transport in porous media undergoing periodic processes. We describe two issues related to this dispersion tensor. First, we demonstrate that the definition of Dγ* is erroneous and derive a corrected version, Dγ*c. With this modification, the approach of Valdès-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez becomes strictly equivalent to the one devised by Moyne. Second, we show that the term "frequency-dependent dispersion" is misleading because Dγ* and Dγ*c do not depend on the process operating frequency, χ. The study carried out by Valdès-Parada and Alvarez-Ramirez represents a spectral analysis of the relaxation of Dγ* towards its steady-state, independent of any periodic operation or excitation. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  15. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    1996-01-01

    A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffs—a collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equation—the frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....

  16. Laser Speckle Rheology for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nia, Hadi Tavakoli; Ahn, Shawn; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrogel scaffolds exhibit distinct viscoelastic properties at various length scales and deformation rates. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) offers a novel, non-contact optical approach for evaluating the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of hydrogels. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the specimen and a high-speed camera acquires the time-varying speckle images. Cross-correlation analysis of frames returns the speckle intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), from which the frequency-dependent viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω), is deduced. Here, we establish the capability of LSR for evaluating the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels over a large range of moduli, using conventional mechanical rheometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation as reference-standards. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR and mechanical rheometry (r = 0.95, p  0.08) over a large range (47 Pa – 36 kPa). In addition, |G*(ω)| values measured by LSR correlate well with indentation moduli, E, reported by AFM (r = 0.92, p rheology and micro-indentation in assessing hydrogel viscoelastic properties at multiple frequencies and small length-scales. PMID:27905494

  17. Frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-08-01

    Biological neurons receive multiple noisy oscillatory signals, and their dynamical response to the superposition of these signals is of fundamental importance for information processing in the brain. Here we study the response of neural systems to the weak envelope modulation signal, which is superimposed by two periodic signals with different frequencies. We show that stochastic resonance occurs at the beat frequency in neural systems at the single-neuron as well as the population level. The performance of this frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance is influenced by both the beat frequency and the two forcing frequencies. Compared to a single neuron, a population of neurons is more efficient in detecting the information carried by the weak envelope modulation signal at the beat frequency. Furthermore, an appropriate fine-tuning of the excitation-inhibition balance can further optimize the response of a neural ensemble to the superimposed signal. Our results thus introduce and provide insights into the generation and modulation mechanism of the frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems.

  18. Multi-scale simulation of viscoelastic fiber-reinforced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Staub, S.; Andrä, H.; Kabel, M.; Zangmeister, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an effective algorithm to simulate the anisotropic viscoelastic wbehavior of a fiber-reinforced composite including the influence of the local geometric properties, like fiber-orientation and volume fraction. The considered composites consist of a viscoelastic matrix which is reinforced by elastic fibers. The viscoelastic composite behavior results anisotropic due to the local anisotropic fiber-orientations. The influence of the local time-dependent viscoelastic properties...

  19. Frequency-dependent Lg Q within the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, D.; McNamara, D.E.; Benz, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Frequency-dependent crustal attenuation (1/Q) is determined for seven distinct physiographic/tectonic regions of the continental United States using high-quality Lg waveforms recorded on broadband stations in the frequency band 0.5 to 16 Hz. Lg attenuation is determined from time-domain amplitude measurements in one-octave frequency bands centered on the frequencies 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 Hz. Modeling errors are determined using a delete-j jackknife resampling technique. The frequency-dependent quality factor is modeled in the form of Q = Q0 fη. Regions were initially selected based on tectonic provinces but were eventually limited and adjusted to maximize ray path coverage in each area. Earthquake data was recorded on several different networks and constrained to events occurring within the crust (decomposition inversion technique was applied to the data to simultaneously solve for source and receiver terms along with Q for each region at specific frequencies. The lowest crustal Q was observed in northern and southern California where Q is described by the functions Q = 152(±37)f0.72(±0.16) and Q = 105(±26)f0.67(±0.16), respectively. The Basin and Range Province, Pacific Northwest, and Rocky Mountain states also display lower Q and a strong frequency dependence characterized by the functions Q = 200(±40)f0.68(±0.12), Q = 152(±49)f0.76(±0.18), and Q = 166(±37)f0.61(±0.14), respectively. In contrast, in the central and northeast United States Q functions are Q = 640(±225)f0.344(±0.22) and Q = 650(±143)f0.36(±0.14), respectively, show a high crustal Q and a weaker frequency dependence. These results improve upon previous Lg modeling by subdividing the United States into smaller, distinct tectonic regions and using significantly more data that provide improved constraints on frequency-dependent attenuation and errors. A detailed attenuation map of the continental United States can provide significant input into hazard map mitigation. Both

  20. Instability of an oscillator moving along a thin ring on a viscoelastic foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Metrikine, A.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of an oscillator uniformly moving along a thin ring that is connected to an immovable axis by a distributed viscoelastic foundation has been studied. The dynamic reaction of the ring to the oscillator is represented by a frequency and velocity dependent equivalent stiffness. The

  1. Structural and frequency dependencies of a.c. and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, heterojunction of InSb/InP was grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Surface morphology and crystalline structure of the heterojunction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and. X-ray diffraction (XRD). The frequency and temperature dependences of a.c. conductivity and ...

  2. Tuning of Human Modulation Filters Is Carrier-Frequency Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Reiss, Joshua D.; McAlpine, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies employing speech stimuli to investigate ‘cocktail-party’ listening have focused on entrainment of cortical activity to modulations at syllabic (5 Hz) and phonemic (20 Hz) rates. The data suggest that cortical modulation filters (CMFs) are dependent on the sound-frequency channel in which modulations are conveyed, potentially underpinning a strategy for separating speech from background noise. Here, we characterize modulation filters in human listeners using a novel behavioral method. Within an ‘inverted’ adaptive forced-choice increment detection task, listening level was varied whilst contrast was held constant for ramped increments with effective modulation rates between 0.5 and 33 Hz. Our data suggest that modulation filters are tonotopically organized (i.e., vary along the primary, frequency-organized, dimension). This suggests that the human auditory system is optimized to track rapid (phonemic) modulations at high sound-frequencies and slow (prosodic/syllabic) modulations at low frequencies. PMID:24009759

  3. Frequency-dependent Dispersion Measures and Implications for Pulsar Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.; Shannon, R. M.; Stinebring, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion measure (DM), the column density of free electrons to a pulsar, is shown to be frequency dependent because of multipath scattering from small-scale electron-density fluctuations. DMs vary between propagation paths whose transverse extent varies strongly with frequency, yielding arrival times that deviate from the high-frequency scaling expected for a cold, uniform, unmagnetized plasma (1/frequency2). Scaling laws for thin phase screens are verified with simulations; extended media are also analyzed. The rms DM difference across an octave band near 1.5 GHz is ˜ 4 × 10-5 pc cm-3 for pulsars at ˜1 kpc distance. The corresponding arrival-time variations are a few to hundreds of nanoseconds for DM ≲ 30 pc cm-3 but increase rapidly to microseconds or more for larger DMs and wider frequency ranges. Chromatic DMs introduce correlated noise into timing residuals with a power spectrum of “low pass” form. The correlation time is roughly the geometric mean of the refraction times for the highest and lowest radio frequencies used, ranging from days to years, depending on the pulsar. We discuss implications for methodologies that use large frequency separations or wide bandwidth receivers for timing measurements. Chromatic DMs are partially mitigable by including an additional chromatic term in arrival time models. Without mitigation, an additional term in the noise model for pulsar timing is implied. In combination with measurement errors from radiometer noise, an arbitrarily large increase in total frequency range (or bandwidth) will yield diminishing benefits and may be detrimental to overall timing precision.

  4. An analysis of 3D anisotropic–viscoelastic forward modeling and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chunying; Li, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropic–viscoelastic wave equation is a generalized expression of a transversely isotropic–viscoelastic medium. The viscoelastic horizontal–tranverse isotropic (HTI) medium is a special case. Considering the horizontal symmetry axis of viscoelastic HTI media, we develop elasticities and wave equations for preserving its transverse isotropy. To model anisotropic–viscoelastic wave propagation, we apply the fourth-order Runge–Kutta and Fourier pseudospectral method to discretize the wave equation. The convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbed boundary condition is applied to the 3D modeling algorithm and the result shows that it absorbs reflected energy efficiently. We present three models to investigate anisotropic–viscoelastic waves. Two half-space models demonstrate the azimuthal attenuation, which appears both on the PP and PSv wave. The quality factor is greater along the fracture direction for both the PP and PSv waves. Analysis shows that frequency-dependent amplitude attenuation behaves differently along the fracture azimuth. This demonstates that we can use this property for reservoir detection. (paper)

  5. Stress Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic-Plastic Rock-Like Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rock-like materials are composites that can be regarded as a mixture composed of elastic, plastic, and viscous components. They exhibit viscoelastic-plastic behavior under a high-strain-rate loading according to element model theory. This paper presents an analytical solution for stress wave propagation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials under a high-strain-rate loading and verifies the solution through an experimental test. A constitutive equation of viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials was first established, and then kinematic and kinetic equations were then solved to derive the analytic solution for stress wave propagation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials. An experimental test using the SHPB (Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar for a concrete specimen was conducted to obtain a stress-strain curve under a high-strain-rate loading. Inverse analysis based on differential evolution was conducted to estimate undetermined variables for constitutive equations. Finally, the relationship between the attenuation factor and the strain rate in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials was investigated. According to the results, the frequency of the stress wave, viscosity coefficient, modulus of elasticity, and density play dominant roles in the attenuation of the stress wave. The attenuation decreases with increasing strain rate, demonstrating strongly strain-dependent attenuation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials.

  6. The development and validation of a numerical integration method for non-linear viscoelastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Nicole L.; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence that many biological soft tissues display both strain- and time-dependent behavior has led to the development of fully non-linear viscoelastic modeling techniques to represent the tissue’s mechanical response under dynamic conditions. Since the current stress state of a viscoelastic material is dependent on all previous loading events, numerical analyses are complicated by the requirement of computing and storing the stress at each step throughout the load history. This requirement quickly becomes computationally expensive, and in some cases intractable, for finite element models. Therefore, we have developed a strain-dependent numerical integration approach for capturing non-linear viscoelasticity that enables calculation of the current stress from a strain-dependent history state variable stored from the preceding time step only, which improves both fitting efficiency and computational tractability. This methodology was validated based on its ability to recover non-linear viscoelastic coefficients from simulated stress-relaxation (six strain levels) and dynamic cyclic (three frequencies) experimental stress-strain data. The model successfully fit each data set with average errors in recovered coefficients of 0.3% for stress-relaxation fits and 0.1% for cyclic. The results support the use of the presented methodology to develop linear or non-linear viscoelastic models from stress-relaxation or cyclic experimental data of biological soft tissues. PMID:29293558

  7. Mechanical properties of multifunctional structure with viscoelastic components based on FVE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jing; Mao, Daiyong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the models of Lion and Kardelky (2004) and Hofer and Lion (2009), a finite viscoelastic (FVE) constitutive model, considering the predeformation-, frequency- and amplitude-dependent properties, has been proposed in our earlier paper [1]. FVE model is applied to investigating the dynamic characteristics of the multifunctional structure with the viscoelastic components. Combing FVE model with the finite element theory, the dynamic model of the multifunctional structure could be obtained. Additionally, the parametric identification and the experimental verification are also given via the frequency-sweep tests. The results show that the computational data agree well with the experimental data. FVE model has made a success of expressing the dynamic characteristics of the viscoelastic materials utilized in the multifunctional structure. The multifunctional structure technology has been verified by in-orbit experiments.

  8. Viscoelastic performance of dielectric elastomer subject to different voltage stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Lei; Li, Bo; Chen, Hualing

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) is capable of giant deformation subject to an electric field, and demonstrates significant advantages in the potentially application of soft machines with muscle-like characteristics. Due to an inherent property of all macromolecular materials, DE exhibits strong viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity could cause a time-dependent deformation and lower the response speed and energy conversion efficiency of DE based actuators, thus strongly affect its electromechanical performance and applications. Combining with the rheological model of viscoelastic relaxation, the viscoelastic performance of a VHB membrane in a circular actuator configuration undergoing separately constant, ramp and sinusoidal voltages are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results indicated that DE could attain a big deformation under a small constant voltage with a longer time or under a big voltage with a shorter time. The model also showed that a higher critical stretch could be achieved by applying ramping voltage with a lower rate and the stretch magnitude under sinusoidal voltage is much larger at a relatively low frequency. Finally, experiments were designed to validate the simulation and show well consistent with the simulation results.

  9. Dynamic viscoelastic models of human skin using optical elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Steven P; Khan, Altaf; Dai, Zoujun; Royston, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique for measuring in vivo human skin viscoelastic properties using optical elastography has been developed. The technique uses geometrically focused surface (GFS) waves that allow for wide bandwidth measurements of the wave field. An analytical solution for the case of a radiating annular disk surface source was fit to experimentally measured GFS waves, enabling an estimate of the frequency-dependent surface wavenumber, which can then be related to the dynamic shear modulus. Several viscoelastic models were then fit to the dynamic shear modulus dispersion curve. Viscoelastic models were evaluated based on their overall quality of fit and variability amongst healthy volunteers. An Ecoflex phantom was used to validate the procedure and results by comparison to similar studies using the same type of phantom. For skin results, it was found that the ‘α’ parameters from the fractional models had the least variability, with coefficients of variability of 0.15, and 0.16. The best fitting models were the standard linear solid, and the fractional Voigt, with a mean fit correlation coefficient, R 2 , of 0.93, 0.89, respectively. This study has demonstrated the efficacy of this new method, and with larger studies the viscoelastic skin models could be used to identify various skin diseases and their response to treatment. (paper)

  10. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy. PMID:26603125

  11. Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1993-01-01

    The Lagrangian kinematic description is used to develop a numerical method for simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids described by integral models. The method is shown to converge to first order in the time step and at least second order in the spatial discretization. The method...

  12. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Miklos Z [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hobson, Maritza A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Varghese, Tomy [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Surgical Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kliewer, Mark A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hartenbach, Ellen M [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zagzebski, James A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa.

  13. Direct measurements of the frequency-dependent dielectrophoresis force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Tzo; Junio, Joseph; Ou-Yang, H Daniel

    2009-01-02

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the phenomenon of directed motion of electrically polarizable particles in a nonuniform electric field, is promising for applications in biochemical separation and filtration. For colloidal particles in suspension, the relaxation of the ionic species in the shear layer gives rise to a frequency-dependent, bidirectional DEP force in the radio frequency range. However, quantification methods of the DEP force on individual particles with the pico-Newton resolution required for the development of theories and design of device applications are lacking. We report the use of optical tweezers as a force sensor and a lock-in phase-sensitive technique for analysis of the particle motion in an amplitude modulated DEP force. The coherent detection and sensing scheme yielded not only unprecedented sensitivity for DEP force measurements, but also provided a selectivity that clearly distinguishes the pure DEP force from all the other forces in the system, including electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, heat-induced convection, and Brownian forces, all of which can hamper accurate measurements through other existing methods. Using optical tweezers-based force transducers already developed in our laboratory, we have results that quantify the frequency-dependent DEP force and the crossover frequency of individual particles with this new experimental method.

  14. Exact-exchange time-dependent density-functional theory with the frequency-dependent kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeta, Yasuteru; Hirao, Kimihiko; Hirata, So

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the adiabatic approximation in time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) on dynamic polarizabilities and van der Waals C 6 coefficients have been analyzed quantitatively. These effects are shown to be small in the off-resonance region of the perturbation frequencies by comparing the results from the exact-exchange TDDFT employing the optimized effective potentials and the corresponding frequency-dependent kernel [time-dependent optimized effective potentials (TDOEP)] and those from the frequency-independent kernel [adiabatic TDOEP (ATDOEP)]. The magnitude of the computed dynamic polarizabilities near the static limit is found to be in the order: time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF)>ATDOEP>TDOEP, whereas that of C 6 is: TDHF>TDOEP>ATDOEP

  15. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ 1 (r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω R , is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v r /ω T , so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles

  16. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  17. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Bastholm, Sara; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. Spontaneously shed cervical mucus plugs from healthy women in active labor, were tested. The viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs were investigated...... with using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Random-effects regression was used for statistical analysis. The CMPs are solid-like viscoelastic structures and the elastic modulus dominated the viscous modulus at all frequencies. These rheological characteristics...

  18. Dual-frequency sound-absorbing metasurface based on visco-thermal effects with frequency dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, H.; Jeon, W.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate theoretically an acoustic metasurface with a high absorption coefficient at two frequencies and design it from subwavelength structures. We propose the use of a two-dimensional periodic array of four Helmholtz resonators in two types to obtain a metasurface with nearly perfect sound absorption at given target frequencies via interactions between waves emanating from different resonators. By considering how fluid viscosity affects acoustic energy dissipation in the narrow necks of the Helmholtz resonators, we obtain effective complex-valued material properties that depend on frequency and on the geometrical parameters of the resonators. We furthermore derive the effective acoustic impedance of the metasurface from the effective material properties and calculate the absorption spectra from the theoretical model, which we compare with the spectra obtained from a finite-element simulation. As a practical application of the theoretical model, we derive empirical formulas for the geometrical parameters of a metasurface which would yield perfect absorption at a given frequency. While previous works on metasurfaces based on Helmholtz resonators aimed to absorb sound at single frequencies, we use optimization to design a metasurface composed of four different Helmholtz resonators to absorb sound at two distinct frequencies.

  19. Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR): A Noninvasive Method to Characterize Tissue Viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is a promising noninvasive, low cost, and clinically viable tool for liver fibrosis staging. Current shear wave imaging technologies on clinical ultrasound scanners ignore shear wave dispersion and use a single group velocity measured over the shear wave bandwidth to estimate tissue elasticity. The center frequency and bandwidth of shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force depend on the ultrasound push beam (push duration, -number, etc.) and the viscoelasticity of the medium, and therefore are different across scanners from different vendors. As a result, scanners from different vendors may give different tissue elasticity measurements within the same patient. Various methods have been proposed to evaluate shear wave dispersion to better estimate tissue viscoelasticity. A rheological model such as the Kelvin-Voigt model is typically fitted to the shear wave dispersion to solve for the elasticity and viscosity of tissue. However, these rheological models impose strong assumptions about frequency dependence of elasticity and viscosity. Here, we propose a new method called Acoustic Radiation Force Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR) capable of quantifying rheological model-independent measurements of elasticity and viscosity for more robust tissue health assessment. In ARFICR, the creep-recovery time signal at the focus of the push beam is used to calculate the relative elasticity and viscosity (scaled by an unknown constant) over a wide frequency range. Shear waves generated during the ARFICR measurement are also detected and used to calculate the shear wave velocity at its center frequency, which is then used to calibrate the relative elasticity and viscosity to absolute elasticity and viscosity. In this paper, finite-element method simulations and experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms are used to validate and characterize the extent of viscoelastic quantification of ARFICR. The results suggest that ARFICR can measure tissue

  20. Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Large offshore wind turbines are f0W1ded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder......-resonance are presented .in series of Bessel's function. Important responses, such as dynamic stiffness and phase angle, are compared for different values of the loss factor as the material damping, Y0W1g's modulus and Poisson's ratio in a viscoelastic soil. Results are verified. with known results reported...... in the literature. It is observed that the dynamic stiffness fluctuates with the loss factor, and the turning point is independent of the loss factor while the turning point increases with load frequency. It is seen that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness is dependent on Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio...

  1. Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-16

    We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/tc)2 e-t/t$_c$, where tc = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.

  2. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0–20 Hz). In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system’s contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls. PMID:25620919

  3. Mechanical vibration of viscoelastic liquid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, James; Harrold, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    The resonant vibrations of viscoelastic sessile droplets supported on different substrates were monitored using a simple laser light scattering technique. In these experiments, laser light was reflected from the surfaces of droplets of high Mw poly acrylamide-co-acrylic acid (PAA) dissolved in water. The scattered light was allowed to fall on the surface of a photodiode detector and a mechanical impulse was applied to the drops using a vibration motor mounted beneath the substrates. The mechanical impulse caused the droplets to vibrate and the scattered light moved across the surface of the photodiode. The resulting time dependent photodiode signal was then Fourier transformed to obtain the mechanical vibrational spectra of the droplets. The frequencies and widths of the resonant peaks were extracted for droplets containing different concentrations of PAA and with a range of sizes. This was repeated for PAA loaded water drops on surfaces which displayed different values of the three phase contact angle. The results were compared to a simple model of droplet vibration which considers the formation of standing wave states on the surface of a viscoelastic droplet. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Leverhulme trust under grant number RPG-2012-702.

  4. Local linear viscoelasticity of confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S; Daivis, P J; Todd, B D

    2007-04-14

    In this paper the authors propose a novel method to study the local linear viscoelasticity of fluids confined between two walls. The method is based on the linear constitutive equation and provides details about the real and imaginary parts of the local complex viscosity. They apply the method to a simple atomic fluid undergoing zero mean oscillatory flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The method shows that the viscoelastic properties of the fluid exhibit dramatic spatial changes near the wall-fluid boundary due to the high density in this region. It is also shown that the real part of the viscosity converges to the frequency dependent local shear viscosity sufficiently far away from the wall. This also provides valuable information about the transport properties in the fluid, in general. The viscosity is compared with predictions from the local average density model. The two methods disagree in that the local average density model predicts larger viscosity variations near the wall-fluid boundary than what is observed through the method presented here.

  5. Dynamic Response Research of U Shaped Pipe with Viscoelastic Damping Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yajuan; Meng, Guang; Li, Hongguang

    The frequency dependency property of viscoelastic material leads to the dynamic analysis of compound structures which are complex and costly. Furthermore, using commercial finite element software, it is difficult to carry out the dynamic response analysis with this characteristic. Based on finite element iterative and modal strain energy (MSE) method, a mode superposition algorithm was proposed to solve the dynamic response of viscoelastic damping structure in this paper. Through iterative and MSE method, the modal frequency and loss factor for each mode can be obtained. Before calculating the next order modal frequency, the modal mode and corresponding load are extracted and the response of node was calculated at first in this algorithm. As a consequence, the node displacement response can be solved by summarizing the response results of each independent mode in the required frequency range. Numerical calculation of U shaped pipe with viscoelastic damping layer illustrates that the method is simple and practical. Moreover, the simulations with this method agree quite well with the experimental derived results. In the meantime, the damping layer parameters study shows that the position of the damping layer has an obvious effect of reducing the vibration response of U shaped pipe, but the width of the damping layer has little influence. The procedure proposed in this paper can be extended to analyze other more complex structures with viscoelastic material.

  6. Autobiographical Memory Performance in Alzheimer's Disease Depends on Retrieval Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas

    2016-04-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD.

  7. Osmosis and viscoelasticity both contribute to time-dependent behaviour of the intervertebral disc under compressive load: A caprine in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Kaj S; van der Veen, Albert J; Rustenburg, Christine M E; Smit, Theodoor H; Kingma, Idsart

    2018-03-21

    The mechanical behaviour of the intervertebral disc highly depends on the content and transport of interstitial fluid. It is unknown, however, to what extent the time-dependent behaviour can be attributed to osmosis. Here we investigate the effect of both mechanical and osmotic loading on water content, nucleus pressure and disc height. Eight goat intervertebral discs, immersed in physiological saline, were subjected to a compressive force with a pressure needle inserted in the nucleus. The loading protocol was: 10 N (6 h); 150 N (42 h); 10 N (24 h). Half-way the 150 N-phase (24 h), we eliminated the osmotic gradient by adding 26% poly-ethylene glycol to the surrounding fluid. For 62 additional discs, we determined the water content of both nucleus and annulus after 6, 24, 48, or 72 h. The compressive load was initially counterbalanced by the hydrostatic pressure in the nucleus. The load forced 4.3% of the water out of the nucleus, which reduced nucleus pressure by 44(±6)%. Reduction of the osmotic gradient disturbed the equilibrium disc height, and a significant loss of annulus water content was found. Remarkably, pressure and water content of the nucleus pulposus remained unchanged. This shows that annulus water content is important in the response to axial loading. After unloading, in the absence of an osmotic gradient, there was substantial viscoelastic recovery of 53(±11)% of the disc height, without a change in water content. However, for restoration of the nucleus pressure and for full restoration of disc height, restoration of the osmotic gradient was needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency-dependent springs in the seismic analysis of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapin, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a two-step algorithm for the seismic analysis of structure resting on the rigid embedded basement. Frequency-domain analysis of SSI is carried out on the second step for a platform model with special 'soil spring' which is complex, frequency-dependent, wave-dependent and non-balanced. Theory is presented to obtain the parameters of the soil spring on the first step of the analysis, performed without structure (only geometry of the basement is used) using well-known SASSI code (Lysmer et al, 1981) or in some other ways. On the second step in the SASSI analysis the soil spring is included in the model as a special finite element. Thus, the first step enables to save the computer resources on structure, the second step-to save resources on soil. Soil spring is the most general form for a SSI linear analysis: conventional springs and dashpots can be easily represented in such a format. Thus, the presented approach enables to study the impact of various factors (such as the embedment depth and soil-structure separation, the off-diagonal stiffness, various formulas for stiffness and damping, etc.) on the soil spring parameters. These parameters can be studied separately from the structure itself. As an example, the study of the horizontal soil mesh size is presented. Lumped soil spring may be used on the second step to obtain structural response spectra. To get stresses complex stiffness may be distributed over the basement slab and embedded walls. The proposed approach may be considered to be the alternative to the impedance method (see ASCE4-98). (authors)

  9. Viscoelastic Response of the Titanium Alloy Ti-6-4: Experimental Identification of Time- and Rate-Dependent Reversible and Irreversible Deformation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    In support of an effort on damage prognosis, the viscoelastic behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6-4) was investigated. This report documents the experimental characterization of this titanium alloy. Various uniaxial tests were conducted to low load levels over the temperature range of 20 to 538 C to define tensile, creep, and relaxation behavior. A range of strain rates (6x10(exp -7) to 0.001/s) were used to document rate effects. All tests were designed to include an unloading portion, followed by a hold time at temperature to allow recovery to occur either at zero stress or strain. The titanium alloy was found to exhibit viscoelastic behavior below the "yield" point and over the entire range of temperatures (although at lower temperatures the magnitude is extremely small). These experimental data will be used for future characterization of a viscoelastic model.

  10. The frequency dependence of friction in experiment, theory, and observations of low frequency earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Beeler, N. M.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) are small amplitude, short duration events composing tectonic tremor, probably generated by shear slip on asperities downdip of the seismogenic zone. In Parkfield, Shelly and Hardebeck [2010] have identified 88 LFE families, or hypocentral locations, that contain over half a million LFEs since 2001 on a 160-km-long section of the San Andreas fault between 16 and 30 km depth. A number of studies have demonstrated the extreme sensitivity of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) near Parkfield to stress changes ranging from contingent upon the amplitude and frequency content of the applied stress. We attempt to test this framework by comparing observations of LFEs triggered in response to stresses spanning several orders of magnitude in both frequency and amplitude (e.g. tides, teleseismic surface waves, static stress changes, etc.) to the predicted response of a single degree of freedom slider block model with rate and state dependent strength. The sensitivity of failure time in the friction model as developed in previous studies does not distinguish between shear and normal stresses; laboratory experiments show a more complicated sensitivity of failure time to normal stress change than in the published model. Because the shear and normal tidal stresses at Parkfield have different amplitudes and are not in phase, we have modified the model to include the expected sensitivity to normal stress. Our prior investigations of the response of both regular and low frequency earthquakes to tidal stresses [Thomas et al., 2009; Shelly and Johnson, 2011] are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of the friction model , as both the timing and degree (probability) of correlation are in agreement.

  11. Local viscoelastic properties of live cells investigated using dynamic and quasi-static atomic force microscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Alexander; Raman, Arvind

    2014-03-04

    The measurement of viscoelasticity of cells in physiological environments with high spatio-temporal resolution is a key goal in cell mechanobiology. Traditionally only the elastic properties have been measured from quasi-static force-distance curves using the atomic force microscope (AFM). Recently, dynamic AFM-based methods have been proposed to map the local in vitro viscoelastic properties of living cells with nanoscale resolution. However, the differences in viscoelastic properties estimated from such dynamic and traditional quasi-static techniques are poorly understood. In this work we quantitatively reconstruct the local force and dissipation gradients (viscoelasticity) on live fibroblast cells in buffer solutions using Lorentz force excited cantilevers and present a careful comparison between mechanical properties (local stiffness and damping) extracted using dynamic and quasi-static force spectroscopy methods. The results highlight the dependence of measured viscoelastic properties on both the frequency at which the chosen technique operates as well as the interactions with subcellular components beyond certain indentation depth, both of which are responsible for differences between the viscoelasticity property maps acquired using the dynamic AFM method against the quasi-static measurements. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of Viscoelastic Properties of Three Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Pishvaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Handling of endodontic sealers is greatly dependent on their elasticity and flow ability. We compared the viscoelastic properties of three root canal sealers.Materials and Methods: AH Plus (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany, Endofill (Dentsply Hero, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and AH26 (Dentsply, De Trey, Konstanz, Germany were mixed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The resulted pastes were placed on the plate of a rheometer (MCR 300, Anton-Paar, Graz, Austria. The experiments were performed at 25˚C and 37˚C. Viscoelastic properties of the sealers including loss modulus (G", storage modulus (G´ and complex viscosity (η* were studied using dynamic oscillatory shear tests. The shear module versus frequency (from 0.01 to 100 S-1 curves were gained using frequency deformation sweep test. Three samples of each material were examined at each temperature. The mean of these three measurements were recorded.Results: The storage modulus of AH plus was higher than its loss modulus at two temperatures. Endofill exhibited a crossover region in which the storage modulus crosses the loss modulus in both temperatures. At 25ºC the loss modulus of AH26 was higher than the storage modulus (G">G¢. In contrast, at 37ºC G¢was greater than G² (G¢>G². Both shear modules of AH Plus and Endofill decreased as the temperature raised from 25ºC to 37ºC. On the contrary, the loss modulus and storage modulus of AH26 increased at 37ºC.Conclusion: In both test temperatures, AH Plus behaved like viscoelastic solids and Endofill exhibited a gel-like viscoelastic behavior. AH26 at 25ºC behaved like liquids, while at 37ºC it was an elastic solid-like material

  13. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  14. Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urbina, Angel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.

  15. Size-dependent free vibration and dynamic analyses of piezo-electro-magnetic sandwich nanoplates resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent free vibration analysis of a sandwich nanoplate is presented. The sandwich nanoplate is including an elastic nano core and two piezo-electro-magnetic face-sheets as sensor and actuator actuated by electric and magnetic potentials. The sandwich nanoplate is resting on visco-Pasternak's foundation. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the governing equations of motion based on Kirchhoff plate and nonlocal elasticity theory. The numerical results are presented to study the influence of important parameters of the problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, nonlocal parameter and visco-Pasternak's parameters. Furthermore, the influence of various boundary conditions is discussed on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich nanoplate.

  16. Solution of magnetohydrodynamic flow and heat transfer of radiative viscoelastic fluid with temperature dependent viscosity in wire coating analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Siddiqui, Nasir; Ullah, Murad; Shah, Qayyum

    2018-01-01

    Wire coating process is a continuous extrusion process for primary insulation of conducting wires with molten polymers for mechanical strength and protection in aggressive environments. In the present study, radiative melt polymer satisfying third grade fluid model is used for wire coating process. The effect of magnetic parameter, thermal radiation parameter and temperature dependent viscosity on wire coating analysis has been investigated. Reynolds model and Vogel's models have been incorporated for variable viscosity. The governing equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved analytically by utilizing homotopy analysis method (HAM). The computed results are also verified by ND-Solve method (Numerical technique) and Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). The effect of pertinent parameters is shown graphically. In addition, the instability of the flow in the flows of the wall of the extrusion die is well marked in the case of the Vogel model as pointed by Nhan-Phan-Thien.

  17. Frequency-dependent selection at rough expanding fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Stark, Holger

    2015-10-01

    Microbial colonies are experimental model systems for studying the colonization of new territory by biological species through range expansion. We study a generalization of the two-species Eden model, which incorporates local frequency-dependent selection, in order to analyze how social interactions between two species influence surface roughness of growing microbial colonies. The model includes several classical scenarios from game theory. We then concentrate on an expanding public goods game, where either cooperators or defectors take over the front depending on the system parameters. We analyze in detail the critical behavior of the nonequilibrium phase transition between global cooperation and defection and thereby identify a new universality class of phase transitions dealing with absorbing states. At the transition, the number of boundaries separating sectors decays with a novel power law in time and their superdiffusive motion crosses over from Eden scaling to a nearly ballistic regime. In parallel, the width of the front initially obeys Eden roughening and, at later times, passes over to selective roughening.

  18. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  19. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic propertie...

  20. Modelling Viscoelasticity of Loudspeaker Suspensions using Retardation Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Tobias; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    , the viscoelastic retardation spectrum, which provides a more fundamental description of the suspension viscoelasticity, is rst used to explain the accuracy of the empirical LOG creep model (Knudsen et al.). Then, two extensions to the LOG model are proposed which include the low and high frequency limit...

  1. Changes in large pulmonary arterial viscoelasticity in chronic pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wang

    Full Text Available Conduit pulmonary artery (PA stiffening is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH and is an excellent predictor of mortality due to right ventricular (RV overload. To better understand the impact of conduit PA stiffening on RV afterload, it is critical to examine the arterial viscoelastic properties, which require measurements of elasticity (energy storage behavior and viscosity (energy dissipation behavior. Here we hypothesize that PAH leads to frequency-dependent changes in arterial stiffness (related to elasticity and damping ratio (related to viscosity in large PAs. To test our hypothesis, PAH was induced by the combination of chronic hypoxia and an antiangiogenic compound (SU5416 treatment in mice. Static and sinusoidal pressure-inflation tests were performed on isolated conduit PAs at various frequencies (0.01-20 Hz to obtain the mechanical properties in the absence of smooth muscle contraction. Static mechanical tests showed significant stiffening of large PAs with PAH, as expected. In dynamic mechanical tests, structural stiffness (κ increased and damping ratio (D decreased at a physiologically relevant frequency (10 Hz in hypertensive PAs. The dynamic elastic modulus (E, a material stiffness, did not increase significantly with PAH. All dynamic mechanical properties were strong functions of frequency. In particular, κ, E and D increased with increasing frequency in control PAs. While this behavior remained for D in hypertensive PAs, it reversed for κ and E. Since these novel dynamic mechanical property changes were found in the absence of changes in smooth muscle cell content or contraction, changes in collagen and proteoglycans and their interactions are likely critical to arterial viscoelasticity in a way that has not been previously described. The impact of these changes in PA viscoelasticity on RV afterload in PAH awaits further investigation.

  2. Changes in Large Pulmonary Arterial Viscoelasticity in Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijie; Lakes, Roderic S.; Golob, Mark; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2013-01-01

    Conduit pulmonary artery (PA) stiffening is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is an excellent predictor of mortality due to right ventricular (RV) overload. To better understand the impact of conduit PA stiffening on RV afterload, it is critical to examine the arterial viscoelastic properties, which require measurements of elasticity (energy storage behavior) and viscosity (energy dissipation behavior). Here we hypothesize that PAH leads to frequency-dependent changes in arterial stiffness (related to elasticity) and damping ratio (related to viscosity) in large PAs. To test our hypothesis, PAH was induced by the combination of chronic hypoxia and an antiangiogenic compound (SU5416) treatment in mice. Static and sinusoidal pressure-inflation tests were performed on isolated conduit PAs at various frequencies (0.01–20 Hz) to obtain the mechanical properties in the absence of smooth muscle contraction. Static mechanical tests showed significant stiffening of large PAs with PAH, as expected. In dynamic mechanical tests, structural stiffness (κ) increased and damping ratio (D) decreased at a physiologically relevant frequency (10 Hz) in hypertensive PAs. The dynamic elastic modulus (E), a material stiffness, did not increase significantly with PAH. All dynamic mechanical properties were strong functions of frequency. In particular, κ, E and D increased with increasing frequency in control PAs. While this behavior remained for D in hypertensive PAs, it reversed for κ and E. Since these novel dynamic mechanical property changes were found in the absence of changes in smooth muscle cell content or contraction, changes in collagen and proteoglycans and their interactions are likely critical to arterial viscoelasticity in a way that has not been previously described. The impact of these changes in PA viscoelasticity on RV afterload in PAH awaits further investigation. PMID:24223157

  3. Viscoelastic guidance of resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2014-01-01

    the use of viscoelastic hemostatic assays to guide trauma resuscitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Viscoelastic hemostatic assays such as thrombelastography and rotational thrombelastometry have shown to reduce bleeding, transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelets, and possibly mortality in different surgical...... populations. In trauma care, viscoelastic hemostatic assays allows for rapid and timely identification of coagulopathy and individualized, goal-directed transfusion therapy. As part of the resuscitation concept, viscoelastic hemostatic assays seem to improve outcome also in trauma; however, there is a need...... for randomized clinical trials to confirm this. SUMMARY: We are moving toward avoiding coagulopathy by individualized, goal-directed transfusion therapy, using viscoelastic hemostatic assays to guide ongoing resuscitation of actively bleeding patients in a goal-directed manner....

  4. Correlating Viscoelasticity with Metabolism in Single Cells using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporizzo, Matthew; Roco, Charles; Coll-Ferrer, Carme; Eckmann, David; Composto, Russell

    2015-03-01

    Variable indentation-rate rheometric analysis by Laplace transform (VIRRAL), is developed to evaluate Dex-Gel drug carriers as biocompatible delivery agents. VIRRAL provides a general platform for the rapid characterization of the health of single cells by viscoelasticity to promote the self-consistent comparison between cells paramount to the development of early diagnosis and treatment of disease. By modelling the frequency dependence of elastic modulus, VIRRAL provides three metrics of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity: low frequency stiffness, high frequency stiffness, and a relaxation time. THP-1 cells are found to exhibit a frequency dependent elastic modulus consistent with the standard linear solid model of viscoelasticity. VIRRAL indicates that dextran-lysozyme drug carriers are biocompatible and deliver concentrated toxic material (rhodamine or silver nanoparticles) to the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells. The signature of cytotoxicity by rhodamine or silver exposure is a frequency independent 2-fold increase in elastic modulus and cytoplasmic viscosity while the cytoskeletal relaxation time remains unchanged independent of cytoplasmic stiffness. This is consistent with the known toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles, where mitochondrial injury leads to ATP depletion and metabolic stress causes a decrease of mobility within cytoplasm. NSF DMR08-32802, NIH T32-HL007954, and ONR N000141410538.

  5. Shape Optimization of Unconstrained Viscoelastic Layers Using Continuum Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsdaine, A.; Scott, R. A.

    1998-09-01

    Of the many methods available for achieving effective vibration damping, adding viscoelastic lamina is a significant technique for vibration and reduction. Recently, the desire to apportion this material in a way that will take the greatest advantage of its dissipative characteristics has led to studies in optimization. Optimal design for viscoelastically damped laminated beams and plates undergoing harmonic excitation has been examined in the literature, both for constrained and unconstrained damping layers. However to the authors' knowledge, previous optimization studies have not used continuum based finite elements to model the structure, as is done here. The problem examined is the shape optimization of an unconstrained damping layer on an elastic structure, assuming a constant volume of damping material as a design constraint. The objective is to minimize the peak displacement. Several boundary conditions are examined for beam and plate type structures. The peak displacement and the loss factor of the optimized structure are compared with the uniform layer structure. Also, results obtained using realistic (frequency dependent) and constant viscoelastic material data are compared. The structures are modelled using continuum based elements in the ABAQUS Finite Element Code. The optimization code uses a Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm. For most of the structures examined, order of magnitude improvement is seen as a result of optimizing the shape of the damping layer. Peak displacements are reduced by up to 98%. These results are quite robust, with the optimized damping layer achieving significantly better damping performance for a wide variety of cases examined.

  6. Damping Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Structures with Enhanced Viscoelastic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Mathias; Høgsberg, Jan; Vanwalleghem, Joachim; Filippatos, Angelos; Hoschützky, Stefan; Fotsing, Edith-Roland; Berggreen, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Constrained layer damping treatments are widely used in mechanical structures to damp acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations. A viscoelastic layer is thereby applied to a structure and covered by a stiff constraining layer. When the structure vibrates in a bending mode, the viscoelastic layer is forced to deform in shear mode. Thus, the vibration energy is dissipated as low grade frictional heat. This paper documents the efficiency of passive constrained layer damping treatments for low frequency vibrations of cylindrical composite specimens made of glass fibre-reinforced plastics. Different cross section geometries with shear webs have been investigated in order to study a beneficial effect on the damping characteristics of the cylinder. The viscoelastic damping layers are placed at different locations within the composite cylinder e.g. circumferential and along the neutral plane to evaluate the location-dependent efficiency of constrained layer damping treatments. The results of the study provide a thorough understanding of constrained layer damping treatments and an improved damping design of the cylindrical composite structure. The highest damping is achieved when placing the damping layer in the neutral plane perpendicular to the bending load. The results are based on free decay tests of the composite structure.

  7. Anisotropy in the viscoelastic response of knee meniscus cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccino, Luca; Peres, Chiara; Gottardi, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ceseracciu, Luca

    2017-01-26

    The knee meniscus is instrumental to stability, shock absorption, load transmission and stress distribution within the knee joint. Such functions are mechanically demanding, and replacement constructs used in meniscus repair often fail because of a poor match with the surrounding tissue. This study focused on the native structure-mechanics relationships and on their anisotropic behavior in meniscus, to define the target biomechanical viscoelastic properties required by scaffolds upon loading. To show regional orientation of the collagen fibers and their viscoelastic behavior, bovine lateral menisci were characterized by second harmonic generation microscopy and through time-dependent mechanical tests. Furthermore, their dynamic viscoelastic response was analyzed over a wide range of frequencies. Multilevel characterization aims to expand the biomimetic approach from the structure itself, to include the mechanical characteristics that give the meniscus its peculiar properties, thus providing tools for the design of novel, effective scaffolds. An example of modeling of anisotropic open-cell porous material tailored to fulfill the measured requirements is presented, leading to a definition of additional parameters for a better understanding of the load transmission mechanism and for better scaffold functionality.

  8. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Creech, Tyler G.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Henningsen, John C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (∼2 m). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects.

  9. Rayleigh–Lamb wave propagation on a fractional order viscoelastic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, F. Can; Royston, Thomas J.; Magin, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    A previous study of the authors published in this journal focused on mechanical wave motion in a viscoelastic material representative of biological tissue [Meral et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 3278–3285 (2009)]. Compression, shear and surface wave motion in and on a viscoelastic halfspace excited by surface and sub-surface sources were considered. It was shown that a fractional order Voigt model, where the rate-dependent damping component that is dependent on the first derivative of time is replaced with a component that is dependent on a fractional derivative of time, resulted in closer agreement with experiment as compared with conventional (integer order) models, such as those of Voigt and Zener. In the present study, this analysis is extended to another configuration and wave type: out-of-plane response of a viscoelastic plate to harmonic anti-symmetric Lamb wave excitation. Theoretical solutions are compared with experimental measurements for a polymeric tissue mimicking phantom material. As in the previous configurations the fractional order modeling assumption improves the match between theory and experiment over a wider frequency range. Experimental complexities in the present study and the reliability of the different approaches for quantifying the shear viscoelastic properties of the material are discussed. PMID:21361459

  10. A Thermodynamic Theory Of Solid Viscoelasticity. Part 1: Linear Viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.

    2002-01-01

    The present series of three consecutive papers develops a general theory for linear and finite solid viscoelasticity. Because the most important object for nonlinear studies are rubber-like materials, the general approach is specified in a form convenient for solving problems important for many industries that involve rubber-like materials. General linear and nonlinear theories for non-isothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids are developed based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this, the first paper of the series, we analyze non-isothermal linear viscoelasticity, which is applicable in a range of small strains not only to all synthetic polymers and bio-polymers but also to some non-polymeric materials. Although the linear case seems to be well developed, there still are some reasons to implement a thermodynamic derivation of constitutive equations for solid-like, non-isothermal, linear viscoelasticity. The most important is the thermodynamic modeling of thermo-rheological complexity , i.e. different temperature dependences of relaxation parameters in various parts of relaxation spectrum. A special structure of interaction matrices is established for different physical mechanisms contributed to the normal relaxation modes. This structure seems to be in accord with observations, and creates a simple mathematical framework for both continuum and molecular theories of the thermo-rheological complex relaxation phenomena. Finally, a unified approach is briefly discussed that, in principle, allows combining both the long time (discrete) and short time (continuous) descriptions of relaxation behaviors for polymers in the rubbery and glassy regions.

  11. Frequency dependence of junction capacitance of BPW34 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Capacitance–frequency measurements were carried out using Hewlett Packard HP. 4192A impedance analyser operating at frequencies 100 Hz to 10 MHz. The de- vice was mounted in the sampler holder of the helium cryostat (Oxford) and the measurements were made in vacuum at temperatures between 100 K and 300 ...

  12. Love wave dispersion in anisotropic visco-elastic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. GIR SUBHASH

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on Love wave propagation in a anisotropic
    visco-elastic layer overlying a rigid half space. The characteristic frequency
    equation is obtained and the variation of the wave number with frequency
    under the combined effect of visco-elasticity and anisotropy is analysed
    in detail. The results show that the effect of visco-elasticity on the
    wave is similar to that of anisotropy as long as the coefficient of anisotropy
    is less than unity.

  13. Modelling Viscoelasticity of Loudspeaker Suspensions using Retardation Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Tobias; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that, due to viscoelastic eects in the suspension, the displacement of the loudspeaker increases with decreasing frequency below the resonance. Present creep models are either not precise enough or purely empirical and not derived from the basis of physics. In this investigation......, the viscoelastic retardation spectrum, which provides a more fundamental description of the suspension viscoelasticity, is rst used to explain the accuracy of the empirical LOG creep model (Knudsen et al.). Then, two extensions to the LOG model are proposed which include the low and high frequency limit...

  14. The Frequency Dependent Characteristics of the 2010 Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, E.; Ishii, M.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 Chile earthquake is important both because of its magnitude (Mw 8.8), and its spatial relationship to geological features (e.g., the Juan Fernandez Ridge) and past large events (e.g., the1960 Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake). To determine the spatio-temporal relationship of the rupture propagation, we use seismic data from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) and apply a back-projection method. The TA data are filtered into three frequency ranges, 1-5 Hz, 0.1 - 0.5 Hz, and 0.05 - 0.01 Hz. The back-projection results from these three frequency ranges reveal unique aspects of the Chilean earthquake. The highest frequency data (1-5 Hz) show that slip occurred on two separate segments. The initial low-amplitude rupture is bilateral and has rupture velocities as low as 0.8 km/s near its southern end, near the Arauco Peninsula. The second high-amplitude segment is updip and to the north of the initial rupture and has a much higher rupture velocity (3.0 km/s). The gap between the two rupture regions and their timing suggests that the initial rupture triggered the second rupture. A similar rupture pattern is obtained using the intermediate-frequency data (0.1-0.5 Hz). However, for the second, northern rupture, the energy at intermediate-frequency lags behind the high-frequency energy. This observation suggests that slower slip is following the rupture front, which supports the hypothesis that fault lubrication is an important factor for the slips associated with giant earthquakes. Finally, the results using the lowest-frequency data (0.01-0.05 Hz) show a much different picture of the rupture than the other two frequency ranges. Here, the highest amplitude energy is at the southern extent of the initial rupture, near the Arauco Peninsula. These lowest-frequency results agree well with the available geodetic observations, which show largest deformation south of the epicenter. In general, it appears that the northern rupture, which corresponds to the area of the 1985

  15. Soft Matter Lubrication: Does Solid Viscoelasticity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putignano, Carmine; Dini, Daniele

    2017-12-06

    Classical lubrication theory is unable to explain a variety of phenomena and experimental observations involving soft viscoelastic materials, which are ubiquitous and increasingly used in e.g. engineering and biomedical applications. These include unexpected ruptures of the lubricating film and a friction-speed dependence, which cannot be elucidated by means of conventional models, based on time-independent stress-strain constitutive laws for the lubricated solids. A new modeling framework, corroborated through experimental measurements enabled via an interferometric technique, is proposed to address these issues: Solid/fluid interactions are captured thanks to a coupling strategy that makes it possible to study the effect that solid viscoelasticity has on fluid film lubrication. It is shown that a newly defined visco-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (VEHL) regime can be experienced depending on the degree of coupling between the fluid flow and the solid hysteretic response. Pressure distributions show a marked asymmetry with a peak at the flow inlet, and correspondingly, the film thickness reveals a pronounced shrinkage at the flow outlet; friction is heavily influenced by the viscoelastic hysteresis which is experienced in addition to the viscous losses. These features show significant differences with respect to the classical elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime response that would be predicted when solid viscoelasticity is neglected. A simple yet powerful criterion to assess the importance of viscoelastic solid contributions to soft matter lubrication is finally proposed.

  16. Frequency-Dependent Blanking with Digital Linear Chirp Waveform Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andrews, John M. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Wideband radar systems, especially those that operate at lower frequencies such as VHF and UHF, are often restricted from transmitting within or across specific frequency bands in order to prevent interference to other spectrum users. Herein we describe techniques for notching the transmitted spectrum of a generated and transmitted radar waveform. The notches are fully programmable as to their location, and techniques are given that control the characteristics of the notches.

  17. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  18. Frequency and temperature dependence of high damping elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. In the US, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of high damping rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 and 100% and are expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading conditions. Elastomeric bearings are currently designed to provide a system frequency between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz and expected to operate between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. To assure proper performance of isolation bearings, it is necessary to characterize the elastomer's response under expected variations of frequency and temperature. The dynamic response of the elastomer must be characterized within the frequency range that spans the bearing acceptance test frequency, which may be as low as 0.005 Hz, and the design frequency. Similarly, the variation in mechanical characteristics of the elastomer must be determined over the design temperature range, which is between -20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. This paper reports on (1) the capabilities of a testing facility at ANL for testing candidate elastomers, (2) the variation with frequency and temperature of the stiffness and damping of one candidate elastomer, and (3) the effect of these variations on bearing acceptance testing criteria and on the choice of bearing design values for stiffness and damping

  19. Frequency and temperature dependence of high damping elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1993-08-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. In the US, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of high damping rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 and 100% and are expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading conditions. Elastomeric bearings are currently designed to provide a system frequency between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz and expected to operate between {minus}20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. To assure proper performance of isolation bearings, it is necessary to characterize the elastomer`s response under expected variations of frequency and temperature. The dynamic response of the elastomer must be characterized within the frequency range that spans the bearing acceptance test frequency, which may be as low as 0.005 Hz, and the design frequency. Similarly, the variation in mechanical characteristics of the elastomer must be determined over the design temperature range, which is between {minus}20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. This paper reports on (1) the capabilities of a testing facility at ANL for testing candidate elastomers, (2) the variation with frequency and temperature of the stiffness and damping of one candidate elastomer, and (3) the effect of these variations on bearing acceptance testing criteria and on the choice of bearing design values for stiffness and damping.

  20. Frequency dependence of microflows upon acoustic interactions with fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, Benjamin; Reboud, Julien; Tassieri, Manlio; Wilson, Rab; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2017-12-01

    Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs), generated on piezoelectric substrates, can interact with liquids to generate fast streaming flows. Although studied extensively, mainly phenomenologically, the effect of the SAW frequency on streaming in fluids in constrained volumes is not fully understood, resulting in sub-optimal correlations between models and experimental observations. Using microfluidic structures to reproducibly define the fluid volume, we use recent advances modeling the body force generated by SAWs to develop a deeper understanding of the effect of acoustic frequency on the magnitude of streaming flows. We implement this as a new predictive tool using a finite element model of fluid motion to establish optimized conditions for streaming. The model is corroborated experimentally over a range of different acoustic excitation frequencies enabling us to validate a design tool, linking microfluidic channel dimensions with frequencies and streaming efficiencies. We show that in typical microfluidic chambers, the length and height of the chamber are critical in determining the optimum frequency, with smaller geometries requiring higher frequencies.

  1. Disentangling the roles of frequency- vs. state-dependence in generating individual differences in behavioural plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Kimberley J.; van den Hout, Piet J.; Piersma, Theunis; Kempenaers, Bart; Reale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that both negative frequency-dependent payoffs and state-dependent payoffs can lead to individual variation in behavioural plasticity. We investigated the roles of both frequency- and state-dependence on the occurrence of individual variation in behavioural plasticity in a

  2. Pressure dependent resonant frequency of micromechanical drumhead resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, D. R.; Craighead, H. G.; Parpia, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the relationship between squeeze film effects and resonance frequency in drum-type resonators. We find that the resonance frequency increases linearly with pressure as a result of the additional restoring force contribution from compression of gas within the drum cavity. We demonstrate trapping of the gas by squeeze film effects and geometry. The pressure sensitivity is shown to scale inversely with cavity height and sound radiation is found to be the predominant loss mechanism near and above atmospheric pressure. Drum resonators exhibit linearity and sensitivity suitable to barometry from below 10 Torr up to several atmospheres.

  3. Frequency dependence of the active impedance component of silicon thin-film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S.V.; Gostilo, V.V.; Yurov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A high-resistant resistor on the silicon thin-film substrate considerably superior in noise and frequency performance than commercial resistors is described. The frequency dependence of the active impedance component is tested for determining noise and frequency dependences of silicon thin-film resistors. The obtained results permit to calculate the energy equivalent of resistor noise in nuclear radiation detection units at any temperature according to its frequency characteristic at room temperature

  4. Frequency Dependence of Measured Massive MIMO Channel Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; Carvalho, Elisabeth De; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    A multi-user massive MIMO measurement campaign is conducted to study the channel propagation characteristics (e.g. user correlation, sum of eigenvalues and condition number), focusing on the stability over frequencies and the impact of the array aperture. We use 3 arrays with 64 antennas (6m linear...

  5. Approximate relationship between frequency-dependent skin depth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over the layered earth and thus, can be linked to the direct current earth response functions as an aid for estimating .... penetration resolved from direct current resistivity measurements at the frequency of the alternating current source. The reason for the possibility of ..... State, southern Nigeria, around the Gulf of Guinea; Int.

  6. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  7. Microscale characterization of the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel biomaterials using dual-mode ultrasound elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P; Deng, Cheri X

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of the microscale mechanical properties of biomaterials is a key challenge in the field of mechanobiology. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography (DUE) uses high frequency focused ultrasound to induce compression in a sample, combined with interleaved ultrasound imaging to measure the resulting deformation. This technique can be used to non-invasively perform creep testing on hydrogel biomaterials to characterize their viscoelastic properties. DUE was applied to a range of hydrogel constructs consisting of either hydroxyapatite (HA)-doped agarose, HA-collagen, HA-fibrin, or preosteoblast-seeded collagen constructs. DUE provided spatial and temporal mapping of local and bulk displacements and strains at high resolution. Hydrogel materials exhibited characteristic creep behavior, and the maximum strain and residual strain were both material- and concentration-dependent. Burger's viscoelastic model was used to extract characteristic parameters describing material behavior. Increased protein concentration resulted in greater stiffness and viscosity, but did not affect the viscoelastic time constant of acellular constructs. Collagen constructs exhibited significantly higher modulus and viscosity than fibrin constructs. Cell-seeded collagen constructs became stiffer with altered mechanical behavior as they developed over time. Importantly, DUE also provides insight into the spatial variation of viscoelastic properties at sub-millimeter resolution, allowing interrogation of the interior of constructs. DUE presents a novel technique for non-invasively characterizing hydrogel materials at the microscale, and therefore may have unique utility in the study of mechanobiology and the characterization of hydrogel biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Very Long Baseline Interferometry: Dependencies on Frequency Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2018-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a differential technique observing radiation of compact extra-galactic radio sources with pairs of radio telescopes. For these observations, the frequency standards at the telescopes need to have very high stability. In this article we discuss why this is, and we investigate exactly how precise the frequency standards need to be. Four areas where good clock performance is needed are considered: coherence, geodetic parameter estimation, correlator synchronization, and UT1 determination. We show that in order to ensure the highest accuracy of VLBI, stability similar to that of a hydrogen maser is needed for time-scales up to a few hours. In the article, we are considering both traditional VLBI where extra-galactic radio sources are observed, as well as observation of man-made artificial radio sources emitted by satellites or spacecrafts.

  9. Frequency dependence of alternating current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwani, Nishant; Cassou, Catherine A; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2011-04-15

    The novel effects resulting from the entrainment of low mobility ions during alternating current (ac) electrospray ionization are examined through mass spectrometry and voltage/current measurements. Curious phenomena such as pH modulation at high frequencies (>150 kHz) of an applied ac electric field are revealed and explained using simple mechanistic arguments. Current measurements are utilized to supplement these observations, and a simplified one-dimensional transient diffusion model for charge transport is used to arrive at a scaling law that provides better insight into the ac electrospray ionization process. Moreover, because of the different pathway for ion formation in comparison to direct current (dc) electrospray, ac electrospray (at frequencies >250 kHz) is shown to reduce the effects of ionization suppression in a mixture of two molecules with different surface activities. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  11. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz.

  12. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz. The -variations of wave ...

  13. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene; Hassenkam, Tue; P, Hansen

    2010-01-01

    on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  14. A theoretical analysis of low-frequency sonophoresis: dependence of transdermal transport pathways on frequency and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Ahmet; Sens, Ashley; Mitragotri, Samir

    2002-12-01

    Application of low-frequency ultrasound has been shown to increase skin permeability, thereby facilitating delivery of macromolecules (low-frequency sonophoresis). In this study, we seek to determine the dependence of transport pathways during low-frequency sonophoresis on ultrasound parameters. Pig skin is exposed to low-frequency ultrasound over a range of frequencies to achieve different skin resistivities. The porous pathway model is used to study the dependence of average pore size, porosity, and tortuosity on ultrasound parameters. Imaging experiments are also carried out to visualize the transport pathways created by ultrasound. The data show that the average pore size, determined from the porous pathway model, does not depend on application frequency. Both in the presence and absence of ultrasound the average pore size determined from mannitol delivery is the same (28 +/- 12 A). With the application of ultrasound the skin porosity could be increased by up to 1700-fold. The effect of ultrasound on skin is heterogeneous thereby creating localized transport pathways (LTP). The porosity of these transport pathways is of the same order of magnitude as that of the dermis. With this study it is shown that low-frequency ultrasound increases skin permeability by increasing skin porosity rather than by increasing the size of the pores that are responsible for permeant delivery.

  15. Frequency dependence of p-mode frequency shifts induced by magnetic activity in Kepler solar-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; Régulo, C.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The variations of the frequencies of the low-degree acoustic oscillations in the Sun induced by magnetic activity show a dependence on radial order. The frequency shifts are observed to increase towards higher-order modes to reach a maximum of about 0.8 μHz over the 11-yr solar cycle. A comparable frequency dependence is also measured in two other main sequence solar-like stars, the F-star HD 49933, and the young 1 Gyr-old solar analog KIC 10644253, although with different amplitudes of the shifts of about 2 μHz and 0.5 μHz, respectively. Our objective here is to extend this analysis to stars with different masses, metallicities, and evolutionary stages. From an initial set of 87 Kepler solar-like oscillating stars with known individual p-mode frequencies, we identify five stars showing frequency shifts that can be considered reliable using selection criteria based on Monte Carlo simulations and on the photospheric magnetic activity proxy Sph. The frequency dependence of the frequency shifts of four of these stars could be measured for the l = 0 and l = 1 modes individually. Given the quality of the data, the results could indicate that a physical source of perturbation different from that in the Sun is dominating in this sample of solar-like stars.

  16. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2006-12-22

    The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.

  18. Frequency-Dependent FDTD Algorithm Using Newmark’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of the polarizability in frequency domain of three common models of dispersive media, the relation between the polarization vector and electric field intensity is converted into a time domain differential equation of second order with the polarization vector by using the conversion from frequency to time domain. Newmark βγ difference method is employed to solve this equation. The electric field intensity to polarizability recursion is derived, and the electric flux to electric field intensity recursion is obtained by constitutive relation. Then FDTD iterative computation in time domain of electric and magnetic field components in dispersive medium is completed. By analyzing the solution stability of the above differential equation using central difference method, it is proved that this method has more advantages in the selection of time step. Theoretical analyses and numerical results demonstrate that this method is a general algorithm and it has advantages of higher accuracy and stability over the algorithms based on central difference method.

  19. Automatic detection of frequency changes depends on auditory stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, S; Lang, A H; Aaltonen, O; Lertola, K; Kärki, T

    1999-06-01

    A cortical cognitive auditory evoked potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), reflects automatic discrimination and echoic memory functions of the auditory system. For this study, we examined whether this potential is dependent on the stimulus intensity. The MMN potentials were recorded from 10 subjects with normal hearing using a sine tone of 1000 Hz as the standard stimulus and a sine tone of 1141 Hz as the deviant stimulus, with probabilities of 90% and 10%, respectively. The intensities were 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 dB HL for both standard and deviant stimuli in separate blocks. Stimulus intensity had a statistically significant effect on the mean amplitude, rise time parameter, and onset latency of the MMN. Automatic auditory discrimination seems to be dependent on the sound pressure level of the stimuli.

  20. Sensing of fluid viscoelasticity from piezoelectric actuation of cantilever flexural vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeongwon; Jeong, Seongbin; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Junhong, E-mail: parkj@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    An experimental method is proposed to measure the rheological properties of fluids. The effects of fluids on the vibration actuated by piezoelectric patches were analyzed and used in measuring viscoelastic properties. Fluid-structure interactions induced changes in the beam vibration properties and frequency-dependent variations of the complex wavenumber of the beam structure were used in monitoring these changes. To account for the effects of fluid-structure interaction, fluids were modelled as a simple viscoelastic support at one end of the beam. The measured properties were the fluid’s dynamic shear modulus and loss tangent. Using the proposed method, the rheological properties of various non-Newtonian fluids were measured. The frequency range for which reliable viscoelasticity results could be obtained was 10–400 Hz. Viscosity standard fluids were tested to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, and the results agreed well with the manufacturer’s reported values. The simple proposed laboratory setup for measurements was flexible so that the frequency ranges of data acquisition were adjustable by changing the beam’s mechanical properties.

  1. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  2. How Enzymes Work: A Look through the Perspective of Molecular Viscoelastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Qu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present nanorheology measurements on the folded state of an enzyme that show directly that the (ensemble-averaged stress-strain relations are nonlinear and frequency dependent beyond 1-Å deformation. We argue that this frequency dependence allows for opening a nonequilibrium cycle in the force-deformation plane if the forward and backward conformational changes of the enzyme during catalysis happen at different speeds. Using a heuristic model for the experimentally established viscoelastic properties of the enzyme, we examine a number of general features of enzymatic action. We find that the proposed viscoelastic cycle is consistent with the linear decrease of the speed of motor proteins with load. We find a relation between the stall force and the maximum rate for enzymes (in general and motors (in particular. We estimate the stall force of the motor protein kinesin from thermodynamic quantities and estimate the maximum rate of enzymes from purely mechanical quantities. We propose that the viscoelastic cycle provides a framework for considering mechanochemical coupling in enzymes on the basis of possibly universal materials properties of the folded state of proteins.

  3. Frequency-dependent changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in Internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eLin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have revealed that the task-related functional brain activities are impaired in Internet gaming disorder (IGD subjects. However, little is known about the alternations in spontaneous brain activities about them. Recent studies have proposed that the brain activities of different frequency ranges are generated by different nervous activities and have different physiological and psychological functions. Thus, in this study, we set to explore the spontaneous brain activities in IGD subjects by measuring the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF, to investigate band-specific changes of resting-state fALFF. We subdivided the frequency range into five bands based on literatures. Comparing to healthy controls, the IGD group showed decreased fALFF values in the cerebellum posterior lobe and increased fALFF values in superior temporal gyrus. Significant interactions between frequency bands and groups were found in the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate, the lingual gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus. Those brain regions are proved related to the executive function and decision-making. These results revealed the changed spontaneous brain activity of IGD, which contributed to understanding the underlying pathophysiology of IGD.

  4. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of nanoscale exosomes using viscoelastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, molecular cargos secreted by almost all mammalian cells, are considered as promising biomarkers to identify many diseases including cancers. However, the small size of exosomes (30-200 nm) poses serious challenges on their isolation from the complex media containing a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes, especially in small sample volumes. Here we develop a viscoelasticity-based microfluidic system to directly separate exosomes from cell culture media or serum in a continuous, size-dependent, and label-free manner. Using a small amount of biocompatible polymer as the additive into the media to control the viscoelastic forces exerted on EVs, we are able to achieve a high separation purity (>90%) and recovery (>80%) of exosomes. The size cutoff in viscoelasticity-based microfluidics can be easily controlled using different PEO concentrations. Based on this size-dependent viscoelastic separation strategy, we envision the handling of diverse nanoscale objects, such as gold nanoparticles, DNA origami structures, and quantum dots. This work was supported financially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11572334, 91543125).

  6. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. Examples are given for bricks with viscoelastic materials as missiles against a rigid target. (Auth.)

  7. Viscoelastic characterization of dispersive media by inversion of a general wave propagation model in optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Rolland, Jannick P.; Grygotis, Emma; Wayson, Sarah; Helguera, Maria; Dalecki, Diane; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-02-01

    Determining the mechanical properties of tissue such as elasticity and viscosity is fundamental for better understanding and assessment of pathological and physiological processes. Dynamic optical coherence elastography uses shear/surface wave propagation to estimate frequency-dependent wave speed and Young's modulus. However, for dispersive tissues, the displacement pulse is highly damped and distorted during propagation, diminishing the effectiveness of peak tracking approaches. The majority of methods used to determine mechanical properties assume a rheological model of tissue for the calculation of viscoelastic parameters. Further, plane wave propagation is sometimes assumed which contributes to estimation errors. To overcome these limitations, we invert a general wave propagation model which incorporates (1) the initial force shape of the excitation pulse in the space-time field, (2) wave speed dispersion, (3) wave attenuation caused by the material properties of the sample, (4) wave spreading caused by the outward cylindrical propagation of the wavefronts, and (5) the rheological-independent estimation of the dispersive medium. Experiments were conducted in elastic and viscous tissue-mimicking phantoms by producing a Gaussian push using acoustic radiation force excitation, and measuring the wave propagation using a swept-source frequency domain optical coherence tomography system. Results confirm the effectiveness of the inversion method in estimating viscoelasticity in both the viscous and elastic phantoms when compared to mechanical measurements. Finally, the viscoelastic characterization of collagen hydrogels was conducted. Preliminary results indicate a relationship between collagen concentration and viscoelastic parameters which is important for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Strings on a Violin: Location Dependence of Frequency Tuning in Active Dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Rathour, Rahul K; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2017-01-01

    Strings on a violin are tuned to generate distinct sound frequencies in a manner that is firmly dependent on finger location along the fingerboard. Sound frequencies emerging from different violins could be very different based on their architecture, the nature of strings and their tuning. Analogously, active neuronal dendrites, dendrites endowed with active channel conductances, are tuned to distinct input frequencies in a manner that is dependent on the dendritic location of the synaptic inputs. Further, disparate channel expression profiles and differences in morphological characteristics could result in dendrites on different neurons of the same subtype tuned to distinct frequency ranges. Alternately, similar location-dependence along dendritic structures could be achieved through disparate combinations of channel profiles and morphological characteristics, leading to degeneracy in active dendritic spectral tuning. Akin to strings on a violin being tuned to different frequencies than those on a viola or a cello, different neuronal subtypes exhibit distinct channel profiles and disparate morphological characteristics endowing each neuronal subtype with unique location-dependent frequency selectivity. Finally, similar to the tunability of musical instruments to elicit distinct location-dependent sounds, neuronal frequency selectivity and its location-dependence are tunable through activity-dependent plasticity of ion channels and morphology. In this morceau, we explore the origins of neuronal frequency selectivity, and survey the literature on the mechanisms behind the emergence of location-dependence in distinct forms of frequency tuning. As a coda to this composition, we present some future directions for this exciting convergence of biophysical mechanisms that endow a neuron with frequency multiplexing capabilities.

  9. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  10. Postseismic surface deformations due to lithospheric and asthenospheric viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for postseismic surface deformations by attributing them to lithospheric and asthenospheric viscoelasticity. The model predicts that the deformations due to lithospheric viscoelasticity depend on the decrease in the effective shear modulus acting long after the lithospheric relaxation compared to that acting immediately following the earthquake. While such deformations are generally smaller than those associated with asthenospheric viscoelasticity, they occur on a shorter time scale and may be in opposite direction to both the motion occurring at the time of the earthquake and that occurring as the asthenospheric relaxation occurs.

  11. Viscoelasticity of articular cartilage: Analysing the effect of induced stress and the restraint of bone in a dynamic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Bernard M; Sadeghi, Hamid; Temple, Duncan K; Dhaliwal, Hemeth; Espino, Daniel M; Hukins, David W L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the induced stress and restraint provided by the underlying bone on the frequency-dependent storage and loss stiffness (for bone restraint) or modulus (for induced stress) of articular cartilage, which characterise its viscoelasticity. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to determine the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of bovine femoral and humeral head articular cartilage. A sinusoidal load was applied to the specimens and out-of-phase displacement response was measured to determine the phase angle, the storage and loss stiffness or modulus. As induced stress increased, the storage modulus significantly increased (p 0.05); however, off-bone, articular cartilage loss stiffness demonstrated a logarithmic frequency-dependency (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the frequency-dependent trends of storage and loss moduli of articular cartilage are dependent on the induced stress, while the restraint provided by the underlying bone removes the frequency-dependency of the loss stiffness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Core-Shell-Structured Copolyaniline-Coated Polymeric Nanoparticle Suspension and Its Viscoelastic Response under Various Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Jae Moon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semi-conducting poly(n-methylaniline (PNMA-coated poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA composite nanoparticles were synthesized using cross-linked and grafted PMMA particles as a core, and then, the PNMA shell was coated via chemical oxidative polymerization on the surface of modified PMMA nanoparticles. Their electroresponsive electrorheological characteristics when dispersed in silicone were confirmed under applied electric fields using a rotational rheometer, focusing on their viscoelastic response. Using a frequency sweep test, the frequency dependence of both the storage and loss moduli was confirmed to increase upon increasing the electric field, with a stable plateau regime over the entire angular frequency range.

  13. Anomalous frequency-dependent ionic conductivity of lesion-laden human-brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Fallah, Aria; Vinters, Harry V.; Mathern, Gary W.

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of lesions on our four-electrode measurements of the ionic conductivity of (˜1 cm3) samples of human brain excised from patients undergoing pediatric epilepsy surgery. For most (˜94%) samples, the low-frequency ionic conductivity rises upon increasing the applied frequency. We attributed this behavior to the long-range (˜0.4 mm) diffusion of solvated sodium cations before encountering intrinsic impenetrable blockages such as cell membranes, blood vessels, and cell walls. By contrast, the low-frequency ionic conductivity of some (˜6%) brain-tissue samples falls with increasing applied frequency. We attribute this unusual frequency-dependence to the electric-field induced liberation of sodium cations from traps introduced by the unusually severe pathology observed in samples from these patients. Thus, the anomalous frequency-dependence of the ionic conductivity indicates trap-producing brain lesions.

  14. Nonseparable frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex in interacting fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, Demetrio; Taranto, Ciro; Metzner, Walter

    2017-12-01

    We derive functional flow equations for the two-particle vertex and the self-energy in interacting fermion systems which capture the full frequency dependence of both quantities. The equations are applied to the hole-doped two-dimensional Hubbard model as a prototype system with entangled magnetic, charge, and pairing fluctuations. Each fluctuation channel acquires substantial dependencies on all three Matsubara frequencies, such that the frequency dependence of the vertex cannot be accurately represented by a channel sum with only one frequency variable in each term. At the temperatures we are able to access, the leading instabilities are mostly antiferromagnetic, with an incommensurate wave vector. However, at large doping, a divergence in the charge channel occurs at a finite frequency transfer, if the vertex flow is computed without self-energy feedback. This enigmatic instability was already observed in a calculation by Husemann et al. [C. Husemann, K.-U. Giering, and M. Salmhofer, Phys. Rev. B 85, 075121 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.075121], who used an approximate separable ansatz for the frequency dependence of the vertex. We identify a simple mechanism for this instability in terms of a random-phase approximation for the charge channel with a frequency dependent effective magnetic interaction as input. In spite of the strong momentum and frequency dependence of the vertex, the self-energy has a Fermi-liquid form. At the moderate interaction strength where our approach is applicable, we obtain a moderate reduction of the quasiparticle weight and a sizable decay rate with a pronounced momentum dependence. Nevertheless, the self-energy feedback into the vertex flow turns out to be crucial, as it suppresses the unphysical finite frequency charge instability.

  15. Effect of excitation frequency on temperature dependent electroluminescence of ZnS : Cu, Mn : (H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.K.

    1986-04-01

    The temperature dependent electroluminescence yields of Hydrogen coactivated (ZnS : Cu, Mn) Phosphor have been investigated under the influence of excitation field frequencies. It was observed that brightness maximum of electroluminescent intensity shifts towards higher temperature region for all emissions. The shift for blue emission is remarkable at some higher frequency. Electroluminescent output under simultaneous effect of frequency and temperature shows the validity of interrelation, f=A e(-c/KT). (author)

  16. The vestibular implant: Frequency-dependency of the electrically evoked Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eVan De Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency.Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in 7 patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz, and 2Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the natural VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies.A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the natural VOR. Other characteristics of the (eVOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the normal vestibular system.

  17. Viscoelasticity of multicellular surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana; Milivojevic, Milan

    2017-07-26

    Various modeling approaches have been applied to describe viscoelasticity of multicellular surfaces. The viscoelasticity is considered within three time regimes: (1) short time regime for milliseconds to seconds time scale which corresponds to sub-cellular level; (2) middle time regime for several tens of seconds to several minutes time scale which corresponds to cellular level; and (3) long time regime for several tens of minutes to several hours time scale which corresponds to supra-cellular level. Short and middle time regimes have been successfully elaborated in the literature, whereas long time viscoelasticity remains unclear. Long time regime accounts for collective cell migration. Collective cell migration could induce uncorrelated motility which has an impact to energy storage and dissipation during cell surface rearrangement. Uncorrelated motility influences: (1) volume fraction of migrating cells, (2) distribution of migrating cells, (3) shapes of migrating cell groups. These parameters influence mechanical coupling between migrating and resting subpopulations and consequently the constitutive model for long time regime. This modeling consideration indicates that additional experimental work is needed to confirm the feasibility of constitutive models which have been applied in literature for long time regime as: (1) relaxation of stress and strain, (2) storage and loss moduli as the function of time, (3) distribution of migrating cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakarzadeh Dezfuli Nezhad, Hassan; Rottwitt, Karsten; Zakery, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams.......Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams....

  19. Fractional viscoelastic beam under torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas-Armijo, N.; Cutrona, S.; Di Paola, M.; Pirrotta, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper introduces a study on twisted viscoelastic beams, having considered fractional calculus to capture the viscoelastic behaviour. Further another novelty of this paper is extending a recent numerical approach, labelled line elementless method (LEM), to viscoelastic beams. The latter does not require any discretization neither in the domain nor in the boundary. Some numerical applications have been reported to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  20. Recognition of speech in noise after application of time-frequency masks: dependence on frequency and threshold parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinex, Donal G

    2013-04-01

    Binary time-frequency (TF) masks can be applied to separate speech from noise. Previous studies have shown that with appropriate parameters, ideal TF masks can extract highly intelligible speech even at very low speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Two psychophysical experiments provided additional information about the dependence of intelligibility on the frequency resolution and threshold criteria that define the ideal TF mask. Listeners identified AzBio Sentences in noise, before and after application of TF masks. Masks generated with 8 or 16 frequency bands per octave supported nearly-perfect identification. Word recognition accuracy was slightly lower and more variable with 4 bands per octave. When TF masks were generated with a local threshold criterion of 0 dB SNR, the mean speech reception threshold was -9.5 dB SNR, compared to -5.7 dB for unprocessed sentences in noise. Speech reception thresholds decreased by about 1 dB per dB of additional decrease in the local threshold criterion. Information reported here about the dependence of speech intelligibility on frequency and level parameters has relevance for the development of non-ideal TF masks for clinical applications such as speech processing for hearing aids.

  1. Mutational jackpot events generate effective frequency-dependent selection in adapting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallatschek, Oskar

    The site-frequency spectrum is one the most easily measurable quantities that characterize the genetic diversity of a population. While most neutral models predict that site frequency spectra should decay with increasing frequency, a high-frequency uptick has been reported in many populations. Anomalies in the high-frequency tail are particularly unsettling because the highest frequencies can be measured with greatest accuracy. Here, we show that an uptick in the spectrum of neutral mutations generally arises when mutant frequencies are dominated by rare jackpot events, mutational events with large descendant numbers. This leads to an effective pattern of frequency-dependent selection (or unstable internal equilibrium at one half frequency) that causes an accumulation of high-frequency polymorphic sites. We reproduce the known uptick occurring for recurrent hitchhiking (genetic draft) as well as rapid adaptation, and (in the future) generalize the shape of the high-frequency tail to other scenarios that are dominated by jackpot events, such as frequent range expansions. We also tackle (in the future) the inverse approach to use the high-frequency uptick for learning about the tail of the offspring number distribution. Positively selected alleles need to surpass, typically, an u NSF Career Award (PoLS), NIH NIGMS R01, Simons Foundation.

  2. Separable finite viscoelasticity: integral-based models vs. experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Nidhal; Arfaoui, Makrem; Hamdi, Adel; Salvia, Michelle; Bareille, Olivier; Ichchou, Mohamed; Ben Abdallah, Jalel

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the predictive capabilities of some integral-based finite strain viscoelastic models under the time-strain separability assumption have been investigated through experimental data for monotonic, relaxation and dynamic shear loads, in time and frequency domains. This analysis is instigated by experimental investigation results on two vulcanized carbon black filled rubbers. A unified identification procedure has been deployed to all models to determine the constitutive parameters. The monotonic tests were performed to capture the rate dependent and the long-term response of the materials. For the purely hyperelastic response, we considered the proposed hyperelastic potential proposed in Abaqus for incompressible materials. Relaxation tests were intended to identify the time-dependent material properties, and completed with a dynamic mechanical analysis. Models under consideration are Christensen, Fosdick & Yu, a variant of BKZ model, and the Simo model implemented in Abaqus. In the time domain, for each test case and for each model, the nominal stress is hence compared to experimental data, and the predictive capabilities are then examined with respect to three polynomial hyperelastic potentials forms. The dynamic properties had been investigated in the frequency domain with respect to the frequency and predeformation dependencies, and then comparison conclusions have been drawn.

  3. Viscoelasticity of Xenon near the Critical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    Using a novel, overdamped, oscillator flown aboard the Space Shuttle, we measured the viscosity of xenon near the liquid-vapor critical point in the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz. The measured viscosity divergence is characterized by the exponent z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006, in agreement with the value z(sub eta) = 0.067 +/- 0.002 calculated from a two-loop perturbation expansion. Viscoelastic behavior was evident when t = (T - T(sub c))/T(sub c) less than 10(exp -5) and dominant when t less than 10(exp -6), further from T(sub c) than predicted. Viscoelastic behavior scales as Af(tau) where tau is the fluctuation decay time. The measured value of A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop calculation. (Uncertainties stated are one standard uncertainty.)

  4. Comparison of Bergeron and Frequency-dependent cable models for the simulation of electromagnetic transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    is simulated for three different target frequencies: transient’s resonance frequency, 50Hz and an in-between frequency. The results are analysed theoretically using modal propagation theory and the error is quantified for the case under examination. It is concluded that for a realistic case, which requires...... analyses the simulation errors of different Bergeron models to a reference frequency-dependent model for a 150kV cable. The simulations consider flat and trefoil installation, both-ends bonding and cross-bonding, ideal voltage source and modelling of the area around the cable. The Bergeron model...

  5. Frequency-dependent changes of local resting oscillations in sleep-deprived brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD adversely affects brain function and is accompanied by frequency dependent changes in EEG. Recent studies have suggested that BOLD fluctuations pertain to a spatiotemporal organization with different frequencies. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency-dependent SD-related brain oscillatory activity by using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF analysis. The ALFF changes were measured across different frequencies (Slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; Slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; and Typical band: 0.01-0.08 Hz in 24 h SD as compared to rested wakeful during resting-state fMRI. Sixteen volunteers underwent two fMRI sessions, once during rested wakefulness and once after 24 h of SD. SD showed prominently decreased ALFF in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, while increased ALFF in the visual cortex, left sensorimotor cortex and fusiform gyrus. Across the Slow-4 and Slow-5, results differed significantly in the OFC, DLPFC, thalamus and caudate in comparison to typical frequency band; and Slow-4 showed greater differences. In addition, negative correlations of behavior performance and ALFF patterns were found mainly in the right IPL across the typical frequency band. These observations provided novel insights about the physiological responses of SD, identified how it disturbs the brain rhythms, and linked SD with frequency-dependent alterations in amplitude patterns.

  6. Dependence of modal attenuation coefficient frequency variation on upper sediment attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintval, Wendy; Siegmann, William L.; Carey, William M.; Pierce, Allan D.; Lynch, James F.

    2005-04-01

    The range-averaged transmission loss increase in shallow water propagation depends critically on the intrinsic attenuation of the upper sediment. The attenuation coefficients of low-frequency (sandy-silty sediments are compared to numerical calculations, it is found that a nonlinear-frequency dependent attenuation is required with an exponent between 1.5 and 2. The question considered here is how the intrinsic upper-sediment attenuation produces such behavior. A recent simplification of the Biot model [A. D. Pierce et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2345 (2003)] has a power-law exponent of two. With this frequency-dependent bottom attenuation, a two-layer Pekeris waveguide yields modal attenuation coefficients that decrease with frequency as observed by Ingenito. However, a depth-dependent attenuation profile or a third near-surface layer with requisite properties can reverse this behavior. This suggests why higher-frequency numerical computations may require nonlinear frequency-dependent sediment profiles to calculate sound transmission accurately. [Work partially supported by ONR.

  7. Characterization of frequency-dependent glass transition temperature by Vogel-Fulcher relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yu; Jin Li

    2008-01-01

    The complex mechanical modulus of polymer and polymer based composite materials showed a frequency-dependent behaviour during glass transition relaxation, which was historically modelled by the Arrhenius equation. However, this might not be true in a broad frequency domain based on the experience from the frequency dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity, which resulted from the same glass transition relaxation as for the complex mechanical modulus. Considering a good correspondence between dielectric and mechanical relaxation during glass transition, the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, previously proposed for the frequency dependence of dielectric permittivity, is introduced for that of the mechanical modulus; and the corresponding static glass transition temperature (T f ) was first determined for polymer and polymer based composite materials. (fast track communication)

  8. Large Prandtl number finite-amplitude thermal convection with Maxwell viscoelasticity. [earth mantle rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Unti, T. W. J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been known that the earth behaves viscoelastically. Viscoelasticity may be of importance in two aspects of mantle convection, including time-dependent behavior and local storage of recoverable work. The present investigation makes use of thermal convection in a box as a prototype of mantle flow. It is demonstrated that recoverable work can be important to the local mechanical energy balance in the descending lithosphere. It is shown that, even when assuming large viscoelastic parameters, an inherent time-dependence of viscoelastic convection appears only in local exchanges of mechanical energy. There is no strong exchange between buoyant potential energy and recoverable strain energy in the Rayleigh number range investigated. The investigation is mainly concerned with viscoelastic effects occurring on a buoyant time scale. It is found that viscoelastic effects have a negligible influence on the long term thermal energetics of mantle convection.

  9. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Vera; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat

  10. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Vera [Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Research Centre of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Budapest (Hungary); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: dobos@konkoly.hu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 08544, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.

  11. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.

    1982-01-01

    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  12. Investigation of transient cavitating flow in viscoelastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramat, A; Tijsseling, A S; Ahmadi, A

    2010-01-01

    A study on water hammer in viscoelastic pipes when the fluid pressure drops to liquid vapour pressure is performed. Two important concepts including column separation and the effects of retarded strains in the pipe wall on the fluid response have been investigated separately in recent works, but there is some curiosity as to how the results for pressure and discharge are when column separation occurs in a viscoelastic pipe. For pipes made of plastic such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), viscoelasticity is a crucial mechanical property which changes the hydraulic and structural transient responses. Based on previous developments in the analysis of water hammer, a model which is capable of analysing column separation in viscoelastic pipes is presented and used for solving the selected case studies. For the column-separation modelling the Discrete Vapour Cavity Model (DVCM) is utilised and the viscoelasticity property of the pipe wall is modelled by Kelvin-Voigt elements. The effects of viscoelasticity play an important role in the column separation phenomenon because it changes the water hammer fundamental frequency and so affects the time of opening or collapse of the cavities. Verification of the implemented computer code is performed for the effects of viscoelasticity and column separation - separately and simultaneously - using experimental results from the literature. In the provided examples the focus is placed on the simultaneous effect of viscoelasticity and column separation on the hydraulic transient response. The final conclusions drawn are that if rectangular grids are utilised the DVCM gives acceptable predictions of the phenomenon and that the pipe wall material's retarded behaviour strongly dampens the pressure spikes caused by column separation.

  13. Generalized Doppler and aberration kernel for frequency-dependent cosmological observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasini, Siavash; Pierpaoli, Elena

    2017-11-01

    We introduce a frequency-dependent Doppler and aberration transformation kernel for the harmonic multipoles of a general cosmological observable with spin weight s , Doppler weight d and arbitrary frequency spectrum. In the context of cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies, the frequency-dependent formalism allows to correct for the motion-induced aberration and Doppler effects on individual frequency maps with different masks. It also permits to deboost background radiations with non-blackbody frequency spectra, like extragalactic foregrounds and CMB spectra with primordial spectral distortions. The formalism can also be used to correct individual E and B polarization modes and account for motion-induced E/B mixing of polarized observables with d ≠1 at different frequencies. We apply the generalized aberration kernel on polarized and unpolarized specific intensity at 100 and 217 GHz and show that the motion-induced effects typically increase with the frequency of observation. In all-sky CMB experiments, the frequency-dependence of the motion-induced effects for a blackbody spectrum are overall negligible. However in a cut-sky analysis, ignoring the frequency dependence can lead to percent level error in the polarized and unpolarized power spectra over all angular scales. In the specific cut-sky used in our analysis (b >4 5 ° ,fsky≃14 % ), and for the dipole-inferred velocity β =0.00123 typically attributed to our peculiar motion, the Doppler and aberration effects can change polarized and unpolarized power spectra of specific intensity in the CMB rest frame by 1 - 2 % , but we find the polarization cross-leakage between E and B modes to be negligible.

  14. Fractional viscoelasticity in fractal and non-fractal media: Theory, experimental validation, and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Somayeh; Miles, Paul; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Oates, William S.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, fractional and non-fractional viscoelastic models for elastomeric materials are derived and analyzed in comparison to experimental results. The viscoelastic models are derived by expanding thermodynamic balance equations for both fractal and non-fractal media. The order of the fractional time derivative is shown to strongly affect the accuracy of the viscoelastic constitutive predictions. Model validation uses experimental data describing viscoelasticity of the dielectric elastomer Very High Bond (VHB) 4910. Since these materials are known for their broad applications in smart structures, it is important to characterize and accurately predict their behavior across a large range of time scales. Whereas integer order viscoelastic models can yield reasonable agreement with data, the model parameters often lack robustness in prediction at different deformation rates. Alternatively, fractional order models of viscoelasticity provide an alternative framework to more accurately quantify complex rate-dependent behavior. Prior research that has considered fractional order viscoelasticity lacks experimental validation and contains limited links between viscoelastic theory and fractional order derivatives. To address these issues, we use fractional order operators to experimentally validate fractional and non-fractional viscoelastic models in elastomeric solids using Bayesian uncertainty quantification. The fractional order model is found to be advantageous as predictions are significantly more accurate than integer order viscoelastic models for deformation rates spanning four orders of magnitude.

  15. Dependence of low-frequency sonophoresis on ultrasound parameters; distance of the horn and intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, T; Mitragotri, S; Kost, J; Langer, R

    2002-03-20

    Sonophoresis at a frequency of 20 kHz has been shown to enhance transdermal drug delivery, a phenomenon referred to as low-frequency sonophoresis. This study provides an investigation of the dependence of low-frequency sonophoresis on various ultrasound parameters, including the distance of the horn from the skin, intensity, and frequency. We performed in vitro experiments with full thickness pig skin to measure enhancements of skin conductivity and drug permeability. Ultrasound was applied to pretreat the skin using a sonicator operating at a frequency of either 20 or 40 kHz. We also measured pitting of aluminum foil to measure cavitation, which is the principal mechanism of low-frequency sonophoresis. The skin conductivity enhancement was found to be inversely proportional to the distance of the horn from the skin. As the intensity increased, skin conductivity enhancement also increased up to a certain threshold, and then dropped off. The intensities (I(max)) at which maximum enhancement occur are about 14 W/cm2 for 20 kHz and 17 W/cm2 for 40 kHz. These findings may be useful in optimizing low-frequency sonophoresis. Overall, the dependence of transport on ultrasound parameters is similar to that of aluminum foil pitting. These results support the role of cavitation in low-frequency sonophoresis.

  16. Frequency-dependent Lg attenuation in Northeast China and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Nishath Rajiv; Gallegos, Andrea; Hearn, Thomas; Ni, James; Sandvol, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Lg attenuation and site responses in Northeast (NE) China are estimated by implementing the Reverse Two Station Method (RTSM) at narrow band central frequencies of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Hz using 453 earthquakes recorded by 201 seismic stations deployed in the region from 1995 to 2013. The RTSM has the advantage of removing source and site effects without requiring a priori models. Tomographic images produced at a resolution of 2° × 2° at all frequencies exhibit a high degree of lateral variation of Lg attenuation in NE China. The Great Xing'an, Lesser Xing'an and Songen-Zhangguangcai Ranges show Q values above 400 at all frequencies. At central frequencies of 0.5 and 1 Hz, Sanjiang Basin Songliao Basin, Erlian Basin and Hailar Basin consistently show Q values lower than 400. Holocene and Pleistocene volcanoes, including the Wudalianchi and Jingpuhi volcanic fields, also appear as regions of low Q (frequencies the effects of volcanoes diminish. At high frequencies (≥2 Hz), the sedimentary basins show Q values higher than 400 and overall Q values increase with frequency in NE China, thus obeying a power-law frequency dependence. A linear regression of frequencies in the range of 0.25-4.5 Hz results in the parameters describing the power-law frequency dependence of the region, with an average Q0 value of 428 and a frequency-dependent factor (η), describing the strength of dependence, of 0.68. Overall, Lg attenuation in NE China appears to be due to thick late Cretaceous sediments, Holocene and Pleistocene volcanism, moderate to high heat flow, partial melts and variation in the thickness of the crustal wave guide. The site responses calculated at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3 Hz show a high degree of lateral variation as well as variation with frequency in NE China. At 0.5 and 1.0 Hz, the Great Xing'an and Lesser Xing'an Ranges show deamplification while the Hailar, Erlian and southern Songliao basins and the Songen-Zhangguangcai Range show amplification. At higher

  17. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqi Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102. This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  18. CRITICAL VELOCITY OF CONTROLLABILITY OF SLIDING FRICTION BY NORMAL OSCILLATIONS IN VISCOELASTIC CONTACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Popov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding friction can be reduced substantially by applying ultrasonic vibration in the sliding plane or in the normal direction. This effect is well known and used in many applications ranging from press forming to ultrasonic actuators. One of the characteristics of the phenomenon is that, at a given frequency and amplitude of oscillation, the observed friction reduction diminishes with increasing sliding velocity. Beyond a certain critical sliding velocity, there is no longer any difference between the coefficients of friction with or without vibration. This critical velocity depends on material and kinematic parameters and is a key characteristic that must be accounted for by any theory of influence of vibration on friction. Recently, the critical sliding velocity has been interpreted as the transition point from periodic stick-slip to pure sliding and was calculated for purely elastic contacts under uniform sliding with periodic normal loading. Here we perform a similar analysis of the critical velocity in viscoelastic contacts using a Kelvin material to describe viscoelasticity. A closed-form solution is presented, which contains previously reported results as special cases. This paves the way for more detailed studies of active control of friction in viscoelastic systems, a previously neglected topic with possible applications in elastomer technology and in medicine.

  19. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene; Hassenkam, Tue; P, Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... fibrils. Fibrils were obtained from intact human fascicles, without any pre-treatment besides frozen storage. In the dry state a single isolated fibril was anchored to a substrate using epoxy glue, and the end of the fibril was glued on to an AFM cantilever for tensile testing. In phosphate buffered...... on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  20. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  1. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  2. Viscoelasticity using reactive constrained solid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-04-13

    This study presents a framework for viscoelasticity where the free energy density depends on the stored energy of intact strong and weak bonds, where weak bonds break and reform in response to loading. The stress is evaluated by differentiating the free energy density with respect to the deformation gradient, similar to the conventional approach for hyperelasticity. The breaking and reformation of weak bonds is treated as a reaction governed by the axiom of mass balance, where the constitutive relation for the mass supply governs the bond kinetics. The evolving mass contents of these weak bonds serve as observable state variables. Weak bonds reform in an energy-free and stress-free state, therefore their reference configuration is given by the current configuration at the time of their reformation. A principal advantage of this formulation is the availability of a strain energy density function that depends only on observable state variables, also allowing for a separation of the contributions of strong and weak bonds. The Clausius-Duhem inequality is satisfied by requiring that the net free energy from all breaking bonds must be decreasing at all times. In the limit of infinitesimal strains, linear stress-strain responses and first-order kinetics for breaking and reforming of weak bonds, the reactive framework reduces exactly to classical linear viscoelasticity. For large strains, the reactive and classical quasilinear viscoelasticity theories produce different equations, though responses to standard loading configurations behave similarly. This formulation complements existing tools for modeling the nonlinear viscoelastic response of biological soft tissues under large deformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bayat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large offshore wind turbines are founded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder when the dynamic vertical excitation is applied. The smooth surface along the entire interface is considered. The Betti reciprocal theorem along with Somigliana’s identity and Green’s function are employed to drive the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures. Modes of the resonance and anti-resonance are presented in series of Bessel’s function. Important responses, such as dynamic stiffness and phase angle, are compared for different values of the loss factor as the material damping, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio in a viscoelastic soil. Results are verified with known results reported in the literature. It is observed that the dynamic stiffness fluctuates with the loss factor, and the turning point is independent of the loss factor while the turning point increases with load frequency. It is seen that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness is dependent on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, whilst the phase angle is independent of the properties of the soil. It is shown that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness changes linearly with high-frequency load. The conclusion from the results of this study is that the material properties of soil are significant parameters in the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures, and the presented approach can unfold the behavior of soil and give an approachable physical meaning for wave propagation.

  4. Hydrogen-enhanced fatigue crack growth in steels and its frequency dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hisao; Takakuwa, Osamu; Yamabe, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Saburo

    2017-06-01

    In the context of the fatigue life design of components, particularly those destined for use in hydrogen refuelling stations and fuel cell vehicles, it is important to understand the hydrogen-induced, fatigue crack growth (FCG) acceleration in steels. As such, the mechanisms for acceleration and its influencing factors are reviewed and discussed in this paper, with a special focus on the peculiar frequency dependence of the hydrogen-induced FCG acceleration. Further, this frequency dependence is debated by introducing some potentially responsible elements, along with new experimental data obtained by the authors. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  5. Frequency dependent loss analysis and minimization of system losses in switchmode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, frequency dependent losses in switch-mode audio power amplifiers are analyzed and a loss model is improved by taking the voltage dependence of the parasitic capacitance of MOSFETs into account. The estimated power losses are compared to the measurement and great accuracy is achieved....... By choosing the optimal switching frequency based on the proposed analysis, the experimental results show that system power losses of the reference design are minimized and an efficiency improvement of 8 % in maximum is achieved without compromising audio performances....

  6. Noise and vibration level reduction by covering metal structures with layers of damping materials. [considering viscoelastic insulation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugina, I.; Paven, H. T. O.

    1974-01-01

    One of the most important methods of reducing the noise and vibration level is the damping of the secondary sources, such as metal plates, often used in vehicle structures, by means of covering materials with high internal viscosity. Damping layers are chosen at an optimum thickness corresponding to the frequency and temperature range in which a certain structure works. The structure's response corresponding to various real situations is analyzed by means of a measuring chain including electroacoustical or electromechanical transducers. The experimental results provide the dependence of the loss factor and damping transmission coefficient as a function of the damping layer thickness or of the frequency for various viscoelastic covering materials.

  7. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) studies of the viscoelastic response from a continuously growing grafted polyelectrolyte layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunér, Gunnar; Thormann, Esben; Dedinaite, Andra

    2013-01-01

    the change in frequency and dissipation with increasing film mass changes sign as predicted by the Voigt viscoelastic model. Our experimental data are compared with predictions of this model, and satisfactory agreement is found for low overtone numbers. The Voigt model was applied to analyze the measured...... rate of the film thickness. For longer polymerization times a close to linear increase in thickness with time was observed. The sensitivity, defined as the derivatives of Δf and ΔD with respect to thickness, depends on overtone number and is different for the frequency and dissipation signals - facts...

  8. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  9. On Strong Positive Frequency Dependencies of Quality Factors in Local-Earthquake Seismic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Jhajhria, Atul; Deng, Wubing

    2018-03-01

    Many observations of seismic waves from local earthquakes are interpreted in terms of the frequency-dependent quality factor Q( f ) = Q0 f^{η } , where η is often close to or exceeds one. However, such steep positive frequency dependencies of Q require careful analysis with regard to their physical consistency. In particular, the case of η = 1 corresponds to frequency-independent (elastic) amplitude decays with time and consequently requires no Q-type attenuation mechanisms. For η > 1, several problems with physical meanings of such Q-factors occur. First, contrary to the key premise of seismic attenuation, high-frequency parts of the wavefield are enhanced with increasing propagation times relative to the low-frequency ones. Second, such attenuation cannot be implemented by mechanical models of wave-propagating media. Third, with η > 1, the velocity dispersion associated with such Q(f) occurs over unrealistically short frequency range and has an unexpected oscillatory shape. Cases η = 1 and η > 1 are usually attributed to scattering; however, this scattering must exhibit fortuitous tuning into the observation frequency band, which appears unlikely. The reason for the above problems is that the inferred Q values are affected by the conventional single-station measurement procedure. Both parameters Q 0 and are apparent, i.e., dependent on the selected parameterization and inversion method, and they should not be directly attributed to the subsurface. For η ≈ 1, parameter Q 0 actually describes the frequency-independent amplitude decay in access of some assumed geometric spreading t -α , where α is usually taken equal one. The case η > 1 is not allowed physically and could serve as an indicator of problematic interpretations. Although the case 0 < η < 1 is possible, its parameters Q 0 and may also be biased by the measurement procedure. To avoid such difficulties of Q-based approaches, we recommend measuring and interpreting the amplitude-decay rates

  10. Visuomotor Entrainment and the Frequency-Dependent Response of Walking Balance to Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie; Allen, Matt; Thelen, Darryl G

    2016-08-26

    Visuomotor entrainment, or the synchronization of motor responses to visual stimuli, is a naturally emergent phenomenon in human standing. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and resolution of visuomotor entrainment in walking and the frequency-dependent response of walking balance to perturbations. We used a virtual reality environment to manipulate optical flow in ten healthy young adults during treadmill walking. A motion capture system recorded trunk, sacrum, and heel marker trajectories during a series of 3-min conditions in which we perturbed a virtual hallway mediolaterally with systematic changes in the driving frequencies of perceived motion. We quantified visuomotor entrainment using spectral analyses and balance deficits using trunk sway, gait variability, and detrended fluctuation analyses (DFA). ML kinematics were highly sensitive to visual perturbations, and instinctively synchronized (i.e., entrained) to a broad range of driving frequencies of perceived ML motion. However, the influence of visual perturbations on metrics of walking balance was frequency-dependent and governed by their proximity to stride frequency. Specifically, we found that a driving frequency nearest to subjects' average stride frequency uniquely compromised trunk sway, gait variability, and step-to-step correlations. We conclude that visuomotor entrainment is a robust and naturally emerging phenomenon during human walking, involving coordinated and frequency-dependent adjustments in trunk sway and foot placement to maintain balance at the whole-body level. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how the visuomotor control of walking balance is disrupted by visual perturbations and important reference values for the emergence of balance deficits due to age, injury, or disease.

  11. Numerical Study of Frequency-dependent Seismoelectric Coupling in Partially-saturated Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuraev Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismoelectric phenomenon associated with propagation of seismic waves in fluid-saturated porous media has been studied for many decades. The method has a great potential to monitor subsurface fluid saturation changes associated with production of hydrocarbons. Frequency of the seismic source has a significant impact on measurement of the seismoelectric effects. In this paper, the effects of seismic wave frequency and water saturation on the seismoelectric response of a partially-saturated porous media is studied numerically. The conversion of seismic wave to electromagnetic wave was modelled by extending the theoretically developed seismoelectric coupling coefficient equation. We assumed constant values of pore radius and zeta-potential of 80 micrometers and 48 microvolts, respectively. Our calculations of the coupling coefficient were conducted at various water saturation values in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 150 kHz. The results show that the seismoelectric coupling is frequency-dependent and decreases exponentially when frequency increases. Similar trend is seen when water saturation is varied at different frequencies. However, when water saturation is less than about 0.6, the effect of frequency is significant. On the other hand, when the water saturation is greater than 0.6, the coupling coefficient shows monotonous trend when water saturation is increased at constant frequency.

  12. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films

  13. Design Optimization for Vibration Reduction of Viscoelastic Damped Structures Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large number of design variables that can be present in complex systems incorporating visco-elastic damping, this work examines the application of genetic algorithms in optimizing the response of these structures. To demonstrate the applicability of genetic algorithms (GAs, the approach is applied to a simple viscoelastically damped constrained-layer beam. To that end, a finite element model (FEM derived by Zapfe, which was based on Rao's formulation, was used for a beam with constrained-layer damping. Then, a genetic algorithm is applied to simultaneously determine the thicknesses of the viscoelastic damping layer and the constraining layer that provide the best response. While the targeted response is ultimately at the discretion of the designer, a few different choices for the fitness function are shown along with their corresponding impact on the vibratory response. By integrating the FEM code within the GA routine, it is easier to include the frequency-dependence of both the shear modulus and the loss factors for the viscoelastic layer. Examples are provided to demonstrate the capabilities of the method. It is shown that while a multi-mode optimization target provides significant reductions, the response for that configuration is inferior to the response when only single-mode reduction is considered. The results also reveal that the optimum configuration has a lower response level than when a thick layer of damping material is used. By demonstrating the applicability of GA for a simple beam structure, the approach can be extended to more complex damped structures.

  14. Spatial resolution dependence on spectral frequency in human speech cortex electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leah; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Edwards, Erik; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has become an important tool in human neuroscience and has tremendous potential for emerging applications in neural interface technology. Electrode array design parameters are outstanding issues for both research and clinical applications, and these parameters depend critically on the nature of the neural signals to be recorded. Here, we investigate the functional spatial resolution of neural signals recorded at the human cortical surface. We empirically derive spatial spread functions to quantify the shared neural activity for each frequency band of the electrocorticogram. Approach. Five subjects with high-density (4 mm center-to-center spacing) ECoG grid implants participated in speech perception and production tasks while neural activity was recorded from the speech cortex, including superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. The cortical surface field potential was decomposed into traditional EEG frequency bands. Signal similarity between electrode pairs for each frequency band was quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient. Main results. The correlation of neural activity between electrode pairs was inversely related to the distance between the electrodes; this relationship was used to quantify spatial falloff functions for cortical subdomains. As expected, lower frequencies remained correlated over larger distances than higher frequencies. However, both the envelope and phase of gamma and high gamma frequencies (30-150 Hz) are largely uncorrelated (<90%) at 4 mm, the smallest spacing of the high-density arrays. Thus, ECoG arrays smaller than 4 mm have significant promise for increasing signal resolution at high frequencies, whereas less additional gain is achieved for lower frequencies. Significance. Our findings quantitatively demonstrate the dependence of ECoG spatial resolution on the neural frequency of interest. We demonstrate that this relationship is consistent across patients and

  15. Maxwell-Wagner polarization and frequency-dependent injection at aqueous electrical interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Mitchell; Mavrogiannis, Nicholas; Gagnon, Zachary

    2012-11-02

    We demonstrate a new type of alternating current (ac) interfacial polarization and frequency-dependent fluid displacement phenomenon at a liquid-liquid electrical interface. Two fluid streams--one with a greater electrical conductivity and the other a greater dielectric constant--are made to flow side by side in a microfluidic channel. An ac electric field is applied perpendicular to the interface formed between the liquid lamellae, and fluid is observed to displace across the liquid-liquid interface. The direction and magnitude of this displacement is frequency dependent. At low ac frequency, below the interfacial inverse charge relaxation time, the high-conductivity fluid displaces into the high-dielectric stream. At high frequency the direction of liquid displacement reverses, and the high-dielectric stream injects into the high-conductivity stream. The interfacial crossover frequency where the liquid displacement direction reverses is dependent on differences in electrical properties between the two fluid streams, and is well explained by Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanics.

  16. Low-frequency (0.7-7.4 mHz geomagnetic field fluctuations at high latitude: frequency dependence of the polarization pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cafarella

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of the polarization pattern of low-frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations (0.7-7.4 mHz covering the entire 24-h interval was performed at the Antarctic station Terra Nova Bay (80.0°S geomagnetic latitude throughout 1997 and 1998. The results show that the polarization pattern exhibits a frequency dependence, as can be expected from the frequency dependence of the latitude where the coupling between the magnetospheric compressional mode and the field line resonance takes place. The polarization analysis of single pulsation events shows that wave packets with different polarization sense, depending on frequency, can be simultaneously observed.

  17. Frequency-dependent effects of the pyrethroid insecticide decamethrin in frog myelinated nerve fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, H.P.M.; Bercken, J. van den

    1979-01-01

    The pyrethroid insectide decamethrin (10−6M) caused a frequency-dependent depression of the action potential in frog myelinated nerve fibres which was associated with a progressive membrane depolarisation brought about by summation of depolarising after-potentials. Voltage clamp experiments with

  18. Ecological genetics of the Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) - Ustilago Bullata (Ustilaginaceae): A role for frequency dependent selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; David L. Nelson; Suzette Clement; Alisa Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary processes that maintain genetic diversity in plants are likely to include selection imposed by pathogens. Negative frequency-dependent selection is a mechanism for maintenance of resistance polymorphism in plant - pathogen interactions. We explored whether such selection operates in the Bromus tectorum - Ustilago bullata pathosystem. Gene-for-gene...

  19. Assessing frequency-dependent site polarisabilities in linear response polarisable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten S.; Vahtras, Olav; Norman, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    equations defining specific molecular properties. On the other hand, we also show from a numerical point of view that the consequences of using such a frequency-dependent embedding potential is almost negligible. Thus, for the kind of systems and processes studied in this paper the general recommendation...

  20. Evolution of dominance under frequency-dependent intraspecific competition in an assortatively mating population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peischl, Stephan; Schneider, Kristan A

    2010-02-01

    We study the evolution of higher levels of dominance as a response to negative frequency-dependent selection. In contrast to previous studies, we focus on the effect of assortative mating on the evolution of dominance under frequency-dependent intraspecific competition. We analyze a two-locus two-allele model, in which the primary locus has a major effect on a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection, density-dependent selection, and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The second (modifier) locus determines the degree of dominance at the trait level. Additionally, the population mates assortatively with respect to similarities in the ecological trait. Our analysis shows that the parameter region in which dominance can be established decreases if small levels of assortment are introduced. In addition, the degree of dominance that can be established also decreases. In contrast, if assortment is intermediate, sexual selection for extreme types can be established, which leads to evolution of higher levels of dominance than under random mating. For modifiers with large effects, intermediate levels of assortative mating are most favorable for the evolution of dominance. For large modifiers, the speed of fixation can even be higher for intermediate levels of assortative mating than for random mating.

  1. Frequency dependence of anomalous transport in field theory and holography⋆,⋆⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megías Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency dependence of anomalous transport coefficients for a relativistic gas of free chiral fermions and for a strongly coupled conformal field theory with holographic dual. We perform the computation by using the Kubo formulae for- malism, and compare with a hydrodynamic calculation of two point functions. Some implications for heavy ion physics are discussed.

  2. Dielectrophoresis of spermatozoa in viscoelastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, James Boon Yong; Marcos

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of spermatozoa motility is important in selecting suitable spermatozoa for assisted reproduction procedures. By considering the internal sliding force within an active filament, its shape in a viscoelastic Oldroyd-B fluid subjected to nonuniform electric field is presented. The resulting velocity is a function of the beating pattern and DEP force, which is dependent on the spermatozoon's morphology as well as the gradient of the mean square electric field. Finally, the velocities of the X- and Y-spermatozoa are compared under various conditions of nonuniform electric field and viscoelasticity of the medium. The presence of DEP force alters their velocities to different extents, giving an 84% level of confidence for selecting spermatozoon that contains the chromosome leading to a female. Therefore, a nonuniform electric field can be used not only to sort and select spermatozoa of desired morphology, but also for gender selection. Moreover, we found that sorting in a viscoelastic fluid medium is more effective as the effect of DEP on the spermatozoa velocity is enhanced by an order of magnitude. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Staurosporine Inhibits Frequency-Dependent Myofilament Desensitization in Intact Rabbit Cardiac Trabeculae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D. Varian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofilament calcium sensitivity decreases with frequency in intact healthy rabbit trabeculae and associates with Troponin I and Myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. We here tested whether serine-threonine kinase activity is primarily responsible for this frequency-dependent modulations of myofilament calcium sensitivity. Right ventricular trabeculae were isolated from New Zealand White rabbit hearts and iontophoretically loaded with bis-fura-2. Twitch force-calcium relationships and steady state force-calcium relationships were measured at frequencies of 1 and 4 Hz at 37 °C. Staurosporine (100 nM, a nonspecific serine-threonine kinase inhibitor, or vehicle (DMSO was included in the superfusion solution before and during the contractures. Staurosporine had no frequency-dependent effect on force development, kinetics, calcium transient amplitude, or rate of calcium transient decline. The shift in the pCa50 of the force-calcium relationship was significant from 6.05±0.04 at 1 Hz versus 5.88±0.06 at 4 Hz under control conditions (vehicle, P<0.001 but not in presence of staurosporine (5.89±0.08 at 1 Hz versus 5.94±0.07 at 4 Hz, P=NS. Phosphoprotein analysis (Pro-Q Diamond stain confirmed that staurosporine significantly blunted the frequency-dependent phosphorylation at Troponin I and Myosin light chain-2. We conclude that frequency-dependent modulation of calcium sensitivity is mediated through a kinase-specific effect involving phosphorylation of myofilament proteins.

  4. Modeling of frequency-dependent negative differential capacitance in InGaAs/InP photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yidong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang

    2018-03-01

    The negative differential capacitance (NDC) of p-i-n InGaAs/InP photodetector has been clearly observed, and the small signal model of frequency-dependent NDC is established, based on the accumulation and emission of electrons at the p-InP/i-InGaAs interface. The NDC phenomenon is contributed by the additional capacitance (CT), which is caused by the charging-discharging process in the p-InP/i-InGaAs interface. It is found that the NDC becomes more obvious with decreasing frequency, which is consistent with the conclusion of the experiment. It is proved that the probability of electron capture/escape in the p-i interface is affected by frequency. Therefore, the smaller frequency applied, the higher additional capacitance is obtained.

  5. Frequency-dependent effects of rupture for the 2004 Parkfield mainshock, results from UPSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency-dependent effects of rupture propagation of the Parkfield, California earthquake (Sept. 28, 2004, M6) to the northwest along the San Andreas fault can be seen in acceleration records at UPSAR (USGS Parkfield Seismic Array) in at least two ways. First, we can see the effects of directivity in the acceleration traces at UPSAR, which is about 11.5 km from the epicenter. Directivity or the seismic equivalent of a Doppler shift has been documented in many cases by comparing short duration, high-amplitude pulses (P or S) in the forward direction with longer duration body waves in the backward direction. In this case we detect a change from a relatively large amplitude, coherent, high-frequency signal at the start of rupture to a low-amplitude, low-coherent, low-frequency signal at about the time the rupture front transfers from the forward azimuth to the back azimuth at about 34-36 s (time is UTC and are the seconds after day 272 and 17 hours and 15 minutes. S arrival is just after 30s) for rays leaving the fault and propagating to UPSAR. The frequency change is obvious in the band about 5 to 30 Hz, which is significantly above the corner frequency of the earthquake (about 0.11Hz). From kinematic source models, the duration of faulting is about 9.2 s and the change in frequency is during faulting as the rupture extends to the northwest. Understanding the systematic change in frequency and amplitude of seismic waves in relation to the propagation of the rupture front is important for predicting strong ground motion. Second, we can filter the acceleration records from the array to determine if the low frequency energy emerges from the same part of the fault as the high frequency signal (e.g. has the same back azimuth and apparent velocity at UPSAR) an important clue to the dynamics of rupture. Analysis of sources of strong motion (characterized by relatively high frequencies) compared to kinematic slip models (relatively low frequency) for the

  6. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Anupam; Karpitschka, Stefan; Venner, Cornelis H.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examp...

  7. Theory of viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, R

    1982-01-01

    Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Second Edition discusses the integral form of stress strain constitutive relations. The book presents the formulation of the boundary value problem and demonstrates the separation of variables condition.The text describes the mathematical framework to predict material behavior. It discusses the problems to which integral transform methods do not apply. Another topic of interest is the thermoviscoelastic stress analysis. The section that follows describes the heat conduction, glass transition criterion, viscoelastic Rayleigh waves, optimal str

  8. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent linear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Jayanta [Department of Chemistry, Brahmankhanda Basapara High School, Basapara, Birbhum 731 215, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • Linear polarizability of quantum dot has been studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • The polarizabilities are frequency-dependent. • Influence of Gaussian white noise has been monitored. • Noise exploited is of additive and multiplicative nature. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (α{sub xx} and α{sub yy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features.

  9. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent linear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Linear polarizability of quantum dot has been studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • The polarizabilities are frequency-dependent. • Influence of Gaussian white noise has been monitored. • Noise exploited is of additive and multiplicative nature. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (α xx and α yy ) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features

  10. Nitric oxide donors enhance the frequency dependence of dopamine release in nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Henrike; Threlfell, Sarah; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2011-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critically involved in normal as well as maladaptive motivated behaviors including drug addiction. Whether the striatal neuromodulator nitric oxide (NO) influences DA release in NAc is unknown. We investigated whether exogenous NO modulates DA transmission in NAc core and how this interaction varies depending on the frequency of presynaptic activation. We detected DA with cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in mouse NAc in slices following stimuli spanning a full range of DA neuron firing frequencies (1-100 Hz). NO donors 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) or z-1-[N-(3-ammoniopropyl)-N-(n-propyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PAPA/NONOate) enhanced DA release with increasing stimulus frequency. This NO-mediated enhancement of frequency sensitivity of DA release was not prevented by inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), DA transporters, or large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and did not require glutamatergic or GABAergic input. However, experiments to identify whether frequency-dependent NO effects were mediated via changes in powerful acetylcholine-DA interactions revealed multiple components to NO modulation of DA release. In the presence of a nicotinic receptor antagonist (dihydro-β-erythroidine), NO donors increased DA release in a frequency-independent manner. These data suggest that NO in the NAc can modulate DA release through multiple GC-independent neuronal mechanisms whose net outcome varies depending on the activity in DA neurons and accumbal cholinergic interneurons. In the presence of accumbal acetylcholine, NO promotes the sensitivity of DA release to presynaptic activation, but with reduced acetylcholine input, NO will promote DA release in an activity-independent manner through a direct action on dopaminergic terminals.

  11. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  12. Effect of neutron flux on the frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynov, E.; Garibli, A., E-mail: elchin.huse@yahoo.com [National Nuclear Research Center, Department of Nanotechnology and Radiation Material Science, 1073, Inshaatchilar pr. 4, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-11-01

    It has been reviewed the frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of nanoparticles affected by neutron flux at different times and initial state, at various constant temperatures such as 100, 200, 300 and 400 K. Measurements have been carried out at each temperature at the different 97 values of frequency in the 1 Hz - 1 MHz range. From interdependence between real and imaginary parts of electrical conductivity it has been determined the type of conductivity. Moreover, in the work it is given the mechanism of electrical conductivity according to the obtained results. (Author)

  13. An analysis of boundary-effects in obtaining the frequency dependent specific heat by effusivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Behrens, Claus

    generator is measured, made this possible. The method relied on a 1-d solution to the heat diffusion equation. There have been attempts to invoke the boundary effects to first order. However we present the fully 3-d solution to the problem including these effects. The frequency range can hereby......The frequency dependent specific heat is a significant response function characterizing the glass transition. Contrary to the dielectric response it is not easily measured over many decades. The introduction of the 3-omega method, where the temperature oscillations at a planar oscillatoric heat...

  14. Constraints on frequency-dependent violations of Shapiro delay from GW150914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre O. Kahya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On 14th September 2015, a transient gravitational wave (GW150914 was detected by the two LIGO detectors at Hanford and Livingston from the coalescence of a binary black hole system located at a distance of about 400 Mpc. We point out that GW150914 experienced a Shapiro delay due to the gravitational potential of the mass distribution along the line of sight of about 1800 days. Also, the near-simultaneous arrival of gravitons over a frequency range of about 200 Hz within a 0.2 s window allows us to constrain any violations of Shapiro delay and Einstein's equivalence principle between the gravitons at different frequencies. From the calculated Shapiro delay and the observed duration of the signal, frequency-dependent violations of the equivalence principle for gravitons are constrained to an accuracy of O(10−9.

  15. A Polarization-Dependent Frequency-Selective Metamaterial Absorber with Multiple Absorption Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Deng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A polarization-dependent, frequency-selective metamaterial (MM absorber based on a single-layer patterned resonant structure intended for F frequency band is proposed. The design, fabrication, and measurement for the proposed absorber are presented. The absorber’s absorption properties at resonant frequencies have unique characteristics of a single-band, dual-band, or triple-band absorption for different polarization of the incident wave. The calculated surface current distributions and power loss distribution provide further understanding of physical mechanism of resonance absorption. Moreover, a high absorption for a wide range of TE-polarized oblique incidence was achieved. Hence, the MM structure realized on a highly flexible polyimide film, makingthe absorber suitable for conformal geometry applications. The proposed absorber has great potential in the development of polarization detectors and polarizers.

  16. Real-time correction of tsunami site effect by frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, H.

    2017-12-01

    For tsunami early warning, I developed frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor and used it to design a recursive digital filter that can be applicable for real-time correction of tsunami site response. In this study, I assumed that a tsunami waveform at an observing point could be modeled by convolution of source, path and site effects in time domain. Under this assumption, spectral ratio between offshore and the nearby coast can be regarded as site response (i.e. frequency-dependent amplification factor). If the amplification factor can be prepared before tsunamigenic earthquakes, its temporal convolution to offshore tsunami waveform provides tsunami prediction at coast in real time. In this study, tsunami waveforms calculated by tsunami numerical simulations were used to develop frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor. Firstly, I performed numerical tsunami simulations based on nonlinear shallow-water theory from many tsuanmigenic earthquake scenarios by varying the seismic magnitudes and locations. The resultant tsunami waveforms at offshore and the nearby coastal observing points were then used in spectral-ratio analysis. An average of the resulted spectral ratios from the tsunamigenic-earthquake scenarios is regarded as frequency-dependent amplification factor. Finally, the estimated amplification factor is used in design of a recursive digital filter that can be applicable in time domain. The above procedure is applied to Miyako bay at the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The averaged tsunami-height spectral ratio (i.e. amplification factor) between the location at the center of the bay and the outside show a peak at wave-period of 20 min. A recursive digital filter based on the estimated amplification factor shows good performance in real-time correction of tsunami-height amplification due to the site effect. This study is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant 15K16309.

  17. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    OpenAIRE

    Faqi Li; Dan Song; Deping Zeng; Zhou Lin; Min He; Guangrong Lei; Junru Wu; Dong Zhang; Zhibiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasoun...

  18. Rolling estimations of long range dependence volatility for high frequency S&P500 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chin Wen; Pei, Tan Pei

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the time-varying long range dependence behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using the modified rescaled adjusted range (R/S) statistic. For better computational result, a high frequency rolling bipower variation realized volatility estimates are used to avoid possible abrupt jump. The empirical analysis findings allow us to understand better the informationally market efficiency before and after the subprime mortgage crisis.

  19. Frequency Dependent Harmonic Powers in a Modified Uni-Traveling Carrier (MUTC) Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5651--17-9712 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Powers in a Modified Uni- Traveling Carrier...MereditH N. HutcHiNsoN Photonics Technology Branch Optical Sciences Division curtis r. MeNYuk University of Maryland Baltimore, Maryland i REPORT...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S)9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 11. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION

  20. Pressure at the ISM-halo interface: A reheating frequency dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the thermal pressure of hot galactic halos on a model parameter describing the frequency of major reheating episodes during galactic history is investigated. Pressure on the interface between interstellar medium and the halo gas is especially interesting, since empirical evidence here offers one of the simplest constraints on halo models. It is shown that two-phase model of Mo & Miralda-Escudé is sufficiently robust with respect to uncertainties in the average interval between reheating.

  1. Experiments on Frequency Dependence of the Deflection of Light in Yang-Mills Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yun; Zhu, Yiyi; Hsu, Jong-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In Yang-Mills gravity based on flat space-time, the eikonal equation for a light ray is derived from the modified Maxwell's wave equations in the geometric-optics limit. One obtains a Hamilton-Jacobi type equation, GLµv∂µΨ∂vΨ = 0 with an effective Riemannian metric tensor GLµv. According to Yang-Mills gravity, light rays (and macroscopic objects) move as if they were in an effective curved space-time with a metric tensor. The deflection angle of a light ray by the sun is about 1.53″ for experiments with optical frequencies ≈ 1014Hz. It is roughly 12% smaller than the usual value 1.75″. However, the experimental data in the past 100 years for the deflection of light by the sun in optical frequencies have uncertainties of (10-20)% due to large systematic errors. If one does not take the geometric-optics limit, one has the equation, GLµv[∂µΨ∂vΨcosΨ+ (∂µ∂vΨ)sinΨ] = 0, which suggests that the deflection angle could be frequency-dependent, according to Yang-Mills gravity. Nowadays, one has very accurate data in the radio frequencies ≈ 109Hz with uncertainties less than 0.1%. Thus, one can test this suggestion by using frequencies ≈ 1012 Hz, which could have a small uncertainty 0.1% due to the absence of systematic errors in the very long baseline interferometry.

  2. Frequency-Dependent Solvent Impedance and Colloid Microelectrophoresis Measurements in Partially Polar Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Edward; Aljabal, Zena; Yethiraj, Anand

    2017-05-16

    We carry out frequency-dependent solvent impedance measurements and alternating current (ac) colloid microelectrophoresis experiments in partially polar solvents in the low-frequency regime (0.25 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz). Solvent electrode polarization effects are quantified first in partially polar solvent mixtures containing bromocyclohexane (CHB). We find that the polarization capacitance from electrode polarization exhibits a clear power law behavior C p = C p0 f -m with power law exponent m = 0.25 ± 0.04. Once we account for electrode polarization effects, we are able to obtain quantitative mobilities in the low-frequency regime from our ac microelectrophoresis measurements; for these measurements, we use poly(methyl methacrylate colloids that are gravitationally confined to a plane while suspended in a low-polar solvent mixture of cis-trans decahydronapthalene and CHB. We find that the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility is constant, consistent with expectations for frequencies below the ion-diffusion frequency, and has a value E = 1.6 ± 0.4.

  3. Micromechanics Models for Viscoelastic Plain-Weave Composite Tape Springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of polymer composites decreases the deployment force and the postdeployment shape accuracy of composite deployable space structures. This paper presents a viscoelastic model for single-ply cylindrical shells (tape springs) that are deployed after being held folded...... homogenization leads to the lamina relaxation ABD matrix. The accuracy of the proposed model is verified against the experimentally measured time-dependent compliance of single lamina in either pure tension or pure bending. Finite element simulations of single-ply tape springs based on the proposed model...

  4. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  5. Numerical solution of transient viscoelastic flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Szabo, Peter

    1996-01-01

    A number of applications of the Lagrangina kinematic specification in the simulation of transient viscoelastic flows are shown.......A number of applications of the Lagrangina kinematic specification in the simulation of transient viscoelastic flows are shown....

  6. Simulations of flow induced ordering in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos de Oliveira, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we report on simulations of colloidal ordering phenomena in shearthinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow. Depending on the characteristics of the fluid, the colloids are observed to align in the direction of the flow. These string-like structures remain stable as long as the

  7. Frequency and voltage dependent electrical responses of poly(triarylamine) thin film-based organic Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar Mohamad, Khairul; Tak Hoh, Hang; Alias, Afishah; Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Fukuda, Hisashi

    2017-11-01

    A metal-organic-metal (MOM) type Schottky diode based on poly (triarylamine) (PTAA) thin films has been fabricated by using the spin coating method. Investigation of the frequency dependent conductance-voltage (G-V-f) and capacitance-voltage (C-V-f) characteristics of the ITO/PTAA/Al MOM type diode were carried out in the frequency range from 12 Hz to 100 kHz using an LCR meter at room temperature. The frequency and bias voltage dependent electrical response were determined by admittance-based measured method in terms of an equivalent circuit model of the parallel combination of resistance and capacitance (RC circuit). Investigation revealed that the conductance is frequency and a bias voltage dependent in which conductance continuous increase as the increasing frequency, respectively. Meanwhile, the capacitance is dependent on frequency up to a certain value of frequency (100 Hz) but decreases at high frequency (1 - 10 kHz). The interface state density in the Schottky diode was determined from G-V and C-V characteristics. The interface state density has values almost constant of 2.8 x 1012 eV-1cm-2 with slightly decrease by increasing frequencies. Consequently, both series resistance and interface trap density were found to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency dependence of the electrical responses is attributed the distribution density of interface states that could follow the alternating current (AC) signal.

  8. Frequency and voltage dependent electrical responses of poly(triarylamine thin film-based organic Schottky diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Anuar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metal-organic-metal (MOM type Schottky diode based on poly (triarylamine (PTAA thin films has been fabricated by using the spin coating method. Investigation of the frequency dependent conductance-voltage (G-V-f and capacitance-voltage (C-V-f characteristics of the ITO/PTAA/Al MOM type diode were carried out in the frequency range from 12 Hz to 100 kHz using an LCR meter at room temperature. The frequency and bias voltage dependent electrical response were determined by admittance-based measured method in terms of an equivalent circuit model of the parallel combination of resistance and capacitance (RC circuit. Investigation revealed that the conductance is frequency and a bias voltage dependent in which conductance continuous increase as the increasing frequency, respectively. Meanwhile, the capacitance is dependent on frequency up to a certain value of frequency (100 Hz but decreases at high frequency (1 – 10 kHz. The interface state density in the Schottky diode was determined from G-V and C-V characteristics. The interface state density has values almost constant of 2.8 x 1012 eV−1cm−2 with slightly decrease by increasing frequencies. Consequently, both series resistance and interface trap density were found to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency dependence of the electrical responses is attributed the distribution density of interface states that could follow the alternating current (AC signal.

  9. Viscoelastic nanoscale properties of cuticle contribute to the high-pass properties of spider vibration receptor (Cupiennius salei Keys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E; Schaber, Clemens F; Julian, Michael D; Barth, Friedrich G; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2007-12-22

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface force spectroscopy were applied in live spiders to their joint pad material located distal of the metatarsal lyriform organs, which are highly sensitive vibration sensors. The surface topography of the material is sufficiently smooth to probe the local nanomechanical properties with nanometre elastic deflections. Nanoscale loads were applied in the proximad direction on the distal joint region simulating the natural stimulus situation. The force curves obtained indicate the presence of a soft, liquid-like epicuticular layer (20-40 nm thick) above the pad material, which has much higher stiffness. The Young modulus of the pad material is close to 15 MPa at low frequencies, but increases rapidly with increasing frequencies approximately above 30 Hz to approximately 70 MPa at 112 Hz. The adhesive forces drop sharply by about 40% in the same frequency range. The strong frequency dependence of the elastic modulus indicates the viscoelastic nature of the pad material, its glass transition temperature being close to room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and, therefore, to its maximized energy absorption from low-frequency mechanical stimuli. These viscoelastic properties of the cuticular pad are suggested to be at least partly responsible for the high-pass characteristics of the vibration sensor's physiological properties demonstrated earlier.

  10. Probing the Jet Turnover Frequency Dependence on Mass and Mass Accretion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Erica; Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    We have examined a sample of 15 sub-Eddington supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in a variety of galaxy classifications to further understand the proposed fundamental plane of black hole activity and scaling relations between black hole masses and their radio and X-ray luminosities. This plane describes black holes from stellar-mass to supermassive. The physics probed by these sub-Eddington systems is thought to be a radiatively inefficient, jet-dominated accretion flow. By studying black holes in this regime, we can learn important information on the disk-jet connection for accreting black holes.A key factor in studying the fundamental plane is the turnover frequency — the frequency at which emission transitions from optically thick at lower frequencies to optically thin at higher frequencies. This turnover point can be measured by observing the source in both radio and X-ray. Our project aims to test the dependence of the turnover frequency on mass and mass accretion rate.Radio observations of the sample were obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the range of 5-40 GHz across four different frequency bands in A configuration to give the highest spatial resolution to focus on the core emission. Our carefully chosen sample of SMBHs with dynamically measured masses consists of two sub-samples: those with approximately constant mass accretion rate (LX/LEdd ~ 10‑7) and those with approximately constant mass (MBH ~ 108 Msun). X-ray data were obtained from archival Chandra observations. To find the turnover frequency, we used Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to fit two power laws to the radio data and the archival X-ray data. The intersection of the radio and X-ray fits is the turnover frequency.We present the results for both subsamples of SMBHs and their relationship between the turnover frequency and X-ray luminosity, which we take to scale with mass accretion rate, and jet power derived from both radio and X-ray properties.

  11. Extensional rheometer based on viscoelastic catastrophes outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for determining viscoelastic properties of a fluid. The invention resides inter alia in the generation of viscoelastic catastrophes in confined systems for use in the context of extensional rheology. The viscoelastic catastrophe is according ...... to the invention generated in a bistable fluid system, and the flow conditions for which the catastrophe occurs can be used as a fingerprint of the fluid's viscoelastic properties in extensional flow....

  12. Stress-dependent elastic properties of shales—laboratory experiments at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Dawid; Bauer, Andreas; Holt, Rune M.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge about the stress sensitivity of elastic properties and velocities of shales is important for the interpretation of seismic time-lapse data taken as part of reservoir and caprock surveillance of both unconventional and conventional oil and gas fields (e.g. during 4-D monitoring of CO2 storage). Rock physics models are often developed based on laboratory measurements at ultrasonic frequencies. However, as shown previously, shales exhibit large seismic dispersion, and it is possible that stress sensitivities of velocities are also frequency dependent. In this work, we report on a series of seismic and ultrasonic laboratory tests in which the stress sensitivity of elastic properties of Mancos shale and Pierre shale I were investigated. The shales were tested at different water saturations. Dynamic rock engineering parameters and elastic wave velocities were examined on core plugs exposed to isotropic loading. Experiments were carried out in an apparatus allowing for static-compaction and dynamic measurements at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies within single test. For both shale types, we present and discuss experimental results that demonstrate dispersion and stress sensitivity of the rock stiffness, as well as P- and S-wave velocities, and stiffness anisotropy. Our experimental results show that the stress-sensitivity of shales is different at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies, which can be linked with simultaneously occurring changes in the dispersion with applied stress. Measured stress sensitivity of elastic properties for relatively dry samples was higher at seismic frequencies however, the increasing saturation of shales decreases the difference between seismic and ultrasonic stress-sensitivities, and for moist samples stress-sensitivity is higher at ultrasonic frequencies. Simultaneously, the increased saturation highly increases the dispersion in shales. We have also found that the stress-sensitivity is highly anisotropic in both shales and that in

  13. Research surface resistance of copper normal and abnormal skin-effects depending on the frequency of electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovyi, V.A.; Komir, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the frequency dependence of surface resistance of copper in diffuse and specular reflection of electrons from the conductive surface of the high-frequency resonance of the system depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic field in the normal and anomalous skin effect. Found, the surface resistance of copper is reduced by more than 10 times at the temperature of liquid helium, as compared with a surface resistivity at room temperature, at frequencies f ≤ 173 MHz, for diffuse reflection of conduction electrons from the surface of the conductive layer, and the specular reflection - at frequencies f ≤ 346 MHz

  14. Frequency Dependencies of the Exchange Spin Wave Reflection Coefficient on a One-Dimensional Magnon Crystal with Complex Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii O. Reshetniak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. It is shown that the frequency dependencies are periodic, points of full transmission and areas, full of reflection. Decreasing exchange parameter value in interface causes the increase of reflectance coefficient. Changing the material parameters we get the necessary intensity value of the reflection coefficient depending on the frequency at a constant value of the external magnetic field.

  15. Experimental determination of the frequency and field dependence of Specific Loss Power in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobianchi, M.; Guerrini, A.; Avolio, M.; Innocenti, C.; Corti, M.; Arosio, P.; Orsini, F.; Sangregorio, C.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising systems for biomedical applications and in particular for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia, a therapy that utilizes the heat released by such systems to damage tumor cells. We present an experimental study of the physical properties that influences the capability of heat release, i.e. the Specific Loss Power, SLP, of three biocompatible ferrofluid samples having a magnetic core of maghemite with different diameter d = 10.2, 14.6 and 19.7 nm. The SLP was measured as a function of frequency f and intensity H of the applied alternating magnetic field, and it turned out to depend on the core diameter, as expected. The results allowed us to highlight experimentally that the physical mechanism responsible for the heating is size-dependent and to establish, at applied constant frequency, the phenomenological functional relationship SLP = c·Hx, with 2 ≤ xmagnetic hyperthermia devices. For the smallest sample, the effective relaxation time τeff ≈ 19.5 ns obtained from SLP data is in agreement with the value estimated from magnetization data, thus confirming the validity of the Linear Response Theory model for this system at properly chosen field intensity and frequency.

  16. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira Forti

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male and Brazil (400 female and 400 male to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (P<0.001. In Brazil, the most frequent eye colour brown was significantly less frequent than expected in comparison to the general Brazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  17. Combining Acceleration and Displacement Dependent Modal Frequency Responses Using an MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1996-01-01

    Solving for dynamic responses of free-free launch vehicle/spacecraft systems acted upon by buffeting winds is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Due to the unpredictable nature of this wind loading event, these problems are typically solved using frequency response random analysis techniques. To generate dynamic responses for spacecraft with statically-indeterminate interfaces, spacecraft contractors prefer to develop models which have response transformation matrices developed for mode acceleration data recovery. This method transforms spacecraft boundary accelerations and displacements into internal responses. Unfortunately, standard MSC/NASTRAN modal frequency response solution sequences cannot be used to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent responses required for spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. External user-written computer codes can be used with MSC/NASTRAN output to perform such combinations, but these methods can be labor and computer resource intensive. Taking advantage of the analytical and computer resource efficiencies inherent within MS C/NASTRAN, a DMAP Alter has been developed to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent modal frequency responses for performing spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. The Alter has been used successfully to efficiently solve a common aerospace buffeting wind analysis.

  18. Models of frequency-dependent selection with mutation from parental alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Meredith V; Spencer, Hamish G

    2013-09-01

    Frequency-dependent selection (FDS) remains a common heuristic explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. The pairwise-interaction model (PIM) is a well-studied general model of frequency-dependent selection, which assumes that a genotype's fitness is a function of within-population intergenotypic interactions. Previous theoretical work indicated that this type of model is able to sustain large numbers of alleles at a single locus when it incorporates recurrent mutation. These studies, however, have ignored the impact of the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations on the dynamics and end results of polymorphism construction. We suggest that a natural way to model mutation would be to assume mutant fitness is related to the fitness of the parental allele, i.e., the existing allele from which the mutant arose. Here we examine the numbers and distributions of fitnesses and alleles produced by construction under the PIM with mutation from parental alleles and the impacts on such measures due to different methods of generating mutant fitnesses. We find that, in comparison with previous results, generating mutants from existing alleles lowers the average number of alleles likely to be observed in a system subject to FDS, but produces polymorphisms that are highly stable and have realistic allele-frequency distributions.

  19. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male) and Brazil (400 female and 400 male) to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (PBrazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour) it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  20. Pulse frequency dependency of photobiomodulation on the bioenergetic functions of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Bae; Baik, Ku Youn; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2017-11-21

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy contributes to pain relief, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. The pulsed wave (PW) mode has been reported to be more effective than the continuous wave (CW) mode when applying PBM to many biological systems. However, the reason for the higher effectiveness of PW-PBM is poorly understood. Herein, we suggest using delayed luminescence (DL) as a reporter of mitochondrial activity after PBM treatment. DL originates mainly from mitochondrial electron transport chain systems, which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The decay time of DL depends on the pulse frequencies of applied light, which correlate with the biological responses of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Using a low-power light whose wavelength is 810 nm and energy density is 38 mJ/cm 2 , we find that a 300-Hz pulse frequency prolonged the DL pattern and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, we analyze mitochondrial morphological changes and their volume density and find evidence supporting mitochondrial physiological changes from PBM treatment. Our data suggest a new methodology for determining the effectiveness of PBM and the specific pulse frequency dependency of PBM in the differentiation of hDPSCs.

  1. Tuning of gravity-dependent and gravity-independent vertical angular VOR gain changes by frequency of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushin, Sergei B

    2012-06-01

    The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased and decreased in a side-down head orientation for 4 h in two cynomolgus monkeys. Adaptation was performed at 0.25, 1, 2, or 4 Hz. The gravity-dependent and -independent gain changes were determined over a range of head orientations from left-side-down to right-side-down at frequencies from 0.25 to 10 Hz, before and after adaptation. Gain changes vs. frequency data were fit with a Gaussian to determine the frequency at which the peak gain change occurred, as well as the tuning width. The frequency at which the peak gravity-dependent gain change occurred was approximately equal to the frequency of adaptation, and the width increased monotonically with increases in the frequency of adaptation. The gravity-independent component was tuned to the adaptive frequency of 0.25 Hz but was uniformly distributed over all frequencies when the adaptation frequency was 1-4 Hz. The amplitude of the gravity-independent gain changes was larger after the aVOR gain decrease than after the gain increase across all tested frequencies. For the aVOR gain decrease, the phase lagged about 4° for frequencies below the adaptation frequency and led for frequencies above the adaptation frequency. For gain increases, the phase relationship as a function of frequency was inverted. This study demonstrates that the previously described dependence of aVOR gain adaptation on frequency is a property of the gravity-dependent component of the aVOR only. The gravity-independent component of the aVOR had a substantial tuning curve only at an adaptation frequency of 0.25 Hz.

  2. Frequency dependence of dielectric characteristics of seawater ionic solution under static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaoshuai; Peng, Yufeng; Han, Xueyun; Li, Jiangting

    2017-09-01

    In order to study the electromagnetic wave transmission characteristics in seawater under external physical effects, we present a study of seawater ionic solution and perform a theoretical basis of magnetic field on water molecules and ionic motion to investigate the variation of dielectric properties with frequency under static magnetic field (0.38 T). Seawater is a naturally multi-component electrolyte solution, the main ingredients in seawater are inorganic salts, such as NaCl, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, etc. The dielectric properties of these electrolyte solutions with different salinity values (0.01-5%) were measured in frequencies ranging from 40 to 5 MHz at 12∘C. The results show that the dielectric constant decreases with increasing frequencies no matter with magnetic field or without it. Frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of NaCl solution increases under magnetic field at measure concentrations. In a solution of MgCl2 ṡ 6H2O, KCl and NaHCO3 are consistent with NaCl solution, while CaCl2 ṡ 2H2O solution is in contrast with it. We also find that dielectric loss plays a major role in complex permittivity. With the effect of magnetic field, the proportion of dielectric loss is reducing in complex permittivity. On this basis it was concluded that the magnetic field influences the orientation of dipoles and the variation is different in salt aqueous solution.

  3. Advancement in the Understanding of the Field and Frequency Dependent Microwave Surface Resistance of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, M. [Fermilab; Aderhold, S. [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, S. K. [Fermilab; Checchin, M. [Fermilab; Grassellino, A. [Fermilab; Melnychuk, O. [Fermilab; Posen, S. [Fermilab; Romanenko, A. [Fermilab; Sergatskov, D. A. [Fermilab

    2017-07-24

    The radio-frequency surface resistance of niobium resonators is incredibly reduced when nitrogen impurities are dissolved as interstitial in the material, conferring ultra-high Q-factors at medium values of accelerating field. This effect has been observed in both high and low temperature nitrogen treatments. As a matter of fact, the peculiar anti Q-slope observed in nitrogen doped cavities, i.e. the decreasing of the Q-factor with the increasing of the radio-frequency field, come from the decreasing of the BCS surface resistance component as a function of the field. Such peculiar behavior has been considered consequence of the interstitial nitrogen present in the niobium lattice after the doping treatment. The study here presented show the field dependence of the BCS surface resistance of cavities with different resonant frequencies, such as: 650 MHz, 1.3 GHz, 2.6 GHz and 3.9 GHz, and processed with different state-of-the-art surface treatments. These findings show for the first time that the anti Q-slope might be seen at high frequency even for clean Niobium cavities, revealing useful suggestion on the physics underneath the anti Q-slope effect.

  4. Geometry dependence of temperature coefficient of resonant frequency in highly sensitive resonant thermal sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoki; Ono, Takahito

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the geometry dependence of the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCRF) is investigated and compared with a theoretical thermal stress change using Si mechanical microresonators. The used resonators have Y, T, I (conventional double-supported type) and arrow shapes, and in each shape the resonant frequency change of the resonator is measured in relation to changes in the amount of heat input to the resonator. The change trend in the experimental resonant frequency and the theoretical thermal stress in changing the temperature are consist. The TCRF in each resonator is Y: -653, T: -162, I: -417, and the arrow is 174 ppm/K. These absolute values are much higher than those of conventional cantilevered Si resonators (-34.9 ppm/K). In addition, the frequency fluctuations based on Allan deviation are experimentally evaluated considering the theoretical thermal fluctuation noise. It is considered that use of this technique to improve the TCRF of resonators by changing the geometry has the possibility of creating a sensor with highly sensitive thermal detection.

  5. Evolution of frequency-dependent mate choice: keeping up with fashion trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D; Houde, Anne

    2007-05-22

    The diversity of sexual traits favoured by females is enormous and, curiously, includes preferences for males with rare or novel phenotypes. We modelled the evolution of a preference for rarity that yielded two surprising results. First, a Fisherian 'sexy son' effect can boost female preferences to a frequency well above that predicted by mutation-selection balance, even if there are significant mortality costs for females. Preferences do not reach fixation, however, as they are subject to frequency-dependent selection: if choosy females are too common, then rare genotypes in one generation become common, and thus unattractive, in the offspring generation. Nevertheless, even at relatively low frequency, preferences maintain polymorphism in male traits. The second unexpected result is that the preferences can evolve to much higher frequencies if choice is hindered, such that females cannot always express their preferences. Our results emphasize the need to consider feedback where preferences determine the dynamics of male genotypes and vice versa. They also highlight the similarity between the arbitrariness of behavioural norms in models of social evolution with punishment (the so-called 'folk theorem') and the diversity of sexual traits that can be preferred simply because deviating from the norm produces unattractive offspring and is, in this sense, 'punished'.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS (SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principles of structural viscoelastic schemes construction for materials with linear viscoelastic properties in accordance with the given experimental data on creep tests are analyzed. It is shown that there can be only four types of materials with linear visco-elastic properties.

  7. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals are very important for applications like display technology. However, there are not many direct techniques to study them. In this review, we describe our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes ...

  8. On the flexoviscous behavior in viscoelastic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological model on the relationship between viscoelasticity and flexoelectricity is proposed to address the electromechanical coupling under rheological processes in viscoelastic materials. Our theoretical studies show that some observed ferroelectric phenomena in certain viscoelastic materials, like polymer films, may not be intrinsic material behavior.

  9. Frequency dependence of magnetic shielding performance of HTS plates in mixed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Atsushi; Yokono, Takafumi [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokono, Takafumi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Information Sciences and Electronics

    2000-06-01

    The magnetic shielding performance of the high-Tc superconducting (HTS) plate is investigated numerically. The behavior of the shielding current density in the HTS plate is expressed as the integral-differential equation with a normal component of the current vector potential as a dependent variable. The numerical code for solving the equation has been developed by using the combination of the Newton-Raphson method and the successive substitution method and, by use of the code, damping coefficients and shielding factors are evaluated for the various values of the frequency {omega}. The results of computations show that the HTS plate has a possibility of shielding the high-frequency magnetic field with {omega} > or approx. 1 kHz. (author)

  10. Frequency-dependent responses in third generation gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Evans, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    Interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are dynamic instruments. Changing gravitational-wave strains influence the trajectories of null geodesics and therefore modify the interferometric response. These effects will be important when the associated frequencies are comparable to the round-trip light travel time down the detector arms. The arms of advanced detectors currently in operation are short enough that the strain can be approximated as static, but planned 3rd generation detectors, with arms an order of magnitude longer, will need to account for these effects. We investigate the impact of neglecting the frequency-dependent detector response for compact binary coalescences and show that it can introduce large systematic biases in localization, larger than the statistical uncertainty for 1.4 -1.4 M⊙ neutron star coalescences at z ≲1.7 . Analysis of 3rd generation detectors therefore must account for these effects.

  11. Effect of frequency on amplitude-dependent internal friction in niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Naoki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: ide@nitech.ac.jp; Atsumi, Tomohiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nishino, Yoichi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2006-12-20

    Amplitude-dependent internal friction (ADIF) was measured in a polycrystalline niobium using four modes of flexural vibration from the fundamental to the third-order resonance at room temperature. The ADIF was detected in each vibration mode. The internal-friction versus strain-amplitude curve of the ADIF shifted to a larger strain-amplitude range as frequency increased. The stress-strain curves were derived from the ADIF data, and the microplastic flow stress defined as the stress required to produce a plastic strain of 1 x 10{sup -9} was read from the stress-strain curves. It was found that the microplastic flow stress was proportional to the frequency.

  12. Dependence of exponents on text length versus finite-size scaling for word-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Álvaro; Font-Clos, Francesc

    2017-08-01

    Some authors have recently argued that a finite-size scaling law for the text-length dependence of word-frequency distributions cannot be conceptually valid. Here we give solid quantitative evidence for the validity of this scaling law, using both careful statistical tests and analytical arguments based on the generalized central-limit theorem applied to the moments of the distribution (and obtaining a novel derivation of Heaps' law as a by-product). We also find that the picture of word-frequency distributions with power-law exponents that decrease with text length [X. Yan and P. Minnhagen, Physica A 444, 828 (2016), 10.1016/j.physa.2015.10.082] does not stand with rigorous statistical analysis. Instead, we show that the distributions are perfectly described by power-law tails with stable exponents, whose values are close to 2, in agreement with the classical Zipf's law. Some misconceptions about scaling are also clarified.

  13. Frequency dependence of magnetic shielding performance of HTS plates in mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, Atsushi; Yokono, Takafumi; Yokono, Takafumi

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic shielding performance of the high-Tc superconducting (HTS) plate is investigated numerically. The behavior of the shielding current density in the HTS plate is expressed as the integral-differential equation with a normal component of the current vector potential as a dependent variable. The numerical code for solving the equation has been developed by using the combination of the Newton-Raphson method and the successive substitution method and, by use of the code, damping coefficients and shielding factors are evaluated for the various values of the frequency ω. The results of computations show that the HTS plate has a possibility of shielding the high-frequency magnetic field with ω > or approx. 1 kHz. (author)

  14. Frequency-Dependent Multi-Well Cardiotoxicity Screening Enabled by Optogenetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rehnelt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Side effects on cardiac ion channels causing lethal arrhythmias are one major reason for drug withdrawals from the market. Field potential (FP recording from cardiomyocytes, is a well-suited tool to assess such cardiotoxic effects of drug candidates in preclinical drug development, but it is currently limited to the spontaneous beating of the cardiomyocytes and manual analysis. Herein, we present a novel optogenetic cardiotoxicity screening system suited for the parallel automated frequency-dependent analysis of drug effects on FP recorded from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. For the expression of the light-sensitive cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2, we optimised protocols using virus transduction or transient mRNA transfection. Optical stimulation was performed with a new light-emitting diode lid for a 96-well FP recording system. This enabled reliable pacing at physiologically relevant heart rates and robust recording of FP. Thereby we detected rate-dependent effects of drugs on Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channel function indicated by FP prolongation, FP shortening and the slowing of the FP downstroke component, as well as generation of afterdepolarisations. Taken together, we present a scalable approach for preclinical frequency-dependent screening of drug effects on cardiac electrophysiology. Importantly, we show that the recording and analysis can be fully automated and the technology is readily available using commercial products.

  15. Prabhakar-like fractional viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Andrea; Colombaro, Ivano

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a linear viscoelastic model based on Prabhakar fractional operators. In particular, we propose a modification of the classical fractional Maxwell model, in which we replace the Caputo derivative with the Prabhakar one. Furthermore, we also discuss how to recover a formal equivalence between the new model and the known classical models of linear viscoelasticity by means of a suitable choice of the parameters in the Prabhakar derivative. Moreover, we also underline an interesting connection between the theory of Prabhakar fractional integrals and the recently introduced Caputo-Fabrizio differential operator.

  16. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  17. Sine wave electropermeabilization reveals the frequency-dependent response of the biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Tomás; Merla, Caterina; Fontaine, Jessica; Muscat, Adeline; Mir, Lluis M

    2018-02-02

    The permeabilization of biological membranes by electric fields, known as electroporation, has been traditionally performed with square electric pulses. These signals distribute the energy applied to cells in a wide frequency band. This paper investigates the use of sine waves, which are narrow band signals, to provoke electropermeabilization and the frequency dependence of this phenomenon. Single bursts of sine waves at different frequencies in the range from 8 kHz-130 kHz were applied to cells in vitro. Electroporation was studied in the plasma membrane and the internal organelles membrane using calcium as a permeabilization marker. Additionally, a double-shell electrical model was simulated to give a theoretical framework to our results. The electroporation efficiency shows a low pass filter frequency dependence for both the plasma membrane and the internal organelles membrane. The mismatch between the theoretical response and the observed behavior for the internal organelles membrane is explained by a two-step permeabilization process: first the permeabilization of the external membrane and afterwards that of the internal membranes. The simulations in the model confirm this two-step hypothesis when a variable plasma membrane conductivity is considered in the analysis. This study demonstrates how the use of narrow-band signals as sine waves is a suitable method to perform electroporation in a controlled manner. We suggest that the use of this type of signals could bring a simplification in the investigations of the very complex phenomenon of electroporation, thus representing an interesting option in future fundamental studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase-dependent interference between frequency doubled comb lines in a χ(2) phase-matched aluminum nitride microring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hojoong; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Na; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A; Tang, Hong X

    2016-08-15

    Nonlinear optical conversion with frequency combs is important for self-referencing and for generating shorter wavelength combs. Here we demonstrate efficient frequency comb doubling through the combination of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) of an input comb with a high Q, phase-matched χ(2) microring resonator. Phase coherence of the SHG and SFG nonlinear conversion processes is confirmed by sinusoidal phase-dependent interference between frequency doubled comb lines.

  19. Rheological (visco-elastic behaviour) analysis of cyclic olefin copolymers with application to hot embossing for microfabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, R. K.; Chen, X.; Yue, C. Y.; Lam, Y. C.

    2011-08-01

    Transparent, amorphous cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs) have been frequently used for the fabrication of microfluidic devices using a hot embossing technique for numerous applications. In hot embossing, the polymer is deformed near its glass transition temperature (Tg), i.e. between Tg and Tg + 60 °C where the viscoelastic properties of the material are dominant. The proper characterization of the viscoelastic properties is of interest as this can lead to a better understanding of polymer flow behaviour during microfabrication. Furthermore, the ability to model its rheological behaviour will enable the prediction of the optimal hot embossing processing parameters. We performed small amplitude oscillatory shear experiments on four grades of COCs, TOPAS-8007, TOPAS-5013, TOPAS-6015 and TOPAS-6017, in order to characterize their flow behaviour. The experiments were conducted within the frequency range from 0.01 to 500 Hz at between Tg + 20 and Tg + 60 °C. The flow properties could be represented using a generalized Maxwell viscoelastic constitutive model with Williams-Landel-Ferry-type temperature dependence. Good fit of the experimental data was obtained over a wide range of temperatures. The model could be coupled with ABAQUS finite element software to predict the optimal conditions for fabricating a capillary electrophoresis micro-chip on a TOPAS-5013 substrate by hot embossing.

  20. Rheological (visco-elastic behaviour) analysis of cyclic olefin copolymers with application to hot embossing for microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, R K; Chen, X; Yue, C Y; Lam, Y C

    2011-01-01

    Transparent, amorphous cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs) have been frequently used for the fabrication of microfluidic devices using a hot embossing technique for numerous applications. In hot embossing, the polymer is deformed near its glass transition temperature (Tg), i.e. between Tg and Tg + 60 °C where the viscoelastic properties of the material are dominant. The proper characterization of the viscoelastic properties is of interest as this can lead to a better understanding of polymer flow behaviour during microfabrication. Furthermore, the ability to model its rheological behaviour will enable the prediction of the optimal hot embossing processing parameters. We performed small amplitude oscillatory shear experiments on four grades of COCs, TOPAS-8007, TOPAS-5013, TOPAS-6015 and TOPAS-6017, in order to characterize their flow behaviour. The experiments were conducted within the frequency range from 0.01 to 500 Hz at between Tg + 20 and Tg + 60 °C. The flow properties could be represented using a generalized Maxwell viscoelastic constitutive model with Williams–Landel–Ferry-type temperature dependence. Good fit of the experimental data was obtained over a wide range of temperatures. The model could be coupled with ABAQUS finite element software to predict the optimal conditions for fabricating a capillary electrophoresis micro-chip on a TOPAS-5013 substrate by hot embossing

  1. Supercompressible Coaxial Carbon Nanotube@Graphene Arrays with Invariant Viscoelasticity over -100 to 500 °C in Ambient Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Li, Hongling; Lin, Jinjun; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2018-03-21

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been recognized as promising cushion materials because of their superior thermal stability, remarkable compressibility, and viscoelastic characteristics. However, most of the previously reported CNT arrays still suffer from permanent shape deformation at only moderate compressive strains, which considerably restricts their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy of fabricating supercompressible coaxial CNT@graphene (CNT@Gr) arrays by using a two-step route involving encapsulating polymer layers onto plastic CNT arrays and subsequent annealing processes. Notably, the resulting CNT@Gr arrays are able to almost completely recover from compression at a strain of up to 80% and retain ∼80% recovery even after 1000 compression cycles at a 60% strain, demonstrating their excellent compressibility. Furthermore, they possess outstanding strain- and frequency-dependent viscoelastic responses, with storage modulus and damping ratio of up to ∼6.5 MPa and ∼0.19, respectively, which are nearly constant over an exceptionally broad temperature range of -100 to 500 °C in ambient air. These supercompressibility and temperature-invariant viscoelasticity together with facile fabrication process of the CNT@Gr arrays enable their promising multifunctional applications such as energy absorbers, mechanical sensors, and heat exchangers, even in extreme environments.

  2. Long-term evolution of polygenic traits under frequency-dependent intraspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kristan A

    2007-05-01

    We analytically investigate the long-term evolution of a continuously varying quantitative character in a diploid population that is determined additively by a finite number of loci. The trait is under a mixture of frequency-dependent disruptive selection induced by intraspecific competition and frequency-independent stabilizing selection. Moreover, the trait is restricted to a finite range by constraints on the particular loci. Our investigations are based on explicit analytical results (provided by Bürger [2005. A multilocus analysis of intraspecific competition and stabilizing selection on a quantitative trait. J. Math. Biol. 50, 355-396]; Schneider [2006. A multilocus-multiallele analysis of frequency-dependent selection induced by intraspecific competition. J. Math. Biol. 52, 483-523]) on the short-term dynamics under the assumption of linkage equilibrium. We show that the population always reaches a long-term equilibrium (LTE), i.e., an equilibrium that is resistant against perturbations of mutations of sufficiently small effect. In general, several LTEs can coexist. They can be calculated explicitly, and we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for their existence. In the case that more than one LTE exists, we exemplify numerically that the evolutionary outcome depends crucially on the initial genetic architecture, on the joint distribution of mutational effects across loci, and on the particular realization of the mutation process. Therefore, long-term evolution cannot be predicted from the ecology alone. We further show that a partial order exists for the LTEs. The set of LTEs has a 'largest' element, an LTE which is reached during long-term evolution if the effects of the occurring mutant alleles are sufficiently large.

  3. Frequency dependence of CA3 spike phase response arising from h-current properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie eBorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The phase of firing of hippocampal neurons during theta oscillations encodes spatial information. Moreover, the spike phase response to synaptic inputs in individual cells depends on the expression of the hyperpolarisation-activated mixed cation current (Ih, which differs between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. Here, we compared the phase response of these two cell types, as well as their intrinsic membrane properties. We found that both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons show a voltage sag in response to negative current steps but that this voltage sag is significantly smaller in CA3 cells. Moreover, CA3 pyramidal neurons have less prominent resonance properties compared to CA1 pyramidal neurons. This is consistent with differential expression of Ih by the two cell types. Despite their distinct intrinsic membrane properties, both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons displayed bidirectional spike phase control by excitatory conductance inputs during theta oscillations. In particular, excitatory inputs delivered at the descending phase of a dynamic clamp-induced membrane potential oscillation delayed the subsequent spike by nearly 50 mrad. The effect was shown to be mediated by Ih and was counteracted by increasing inhibitory conductance driving the membrane potential oscillation. Using our experimental data to feed a computational model, we showed that differences in Ih between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons could predict frequency-dependent differences in phase response properties between these cell types. We confirmed experimentally such frequency-dependent spike phase control in CA3 neurons. Therefore, a decrease in theta frequency, which is observed in intact animals during novelty, might switch the CA3 spike phase response from unidirectional to bidirectional and thereby promote encoding of the new context.

  4. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  5. Time and frequency-dependent modulation of local field potential synchronization by deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton B McCracken

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP, the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD. We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective, low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR, ventroanterior thalamus (VA, primary motor cortex (M1, and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic

  6. Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at Broadband Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, K.; Hawley, V.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of ambient seismic noise is becoming increasingly relevant to modern seismology. Advances in computational speed and storage have made it feasible to analyze years and even decades of continuous seismic data in short amounts of time. Therefore, it is now possible to perform longitudinal studies of station performance in order to identify degradation or mis-installation of seismic equipment. Long-term noise analysis also provides insight into the evolution of the ocean wave climate, specifically whether the frequency and intensity of storms have changed as global temperatures have changed. Here we present a new approach to polarization analysis of seismic noise recorded by three-component seismometers. Essentially, eigen-decomposition of the 3-by-3 Hermitian spectral matrix associated with a sliding window of data is applied to yield various polarization attributes as a function of time and frequency. This in turn yields fundamental information about the composition of seismic noise, such as the extent to which it is polarized, its mode of propagation, and the direction from which it arrives at the seismometer. The polarization attributes can be viewed as function of time or binned over 2D frequency-time space to deduce regularities in the ambient noise that are unbiased by transient signals from earthquakes and explosions. We applied the algorithm to continuous data recorded in 2009 by the seismic station SLM, located in central North America. A rich variety of noise sources was observed. At low frequencies (3 Hz), Rayleigh-type energy was again dominant, in the form of Rg waves created by nearby cultural activities. Analysis of the time dependence of noise power shows that a frequency range of at least 0.02-1.0 Hz (much larger than the microseism band) is sensitive to annual, meteorologically induced sources of noise. We are currently applying our technique to selected seismometers from USArray and the University of Utah Seismic Network.

  7. Experiments on Frequency Dependence of the Deflection of Light in Yang-Mills Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Yang-Mills gravity based on flat space-time, the eikonal equation for a light ray is derived from the modified Maxwell’s wave equations in the geometric-optics limit. One obtains a Hamilton-Jacobi type equation, GLµv∂µΨ∂vΨ = 0 with an effective Riemannian metric tensor GLµv. According to Yang-Mills gravity, light rays (and macroscopic objects move as if they were in an effective curved space-time with a metric tensor. The deflection angle of a light ray by the sun is about 1.53″ for experiments with optical frequencies ≈ 1014Hz. It is roughly 12% smaller than the usual value 1.75″. However, the experimental data in the past 100 years for the deflection of light by the sun in optical frequencies have uncertainties of (10-20% due to large systematic errors. If one does not take the geometric-optics limit, one has the equation, GLµv[∂µΨ∂vΨcosΨ+ (∂µ∂vΨsinΨ] = 0, which suggests that the deflection angle could be frequency-dependent, according to Yang-Mills gravity. Nowadays, one has very accurate data in the radio frequencies ≈ 109Hz with uncertainties less than 0.1%. Thus, one can test this suggestion by using frequencies ≈ 1012 Hz, which could have a small uncertainty 0.1% due to the absence of systematic errors in the very long baseline interferometry.

  8. Testing of Dependencies between Stock Returns and Trading Volume by High Frequency Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gurgul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of returns, return volatility and trading volume for five companies listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange and five from theWarsaw Stock Exchange. Taking into account high frequency data for these companies, tests based on a comparison of Bernstein copula densities using the Hellinger distance were conducted. The paper presents some patterns of causal and other relationships between stock returns, realized volatility and expected and unexpected trading volume. There is a linear causality running from realized volatility to expected trading volume, and a lack of nonlinear dependence in the opposite direction. The authors detected strong linear and nonlinear causality from stock returns to expected trading volume. They did not find causality running in the opposite direction. In addition, the existence of fractional cointegration was examined. Despite the equality of the long memory parameters of realized volatility and trading volumes, they do not move together in the long term horizon.

  9. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FREQUENCY BREAK BETWEEN FLUID AND KINETIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND FLUCTUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L., E-mail: roberto.bruno@iaps.inaf.it [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the radial dependence of the spectral break separating the inertial from the dissipation range in power density spectra of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations, between 0.42 and 5.3 AU, during radial alignments between MESSENGER and WIND for the inner heliosphere and between WIND and ULYSSES for the outer heliosphere. We found that the spectral break moves to higher and higher frequencies as the heliocentric distance decreases. The radial dependence of the corresponding wavenumber is of the kind κ {sub b} ∼ R {sup –1.08}, in good agreement with that of the wavenumber derived from the linear resonance condition for proton cyclotron damping. These results support conclusions from previous studies which suggest that a cyclotron-resonant dissipation mechanism must participate in the spectral cascade together with other possible kinetic noncyclotron-resonant mechanisms.

  10. Fractional Laplacian time-space models for linear and nonlinear lossy media exhibiting arbitrary frequency power-law dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Holm, S.

    2004-04-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation typically obeys an empirical power law with an exponent ranging from 0 to 2. The standard time-domain partial differential equation models can describe merely two extreme cases of frequency-independent and frequency-squared dependent attenuations. The otherwise nonzero and nonsquare frequency dependency occurring in many cases of practical interest is thus often called the anomalous attenuation. In this study, a linear integro-differential equation wave model was developed for the anomalous attenuation by using the space-fractional Laplacian operation, and the strategy is then extended to the nonlinear Burgers equation. A new definition of the fractional Laplacian is also introduced which naturally includes the boundary conditions and has inherent regularization to ease the hypersingularity in the conventional fractional Laplacian. Under the Szabo's smallness approximation, where attenuation is assumed to be much smaller than the wave number, the linear model is found consistent with arbitrary frequency power-law dependency.

  11. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    The dynamic problem in micropolar viscoelastic medium has been investigated by employing eigen value approach after applying Laplace and Fourier transformations. An example of infinite space with concentrated force at the origin has been presented to illustrate the application of the approach. The integral transforms ...

  12. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    gen (1969). They discussed the propagation condi- tions and growth equations governing the propa- gation of waves in micropolar viscoelastic medium. Cicco and Nappa (1998) discussed a ... Following Eringen (1967) the constitutive relations and the field equations in ... Cartesian co-ordinates system (x, y, z). To analyze.

  13. Failure criteria for viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Research projects concerned with developing a theory of fracture of materials are discussed. The effects of the geometry of the structure and the loads acting on the structure as they influence the failure process are analyzed. The effects of the viscoelastic deformation characteristics of the bulk elastomer on failure behavior are examined. Additional material parameters which control the fracture process are identified.

  14. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanea, Fernando A.; Safi, Kristin N.; Busch, Jeremiah W.

    2015-01-01

    The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (Ne ≤ 50) and much smaller (Ne ≤ 25) for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas. PMID:25946124

  15. A General Model of Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Explains Global Patterns of Human ABO Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Villanea

    Full Text Available The ABO locus in humans is characterized by elevated heterozygosity and very similar allele frequencies among populations scattered across the globe. Using knowledge of ABO protein function, we generated a simple model of asymmetric negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift to explain the maintenance of ABO polymorphism and its loss in human populations. In our models, regardless of the strength of selection, models with large effective population sizes result in ABO allele frequencies that closely match those observed in most continental populations. Populations must be moderately small to fall out of equilibrium and lose either the A or B allele (N(e ≤ 50 and much smaller (N(e ≤ 25 for the complete loss of diversity, which nearly always involved the fixation of the O allele. A pattern of low heterozygosity at the ABO locus where loss of polymorphism occurs in our model is consistent with small populations, such as Native American populations. This study provides a general evolutionary model to explain the observed global patterns of polymorphism at the ABO locus and the pattern of allele loss in small populations. Moreover, these results inform the range of population sizes associated with the recent human colonization of the Americas.

  16. A direct method for soil-structure interaction analysis based on frequency-dependent soil masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Delinic, K.; Marti, J.; Trbojevic, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    In a soil-structure interaction analysis, the soil, as a subsystem of the global vibrating system, exerts a strong influence on the response of the nuclear reactor building to the earthquake excitation. The volume of resources required for dealing with the soil have led to a number of different types of frequency-domain solutions, most of them based on the impedance function approach. These procedures require coupling the soil to the lumped-mass finite-element model of the reactor building. In most practical cases, the global vibrating system is analysed in the time domain (i.e. modal time history, linear or non-linear direct time-integration). Hence, it follows that the frequency domain solution for soil must be converted to an 'equivalent' soil model in the time domain. Over the past three decades, different approaches have been developed and used for earthquake analysis of nuclear power plants. In some cases, difficulties experienced in modelling the soil have affected the methods of global analysis, thus leading to approaches like the substructuring technique, e.g. 3-step method. In the practical applications, the limitations of each specific method must be taken into account in order to avoid unrealistic results. The aim of this paper is to present the recent development on an equivalent SDOF system for soil including frequency-dependent soil masses. The method will be compared with the classical 3-step method. (author)

  17. Magnetic field dependence of spatial frequency encoding NMR as probed on an oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitoux, D; Hu, Z; Plainchont, B; Merlet, D; Farjon, J; Bonnaffé, D; Giraud, N

    2015-10-01

    The magnetic field dependence of spatial frequency encoding NMR techniques is addressed through a detailed analysis of (1)H NMR spectra acquired under spatial frequency encoding on an oligomeric saccharide sample. In particular, the influence of the strength of the static magnetic field on spectral and spatial resolutions that are key features of this method is investigated. For this purpose, we report the acquisition of correlation experiments implementing broadband homodecoupling or J-edited spin evolutions, and we discuss the resolution enhancements that are provided by these techniques at two different magnetic fields. We show that performing these experiments at higher field improves the performance of high resolution NMR techniques based on a spatial frequency encoding. The significant resolution enhancements observed on the correlation spectra acquired at very high field make them valuable analytical tools that are suitable for the assignment of (1)H chemical shifts and scalar couplings in molecules with highly crowded spectrum such as carbohydrates. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Frequency-Dependent Streaming Potential of Porous Media—Part 1: Experimental Approaches and Apparatus Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. J. Glover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena link fluid flow and electrical flow in porous and fractured media such that a hydraulic flow will generate an electrical current and vice versa. Such a link is likely to be extremely useful, especially in the development of the electroseismic method. However, surprisingly few experimental measurements have been carried out, particularly as a function of frequency because of their difficulty. Here we have considered six different approaches to make laboratory determinations of the frequency-dependent streaming potential coefficient. In each case, we have analyzed the mechanical, electrical, and other technical difficulties involved in each method. We conclude that the electromagnetic drive is currently the only approach that is practicable, while the piezoelectric drive may be useful for low permeability samples and at specified high frequencies. We have used the electro-magnetic drive approach to design, build, and test an apparatus for measuring the streaming potential coefficient of unconsolidated and disaggregated samples such as sands, gravels, and soils with a diameter of 25.4 mm and lengths between 50 mm and 300 mm.

  19. Frequency-Dependent Streaming Potential of Porous Media—Part 2: Experimental Measurement of Unconsolidated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. J. Glover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-dependent streaming potential coefficient measurements have been made upon Ottawa sand and glass bead packs using a new apparatus that is based on an electromagnetic drive. The apparatus operates in the range 1 Hz to 1 kHz with samples of 25.4 mm diameter up to 150 mm long. The results have been analysed using theoretical models that are either (i based upon vibrational mechanics, (ii treat the geological material as a bundle of capillary tubes, or (iii treat the material as a porous medium. The best fit was provided by the Pride model and its simplification, which is satisfying as this model was conceived for porous media rather than capillary tube bundles. Values for the transition frequency were derived from each of the models for each sample and were found to be in good agreement with those expected from the independently measured effective pore radius of each material. The fit to the Pride model for all four samples was also found to be consistent with the independently measured steady-state permeability, while the value of the streaming potential coefficient in the low-frequency limit was found to be in good agreement with other steady-state streaming potential coefficient data.

  20. Frequency-dependent electrodeformation of giant phospholipid vesicles in AC electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, Primož

    2010-09-01

    A model of vesicle electrodeformation is described which obtains a parametrized vesicle shape by minimizing the sum of the membrane bending energy and the energy due to the electric field. Both the vesicle membrane and the aqueous media inside and outside the vesicle are treated as leaky dielectrics, and the vesicle itself is modeled as a nearly spherical shape enclosed within a thin membrane. It is demonstrated (a) that the model achieves a good quantitative agreement with the experimentally determined prolate-to-oblate transition frequencies in the kilohertz range and (b) that the model can explain a phase diagram of shapes of giant phospholipid vesicles with respect to two parameters: the frequency of the applied alternating current electric field and the ratio of the electrical conductivities of the aqueous media inside and outside the vesicle, explored in a recent paper (S. Aranda et al., Biophys J 95:L19-L21, 2008). A possible use of the frequency-dependent shape transitions of phospholipid vesicles in conductometry of microliter samples is discussed.

  1. Fracture characterization using frequency-dependent shear wave anisotropy analysis of microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, O. H.; Kendall, J.-M.; Chapman, M.

    2011-05-01

    The presence of fractures in hydrocarbon reservoirs can enhance porosity and permeability, and consequently increase production. The use of seismic anisotropy to characterize fracture systems has gained much interest in the last two decades. However, estimating fracture sizes from observations of seismic anisotropy has not been possible. Recent work has shown that frequency-dependent anisotropy (FDA) is very sensitive to the length-scale of the causative mechanism for the anisotropy. In this study, we observe FDA in a microseismic data set acquired from a carbonate gas field in Oman. The frequency-dependent shear wave anisotropy observations are modelled using a poroelastic model, which considers fluid communication between grain size pore spaces and larger scale fractures. A grid search is performed over fracture parameters (radius, density and strike) to find the model that best fits the real data. The results show that fracture size varies from the microscale within the shale cap rocks, to the metre-scale within the gas reservoir, to the centimetre-scale within the non-producing part of the carbonate formation. The lateral variation in fracture density agrees with previous conclusions from ordinary shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Cumulatively, the results show the potential for characterizing fracture systems using observations of FDA.

  2. Implementation of the frequency dependent line model in a real-time power system simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Iracheta-Cortez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described the implementation of the frequency-dependent line model (FD-Line in a real-time digital power system simulator. The main goal with such development is to describe a general procedure to incorporate new realistic models of power system components in modern real-time simulators based on the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP. In this procedure are described, firstly, the steps to obtain the time domain solution of the differential equations that models the electromagnetic behavior in multi-phase transmission lines with frequency dependent parameters. After, the algorithmic solution of the FD-Line model is implemented in Simulink environment, through an S-function programmed in C language, for running off-line simulations of electromagnetic transients. This implementation allows the free assembling of the FD Line model with any element of the Power System Blockset library and also, it can be used to build any network topology. The main advantage of having a power network built in Simulink is that can be executed in real-time by means of the commercial eMEGAsim simulator. Finally, several simulation cases are presented to validate the accuracy and the real-time performance of the FD-Line model.

  3. Frequency dependent power fluctuations: a feature of the ESR system or physical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    Full Text Available The k-dependence of the received power in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions, occurring for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs and for real satellites, is investigated by using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, where the data are recorded in eight separate channels using different frequencies. For the real satellites we find large variations of the relative powers from event to event, which is probably due to a different number of pulses catching the satellite over the integration period. However, the large power difference remains unexpected in one case. Over short time scale (< 10 s the relative power difference seems to be highly stable. For most NEIAL events the differences between channels are within noise level. In a few cases variations of the relative power well above both the estimated and expected 1-sigma level occur over a signal preintegrated profile. We thus suggest that the frequency dependence of the power in NEIAL events has its origin in the scattering medium itself as the most plausible explanation.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma waves and instabilities; instruments and techniques

  4. Frequency dependent power fluctuations: a feature of the ESR system or physical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The k-dependence of the received power in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions, occurring for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs and for real satellites, is investigated by using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, where the data are recorded in eight separate channels using different frequencies. For the real satellites we find large variations of the relative powers from event to event, which is probably due to a different number of pulses catching the satellite over the integration period. However, the large power difference remains unexpected in one case. Over short time scale (< 10 s the relative power difference seems to be highly stable. For most NEIAL events the differences between channels are within noise level. In a few cases variations of the relative power well above both the estimated and expected 1-sigma level occur over a signal preintegrated profile. We thus suggest that the frequency dependence of the power in NEIAL events has its origin in the scattering medium itself as the most plausible explanation.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma waves and instabilities; instruments and techniques

  5. Tidal dissipation in the Moon. Learning from the "incorrect" frequency dependence measured by the LLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroimsky, M.

    2012-09-01

    It was demonstrated back in 2001 that fitting of the LLR data results in the quality factor Q of the Moon scaling as the frequency ξ to a negative power [8]: Q ˜ ξp , where p = -0.19 . (1) At the same time, numerous measurements by various seismological teams agree on the exponent being positive, not negative [4]. The positive sign of the exponent stems also from geodetic measurements [1], and it finds its explanation within the theory of friction in minerals [5]. On all these grounds, the aforementioned finding by the LLR team appears to be implausible and to disagree with the conventional wisdom of solid state mechanics and seismology. A later reexamination in [9] rendered a less upsetting value, p = -0.09 , which was still negative and still seemed to contradict our knowledge of microphysical processes in solids. The authors later wrote [10]: "There is a weak dependence of tidal specific dissipation Q on period. The Q increases from ˜ 30 at a month to ˜ 35 at one year. Q for rock is expected to have a weak dependence on tidal period, but it is expected to decrease with period rather than increase. The frequency dependence of Q deserves further attention and should be improved." A possible explanation of this paradox comes from the observation that the LLR measurements provided information on the tidal and not seismic dissipation. The difference between these two processes comes from self-gravitation of the celestial body. To address the problem accurately, one has to calculate the tidal factors kl sin ɛl showing up in the Darwin-Kaula expansion for the tidal torque or force. Here kl is the degree-l Love number, while ɛl is the appropriate tidal lag. Sometimes sin ɛl is denoted with 1/Q , which is not recommended, because this notation does not distinguish between the tidal reaction appropriate to harmonics of different degree. This notation also puts one at risk of confusing the tidal damping with the seismic damping, two process that have much in common

  6. Influence of viscoelasticity on bubble coalescence in wormlike micellar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran Suja, Vineeth; Kannan, Aadithya; Andrew Kubicka, Bruce; Fuller, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    The stability of bubbles against coalescence in wormlike micellar (WLM) solutions is of importance for many industries. The viscoelasticity of the WLM solutions plays a key role in the bubble stability and can be tuned to change the various stages in the drainage of the thin film between bubbles leading to coalescence. Using a single bubble thin film interferometric technique, we have studied the influence of WLM solution (CTAB /Sodium Salicylate) viscoelasticity on the three stages of thin film drainage- the fluid entrainment, dimple formation and its stability, and the transition to a black film prior to coalescence. The fluid entrained decreased with a decrease in the viscoelastic moduli. The bubble also deformed resulting in the formation of a dimple. The dimple formation and its washout depends on the viscoelastic properties of the solution. For lower surfactant concentration, the dimples were seen to become unstable and have larger washout velocities. Further, depending on the relaxation time of the WLM solution, complex washout dynamics involving rapid dimple deceleration, recoil and oscillatory washouts are observed. As the film thins further, we observe stark step-wise transition to a black film, as opposed to pure surfactant systems that exhibit multiple steps.

  7. Salicylate-induced hyperacusis in rats: Dose- and frequency-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly; Holfoth, David; Lindner, Julia; Kaier-Green, Zoe; Bowler, Rachael; Urban, Maxwell; Salvi, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The use of auditory reaction time is a reliable measure of loudness perception in both animals and humans with reaction times (RT) decreasing with increasing stimulus intensity. Since abnormal loudness perception is a common feature of hyperacusis, a potentially debilitating auditory disorder in which moderate-intensity sounds are perceived as uncomfortable or painfully loud, we used RT measures to assess rats for salicylate-induced hyperacusis. A previous study using an operant conditioning RT procedure found that high-dose sodium salicylate (SS) induced hyperacusis-like behavior, i.e., faster than normal RTs to moderate and high level sounds, when rats were tested with broadband noise stimuli. However, it was not clear from that study if salicylate induces hyperacusis-like behavior in a dose- or frequency-dependent manner. Therefore, the goals of the current study were to determine how RT-intensity functions were altered by different doses of salicylate, and, using tone bursts, to determine if salicylate induces hyperacusis-like behavior across the entire frequency spectrum or only at certain frequencies. Similar to previous physiological studies, we began to see faster than normal RTs for sounds 60 dB SPL and greater with salicylate doses of 150 mg/kg and higher; indicating the rats were experiencing hyperacusis at high salicylate doses. In addition, high-dose salicylate significantly reduced RTs across all stimulus frequencies tested which suggests that a central neural excitability mechanism may be a potential driver of salicylate-induced changes in loudness perception and hyperacusis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Method of frequency dependent correlations: investigating the variability of total solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Olspert, N.

    2017-04-01

    Context. This paper contributes to the field of modeling and hindcasting of the total solar irradiance (TSI) based on different proxy data that extend further back in time than the TSI that is measured from satellites. Aims: We introduce a simple method to analyze persistent frequency-dependent correlations (FDCs) between the time series and use these correlations to hindcast missing historical TSI values. We try to avoid arbitrary choices of the free parameters of the model by computing them using an optimization procedure. The method can be regarded as a general tool for pairs of data sets, where correlating and anticorrelating components can be separated into non-overlapping regions in frequency domain. Methods: Our method is based on low-pass and band-pass filtering with a Gaussian transfer function combined with de-trending and computation of envelope curves. Results: We find a major controversy between the historical proxies and satellite-measured targets: a large variance is detected between the low-frequency parts of targets, while the low-frequency proxy behavior of different measurement series is consistent with high precision. We also show that even though the rotational signal is not strongly manifested in the targets and proxies, it becomes clearly visible in FDC spectrum. A significant part of the variability can be explained by a very simple model consisting of two components: the original proxy describing blanketing by sunspots, and the low-pass-filtered curve describing the overall activity level. The models with the full library of the different building blocks can be applied to hindcasting with a high level of confidence, Rc ≈ 0.90. The usefulness of these models is limited by the major target controversy. Conclusions: The application of the new method to solar data allows us to obtain important insights into the different TSI modeling procedures and their capabilities for hindcasting based on the directly observed time intervals.

  9. Disentangling the roles of frequency-vs. state-dependence in generating individual differences in behavioural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathot, Kimberley J; van den Hout, Piet J; Piersma, Theunis; Kempenaers, Bart; Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical work suggests that both negative frequency-dependent payoffs and state-dependent payoffs can lead to individual variation in behavioural plasticity. We investigated the roles of both frequency- and state-dependence on the occurrence of individual variation in behavioural plasticity in a series of experiments where we manipulated perceived predation danger for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica). We found individual variation in plasticity in a trait with negative frequency-dependent payoffs (vigilance), but not in a trait with positive frequency-dependent payoffs (escape flights). Furthermore, there was no correlation between the average level of vigilance under low predation danger and the magnitude of response to increased predation danger, as would be expected under state-dependence. Thus, our results provide support for the hypothesis that negative-frequency dependence favours individual variation in plasticity. However, negative-frequency dependence alone cannot explain why plasticity would be consistent within individuals, and future studies should address the factors that might favour individual consistency. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Frequency and amplitude dependences of molding accuracy in ultrasonic nanoimprint technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    We use neither a heater nor ultraviolet lights, and are researching and developing an ultrasonic nanoimprint as a new nano-patterning technology. In our ultrasonic nanoimprint technology, ultrasonic vibration is not used as a heat generator instead of the heater. A mold is connected with an ultrasonic generator, and mold patterns are pushed down and pulled up at a high speed into a thermoplastic. Frictional heat is generated by ultrasonic vibration between mold patterns and thermoplastic patterns formed by an initial contact force. However, because frictional heat occurs locally, the whole mold is not heated. Therefore, a molding material can be comprehensively processed at room temperature. A magnetostriction actuator was built into our ultrasonic nanoimprint system as an ultrasonic generator, and the frequency and amplitude can be changed between dc–10 kHz and 0–4 µm, respectively. First, the ultrasonic nanoimprint was experimented by using this system on polyethylene terephthalate (PET, T g = 69 °C), whose the glass transition temperature (T g ) is comparatively low in engineering plastics, and it was ascertained that the most suitable elastic material for this technique was an ethyl urethane rubber. In addition, we used a changeable frequency of the magnetostriction actuator, and nano-patterns in an electroformed-Ni mold were transferred to a 0.5 mm thick sheet of PET, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), which are typical engineering plastics, under variable molding conditions. The frequency and amplitude dependence of ultrasonic vibration to the molding accuracy were investigated by measuring depth and width of imprinted patterns. As a result, regardless of the molding material, the imprinted depth was changed drastically when the frequency exceeded 5 kHz. On the other hand, when the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration grew, the imprinted depth gradually deepened. Influence of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration was not

  11. Frequency and amplitude dependences of molding accuracy in ultrasonic nanoimprint technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2009-12-01

    We use neither a heater nor ultraviolet lights, and are researching and developing an ultrasonic nanoimprint as a new nano-patterning technology. In our ultrasonic nanoimprint technology, ultrasonic vibration is not used as a heat generator instead of the heater. A mold is connected with an ultrasonic generator, and mold patterns are pushed down and pulled up at a high speed into a thermoplastic. Frictional heat is generated by ultrasonic vibration between mold patterns and thermoplastic patterns formed by an initial contact force. However, because frictional heat occurs locally, the whole mold is not heated. Therefore, a molding material can be comprehensively processed at room temperature. A magnetostriction actuator was built into our ultrasonic nanoimprint system as an ultrasonic generator, and the frequency and amplitude can be changed between dc-10 kHz and 0-4 µm, respectively. First, the ultrasonic nanoimprint was experimented by using this system on polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Tg = 69 °C), whose the glass transition temperature (Tg) is comparatively low in engineering plastics, and it was ascertained that the most suitable elastic material for this technique was an ethyl urethane rubber. In addition, we used a changeable frequency of the magnetostriction actuator, and nano-patterns in an electroformed-Ni mold were transferred to a 0.5 mm thick sheet of PET, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), which are typical engineering plastics, under variable molding conditions. The frequency and amplitude dependence of ultrasonic vibration to the molding accuracy were investigated by measuring depth and width of imprinted patterns. As a result, regardless of the molding material, the imprinted depth was changed drastically when the frequency exceeded 5 kHz. On the other hand, when the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration grew, the imprinted depth gradually deepened. Influence of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration was not observed

  12. Encapsulation of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Using Viscoelastic Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Wong, Serena H.; Kupnik, Mario; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The packaging of a medical imaging or therapeutic ultrasound transducer should provide protective insulation while maintaining high performance. For a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT), an ideal encapsulation coating would therefore require a limited and predictable change on the static operation point and the dynamic performance, while insulating the high dc and dc actuation voltages from the environment. To fulfill these requirements, viscoelastic materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), were investigated for an encapsulation material. In addition, PDMS, with a glass-transition temperature below room temperature, provides a low Young's modulus that preserves the static behavior; at higher frequencies for ultrasonic operation, this material becomes stiffer and acoustically matches to water. In this paper, we demonstrate the modeling and implementation of the viscoelastic polymer as the encapsulation material. We introduce a finite element model (FEM) that addresses viscoelasticity. This enables us to correctly calculate both the static operation point and the dynamic behavior of the CMUT. CMUTs designed for medical imaging and therapeutic ultrasound were fabricated and encapsulated. Static and dynamic measurements were used to verify the FEM and show excellent agreement. This paper will help in the design process for optimizing the static and the dynamic behavior of viscoelastic-polymer-coated CMUTs. PMID:21170294

  13. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Viscoelasticity of colloidal polycrystals doped with impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhichi, Ameur; Tamborini, Elisa; Oberdisse, Julian; Cipelletti, Luca; Ramos, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    We investigate how the microstructure of a colloidal polycrystal influences its linear visco-elasticity. We use thermosensitive copolymer micelles that arrange in water in a cubic crystalline lattice, yielding a colloidal polycrystal. The polycrystal is doped with a small amount of nanoparticles, of size comparable to that of the micelles, which behave as impurities and thus partially segregate in the grain boundaries. We show that the shear elastic modulus only depends on the packing of the micelles and varies neither with the presence of nanoparticles nor with the crystal microstructure. By contrast, we find that the loss modulus is strongly affected by the presence of nanoparticles. A comparison between rheology data and small-angle neutron-scattering data suggests that the loss modulus is dictated by the total amount of nanoparticles in the grain boundaries, which in turn depends on the sample microstructure.

  15. Critical bands and mixed-frequency scaling: sequential dependencies, equal-loudness contours, and power function exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L M

    1990-06-01

    Stimuli of random intensities and various but predictable frequencies were presented for repeated magnitude estimations on the same scale (mixed-frequency scaling). The frequencies for a particular judgment session were selected so that they lay either inside each other's critical bands or outside them. Contrastive dependencies of current magnitude estimation responses on previous stimuli of a different frequency were significantly affected by whether the two frequencies were inside or outside each other's critical bands, while assimilative dependencies were not. This reinforces the idea that such dependencies are sensory in nature and arise from a different mechanism than do the assimilative dependencies. Mixed-frequency scaling of loudness also gives rise to cross-frequency matching functions from which equal-loudness contours can be calculated. These contours calculated from the present judgments are similar to those produced from other methods, even when they are extrapolated to untested intensities. Power function exponents for loudness scaled in this way are larger for lower frequencies, as has been found in previous studies, and are consistent with the flattening of the calculated equal-loudness contours for low frequencies as intensity increases.

  16. Viscoelastic-gravitational deformation by a rectangular thrust fault in a layered earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundle, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Previous papers in this series have been concerned with developing the numerical techniques required for the evaluation of vertical displacements which are the result of thrust faulting in a layered, elastic-gravitational earth model. This paper extends these methods to the calculation of fully time-dependent vertical surface deformation from a rectangular, dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over a viscoelastic-gravitational half space. The elastic-gravitational solutions are used together with the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity to give the solution in the Laplace transform domain. The technique used here to invert the displacements into the time domain is the Prony series technique, wherein the transformed solution is fit to the transformed representation of a truncated series of decaying exponentials. Purely viscoelastic results obtained are checked against results found previously using a different inverse transform method, and agreement is excellent. A series of results are obtained for a rectangular, 30 0 dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over viscoelastic-gravitational half space. Time-dependent displacements are calculated out to 50 half space relaxation times tau/sub a/, or 100 Maxwell times 2tau/sub m/ = tau/sub a/. Significant effects due to gravity are shown to exist in the solutions as early as several tau/sub a/. The difference between the purely viscoelastic solution and the viscoelastic-gravitational solutions grows as time progresses. Typically, the solutions with gravity reach an equilibrium value after 10--20 relaxation times, when the purely viscoelastic solutions are still changing significantly. Additionally, the length scaling which was apparent in the purely viscoelastic problem breaks down in the viscoelastic-gravitational problem

  17. Frequency dependent detection in a STED microscope using modulated excitation light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Emiliano; Harke, Benjamin; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-14

    We present a novel concept adaptable to any kind of STED microscope in order to expand the limited number of compatible dyes for performing super resolution imaging. The approach is based on an intensity modulated excitation beam in combination with a frequency dependent detection in the form of a standard lock-in amplifier. This enables to unmix fluorescence signal originated by the excitation beam from the fluorescence caused by the STED beam. The benefit of this concept is demonstrated by imaging biological samples as well as fluorescent spheres, whose spectrum does not allow STED imaging in the conventional way. Our concept is suitable with CW or pulsed STED microscope and can thereby be seen as a general improvement adaptable to any existing setup.

  18. Strain-dependent partial slip on rock fractures under seismic-frequency torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Seth; Bonner, Brian P.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.

    2017-05-01

    Measurements of nonlinear modulus and attenuation of fractures provide the opportunity to probe their mechanical state. We have adapted a low-frequency torsional apparatus to explore the seismic signature of fractures under low normal stress, simulating low effective stress environments such as shallow or high pore pressure reservoirs. We report strain-dependent modulus and attenuation for fractured samples of Duperow dolomite (a carbon sequestration target reservoir in Montana), Blue Canyon Dome rhyolite (a geothermal analog reservoir in New Mexico), and Montello granite (a deep basement disposal analog from Wisconsin). We use a simple single effective asperity partial slip model to fit our measured stress-strain curves and solve for the friction coefficient, contact radius, and full slip condition. These observations have the potential to develop into new field techniques for measuring differences in frictional properties during reservoir engineering manipulations and estimate the stress conditions where reservoir fractures and faults begin to fully slip.

  19. Sibling genes as environment: Sibling dopamine genotypes and adolescent health support frequency dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily; Conley, Dalton; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-11-01

    While research consistently suggests siblings matter for individual outcomes, it remains unclear why. At the same time, studies of genetic effects on health typically correlate variants of a gene with the average level of behavioral or health measures, ignoring more complicated genetic dynamics. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we investigate whether sibling genes moderate individual genetic expression. We compare twin variation in health-related absences and self-rated health by genetic differences at three locations related to dopamine regulation and transport to test sibship-level cross-person gene-gene interactions. Results suggest effects of variation at these genetic locations are moderated by sibling genes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, this evidence is consistent with frequency dependent selection and suggests much genetic research may violate the stable unit treatment value assumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in polymers controlled by plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Kazunari; Koike, Kotaro; Du, Qiming; Hayashi, Neisei; Koike, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-04-01

    The temperature-dependence coefficient of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) in perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers is known to change drastically, because of the glass transition, at a certain critical temperature (Tc), above which the BFS becomes more sensitive to temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate that the Tc value can be adjusted by varying the dopant concentration, which is originally used to form the graded-index profile in the core region. Furthermore, we show that the temperature sensitivity of the BFS is enhanced in the presence of dopant probably because the temperature sensitivity of Young's modulus is increased. The results indicate a big potential of the temperature sensors based on Brillouin scattering with an extremely high sensitivity in a specific desired temperature range.

  1. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, B I; Elston, S J

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δε-Δεε(0). Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays.

  2. Frequency dependent dynamical electromechanical response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Bravina, S. L.; Ciucci, Francesco; Svechnikov, G. S.; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Frequency dependent dynamic electromechanical response of the mixed ionic-electronic conductor film to a periodic electric bias is analyzed for different electronic and ionic boundary conditions. Dynamic effects of mobile ions concentration (stoichiometry contribution), charge state of acceptors (donors), electron concentration (electron-phonon coupling via the deformation potential), and flexoelectric effect contribution are discussed. A variety of possible nonlinear dynamic electromechanical responses of mixed electronic ionic conductors (MIEC) films including quasi-elliptic curves, asymmetric hysteresis-like loops with pronounced memory window, and butterfly-like curves are calculated. The electromechanical response of ionic semiconductor is predicted to be a powerful descriptor of local valence states, band structure and electron-phonon correlations thatcan be readily measured in the nanoscale volumes and in the presence of strong electronic conductivity.

  3. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, B. I.; Elston, S. J.

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δɛ-Δɛɛ0. Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays.

  4. Evaluation of frequency-dependent ultrasound attenuation in transparent medium using focused shadowgraph technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yukina; Kudo, Nobuki

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic fields of a short-pulsed ultrasound propagating through a transparent medium with ultrasound attenuation were visualized by the focused shadowgraph technique. A brightness waveform and its spatial integrations were derived from a visualized field image and compared with a pressure waveform measured by a membrane hydrophone. The experimental results showed that first-order integration of the brightness wave has good agreement with the pressure waveforms. Frequency-dependent attenuation of the pulse propagating through castor oil was derived from brightness and pressure waveforms, and attenuation coefficients determined from focused shadowgraphy and hydrophone techniques showed good agreement. The results suggest the usefulness of the shadowgraph technique not only for the visualization of ultrasound fields but also for noncontact estimation of rough pressure waveforms and correct ultrasound attenuation.

  5. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  6. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  7. Ultrasound-enhanced penetration through sclera depends on frequency of sonication and size of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Ying; Suen, Wai Leung Langston; Tse, Ho Yan; Wong, Hoi Sang

    2017-03-30

    We previously employed ultrasound as a needleless approach to deliver macromolecules via the transscleral route to the back of the eye in live animals (Suen et al., 2013). Here, we investigated the nature of the ultrasound-enhanced transport through sclera, the outermost barrier in the transscleral route. Thus, the possible role of cavitation from ultrasound was explored; its effect during and after sonication on scleral penetration was measured; and the dependence on the size of macromolecules was determined. We applied ultrasound frequency from 40kHz to 3MHz at I SATA (spatial-average-temporal-average intensity) of 0.05W/cm 2 to fresh rabbit sclera ex vivo. Fluorescent dextran of size 20kDa to 150kDa was used as macromolecular probes. We measured the distance of penetration of the probes through the sclera over 30s during sonication and over 15min after sonication from cryosectioned tissue images. Deeper penetration in the sclera was observed with decreasing frequency. The presence of stable cavitation was further verified by passive acoustic detection. The effect during sonication increased penetration distance up to 20 fold and was limited to macromolecular probes ≤70kDa. The effect post sonication increased penetration distance up to 3 fold and attributed to the improved intrasscleral transport of macromolecules ≥70kDa. Post-sonication enhancement diminished gradually in 3h. As the extent of cavitation increased with decreasing frequency, the trend observed supports the contribution of (stable) cavitation to enhancing transport through sclera. Effect during sonication was attributed to flow associated with acoustic microstreaming. Effect post sonication was attributed to the temporary increase in scleral permeability. Flow-associated effect was more pronounced but only applied to smaller macromolecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mesoscale Mapping of Mouse Cortex Reveals Frequency-Dependent Cycling between Distinct Macroscale Functional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Matthieu P; Chan, Allen W; Balbi, Matilde; Silasi, Gergely; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-08-02

    Connectivity mapping based on resting-state activity in mice has revealed functional motifs of correlated activity. However, the rules by which motifs organize into larger functional modules that lead to hemisphere wide spatial-temporal activity sequences is not clear. We explore cortical activity parcellation in head-fixed, quiet awake GCaMP6 mice from both sexes by using mesoscopic calcium imaging. Spectral decomposition of spontaneous cortical activity revealed the presence of two dominant frequency modes (domain such as intrahemispheric reflections of sensory and motor cortices. In contrast, higher frequency activity >1 Hz yielded two larger clusters of coactivated areas with an enlarged default mode network-like posterior region. We suggest that the apparent constrained structure for intra-areal cortical activity flow could be exploited in future efforts to normalize activity in diseases of the nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Increasingly, functional connectivity mapping of spontaneous activity is being used to reveal the organization of the brain. However, because the brain operates across multiple space and time domains a more detailed understanding of this organization is necessary. We used in vivo wide-field calcium imaging of the indicator GCaMP6 in head-fixed, awake mice to characterize the organization of spontaneous cortical activity at different spatiotemporal scales. Correlation analysis defines the presence of two to three superclusters of activity that span traditionally defined functional territories and were frequency dependent. This work helps define the rules for how different cortical areas interact in time and space. We provide a framework necessary for future studies that explore functional reorganization of brain circuits in disease models. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377513-21$15.00/0.

  9. Auto-correlation of velocity-fluctuations and frequency-dependent diffusion constant for hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.D.; Nag, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the auto-correlation functions of the fluctuations in the transverse and the parallel components of hot carrier-velocity in a semiconductor by Monte Carlo simulation. The functions for electrons in InSb are determined by this method for applied electric fields of 50 V/cm, 75 V/cm, and 100 V/cm. With increasing value of the time interval the transverse auto-correlation function fall nearly exponentially to zero, but the parallel function falls sharply to a negative peak, then rises to positive values and finally becomes zero. The interval beyond which the auto-correlation function is zero and the correlation time are also evaluated. The correlation time is found to be approximately 1.6 times the relaxation time calculated from the chord mobility. The effect of the flight sampling time on the value of variance of the displacement, is investigated in terms of the low frequency diffusion constants, determined from the variation of the correlation functions. It is found that the diffusion constants become independent of the sampling time if it is of the order of one hundred times the relaxation time. The frequency-dependent diffusion constants are calculated from the correlation functions. The transverse diffusion constant falls monotonically with frequency for all the field strengths studied. The parallel diffusion constant has similar variation for the lower fields (50 V/cm and 75 V/cm) but it has a peak at about 44 GHz for the field of 100 V/cm. (orig.)

  10. Long range dependence in the high frequency USD/INR exchange rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2014-02-01

    Using high frequency data, this paper examines the long memory property in the unconditional and conditional volatility of the USD/INR exchange rate at different time scales using the Local Whittle (LW), the Exact Local Whittle (ELW) and the FIAPARCH models. Results indicate that the long memory property remains quite stable across different time scales for both unconditional and conditional volatility measures. Results from the non-overlapping moving window approach indicate that the extreme events (such as the subprime crisis and the European debt crisis) resulted in highly persistent behavior of the USD/INR exchange rate and thus lead to market inefficiency. This paper also examines the long memory property in the realized volatility based on different time scale data. Results indicate that the realized volatility measures based on different scales of the high frequency data exhibit a consistent and stable long memory property. However, the realized volatility measures based on daily data exhibit lower degree of long-range dependence. This study has implications for traders and investors (with different trading horizons) and can be helpful in predicting expected future volatility and in designing and implementing trading strategies at different time scales.

  11. Frequency-dependent photothermal measurement of transverse thermal diffusivity of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, J. W.; Shahi, Maryam; Yao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, J. E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Edberg, Jesper; Crispin, Xavier [Department of Science and Technology, Organic Electronics, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2015-12-21

    We have used a photothermal technique, in which chopped light heats the front surface of a small (∼1 mm{sup 2}) sample and the chopping frequency dependence of thermal radiation from the back surface is measured with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled infrared detector. In our system, the sample is placed directly in front of the detector within its dewar. Because the detector is also sensitive to some of the incident light, which leaks around or through the sample, measurements are made for the detector signal that is in quadrature with the chopped light. Results are presented for layered crystals of semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pn) and for papers of cellulose nanofibrils coated with semiconducting poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (NFC-PEDOT). For NFC-PEDOT, we have found that the transverse diffusivity, smaller than the in-plane value, varies inversely with thickness, suggesting that texturing of the papers varies with thickness. For TIPS-pn, we have found that the interlayer diffusivity is an order of magnitude larger than the in-plane value, consistent with previous estimates, suggesting that low-frequency optical phonons, presumably associated with librations in the TIPS side groups, carry most of the heat.

  12. Importance of frequency dependent magnetoresistance measurements in analysing the intrinsicality of magnetodielectric effect: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Hari Mohan; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Mishra, Vikash; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, P. R.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetodielectric (MD) materials have attracted considerable attention due to their intriguing physics and potential future applications. However, the intrinsicality of the MD effect is always a major concern in such materials as the MD effect may arise also due to the MR (magnetoresistance) effect. In the present case study, we report an experimental approach to analyse and separate the intrinsic and MR dominated contributions of the MD phenomenon. For this purpose, polycrystalline samples of LaGa1-xAxO3 (A = Mn/Fe) have been prepared by solid state reaction method. The purity of their structural phase (orthorhombic) has been validated by refining the X-ray diffraction data. The RTMD (room temperature MD) response has been recorded over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 10 MHz. In order to analyse the intrinsicality of the MD effect, FDMR (frequency dependent MR) by means of IS (impedance spectroscopy) and dc MR measurements in four probe geometry have been carried out at RT. A significant RTMD effect has been observed in selected Mn/Fe doped LaGaO3 (LGO) compositions. The mechanism of MR free/intrinsic MD effect, observed in Mn/Fe doped LGO, has been understood speculatively in terms of modified cell volume associated with the reorientation/retransformation of spin-coupled Mn/Fe orbitals due to the application of magnetic field. The present analysis suggests that in order to justify the intrinsic/resistive origin of the MD phenomenon, FDMR measurements are more useful than measuring only dc MR or analysing the trends of magnetic field dependent change in the dielectric constant and tanδ. On the basis of the present case study, we propose that IS (FDMR) alone can be used as an effective experimental tool to detect and analyse the resistive and intrinsic parts contributing to the MD phenomenon.

  13. Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Modelling of the Scratch Response of PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kermouche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding how to model the time-dependent behavior of PMMA during a scratch loading at a constant speed and at middle strain levels. A brief experimental study is first presented, consisting of the analysis of microscratches carried out at various scratching velocities and normal loads. The loading conditions have been chosen in such a way that neither (viscoelasticity nor (viscoplasticity of the PMMA may be neglected a priori. The main analyzed parameter is the tip penetration depth measured during the steady state. Then, a finite element model is used to investigate the potential of classical elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models to reproduce these experimental results. It is mainly shown that these models lead to unsatisfying results. More specifically, it is pointed out here that the time-independent Young modulus used in such models is not suitable. To take into account this feature, a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model based on the connection in series of a viscoelastic part with a viscoplastic part is proposed. It is shown that it leads to more acceptable results, which points out the importance of viscoelasticity in the scratch behavior of solid polymers.

  14. PIV and DNS analyses of viscoelastic turbulent flows behind a rectangular orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Takahiro; Motozawa, Masaaki; Tsurumi, Daisei; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Viscoelastic fluid turbulence in relaxing and non-equilibrium flow is investigated. • Numerical and experimental results of viscoelastic turbulent orifice flow are provided. • DNS result using Giesekus model agrees well with the experimental one by surfactant solution. • Formation of Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices behind the orifice weakens in viscoelastic flows. • Highly viscoelastic flow reduces the form drag, but increases the skin friction due to extra stress. -- Abstract: We performed PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and DNS (direct numerical simulations) on turbulent orifice flows for the Newtonian fluid and viscoelastic fluids, and compared their results with emphasis on turbulence statistics and vortical motions just behind the orifice rib. In the experiment, a cationic surfactant solution of CTAC (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) was chosen as the viscoelastic fluid that is known to provide substantial drag reduction in the case of smooth-wall turbulence. In the viscoelastic flows, the formation of the Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices emanating from the orifice edge was found to be attenuated compared to the Newtonian case, resulting in the suppression of turbulent eddies and Reynolds shear stress behind the orifice. However, the variation of the drag depended on the Reynolds number and the surfactant concentration (or the Weissenberg number): that is, the drag-reducing effect can be achieved only in limited conditions or low Reynolds-number flows. Although DNS results was found to be in qualitative agreement with the experimental data, we discussed also inconsistency between the experimental and DNS results

  15. Frequency dependent rectifier memristor bridge used as a programmable synaptic membrane voltage generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pabst

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reasoned by its dynamical behavior, the memristor enables a lot of new applications in analog circuit design. Since some realizations have been shown (e.g. 2007 by Hewlett Packard, the development of applications with memristors becomes more and more interesting. Besides applications in neural networks and storage devices, analog memristive circuits also promise further applications. Therefore, this article proposes a frequency dependent rectifier memristor bridge for different purposes, for example, using as a programmable synaptic membrane voltage generator for Spike-Time-Dependent-Plasticity and describes the circuit theory. In this context it is shown that the Picard Iteration is one possibility to analytically solve the system of nonlinear state equations of memristor circuits. An intuitive picture of how a memristor works in a network in general is given as well and in this context some research on the dynamical behavior of a HP memristor should be done. After all it is suggested to use the memristor bridge as a neuron.

  16. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  17. Viscoelastic-electromagnetism and Hall viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Hirono, Yuji; Kimura, Taro; Minami, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a kind of electromagnetism, which we call viscoelastic-electromagnetism, to investigate viscoelastic transport phenomena. It is shown that Cartan's formalism of general relativity is essential for viscoelastic theory, and then the corresponding electric and magnetic fields are regarded as a velocity gradient and a Burgers vector density, respectively. As an application of this formalism, the Streda formula for the Hall viscosity is obtained.

  18. The Frequency Spectral Properties of Electrode-Skin Contact Impedance on Human Head and Its Frequency-Dependent Effects on Frequency-Difference EIT in Stroke Detection from 10Hz to 1MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Xu, Canhua; Zhang, Ge; Li, Weichen; Fu, Feng; Shi, Xuetao; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Frequency-difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) reconstructs frequency-dependent changes of a complex impedance distribution. It has a potential application in acute stroke detection because there are significant differences in impedance spectra between stroke lesions and normal brain tissues. However, fdEIT suffers from the influences of electrode-skin contact impedance since contact impedance varies greatly with frequency. When using fdEIT to detect stroke, it is critical to know the degree of measurement errors or image artifacts caused by contact impedance. To our knowledge, no study has systematically investigated the frequency spectral properties of electrode-skin contact impedance on human head and its frequency-dependent effects on fdEIT used in stroke detection within a wide frequency band (10 Hz-1 MHz). In this study, we first measured and analyzed the frequency spectral properties of electrode-skin contact impedance on 47 human subjects' heads within 10 Hz-1 MHz. Then, we quantified the frequency-dependent effects of contact impedance on fdEIT in stroke detection in terms of the current distribution beneath the electrodes and the contact impedance imbalance between two measuring electrodes. The results showed that the contact impedance at high frequencies (>100 kHz) significantly changed the current distribution beneath the electrode, leading to nonnegligible errors in boundary voltages and artifacts in reconstructed images. The contact impedance imbalance at low frequencies (impedance has critical frequency-dependent influences on fdEIT and further studies on reducing such influences are necessary to improve the application of fdEIT in stroke detection.

  19. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  20. Shape recovery of viscoelastic beams after stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of viscoelastic structures that have been held stowed for a given time duration can be formulated as a viscoelastic boundary value problem in which the prescribed condition switches from constant displacement to constant traction. This paper presents closed-form expressions...... for the load relaxation and shape recovery of a linear viscoelastic beam subject to such time-varying constraints. It is shown that a viscoelastic beam recovers to its original shape asymptotically over time. The analytical solutions are employed to investigate the effect of temperature and stowage time...

  1. Gas phase emitter effect of thulium within ceramic metal halide lamps in dependence on frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Depta, M.; Bergner, A.; Hoebing, T.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P. [Ruhr University Bochum, Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Denissen, C.; Suijker, J. [Philips Lighting, Category Prof. Lamps, PO Box 80020, NL-5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    The gas phase emitter effect within ceramic metal halide (CMH) lamps reduces the effective work function of the electrode material and, therewith, the electrode temperature. An investigation of the gas phase emitter effect of thulium (Tm) within CMH lamps seeded with Tm iodide (TmI3) is carried out. For this purpose, phase resolved images of the arc attachment and measurements of the electrode temperature, Tm atom and ion densities are performed in dependence on operating frequency by pyrometry and optical emission spectroscopy. Additionally, the influence of a sodium iodide (NaI) admixture is studied. The emitter effect is generated by means of a monolayer of Tm atoms on the electrode surface generated by a Tm ion current within the cathodic phase. It overlaps onto the anodic phase at higher frequencies of some hundreds of hertz. The reason is the finite life time of the monolayer, which is determined by the adsorption energy of Tm on the tungsten surface. Due to the low electric field strength in front of the anode and the mass inertia, the emitter ions and atoms remain in front of the anode. They retard the decay of the monolayer and with it the increase of the work function. Moreover, a comparison of a lamp seeded with TmI3 and sodium iodide (NaI) with a lamp seeded only with TmI3 illustrates a slight reduction of the electrode tip temperature caused by a higher Tm saturation vapour pressure and a higher Tm amount within the lamp filling. The influence of Na appears to be quite low. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Influence of support viscoelastic properties on the structural wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hong

    2007-01-01

    The dissipation of the structural vibration energy at viscoelastic supports is an efficient method of reducing modal resonances and consequent noise and fatigue related problems. The support stiffness has significant impact on the modal characteristics. The dissipation capabilities of the viscoelastic support depend on its stiffness. Methods to optimally tune this support stiffness are proposed in this study. The characteristic mechanical impedance for structural vibration is obtained from wave propagation analysis and non-reflecting boundary conditions. The wave propagation is analyzed near the supports installed at edges, middle of a structure, and for the tuned vibration absorber. The dependence of the optimal stiffness on the location and mass of the supports is identified. A simple analytical solution for optimal support stiffness for maximum dissipation of propagating vibration energy at supports is presented

  3. Dependence of Boiling Histotripsy Treatment Efficiency on HIFU Frequency and Focal Pressure Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2017-09-01

    Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based method of mechanical tissue fractionation that utilizes millisecond-long bursts of HIFU shock waves to cause boiling at the focus in milliseconds. The subsequent interaction of the incoming shocks with the vapor bubble mechanically lyses surrounding tissue and cells. The acoustic parameter space for BH has been investigated previously and an inverse dependence between the HIFU frequency and the dimensions of a BH lesion has been observed. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate in more detail the ablation rate and reliability of BH in the frequency range relevant to treatment of deep abdominal tissue targets (1-2 MHz). The second goal was to investigate the effect of focal peak pressure levels and shock amplitude on BH lesion formation, given a constant duty factor, a constant ratio of the pulse duration to the time to reach boiling and a constant number of BH pulses. A custom-built 12-element sector array HIFU transducer with F-number = 1.05 was used in all experiments. BH pulses at 5 different frequencies (1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 MHz) were delivered to optically transparent polyacrylamide gel phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver and myocardium tissue to observe cavitation and boiling bubble activity with high-speed photography and B-mode ultrasound imaging, correspondingly. In gel phantoms, a cavitation bubble cloud was shown to form prefocally and to shield the focus in all exposures at 1 and 1.2 MHz and in the highest amplitude exposures at 1.5-1.7 MHz; shielding was not observed at 1.9 MHz. In ex vivo tissue, this shielding effect was observed in 25% of exposures when peak negative in situ pressure exceeded 10.2 MPa at 1 MHz and 14.5 MPa at 1.5 MHz. When shielding occurred, the exposures resulted in mild tissue disruption in the prefocal region, but not liquefaction. The dimensions of liquefied lesions followed the inverse proportionality trend with

  4. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: frequency-dependent Swank noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    A frequency-dependent x-ray Swank factor based on the "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function and normalized noise power spectrum is determined from a Monte Carlo analysis. This factor was calculated in four converter materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium (a-Se), cesium iodide (CsI), and lead iodide (PbI2) for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. When scaled by the quantum efficiency, the x-ray Swank factor describes the best possible detective quantum efficiency (DQE) a detector can have. As such, this x-ray interaction DQE provides a target performance benchmark. It is expressed as a function of (Fourier-based) spatial frequency and takes into consideration signal and noise correlations introduced by reabsorption of Compton scatter and photoelectric characteristic emissions. It is shown that the x-ray Swank factor is largely insensitive to converter thickness for quantum efficiency values greater than 0.5. Thus, while most of the tabulated values correspond to thick converters with a quantum efficiency of 0.99, they are appropriate to use for many detectors in current use. A simple expression for the x-ray interaction DQE of digital detectors (including noise aliasing) is derived in terms of the quantum efficiency, x-ray Swank factor, detector element size, and fill factor. Good agreement is shown with DQE curves published by other investigators for each converter material, and the conditions required to achieve this ideal performance are discussed. For high-resolution imaging applications, the x-ray Swank factor indicates: (i) a-Si should only be used at low-energy (e.g., mammography); (ii) a-Se has the most promise for any application below 100 keV; and (iii) while quantum efficiency may be increased at energies just above the K edge in CsI and PbI2, this benefit is offset by a substantial drop in the x-ray Swank factor, particularly at high spatial frequencies.

  5. Modeling and experiments with low-frequency pressure wave propagation in liquid-filled, flexible tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, C; Bjarnø, Leif

    1992-01-01

    A model for wave propagation in a liquid-filled viscoelastic tube with arrays of receivers inside, is being used to analyze the influence of noise generated by in-line vibrational noise sources. In this model, distensibility is of greater importance than compressibility of the liquid....... The dispersion and attenuation is shown to be strongly dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the tube wall. The complex, frequency-dependent moduli of relevant tube materials have been measured in stress wave transfer function experiments. The moduli are used in the model to produce realistic dispersion...... relations and frequency-dependent attenuation. A 12-m-long, liquid-filled tube with interior stress members and connectors in each end is hanging vertically from an upper fixture. The lower end connector is excited by a power vibrator to generate the relevant wave modes. Measurements with reference...

  6. Viscoelasticity of Brownian Carbon Nanotubes in PDMS Semidilute Regime

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, Sandrine; DUBOIS, Philippe; FULCHIRON, René; CASSAGNAU, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the linear viscoelasticity of diluted suspension of MWNT spread in PDMS. Specifically, we focus our attention on both the CNT relaxation in semidilute conditions and the concept of percolation threshold for such system. Finally, the results, and mainly the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity and mean relaxation time, will be discussed within the Doi−Edwards theory framework on molecular dynamic of rigid rods in a semi...

  7. Precise Aperture-Dependent Motion Compensation with Frequency Domain Fast Back-Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise azimuth-variant motion compensation (MOCO is an essential and difficult task for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery. In conventional post-filtering approaches, residual azimuth-variant motion errors are generally compensated through a set of spatial post-filters, where the coarse-focused image is segmented into overlapped blocks concerning the azimuth-dependent residual errors. However, image domain post-filtering approaches, such as precise topography- and aperture-dependent motion compensation algorithm (PTA, have difficulty of robustness in declining, when strong motion errors are involved in the coarse-focused image. In this case, in order to capture the complete motion blurring function within each image block, both the block size and the overlapped part need necessary extension leading to degeneration of efficiency and robustness inevitably. Herein, a frequency domain fast back-projection algorithm (FDFBPA is introduced to deal with strong azimuth-variant motion errors. FDFBPA disposes of the azimuth-variant motion errors based on a precise azimuth spectrum expression in the azimuth wavenumber domain. First, a wavenumber domain sub-aperture processing strategy is introduced to accelerate computation. After that, the azimuth wavenumber spectrum is partitioned into a set of wavenumber blocks, and each block is formed into a sub-aperture coarse resolution image via the back-projection integral. Then, the sub-aperture images are straightforwardly fused together in azimuth wavenumber domain to obtain a full resolution image. Moreover, chirp-Z transform (CZT is also introduced to implement the sub-aperture back-projection integral, increasing the efficiency of the algorithm. By disusing the image domain post-filtering strategy, robustness of the proposed algorithm is improved. Both simulation and real-measured data experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposal.

  8. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  9. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  10. Evolution of learned strategy choice in a frequency-dependent game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-03-22

    In frequency-dependent games, strategy choice may be innate or learned. While experimental evidence in the producer-scrounger game suggests that learned strategy choice may be common, a recent theoretical analysis demonstrated that learning by only some individuals prevents learning from evolving in others. Here, however, we model learning explicitly, and demonstrate that learning can easily evolve in the whole population. We used an agent-based evolutionary simulation of the producer-scrounger game to test the success of two general learning rules for strategy choice. We found that learning was eventually acquired by all individuals under a sufficient degree of environmental fluctuation, and when players were phenotypically asymmetric. In the absence of sufficient environmental change or phenotypic asymmetries, the correct target for learning seems to be confounded by game dynamics, and innate strategy choice is likely to be fixed in the population. The results demonstrate that under biologically plausible conditions, learning can easily evolve in the whole population and that phenotypic asymmetry is important for the evolution of learned strategy choice, especially in a stable or mildly changing environment.

  11. Perceptron learning rule derived from spike-frequency adaptation and spike-time-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Liu, Shih-Chii; Hahnloser, Richard H R

    2010-03-09

    It is widely believed that sensory and motor processing in the brain is based on simple computational primitives rooted in cellular and synaptic physiology. However, many gaps remain in our understanding of the connections between neural computations and biophysical properties of neurons. Here, we show that synaptic spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP) combined with spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) in a single neuron together approximate the well-known perceptron learning rule. Our calculations and integrate-and-fire simulations reveal that delayed inputs to a neuron endowed with STDP and SFA precisely instruct neural responses to earlier arriving inputs. We demonstrate this mechanism on a developmental example of auditory map formation guided by visual inputs, as observed in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) of barn owls. The interplay of SFA and STDP in model ICX neurons precisely transfers the tuning curve from the visual modality onto the auditory modality, demonstrating a useful computation for multimodal and sensory-guided processing.

  12. The Protective Effect of Conditioning on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Is Frequency-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the extent of temporary threshold shift (TTS and hair cell loss following high level 4 kHz noise exposure with those preconditioned with moderate level 1 and 4 kHz octave band noise. Fifteen Male albino guinea pigs (300- 350 g in weight were randomly allocated into three groups: those exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL (group 1, n=5; those conditioned with 1 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5; those conditioned with 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, then exposed to noise (group 3, n=5. An hour and one week after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated by auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR and then animals were euthanized for histological evaluation. We found that TTS and cochlear damage caused by noise exposure were significantly reduced by 1 kHz and 4 kHz conditioning (P<0.001. We also showed that 4 kHz protocol attenuates noise- induced TTS but no significant TTS reduction occurred by 1 kHz conditioning. Both protocol protected noise-induced cochlear damage. We concluded that lower tone conditioning could not protect against higher tone temporary noise-induced hearing loss, thus conditioning is a local acting and frequency-dependent phenomenon.

  13. Evolution of learned strategy choice in a frequency-dependent game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W.; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    In frequency-dependent games, strategy choice may be innate or learned. While experimental evidence in the producer–scrounger game suggests that learned strategy choice may be common, a recent theoretical analysis demonstrated that learning by only some individuals prevents learning from evolving in others. Here, however, we model learning explicitly, and demonstrate that learning can easily evolve in the whole population. We used an agent-based evolutionary simulation of the producer–scrounger game to test the success of two general learning rules for strategy choice. We found that learning was eventually acquired by all individuals under a sufficient degree of environmental fluctuation, and when players were phenotypically asymmetric. In the absence of sufficient environmental change or phenotypic asymmetries, the correct target for learning seems to be confounded by game dynamics, and innate strategy choice is likely to be fixed in the population. The results demonstrate that under biologically plausible conditions, learning can easily evolve in the whole population and that phenotypic asymmetry is important for the evolution of learned strategy choice, especially in a stable or mildly changing environment. PMID:21937494

  14. Plant–soil feedbacks promote negative frequency dependence in the coexistence of two aridland grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgers, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence is key to predicting patterns of species diversity. Historically, the ecological paradigm has been that species coexist by partitioning resources: as a species increases in abundance, self-limitation kicks in, because species-specific resources decline. However, determining coexistence mechanisms has been a particular puzzle for sedentary organisms with high overlap in their resource requirements, such as plants. Recent evidence suggests that plant-associated microbes could generate the stabilizing self-limitation (negative frequency dependence) that is required for species coexistence. Here, we test the key assumption that plant–microbe feedbacks cause such self-limitation. We used competition experiments and modelling to evaluate how two common groups of soil microbes (rhizospheric microbes and biological soil crusts) influenced the self-limitation of two competing desert grass species. Negative feedbacks between the dominant plant competitor and its rhizospheric microbes magnified self-limitation, whereas beneficial interactions between both plant species and biological soil crusts partly counteracted this stabilizing effect. Plant–microbe interactions have received relatively little attention as drivers of vegetation dynamics in dry land ecosystems. Our results suggest that microbial mechanisms can contribute to patterns of plant coexistence in arid grasslands. PMID:27466448

  15. Magnetic and viscoelastic response of elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarenko, E Yu; Chertovich, A V; Semisalova, A S; Makarova, L A; Perov, N S; Khokhlov, A R; Stepanov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic elastomers (MEs) based on a silicone matrix and magnetically hard NdFeB particles have been synthesized and their magnetic and viscoelastic properties have been studied depending on the size and concentration of magnetic particles and the magnetizing field. It has been shown that magnetic particles can rotate in soft polymer matrix under applied magnetic field, this fact leading to some features in both magnetic and viscoelastic properties. In the maximum magnetic field used magnetization of MEs with smaller particles is larger while the coercivity is smaller due to higher mobility of the particles within the polymer matrix. Viscoelastic behavior is characterized by long relaxation times due to restructuring of the magnetic filler under the influence of an applied mechanical force and magnetic interactions. The storage and loss moduli of magnetically hard elastomers grow significantly with magnetizing field. The magnetic response of the magnetized samples depends on the mutual orientation of the external magnetic field and the internal sample magnetization. Due to the particle rotation within the polymer matrix, the loss factor increases abruptly when the magnetic field is turned on in the opposite direction to the sample magnetization, further decreasing with time. Moduli versus field dependences have minimum at non-zero field and are characterized by a high asymmetry with respect to the field direction. (paper)

  16. Time-dependent effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on changes in spinal excitability are dependent on stimulation frequency: a preliminary study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Takuma; Itoh, Syunpei; Kubota, Shinji; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used as treatment for spasticity. The present study examined differences in time-dependent effects of NMES depending on stimulation frequency. Forty healthy subjects were separated into four groups (no-stim, NMES of 50, 100, and 200 Hz). The un-conditioned H-reflex amplitude and the H-reflex conditioning-test paradigm were used to measure the effectiveness on monosynaptic Ia excitation of motoneurons in the soleus (SOL) muscle, disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition from tibialis anterior (TA) to SOL, and presynaptic inhibition of SOL Ia afferents. Each trial consisted of a 30-min period of NMES applied to the deep peroneal nerve followed by a 30-min period with no stimulation to measure prolonged effects. Measurements were performed periodically. Stimulation applied at all frequencies produced a significant reduction in monosynaptic Ia excitation of motoneurons in the SOL muscle, however, only stimulation with 50 Hz showed prolonged reduction after NMES. NMES frequency did not affect the amount of disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition and presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. The results show a frequency-dependent effect of NMES on the monosynaptic Ia excitation of motoneurons. This result has implications for selecting the optimal NMES frequency for treatment in patients with spasticity.

  17. The mechanics-modulated tunneling spectrum and low-pass effect of viscoelastic molecular monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shao, Jian; Yu, Jing; Wang, Biao; Zheng, Yue

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the force-induced conductance fluctuation in molecules is essential for building molecular devices with high stability. While stiffness of molecule is usually considered to be desirable for stable conductance, we demonstrate mechanical dragging in viscoelastic molecules integrates both noise resistance and mechanical controllability to molecular conductance. Via conductive atomic force microscope measurement and theoretical modeling, it's found that viscoelastic Azurin monolayer has spectrum-like pattern of conductance corresponding to the duration and strength of applied mechanical pulse under low-frequency excitation. Conductance fluctuation is prevented under high-frequency excitation by dragging dissipation, which qualifies molecular junction with electric robustness against mechanical noise.

  18. Observation of viscoelastic displacement recovery after microindentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minster, Jiří; Novák, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2011), s. 317-325 ISSN 1385-2000 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : quasi-homogenous and quasi-isotropic viscoelastic material * microindentation * viscoelastic compliance * interferometry * creep recovery Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2011

  19. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals are very important for applications like display technology. However, there are not many direct techniques to study them. In this review, we describe our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss ...

  20. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    static radial compression, determine a viscoelastic or rheological model for the tested corn cob samples, and investigate the effects of moisture content and rate of loading on the viscoelastic constants that characterize the ... exchange of kinetic energy on that scale. As any other model, mechanical models give at most part ...

  1. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Jayanta [Department of Chemistry, Brahmankhanda Basapara High School, Basapara, Birbhum 731215, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  2. Correlation distance dependence of the resonance frequency of intermolecular zero quantum coherences and its implication for MR thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; McCallister, Andrew; Koshlap, Karl M; Branca, Rosa Tamara

    2018-03-01

    Because the resonance frequency of water-fat intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQCs) reflects the water-fat frequency separation at the microscopic scale, these frequencies have been proposed and used as a mean to obtain more accurate temperature information. The purpose of this work was to investigate the dependence of the water-fat iZQC resonance frequency on sample microstructure and on the specific choice of the correlation distance. The effect of water-fat susceptibility gradients on the water-methylene iZQC resonance frequency was first computed and then measured for different water-fat emulsions and for a mixture of porcine muscle and fat. Similar measurements were also performed for mixed heteronuclear spin systems. A strong dependence of the iZQC resonance frequency on the sample microstructure and on the specific choice of the correlation distance was found for spin systems like water and fat that do not mix, but not for spin systems that mix at the molecular level. Because water and fat spins do not mix at the molecular level, the water-fat iZQC resonance frequency and its temperature coefficient are not only affected by sample microstructure but also by the specific choice of the correlation distance. Magn Reson Med 79:1429-1438, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Implementation of the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method for viscoelastic materials using MATLAB and NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Warren C.; Smith, Christian A.; McTavish, Donald J.

    1995-05-01

    Representation of frequency-dependent viscoelastic material properties has long been problematical in the frequency domain and especially in the time domain. The method of Golla, Hughes, and McTavish (GHM) addresses this problem with a Laplace-domain model of the complex material modulus, in which a number of parameters are determined by curve- fitting to experimental data. The result is well suited to finite element formulations because the equations of motion retain the familiar second-order, constant-coefficient form, at the expense of some extra scalar degrees of freedom. This paper reports on an implementation of GHM in MATLAB, using FEM data imported from NASTRAN. Sample problems demonstrate the efficacy and practicality of the method.

  4. Effect of oxygen on neuronal excitability measured by critical flicker fusion frequency is dose dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Jacek; Winklewski, Pawel J; Sicko, Zdzislaw; Tkachenko, Yurii

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in the functional changes necessary for synaptic plasticity, memory, and cognitive function. It is far from clear whether the increased excitability, and which forms of neuronal excitability, should be considered a part of the learning process or, rather, cellular manifestation of neuronal oxygen poisoning. It is yet to be elucidated whether oxygen (O2)-induced learning and poisoning use the same or distinct cellular pathways. We hypothesized that O2-induced neuronal excitability might use the same or an intertwined signaling cascade as the poisoning cellular pathway. Eighty-one healthy, young males, mean age 27.7 ± 4.1 (SD) years, were exposed in the hyperbaric chamber to 0.7 atmosphere absolute (ATA) O2, 1.4 ATA O2, and 2.8 ATA O2. The critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SiO2), and heart rate (HR) were measured before exposure, after 30 min of oxygen breathing while still at pressure and then after exposure. Normobaric (0.7 ATA) O2 exposure did not affect CFFF and HR. Medium hyperbaric O2 exposure (1.4 ATA) decreased CFFF but HR remained unchanged. High hyperbaric O2 exposure (2.8 ATA) increased CFFF and diminished HR. SiO2 was similar in all investigated groups. A correlation between CFFF, HR, and SiO2 was observed only at low oxygen (0.7 ATA). The effect of O2 on neuronal excitability measured by CFFF in young healthy men was dose dependent: 0.7 ATA O2 did not affect CFFF; CFFF were significantly jeopardized at 1.4 ATA O2, while CFFF recovered at 2.8 ATA. With 2.8 ATA O2, the CFFF and oxygen poisoning transduction pathways seemed to be intertwined.

  5. Transient behaviour of a polymer dragged through a viscoelastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Hans; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2014-09-21

    We study the dynamics of a polymer that is pulled by a constant force through a viscoelastic medium. This is a model for a polymer being pulled through a cell by an external force, or for an active biopolymer moving due to a self-generated force. Using the Rouse model with a memory dependent drag force, we find that the center of mass of the polymer follows a subballistic motion. We determine the time evolution of the length and the shape of the polymer. Through an analysis of the velocity of the monomers, we investigate how the tension propagates through the polymer. We discuss how polymers can be used to probe the properties of a viscoelastic medium.

  6. Visualization and Theoretical Analysis for Instabilities of Viscoelastic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Hideo; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Matsumura, Takumi; Suga, Takanori; Kanai, Toshitaka

    The flow instabilities of polymer melts known as viscoelastic fluid were discussed in this report. Especially the occurrence mechanisms of two typical flow instabilities of “Shark Skin” and “Melt Fracture” were experimentally analyzed and the occurrence criteria for the flow instabilities were clarified with the viscoelastic flow simulation. As for “Shark Skin” region, the surface roughness at the die exit was observed without the pressure fluctuation and the flow pattern fluctuation at the wall vicinity in the die land. This result indicates that “Shark Skin” occurs at the die exit. As for “Melt Fracture” region, the periodical oscillation of the flow pattern and the periodical pressure fluctuation corresponding to the periodical distortion of the extrudate were recognized in the die land without the periodical oscillation of the flow pattern and the periodical pressure fluctuation in the reservoir (entry region of the die land). This result indicates that “Melt Fracture” is initiated at the die entry and occurs in the die land. Furthermore with the viscoelastic flow simulation, it was confirmed that the occurrence of “Shark Skin” depends on the wall shear stress and the occurrence of “Melt Fracture” depends on the maximum normal stress of flow direction.

  7. Process-induced viscoelastic stress in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stango, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has developed in evaluating the stress response of composite laminates which is associated with cooling the material system from the cure temperature to room temperature. This research examines the fundamental nature of time-dependent residual-thermal stresses in composite laminates which are caused by the extreme temperature reduction encountered during the fabrication process. Viscoelastic stress in finite-width, symmetric composite laminates is examined on the basis of a formulation that employs an incremental hereditary integral approach in conjunction with a quasi-three dimensional finite element analysis. A consistent methodology is developed and employed for the characterization of lamina material properties. Special attention is given to the time-dependent stress response at ply-interface locations near the free-edge. In addition, the influence of cooling path on stress history is examined. Recently published material property data for graphite-epoxy lamina is employed in the analysis. Results of the investigation generally indicate that nominal differences between the thermoelastic and viscoelastic solutions are obtained. Slight changes of the final stress state are observed to result when different cooling paths are selected for the temperature history. The methodology employed is demonstrated to result in an accurate, efficient, and consistent approach for the viscoelastic analysis of advanced composite laminates

  8. Frequency dependence of the temperature profile of a copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrouzinia, S; Khorasani, K

    2016-01-01

    The gas temperature of a copper vapor laser was measured by a semi-experimental method. Moreover the temperature profiles were obtained at various frequencies. It was shown that the temperature profile has most uniformity among the cross section of the laser tube at optimum frequency. (paper)

  9. Stay tuned: active amplification tunes tree cricket ears to track temperature-dependent song frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Natasha; Pollack, Gerald; Mason, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Tree cricket males produce tonal songs, used for mate attraction and male-male interactions. Active mechanics tunes hearing to conspecific song frequency. However, tree cricket song frequency increases with temperature, presenting a problem for tuned listeners. We show that the actively amplified frequency increases with temperature, thus shifting mechanical and neuronal auditory tuning to maintain a match with conspecific song frequency. Active auditory processes are known from several taxa, but their adaptive function has rarely been demonstrated. We show that tree crickets harness active processes to ensure that auditory tuning remains matched to conspecific song frequency, despite changing environmental conditions and signal characteristics. Adaptive tuning allows tree crickets to selectively detect potential mates or rivals over large distances and is likely to bestow a strong selective advantage by reducing mate-finding effort and facilitating intermale interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Stimulus Ratio and Level Dependence of Low- and Mid-Frequency Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Active amplifiers within the cochlea generate, as a by-product of their function, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in response to carefully chosen two-tone stimuli. Focus has been on invoking emissions in a mid-frequency range from 500 to 4000 Hz. Below 500 Hz, physiological noise...... from heartbeating, breathing and swallowing contaminates the measurement. Above 4000 Hz, calibration of the equipment involved is challenging, if not impossible, to do reliably. Here, we investigate alternative measurement parameters to see if the DPOAE is limited to frequencies above 500 Hz. Few...... examples of low-frequency DPOAEs exist in the literature. Overcoming the decreasing response level and increasing noise level with decreasing frequency may provide a non-invasive window into the inner-ear mechanics of low-frequency hearing. Eighteen out of 21 young human adults screened (19-30 years) had...

  11. Structure-induced nonlinear viscoelasticity of non-woven fibrous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Pal, Anupam; Das, Sovan Lal

    2016-12-01

    Fibrous materials are widely utilized as tissue engineering scaffolds for tissue regeneration and other bioengineering applications. The structural as well as mechanical characteristics of the fibrous matrices under static and dynamic mechanical loading conditions influence the response of the cells. In this paper, we study the mechanical response of the non-woven fibrous matrices under oscillatory loading conditions and its dependence on the structural properties of fibrous matrix. We demonstrate that under oscillatory shear and elongation, the fibrous matrices demonstrate nonlinear viscoelasticity at all strain amplitudes. This is contrary to the behavior of other soft polymeric materials for which nonlinearity in the viscoelastic response vanishes for small strains. These observations suggest that despite their prevalence, the measures of linear viscoelasticity (e.g., storage and loss moduli) are inadequate for the general description of the viscoelastic nature of the fibrous materials. It was, however, found that linear viscoelastic nature of fibrous matrices for small amplitudes is restored when a pre-stretch is applied to the fibrous matrix along with oscillatory strains. Further, we also explored the influence of the structural properties of the fibrous matrices (fiber orientation, alignment and curvature) on their viscoelastic nature.

  12. Analysis of viscoelastic behavior of a filled elastomer under action of different loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Nikola I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of viscoelastic filled polymers strongly depend on temperature and strain rate and vary for several orders of magnitude. During service life, a viscoelastic body, especially carboxy-terminated polybutadiene (CTPB composite solid rocket propellant grain, is subjected to many stress-inducing loads. Its structural integrity analysis (hereafter: “structural analysis”, unlike elastic bodies, is quite complex and sometimes impossible under the action of just a single load. An even greater problem occurs when multiple different types of loads act simultaneously. This study is based on a complete uniaxial mechanical characterization of a viscoelastic CTPB composite rocket propellant, made in MTI- -Belgrade, whose results were used for the analysis of the propellant grain reliability. Through an example, this paper shows a behavior of the viscoelastic propellant grain when it is subjected to extremely different environmental loads at the same time. Similar explicit examples are difficult to found in the literature, except in the form of recommended principles for analysis. It is shown that the tensile strength under the action of fast load due to the pressure may be almost 20 times greater than the tensile strength under the slow temperature load. A probabilistic approach is presented in evaluation the reliability and service life. An example is shown for a rocket propellant grain as a viscoelastic body. The presented principles of the analysis can be applied to any arbitrary viscoelastic body in other areas.

  13. A geometrically nonlinear shell element for hygrothermorheologically simple linear viscoelastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMERAND,DANIEL C.; KAPANIA,RAKESH K.

    2000-05-01

    A triangular flat shell element for large deformation analysis of linear viscoelastic laminated composites is presented. Hygrothermorheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Recurrence relations are developed and implemented for the evaluation of the viscoelastic memory loads. The nonlinear deformation process is computed using an incremental/iterative approach with the Newton-Raphson Method used to find the incremental displacements in each step. The presented numerical examples consider the large deformation and stability of linear viscoelastic structures under deformation-independent mechanical loads, deformation-dependent pressure loads, and thermal loads. Unlike elastic structures that have a single critical load value associated with a given snapping of buckling instability phenomenon, viscoelastic structures will usually exhibit a particular instability for a range of applied loads over a range of critical times. Both creep buckling and snap-through examples are presented here. In some cases, viscoelastic results are also obtained using the quasielastic method in which load-history effects are ignored, and time-varying viscoelastic properties are simply used in a series of elastic problems. The presented numerical examples demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the formulation.

  14. Transient viscoelasticity study of tobacco mosaic virus/Ba2+ superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we reported a new method to synthesize the rod-like tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) superlattice. To explore its potentials in nanolattice templating and tissue scaffolding, this work focused the viscoelasticity of the superlattice with a novel transient method via atomic force microscopy (AFM). For measuring viscoelasticity, in contrast to previous methods that assessed the oscillating response, the method proposed in this work enabled us to determine the transient response (creep or relaxation) of micro/nanobiomaterials. The mathematical model and numerical process were elaborated to extract the viscoelastic properties from the indentation data. The adhesion between the AFM tip and the sample was included in the indentation model. Through the functional equation method, the elastic solution for the indentation model was extended to the viscoelastic solution so that the time dependent force vs. displacement relation could be attained. To simplify the solving of the differential equation, a standard solid model was modified to obtain the elastic and viscoelastic components of the sample. The viscoelastic responses with different mechanical stimuli and the dynamic properties were also investigated. PMID:24994956

  15. Rotational magnetic endosome microrheology: Viscoelastic architecture inside living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Bacri, J.-C.

    2003-06-01

    The previously developed technique of magnetic rotational microrheology [Phys. Rev. E 67, 011504 (2003)] is proposed to investigate the rheological properties of the cell interior. An endogeneous magnetic probe is obtained inside living cells by labeling intracellular compartments with magnetic nanoparticles, following the endocytosis mechanism, the most general pathway used by eucaryotic cells to internalize substances from an extracellular medium. Primarily adsorbed on the plasma membrane, the magnetic nanoparticles are first internalized within submicronic membrane vesicles (100 nm diameter) to finally concentrate inside endocytotic intracellular compartments (0.6 μm diameter). These magnetic endosomes attract each other and form chains within the living cell when submitted to an external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that these chains of magnetic endosomes are valuable tools to probe the intracellular dynamics at very local scales. The viscoelasticity of the chain microenvironment is quantified in terms of a viscosity η and a relaxation time τ by analyzing the rotational dynamics of each tested chain in response to a rotation of the external magnetic field. The viscosity η governs the long time flow of the medium surrounding the chains and the relaxation time τ reflects the proportion of solidlike versus liquidlike behavior (τ=η/G, where G is the high-frequency shear modulus). Measurements in HeLa cells show that the cell interior is a highly heterogeneous structure, with regions where chains are embedded inside a dense viscoelastic matrix and other domains where chains are surrounded by a less rigid viscoelastic material. When one compound of the cell cytoskeleton is disrupted (microfilaments or microtubules), the intracellular viscoelasticity becomes less heterogeneous and more fluidlike, in the sense of both a lower viscosity and a lower relaxation time.

  16. Action Potential Broadening in Capsaicin-Sensitive DRG Neurons from Frequency-Dependent Reduction of Kv3 Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin W; Blair, Nathaniel T; Bean, Bruce P

    2017-10-04

    Action potential (AP) shape is a key determinant of cellular electrophysiological behavior. We found that in small-diameter, capsaicin-sensitive dorsal root ganglia neurons corresponding to nociceptors (from rats of either sex), stimulation at frequencies as low as 1 Hz produced progressive broadening of the APs. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 3 s resulted in an increase in AP width by an average of 76 ± 7% at 22°C and by 38 ± 3% at 35°C. AP clamp experiments showed that spike broadening results from frequency-dependent reduction of potassium current during spike repolarization. The major current responsible for frequency-dependent reduction of overall spike-repolarizing potassium current was identified as Kv3 current by its sensitivity to low concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (IC 50 action potentials of small-diameter rat DRG neurons showed spike broadening at frequencies as low as 1 Hz and that spike broadening resulted predominantly from frequency-dependent inactivation of Kv3 channels. Spike width helps to control transmitter release, conduction velocity, and firing patterns and understanding the role of particular potassium channels can help to guide new pharmacological strategies for targeting pain-sensing neurons selectively. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379705-10$15.00/0.

  17. Ultra Wideband (0.5 – 16 kHz) MR Elastography for Robust Shear Viscoelasticity Model Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Yasar, Temel K.; Royston, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the viscoelastic parameters of soft biological tissues often correlate with progression of disease, trauma or injury, and response to treatment. Identifying the most appropriate viscoelastic model, then estimating and monitoring the corresponding parameters of that model can improve insight into the underlying tissue structural changes. MR Elastography (MRE) provides a quantitative method of measuring tissue viscoelasticity. In a previous study of the authors [Mag. Res. Med. 70:479–89;2013. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24495], a silicone-based phantom material was examined over the frequency range of 200 Hz to 7.75 kHz using MRE, an unprecedented bandwidth at that time. Six viscoelastic models including four integer order models and two fractional order models, were fit to the wideband viscoelastic data (measured storage and loss moduli as a function of frequency). The “fractional Voigt” model (spring and springpot in parallel) exhibited the best fit and was even able to fit the entire frequency band well when it was identified based only on a small portion of the band. This paper is an extension of that study with a wider frequency range from 500 Hz to 16 kHz. Furthermore, more fractional order viscoelastic models are added to the comparison pool. It is found that added complexity of the viscoelastic model provides only marginal improvement over the “fractional Voigt” model. And, again, the fractional order models show significant improvement over integer order viscoelastic models that have as many or more fitting parameters. PMID:25419651

  18. Coupled nonlinear oscillation and stability evolution of viscoelastic dielectric elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing

    2015-10-14

    This article describes the development of an analytical model to study the coupled nonlinear oscillation and stability evolution of viscoelastic dielectric elastomers (DEs) under non-equibiaxial tensile forces by utilizing the method of virtual work. Numerically calculated results are employed to predict this nonlinear dynamic behavior. The resonant frequency (where the amplitude-frequency response curve peaks) and the amplitude-frequency response of the deformation in both in-plane directions are tuned by varying the values of tensile force. The oscillation response in the two in-plane directions exhibits strong nonlinearity and coupling with each other, and is tuned by the changing tensile forces under a specific excitation frequency. By varying the values of tensile forces, the dynamic viscoelastic creep in a certain in-plane direction can be eliminated. Phase diagrams and Poincaré maps under several values of tensile forces are utilized to study the stability evolution of the DE system under non-equibiaxial tensile forces.

  19. Is the colour dimorphism in Dactylorhiza sambucina maintained by differential seed viability instead of frequency-dependent selection?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Kindlmann, Pavel; Renner, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 61-76 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6141302 Keywords : Dactylorhiza * flower colour polymorphism * frequency-dependent selection * pollinator discrimination * rewardless flowers * seed viability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  20. 38 CFR 3.30 - Frequency of payment of improved pension and parents' dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of payment of improved pension and parents' dependency and indemnity compensation (DIC). 3.30 Section 3.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and...

  1. Identification of the Rayleigh surface waves for estimation of viscoelasticity using the surface wave elastography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to demonstrate an effective method for estimating viscoelasticity based on measurements of the Rayleigh surface wave speed. It is important to identify the surface wave mode for measuring surface wave speed. A concept of start frequency of surface waves is proposed. The surface wave speeds above the start frequency should be used to estimate the viscoelasticity of tissue. The motivation was to develop a noninvasive surface wave elastography (SWE) technique for assessing skin disease by measuring skin viscoelastic properties. Using an optical based SWE system, the author generated a local harmonic vibration on the surface of phantom using an electromechanical shaker and measured the resulting surface waves on the phantom using an optical vibrometer system. The surface wave speed was measured using a phase gradient method. It was shown that different standing wave modes were generated below the start frequency because of wave reflection. However, the pure symmetric surface waves were generated from the excitation above the start frequency. Using the wave speed dispersion above the start frequency, the viscoelasticity of the phantom can be correctly estimated.

  2. The frequency dependence of the discharge properties in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Snorrason, D. I.; Hannesdottir, H.

    2018-02-01

    We use the one-dimensional object-oriented particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code oopd1 to explore the evolution of the charged particle density profiles, electron heating mechanism, the electron energy probability function (EEPF), and the ion energy distribution in a single frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharge, with driving frequency in the range 12–100 MHz. At a low driving frequency and low pressure (5 and 10 mTorr), a combination of stochastic (α-mode) and drift ambipolar (DA) heating in the bulk plasma (the electronegative core) is observed and the DA-mode dominates the time averaged electron heating. As the driving frequency or pressure are increased, the heating mode transitions into a pure α-mode, where electron heating in the sheath region dominates. At low pressure (5 and 10 mTorr), this transition coincides with a sharp decrease in electronegativity. At low pressure and low driving frequency, the EEPF is concave. As the driving frequency is increased, the number of low energy electrons increases and the relative number of higher energy electrons (>10 eV) increases. At high driving frequency, the EEPF develops a convex shape or becomes bi-Maxwellian.

  3. Frequency sweep rate dependence on the dielectrophoretic response of polystyrene beads and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T N G; Leonard, K M; Minerick, A R

    2013-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) dielectrophoresis (DEP) experiments for biological particles in microdevices are typically done at a fixed frequency. Reconstructing the DEP response curve from static frequency experiments is laborious, but essential to ascertain differences in dielectric properties of biological particles. Our lab explored the concept of sweeping the frequency as a function of time to rapidly determine the DEP response curve from fewer experiments. For the purpose of determining an ideal sweep rate, homogeneous 6.08 μm polystyrene (PS) beads were used as a model system. Translatability of the sweep rate approach to ∼7 μm red blood cells (RBC) was then verified. An Au/Ti quadrapole electrode microfluidic device was used to separately subject particles and cells to 10Vpp AC electric fields at frequencies ranging from 0.010 to 2.0 MHz over sweep rates from 0.00080 to 0.17 MHz/s. PS beads exhibited negative DEP assembly over the frequencies explored due to Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarizations. Results demonstrate that frequency sweep rates must be slower than particle polarization timescales to achieve reliable incremental polarizations; sweep rates near 0.00080 MHz/s yielded DEP behaviors very consistent with static frequency DEP responses for both PS beads and RBCs.

  4. Frequency-dependent changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD): a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanming; Liu, Chen; Yin, Xuntao; Yang, Jun; Gui, Li; Wei, Luqing; Wang, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) allowed researchers to detect intrinsic brain activity during rest and has been considered an analytical tool for evaluation of dementia. Previously, subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) has been found decreased amplitude low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in a widely frequency range (0.01-0.08Hz) in the bilateral precuneus and increased ALFF values in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left insula and hippocampus, which showed significant correlations with the cognitive performance. In this study we analyzed the ALFF of 30 patients with SIVD in two different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073Hz). In the slow-5 band, SIVD patients compared with controls exhibited significant higher ALFF in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right putamen and right supplementary motor area, while lower ALFF in the right precuneus and right angular gyrus. A close correlation was found between the ALFF value of the right angular gyrus and ADL scores. In the slow-4 band, SIVD patients only exhibited increased ALFF in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right putamen, left fusiform gyrus, and no correlation with cognitive scores was found. Our data demonstrate that SIVD patients have widespread abnormal intrinsic neural oscillations, which are dependent on specific frequency bands. ALFF of right angular gyrus at slow-5 band is more specific for SIVD and may be a useful tool to help SIVD diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High frequency equipment promotes antibacterial effects dependent on intensity and exposure time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietzikoski Lovato EC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evellyn Claudia Wietzikoski Lovato,1 Patrícia Amaral Gurgel Velasquez,1 Cristiana dos Santos Oliveira,1 Camila Baruffi,1 Thais Anghinoni,1 Raquel Costa Machado,1 Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis Lívero,2 Samantha Wietzikoski Sato,1 Lisiane de Almeida Martins1 1Laboratory of Microbiology of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Brazil Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has caused bacteria to develop mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents, limiting treatment options. Therefore, there is a great need for alternative methods to control infections, especially those related to skin. One of the alternative methods is the high frequency equipment (HFE, which is used on skin conditions as an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, and mainly to accelerate cicatricial processes and have a bactericidal effect through the formation of ozone. This research investigated the antibacterial effect of HFE on standard cultures of bacteria.Materials and methods: Dilutions (104 colony forming unit mL−1 were performed for Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus with 24-hour growth bacteria. Then, 1 μL of each dilution was pipetted into suitable medium and the HFE flashing technique was used at intensities of 6, 8 and 10 mA for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 seconds. The control group received no treatment. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and then read.Results: The spark at intensity of 6 mA had no bactericidal effect on the E. aerogenes; however, a significant bacterial growth reduction occurred at intensity of 8 mA after 120 and 180 seconds, and at 10 mA, reduction in bacterial growth could already be verified at 30 seconds and total bacterial growth inhibition occurred in 180 seconds. For S. aureus, there was a strong bacterial growth inhibition at all intensities used; however, at 6 mA, absence of bacterium growth after

  6. Inter-relationships Linking Probability of Becoming a Case of Nicotine Dependence With Frequency of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Anthony, James C

    2016-12-01

    Once smoking starts, some tobacco cigarette smokers (TCS) can make very rapid transitions into tobacco dependence syndromes (TCD). With adjustment for smoking frequency, we posit female excess risk for this rapid-onset TCD. In a novel application of functional analysis for tobacco research, we estimate four Hill function parameters and plot TCD risk against a gradient of smoking frequency, as observed quite soon after smoking onset. In aggregate, the National Surveys of Drug Use and Health, 2004-2013, identified 1546 newly incident TCS in cross-sectional research, each with standardized TCD assessment. Hill function estimates contradict our apparently over-simplistic hypothesis. Among newly incident TCS males with only 1-3 recent smoking days, an estimated 1%-3% had become rapid-onset TCD cases; non-overlapping confidence intervals show lower TCD risk for females. In contrast, among daily smokers, closer to 50% of female TCS showed rapid-onset TCD, versus under 20% of male TCS, but a larger sample will be needed to confirm the apparent female excess risk at the daily smoking frequency level. Smoking frequency and TCD onset become inter-dependent quite soon after TCS onset. Feedback loops are expected, and might explain a potential reversal of male-female differences across smoking frequency gradients. These novel epidemiological estimates prompt new thinking and questions about interventions. In this large sample epidemiological study, with a nationally representative sample of newly incident TCS assessed cross-sectionally, we see a quite rapid onset of tobacco dependence, with an early male excess that fades out at higher levels of smoking frequency. Next steps include development of outreach and intervention for this very rapid-onset tobacco dependence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Frequency Dependence of Helioseismic Measurements of the Center-to-Limb Effect and Flow-induced Travel-time Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruizhu; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    Time–distance helioseismology measures acoustic travel times to infer the structure and flow field of the solar interior; however, both the mean travel times and the travel-time shifts suffer systematic center-to-limb variations, which complicate the interpretation and inversions of the time–distance measurements. In particular, the center-to-limb variation in travel-time shifts (CtoL effect) has a significant impact on the inference of the Sun’s meridional circulation, and needs to be removed from the helioseismic measurements, although the observational properties and the physical cause of the CtoL effect have yet to be investigated. In this study, we measure the CtoL effect in the frequency domain using Doppler-velocity data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, and study its properties as a function of disk-centric distance, travel distance, and frequency of acoustic waves. It is found that the CtoL effect has a significant frequency dependence—it reverses sign at a frequency around 5.4 mHz and reaches maximum at around 4.0 mHz before the sign reversal. The tendency of frequency dependence varies with disk-centric distance in a way that both the sign-reversal frequency and the maximum-value frequency decrease closer to the limb. The variation tendency does not change with travel distance, but the variation magnitude is approximately proportional to travel distance. For comparison, the flow-induced travel-time shifts show little frequency dependence. These observational properties provide more clues on the nature of the CtoL effect, and also possibly lead to new ways of effect-removal for a more robust determination of the deep meridional flow.

  8. Exercise-induced changes in EEG alpha power depend on frequency band definition mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Boris; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Mierau, Julia; Strüder, Heiko K; Mierau, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In the majority of studies investigating cortical alpha oscillations the alpha frequency is defined as a fixed band thus, neglecting recommendations in the EEG literature to adjust the alpha band according to the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF). Based on our previous findings indicating exhaustive exercise induces an increase of the post-exercise iAPF, we scrutinized the influence of exercise on post-exercise alpha power by comparing fixed and iAPF-adjusted alpha frequency bands. Resting EEG was recorded from 13 scalp locations in nine subjects before, immediately after as well as ten minutes following an exhaustive exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer. Lower and upper band alpha power was calculated for fixed and iAPF-adjusted frequency bands. Post-exercise lower alpha power increased in both fixed and individually defined bands while a higher upper alpha power was only observed in the fixed frequency band condition. Further, the increase in iAPF was positively related to the changes in fixed-band upper alpha power. It is concluded that lower alpha power is significantly increased following exhaustive exercise whereas the results for upper alpha power are substantially influenced by the method of frequency band definition. Therefore, caution is indicated when analyzing and interpreting exercise-induced changes in alpha power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  10. Viscoelastic Relaxation Modulus Characterization Using Prony Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana E. Lopes Pacheco

    Full Text Available AbstractThe mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials is influenced, among other factors, by parameters like time and temperature. The present paper proposes a methodology for a thermorheologically and piezorheologically simple characterization of viscoelastic materials in the time domain based on experimental data using Prony Series and a mixed optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithms and Nonlinear Programming. The text discusses the influence of pressure and temperature on the mechanical behavior of those materials. The results are compared to experimental data in order to validate the methodology. The final results are very promising and the methodology proves to be effective in the identification of viscoelastic materials.

  11. Progressive supranuclear palsy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease are associated with local reduction of in vivo brain viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Axel; Skowronek, Cornelia; Fehlner, Andreas; Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2018-02-19

    To apply three-dimensional multifrequency MR-elastography (3DMRE) for the measurement of local cerebral viscoelasticity changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). T1-weighted anatomical imaging and 3DMRE were performed in 17 PD and 20 PSP patients as well as 12 controls. Two independent viscoelasticity parameters, |G*| and φ, were reconstructed combining seven harmonic vibration frequencies (30-60 Hz). Spatially averaged values were compared by one-way ANOVA, groups were compared using unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Correlation between clinical data and parameters of brain elasticity and volume were calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. In patients, |G*| was significantly reduced in the frontal and mesencephalic regions (p viscoelasticity is correlated with brain atrophy in PSP (r=0.64, p=0.002) and PD (r=0.65, p=0.005) patients but not in controls. MRE-measured viscoelasticity reflects local structural changes of brain tissue in PSP and in PD and provides a useful parameter to differentiate neurodegenerative movement disorders based on imaging examinations. • 3D multifrequency MR-elastography reveals diffuse regional changes in brain viscoelasticity in neurodegenerative disorders. • Reduced mesencephalic viscoelasticity separates PD and PSP. • Reduced brain viscoelasticity and brain atrophy as independent hallmarks of neurodegeneration hypothesized.

  12. Frequency Dependence of C-V Characteristics of MOS Capacitors Containing Nanosized High-κ Ta2O5 Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Novkovski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitance of metal–insulator–Si structures containing high permittivity dielectric exhibits complicated behaviour when voltage and frequency dependencies are studied. From our study on metal (Al, Au, W–Ta2O5/SiO2–Si structures, we identify serial C-R measurement mode to be more convenient for use than the parallel one usually used in characterization of similar structures. Strong frequency dependence that is not due to real variations in the dielectric permittivity of the layers is observed. Very high capacitance at low frequencies is due to the leakage in Ta2O5 layer. We found that the above observation is mainly due to different leakage current mechanisms in the two different layers composing the stack. The effect is highly dependent on the applied voltage, since the leakage currents are strongly nonlinear functions of the electric field in the layers. Additionally, at low frequencies, transition currents influence the measured value of the capacitance. From the capacitance measurements several parameters are extracted, such as capacitance in accumulation, effective dielectric constant, and oxide charges. Extracting parameters of the studied structures by standard methods in the case of high-κ/interfacial layer stacks can lead to substantial errors. Some cases demonstrating these deficiencies of the methods are presented and solutions for obtaining better results are proposed.

  13. Frequency-Dependent Amplitude Panning for the Stereophonic Image Enhancement of Audio Recorded Using Two Closely Spaced Microphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jun Chun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new frequency-dependent amplitude panning method for stereophonic image enhancement applied to a sound source recorded using two closely spaced omni-directional microphones. The ability to detect the direction of such a sound source is limited due to weak spatial information, such as the inter-channel time difference (ICTD and inter-channel level difference (ICLD. Moreover, when sound sources are recorded in a convolutive or a real room environment, the detection of sources is affected by reverberation effects. Thus, the proposed method first tries to estimate the source direction depending on the frequency using azimuth-frequency analysis. Then, a frequency-dependent amplitude panning technique is proposed to enhance the stereophonic image by modifying the stereophonic law of sines. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare its performance with that of a conventional method based on the beamforming technique in terms of directivity pattern, perceived direction, and quality degradation under three different recording conditions (anechoic, convolutive, and real reverberant. The comparison shows that the proposed method gives us better stereophonic images in a stereo loudspeaker reproduction than the conventional method without any annoying effects.

  14. Solid particle erosion and viscoelastic properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance of several thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs having different chemical nature and micronscale arrangement of the hard and soft segments has been investigated by means of erosion and abrasion tests. The goal was correlating the erosion performances of the materials to their macroscopic mechanical properties. Unlike conventional tests, such as hardness and tensile measurements, viscoelastic analysis proved to be a valuable tool to study the erosion resistance of TPUs. In particular, a strict correlation was found between the erosion rate and the high-frequency (~107 Hz loss modulus. The latter reflects the actual ability of TPU to dissipate the impact energy of the erodent particles.

  15. The theory of viscoelastic crack propagation and healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J A

    2004-01-01

    Classical fracture mechanics applied to a viscoelastic material states that the critical stress-intensity factor at which the crack propagates depends on the instantaneous elastic modulus of the solid, and provides no mechanism for a speed dependence of the apparent surface energy. This suggests that any speed dependence must be because surface energy itself is speed-dependant. Schapery (1975) has explained how by using the Barenblatt concept of fracture mechanics, involving surface forces instead of surface energy alone, a dependence of the apparent surface energy on the crack speed is found. Here, Schapery's principles are applied to the particular case of a Maugis-Dugdale surface force law and a three-element viscoelastic solid to find the complete dependence of the apparent surface energy, both in fracture and in crack healing, on the crack velocity. To a good approximation, the apparent surface energy in crack healing is the reciprocal of the energy for fracture. Simple approximate equations relating the crack speed to the stress-intensity factor are given

  16. The theory of viscoelastic crack propagation and healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, J A [University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-21

    Classical fracture mechanics applied to a viscoelastic material states that the critical stress-intensity factor at which the crack propagates depends on the instantaneous elastic modulus of the solid, and provides no mechanism for a speed dependence of the apparent surface energy. This suggests that any speed dependence must be because surface energy itself is speed-dependant. Schapery (1975) has explained how by using the Barenblatt concept of fracture mechanics, involving surface forces instead of surface energy alone, a dependence of the apparent surface energy on the crack speed is found. Here, Schapery's principles are applied to the particular case of a Maugis-Dugdale surface force law and a three-element viscoelastic solid to find the complete dependence of the apparent surface energy, both in fracture and in crack healing, on the crack velocity. To a good approximation, the apparent surface energy in crack healing is the reciprocal of the energy for fracture. Simple approximate equations relating the crack speed to the stress-intensity factor are given.

  17. Self-perception and dissatisfaction with weight does not depend on the frequency of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Denise Sardinha Mendes Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of satisfaction with body weight and the self-perception of the weight/height ratio and to verify the influence of the frequency of present and past physical activity on these variables. METHODS: Using questionnaires or interviews, we obtained height data, reported and desired weight, self-perception of the weight/height ratio, and the frequency of current physical activity in 844 adults (489 women. Of these, evaluated the frequency of physical activity during high school of 193 individuals,and we measured their height and weight. RESULTS: Less than 2/3 of the individuals had body mass index between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2. A tendency existed to overestimate height by less than 1 cm and to underestimate weight by less than 1kg. Desired weight was less than that reported (p<0.001, and only 20% were satisfied with their current weight. Only 42% of men and 25% of women exercised regularly. No association was found between the frequency of physical activity and the variables height, weight, and body mass index, and the level of satisfaction with current weight. CONCLUSION: Height and weight reported seem to be valid for epidemological studies, and great dissatisfaction with body weight and a distorted self-perception of height/weight ratio exists, especially in women, regardless of the frequency of physical activity.

  18. Temperature-dependent Mollow triplet spectra from a single quantum dot: Rabi frequency renormalization and sideband linewidth insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; McCutcheon, Dara P S; Nazir, Ahsan

    2014-08-29

    We investigate temperature-dependent resonance fluorescence spectra obtained from a single self-assembled quantum dot. A decrease of the Mollow triplet sideband splitting is observed with increasing temperature, an effect we attribute to a phonon-induced renormalization of the driven dot Rabi frequency. We also present first evidence for a nonperturbative regime of phonon coupling, in which the expected linear increase in sideband linewidth as a function of temperature is canceled by the corresponding reduction in Rabi frequency. These results indicate that dephasing in semiconductor quantum dots may be less sensitive to changes in temperature than expected from a standard weak-coupling analysis of phonon effects.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Mollow Triplet Spectra from a Single Quantum Dot: Rabi Frequency Renormalization and Sideband Linewidth Insensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We investigate temperature-dependent resonance fluorescence spectra obtained from a single self- assembled quantum dot. A decrease of the Mollow triplet sideband splitting is observed with increasing temperature, an effect we attribute to a phonon-induced renormalization of the driven dot Rabi...... frequency. We also present first evidence for a nonperturbative regime of phonon coupling, in which the expected linear increase in sideband linewidth as a function of temperature is canceled by the corresponding reduction in Rabi frequency. These results indicate that dephasing in semiconductor quantum...

  20. Effect of dynamic visco-elasticity on vertical and torsional vibrations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    in terms of the complex shear modulus, the vertical vibrations of a visco-elastic half-space as well as that of a mass in ... mechanics and applied mathematics. In particular, torsional vibration of a ... Suffixes ω,T relate the values of complex moduli to a given frequency ω and temperature. T . In the present problem, they will be ...

  1. Effect of dynamic visco-elasticity on vertical and torsional vibrations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Suffixes ω,T relate the values of complex moduli to a given frequency ω and temperature. T . In the present problem, they will be omitted. δ is the damping parameter. The concept of complex moduli allows solution of the problems of dynamic visco-elasticity for stationary vibrations. Here we shall consider three different ...

  2. Estimation of the Frequency of Instantaneous Voltage Drops Dependent on Arrangement of Line Surge Arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hironao; Kozuka, Masahiro; Itamoto, Naoki; Shinjo, Kazuo; Ishii, Masaru

    Lightning faults on transmission lines often cause instantaneous voltage drops in power systems. Influences of instantaneous voltage drops become increasingly serious in high technology industries etc. As countermeasures of instantaneous voltage drops, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are employed. On the other hand, line surge arresters are installed on transmission lines increasingly as one of the effective countermeasures of double-circuit faults caused by lightning strokes. Additionally, the arresters are effective as one of the reduction methods for the frequency of instantaneous voltage drops. In this paper, the frequency of instantaneous voltage drops reduced by installation of line surge arresters on transmission lines is estimated by employing EMTP analysis. Also, the accuracy of the method in estimating the frequency of instantaneous voltage drops in power systems is evaluated through comparison with experience.

  3. Understanding viscoelasticity an introduction to rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between...

  4. Viscoelastic model of tungsten 'fuzz' growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S I

    2011-01-01

    A viscoelastic model of fuzz growth is presented. The model describes the main features of tungsten fuzz observed in experiments. It gives estimates of fuzz growth rate and temperature range close to experimental ones.

  5. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  6. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-04-21

    Visco-elastic materials are known for their capability of dissipating energy. This energy is converted into heat and thus changes the temperature of the materials. In addition to the dissipation effect, an external thermal stimulus can also alter the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling between the thermal and mechanical response that is attributed to the dissipation of energy, heat conduction, and temperature-dependent material parameters on the overall response of visco-elastic solids. The non-linearly viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Schapery (Further development of a thermodynamic constitutive theory: stress formulation, 1969,Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997) is used and modified to incorporate temperature- and stress-dependent material properties. This study also formulates a non-linear energy equation along with a dissipation function based on the Gibbs potential of Schapery (Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997). A numerical algorithm is formulated for analyzing a fully coupled thermo-visco-elastic response and implemented it in a general finite-element (FE) code. The non-linear stress- and temperature-dependent material parameters are found to have significant effects on the coupled thermo-visco-elastic response of polymers considered in this study. In order to obtain a realistic temperature field within the polymer visco-elastic bodies undergoing a non-uniform heat generation, the role of heat conduction cannot be ignored. © Springer Science+Business Media, B. V. 2012.

  7. Investigating Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic behaviour and microstructures of Gelatine-Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the linear and nonlinear rheology of various gelatine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (gel-MWNT) composites, namely physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, chemically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, and chemically-physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites. Further, the internal structures of these gel-MWNT composites were characterized by ultra-small angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT is also investigated to understand gelatine-assisted dispersion of MWNT during ultrasonication. For all gelatine gels, addition of MWNT increases their complex modulus. The dependence of storage modulus with frequency for gelatine-MWNT composites is similar to that of the corresponding neat gelatine matrix. However, by incorporating MWNT, the dependence of the loss modulus on frequency is reduced. The linear viscoelastic region is decreased approximately linearly with the increase of MWNT concentration. The pre-stress results demonstrate that the addition of MWNT does not change the strain-hardening behaviour of physically-crosslinked gelatine gel. However, the addition of MWNT can increase the strain-hardening behaviour of chemically-crosslinked gelatine gel, and chemically-physically crosslinked gelatine gel. Results from light microscopy, cryo-SEM, and USANS demonstrate the hierarchical structures of MWNT, including that tens-of-micron scale MWNT agglomerates are present. Furthermore, the adsorption curve of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT follows two-stage pseudo-saturation behaviour.

  8. Dynamic viscoelasticity measurement under alternative torque using electromagnetically spinning method with quadruple electromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Hirano, Taichi; Sakai, Keiji

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque. We show the results obtained for Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials and demonstrate the validity of the system.

  9. Enhanced active swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Emily E; Lauga, Eric Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms often self propel in fluids with complex rheology. While past theoretical work indicates that fluid viscoelasticity should hinder their locomotion, recent experiments on waving swimmers suggest a possible non-Newtonian enhancement of locomotion. We suggest a physical mechanism, based on fluid-structure interaction, leading to swimming in a viscoelastic fluid at a higher speed than in a Newtonian one. Using Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model, we solve for the...

  10. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  11. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  12. Jeans instability in a viscoelastic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.; Banerjee, D.

    2011-01-01

    The well known Jeans instability is studied for a viscoelastic gravitational fluid using generalized hydrodynamic equations of motions. It is found that the threshold for the onset of instability appears at higher wavelengths in a viscoelastic medium. Elastic effects playing a role similar to thermal pressure are found to lower the growth rate of the gravitational instability. Such features may manifest themselves in matter constituting dense astrophysical objects.

  13. Dependence of in-situ Bose condensate size on final frequency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the results of i n − s i t u characterization of 87 Rb atom cloud in a quadrupole Ioffe configuration (QUIC) magnetic trap after a radio-frequency (RF) evaporative cooling of the trapped atom cloud. The i n − s i t u absorption images of the atom cloud have shown clear bimodal optical density (OD) profiles which ...

  14. Frequency-dependent modulation of KCNQ1 and HERG1 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas Goldin; Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2006-01-01

    of the beta-subunits KCNE1 and KCNE2. In addition, the functional role of HERG1 in native guinea pig cardiac myocytes was demonstrated at different pacing frequencies by application of 10microM of the new HERG1 activator, NS1643. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that HERG1 and hKCNQ1 channels are inversely...

  15. Frequency Dependency Analysis of SHF Band Directional Propagation Channel in Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kentaro, Saito; Hanpinitsak, Panawit; Takada, Jun-ichi

    2018-01-01

    In the fifth-generation mobile communication system (5G), the millimeter wave band wireless communication is highly expected that it increases the network capacity drastically. Author's research group has conducted channel measurements in several super high frequency (SHF) bands and investigated ...

  16. Ethyl benzene-induced ototoxicity in rats : a dose-dependent mild-frequency hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Baretta, A.B.; Muijser, H.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Rats were exposed to ethyl benzene at 0, 300, 400 and 550 ppm for 8 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Three to six weeks after the exposure, auditory function was tested by measuring compound action potentials (CAP) in the frequency range of 1-24 kHz and 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic

  17. Evolution of frequency-dependent mate choice: keeping up with fashion trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D; Houde, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of sexual traits favoured by females is enormous and, curiously, includes preferences for males with rare or novel phenotypes. We modelled the evolution of a preference for rarity that yielded two surprising results. First, a Fisherian ‘sexy son’ effect can boost female preferences to a frequency well above that predicted by mutation–selection balance, even if there...

  18. Dependence of in-situ Bose condensate size on final frequency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-08

    Mar 8, 2017 ... transition in the evaporatively cooled atom cloud, and sizes of the condensate and the thermal clouds are found to vary with the final frequency of RF field applied for evaporative cooling. Finally, we present the conclusions of this work in §5. 2. Experimental set-up. 2.1 Vacuum system. The schematic of our ...

  19. Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowet, E.P.; Roberts, M.J.; Hadjipapas, A.; Peter, A.; Eerden, J. van der; Weerd, P. de

    2015-01-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range ( approximately 25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma

  20. Fast iterative technique for the calculation of frequency dependent gain in excimer laser amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The motivation in initiating these calculations is to allow us to observe the frequency evolution of a laser pulse as it propagates through an amplifier and then through a sequence of amplifiers. The question we seek to answer is what pulse shape do we need to produce out of a front-end oscillator so that after it propagates through the whole Aurora KrF fusion amplifier chain will result in high energy, broad-band laser fields of a given bandwidth that can be focussed onto a fusion target. The propagation of a single frequency source through an amplifier with distributed loss was considered by Rigrod and was significantly expanded by Hunter and Hunter. The latter included amplified spontaneous emission [ASE] considerations both in the direction of and transverse to the coherent field. Analytic solutions that include forward and backward prapagating fields and ASE were derived which were transcendental in nature but allowed for fairly easy computer calculations. Transverse ASE were calculated using the unsaturated gain resulting from longitudinal fields and were used to compare this with the longitudinal field equations. Large computer programs are now available at LANL which include the influence of transverse ASE on the longitudinal fields. However, none of these considerations have worried about the changes in the frequency characteristics of the propagating field or of how each of the frequency field components contributes to the saturation of the gain. The inclusion of full frequency characteristics to the analytic solutions of Hunter and Hunter proved impossible at least for this author and a new calculational technique was developed and is the subject of this talk

  1. Effect of viscoelastic and dielectric relaxing matrix on ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayendiran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on evaluating the time-dependent non-linear ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under pure uni-axial compressive stress loading condition. An experimental setup is developed to study the influence of high-stress levels on the stress-strain and stress-polarization behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites. The electro-elastic effective properties of 1-3 piezocomposites are measured experimentally based on IEEE standard and compared with the proposed numerical model using finite-element software ABAQUS. The time-dependent effective properties are evaluated using viscoelastic model and it is incorporated into a 3D micromechanical model to predict the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under mechanical loading. The simulated results are compared with the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites obtained from experiments.

  2. Microfluidic co-flow of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids for high-resolution separation of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Zhang, Wei; Cai, Lili; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Guoqing; Cong, Yulong; Liu, Chao; Li, Tiejun; Sun, Jiashu

    2017-09-12

    The microfluidic passive control of microparticles largely relies on the hydrodynamic effects of the carrier media such as Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic fluids. Yet the viscoelastic/Newtonian interfacial effect has been scarcely investigated, especially for high-resolution particle separation. Here we report a microfluidic co-flow of Newtonian (water or PBS) and viscoelastic fluids (PEO) for the size-dependent separation of microparticles. The co-flow condition generates a stable viscoelastic/Newtonian interface, giving rise to the wall-directed elastic lift forces that compete with the center-directed lift forces, and efficiently hinders the migration of microparticles from the Newtonian to the viscoelastic fluid in a size-dependent manner. An almost complete separation of a binary mixture of 1 μm and 2 μm polystyrene particles is achieved by the co-flow of water and a very dilute PEO solution (100 ppm), whereas the sole use of water or PEO could not lead to an efficient separation. This co-flow microfluidic system is also applied for the separation of Staphylococcus aureus (1 μm) from platelets (2-3 μm) with >90% efficiencies and purities.

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the lowest-frequency edge-localized spin wave mode in a magnetic nanotriangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C S; Lim, H S; Wang, Z K; Ng, S C; Kuok, M H; Adeyeye, A O

    2011-03-01

    An understanding of the spin dynamics of nanoscale magnetic elements is important for their applications in magnetic sensing and storage. Inhomogeneity of the demagnetizing field in a non-ellipsoidal magnetic element results in localization of spin waves near the edge of the element. However, relative little work has been carried out to investigate the effect of the applied magnetic fields on the nature of such localized modes. In this study, micromagnetic simulations are performed on an equilateral triangular nanomagnet to investigate the magnetic field dependence of the mode profiles of the lowest-frequency spin wave. Our findings reveal that the lowest-frequency mode is localized at the base edge of the equilateral triangle. The characteristics of its mode profile change with the ground state magnetization configuration of the nanotriangle, which, in turn, depends on the magnitude of the in-plane applied magnetic field.

  4. Wavevector- and frequency-dependent shear viscosity of water: the modified collective mode approach and molecular dynamics calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.Omelyan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse momentum time autocorrelation functions and wavevector- and frequency-dependent shear viscosity are calculated for an interaction site model of water using a modified collective mode approach and molecular dynamics simulations. The modified mode approach is based on a formulation which consistently takes into account non-Markovian effects into the kinetic memory kernels. As is demonstrated by comparing the theory results with the molecular dynamics data, the entire frequency dependence of the shear viscosity can be reproduced quantitatively over the whole wavelength range in terms of six generalized collective modes employing the kinetic memory kernel in the non-Markovian approximation of the third order. It is also shown that the results corresponding to the exact atomic and abbreviated molecular descriptions may differ considerably. In the infinite wavevector regime the dynamic correlations are completely determined by a single free motion of the molecules.

  5. Propagation of the Stress Wave Through the Filled Joint with Linear Viscoelastic Deformation Behavior Using Time-Domain Recursive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Hu, Zhiping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qiyao

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of filled joints is mostly controlled by the filled medium. In addition to nonlinear elastic behavior, viscoelastic behavior of filled joints is also of great significance. Here, a theoretical study of stress wave propagation through a filled rock joint with linear viscoelastic deformation behavior has been carried out using a modified time-domain recursive method (TDRM). A displacement discontinuity model was extended to form a displacement and stress discontinuity model, and the differential constitutive relationship of viscoelastic model was adopted to introduce the mass and viscoelastic behavior of filled medium. A standard linear solid model, which can be degenerated into the Kelvin and Maxwell models, was adopted in deriving this method. Transmission and reflection coefficients were adopted to verify this method. Besides, the effects of some parameters on wave propagation across a filled rock joint with linear viscoelastic deformation behavior were discussed. Then, a comparison of the time-history curves calculated by the present method with those by frequency-domain method (FDM) was performed. The results indicated that change tendencies of the transmission and reflection coefficients for these viscoelastic models versus incident angle were the same as each other but not frequency. The mass and viscosity coupling of filled medium did not fundamentally change wave propagation. The modified TDRM was found to be more efficient than the FDM.

  6. The neural code for auditory space depends on sound frequency and head size in an optimal manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol S Harper

    Full Text Available A major cue to the location of a sound source is the interaural time difference (ITD-the difference in sound arrival time at the two ears. The neural representation of this auditory cue is unresolved. The classic model of ITD coding, dominant for a half-century, posits that the distribution of best ITDs (the ITD evoking a neuron's maximal response is unimodal and largely within the range of ITDs permitted by head-size. This is often interpreted as a place code for source location. An alternative model, based on neurophysiology in small mammals, posits a bimodal distribution of best ITDs with exquisite sensitivity to ITDs generated by means of relative firing rates between the distributions. Recently, an optimal-coding model was proposed, unifying the disparate features of these two models under the framework of efficient coding by neural populations. The optimal-coding model predicts that distributions of best ITDs depend on head size and sound frequency: for high frequencies and large heads it resembles the classic model, for low frequencies and small head sizes it resembles the bimodal model. The optimal-coding model makes key, yet unobserved, predictions: for many species, including humans, both forms of neural representation are employed, depending on sound frequency. Furthermore, novel representations are predicted for intermediate frequencies. Here, we examine these predictions in neurophysiological data from five mammalian species: macaque, guinea pig, cat, gerbil and kangaroo rat. We present the first evidence supporting these untested predictions, and demonstrate that different representations appear to be employed at different sound frequencies in the same species.

  7. Accurate evaluation of viscoelasticity of radial artery wall during flow-mediated dilation in ultrasound measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasumasa; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the viscoelasticity of the radial artery wall was estimated to diagnose endothelial dysfunction using a high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound device. In the present study, we employed a commercial ultrasound device (7.5 MHz) and estimated the viscoelasticity using arterial pressure and diameter, both of which were measured at the same position. In a phantom experiment, the proposed method successfully estimated the elasticity and viscosity of the phantom with errors of 1.8 and 30.3%, respectively. In an in vivo measurement, the transient change in the viscoelasticity was measured for three healthy subjects during flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The proposed method revealed the softening of the arterial wall originating from the FMD reaction within 100 s after avascularization. These results indicate the high performance of the proposed method in evaluating vascular endothelial function just after avascularization, where the function is difficult to be estimated by a conventional FMD measurement.

  8. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  9. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine

    2017-10-01

    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  10. Finite element reduction strategy for composite sandwich plates with viscoelastic layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amaro Diacenco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been regarded as a convenient strategy in various types of engineering systems such as aeronautical and space structures, as well as architecture and light industry products due to their advantages over the traditional engineering materials, such as their high strength/stiffness relation characteristics and their anti-corrosion properties. This paper is devoted to the finite element modeling of composite laminated structures incorporating viscoelastic materials to the problem of vibration attenuation. However, the typically high dimension of large finite element models of composite structures incorporating viscoelastic materials makes the numerical processes sometimes unfeasible. Within this context, emphasis is placed on a general condensation strategy specially adapted for the case of viscoelastically damped structures, in which a constant (frequency- and temperature-independent reduction basis to be enriched by static residues associated to the applied loads and the viscoelastic forces is used. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical applications of composite plates treated by viscoelastic materials are addressed, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  11. Finite element reduction strategy for composite sandwich plates with viscoelastic layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amaro Diacenco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been regarded as a convenient strategy in various types of engineering systems such as aeronautical and space structures, as well as architecture and light industry products due to their advantages over the traditional engineering materials, such as their high strength/stiffness relation characteristics and their anti-corrosion properties. This paper is devoted to the finite element modeling of composite laminated structures incorporating viscoelastic materials to the problem of vibration attenuation. However, the typically high dimension of large finite element models of composite structures incorporating viscoelastic materials makes the numerical processes sometimes unfeasible. Within this context, emphasis is placed on a general condensation strategy specially adapted for the case of viscoelastically damped structures, in which a constant (frequency- and temperature-independent reduction basis to be enriched by static residues associated to the applied loads and the viscoelastic forces is used. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical applications of composite plates treated by viscoelastic materials are addressed, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  12. Quantitative sonoelastography for the in vivo assessment of skeletal muscle viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Kneezel, Timothy; Castaneda, Benjamin; Parker, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    A novel quantitative sonoelastography technique for assessing the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle tissue was developed. Slowly propagating shear wave interference patterns (termed crawling waves) were generated using a two-source configuration vibrating normal to the surface. Theoretical models predict crawling wave displacement fields, which were validated through phantom studies. In experiments, a viscoelastic model was fit to dispersive shear wave speed sonoelastographic data using nonlinear least-squares techniques to determine frequency-independent shear modulus and viscosity estimates. Shear modulus estimates derived using the viscoelastic model were in agreement with that obtained by mechanical testing on phantom samples. Preliminary sonoelastographic data acquired in healthy human skeletal muscles confirm that high-quality quantitative elasticity data can be acquired in vivo. Studies on relaxed muscle indicate discernible differences in both shear modulus and viscosity estimates between different skeletal muscle groups. Investigations into the dynamic viscoelastic properties of (healthy) human skeletal muscles revealed that voluntarily contracted muscles exhibit considerable increases in both shear modulus and viscosity estimates as compared to the relaxed state. Overall, preliminary results are encouraging and quantitative sonoelastography may prove clinically feasible for in vivo characterization of the dynamic viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle

  13. In Vivo and In Silico Investigation Into Mechanisms of Frequency Dependence of Repolarization Alternans in Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Orini, Michele; Hanson, Ben; Hayward, Martin; Taggart, Peter; Lambiase, Pier D; Burrage, Kevin; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-01-22

    Repolarization alternans (RA) are associated with arrhythmogenesis. Animal studies have revealed potential mechanisms, but human-focused studies are needed. RA generation and frequency dependence may be determined by cell-to-cell variability in protein expression, which is regulated by genetic and external factors. To characterize in vivo RA in human and to investigate in silico using human models, the ionic mechanisms underlying the frequency-dependent differences in RA behavior identified in vivo. In vivo electrograms were acquired at 240 sites covering the epicardium of 41 patients at 6 cycle lengths (600-350 ms). In silico investigations were conducted using a population of biophysically detailed human models incorporating variability in protein expression and calibrated using in vivo recordings. Both in silico and in vivo, 2 types of RA were identified, with Fork- and Eye-type restitution curves, based on RA persistence or disappearance, respectively, at fast pacing rates. In silico simulations show that RA are strongly correlated with fluctuations in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium, because of strong release and weak reuptake. Large L-type calcium current conductance is responsible for RA disappearance at fast frequencies in Eye-type (30% larger in Eye-type versus Fork-type; Psilico, 2 types of RA are identified, with RA persistence/disappearance as frequency increases. In silico, L-type calcium current and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger current determine RA human cell-to-cell differences through intracellular and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Frequency-dependent hopping conductivity in a static electric field in a random one-dimensional lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The frequency-dependent electrical conductivity is studied in a nearest-neighbor-hopping linear lattice with disordered site energies and barrier heights in the presence of a uniform static electric field, allowing for detailed balance between random rates. Exact expressions are obtained for the conductivity for both high and low frequencies. The results reduce to those obtained by previous authors in the absence of site-energy disorder. However, the latter is found to alter the character of the frequency dependence of the conductivity significantly at low frequencies. In this case the conductivity is expanded as sigma(ω) = sigma 0 +isigma 1 ω-sigma 2 ω 2 -isigma 3 ω 3 +.... We find that sigma 1 is nonvanishing only if both site energies and barrier heights are disordered and that sigma 2 is positive when the fluctuations in site energies are small compared with the thermal energy but becomes negative in the opposite regime. The ac response is found to vanish [i.e., sigma(ω) = 0 for ωnot =0] in the absence of disorder in barrier heights

  15. Influence of frequency-dependent soil electrical parameters on the evaluation of lightning electromagnetic fields in air and underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto; Rachidi, Farhad

    2009-06-01

    This paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of the frequency-dependent behavior of the ground electrical parameters (conductivity and ground permittivity) on the electromagnetic field radiated by a cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke. Both radiation in air (over the conducting ground plane) and underground are considered in the analysis. The adopted method is based on the classical Sommerfeld's theory and takes advantage of an efficient ad hoc numerical procedure to face with the slow converging Sommerfeld's integrals. This feature allows the electromagnetic field to be computed without any sort of mathematical approximation and, since it is carried out in the frequency domain, can be used either if the ground permittivity and conductivity are considered constant or if they vary with the working frequency with any functional law. Simulations have been performed to identify the cases in which the approximation of constant ground permittivity and conductivity leads to satisfactory results. It is shown that for soils with water contents of 2% to 10% (ground conductivities in the order of 0.001 to 0.01 S/m), the assumption of constant electrical parameters appears to be reasonable. However, for either very poorly conducting soils (10-4 S/m or so) or highly conducting soils (10-1 S/m), the electromagnetic field components appear to be significantly affected by the frequency dependence of the ground electrical parameters.

  16. Frequency-dependent local field factors in dielectric liquids by a polarizable force field and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davari, Nazanin; Haghdani, Shokouh; Åstrand, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    A force field model for calculating local field factors, i.e. the linear response of the local electric field for example at a nucleus in a molecule with respect to an applied electric field, is discussed. It is based on a combined charge-transfer and point-dipole interaction model for the polarizability, and thereby it includes two physically distinct terms for describing electronic polarization: changes in atomic charges arising from transfer of charge between the atoms and atomic induced dipole moments. A time dependence is included both for the atomic charges and the atomic dipole moments and if they are assumed to oscillate with the same frequency as the applied electric field, a model for frequency-dependent properties are obtained. Furthermore, if a life-time of excited states are included, a model for the complex frequency-dependent polariability is obtained including also information about excited states and the absorption spectrum. We thus present a model for the frequency-dependent local field factors through the first molecular excitation energy. It is combined with molecular dynamics simulations of liquids where a large set of configurations are sampled and for which local field factors are calculated. We are normally not interested in the average of the local field factor but rather in configurations where it is as high as possible. In electrical insulation, we would like to avoid high local field factors to reduce the risk for electrical breakdown, whereas for example in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, high local field factors are desired to give dramatically increased intensities

  17. Vibration and instability of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a visco-elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, P; Farshidianfar, A; Taherian, M M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, the transverse vibrational model of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in biological soft tissue is developed. Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory has been used to investigate fluid-induced vibration of the SWCNT while visco-elastic behaviour of the surrounding tissue is simulated by the Kelvin-Voigt model. The results indicate that the resonant frequencies and the critical flow velocity at which structural instability of nanotubes emerges are significantly dependent on the properties of the medium around the nanotube, the boundary conditions, the viscosity of the fluid and the nonlocal parameter. Detailed results are demonstrated for the dependence of damping and elastic properties of the medium on the resonant frequencies and the critical flow velocity. Three standard boundary conditions, namely clamped-clamped, clamped-pinned and pinned-pinned, are applied to study the effect of the supported end conditions. Furthermore, it is found that the visco-elastic foundation causes an obvious reduction in the critical velocity in comparison with the elastic foundation, in particular for a compliant medium, pinned-pinned boundary condition, high viscosity of the fluid and small values of the nonlocal coefficient.

  18. Range-separated time-dependent density-functional theory with a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolini, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.rebolini@kjemi.uio.no; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-07

    We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of the He and Be atoms and small molecules (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.

  19. Time-domain representation of frequency dependent inertial forces on offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    to the 'phase lag' obtained for the response of discrete mechanical systems. Two options are explored: introducing a corresponding phase lag in the components of the wave kinematics, or compensating the phase lag by combining a stable complex frequency with its complex conjugate. In the latter case the time...... section are uncoupled, and they are easily integrated with e.g. a central difference scheme for the state-space variables. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London....

  20. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Fabrication Parameters in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan C.; Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Viñuales, Ana; Grande, Hans Jürgen; Cabañero, Germán

    2014-01-01

    A series of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices using glass substrates have been fabricated and investigated focusing on their electrical properties. The devices have been studied in terms of impedance as a function of frequency. An electric equivalent circuit has been proposed, including the influence of the temperature on the elements into it. In addition, a relevant effect of temperature on electrical measurements has been observed. PMID:28788632

  1. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Fabrication Parameters in Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Torres

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices using glass substrates have been fabricated and investigated focusing on their electrical properties. The devices have been studied in terms of impedance as a function of frequency. An electric equivalent circuit has been proposed, including the influence of the temperature on the elements into it. In addition, a relevant effect of temperature on electrical measurements has been observed.

  2. Frequency-Dependent Characteristics of Regional Seismic Phases: Propagation of Pn in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    Nabelek) (Nabelek et al., 2005). Seism ic data from this experim ent can be directly obtained from the IRIS Data Management Center at www.iris.edu...investigated trade-offs between velo city structure and attenuation in Tibet. Of more than 30 high-quality, regional seism ic profiles that have been...include seism ic attenuation. A constant Q attenuation with frequency is provided in the spectral elem ent code, and given that the data and the

  3. Analysis of frequency- and temperature-dependent interface states in PtSi/p-Si Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellai, A. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 36, Sultan Qaboos University 123, Muscat (Oman)], E-mail: asellai@squ.edu.om; Ouennoughi, Z. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Composants, Departement de Physique UFAS Setif Algerie (Algeria)

    2008-12-05

    To yield quantitative information about their interface states, PtSi/p-Si Schottky structures have been studied using conductance and capacitance measurements over a wide range of frequencies (1 kHz to 1 MHz) and at several temperatures (80-140 K). The increase in capacitance at lower frequencies is seen as a signature of interface states, the densities of which are evaluated to be of the order of {approx}10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The presence of interface states is also evidenced as a peak in the conductance-frequency characteristics that increases in magnitude with decreasing temperatures. The variations of interface conductance are best described by an analytical equation derived assuming an energy-dependent cross-section of these interface states. The conductance data is subsequently used to extract the relaxation times of interface states and their energy distribution with respect to the top of the valence band. Relaxation times, in particular, while temperature dependent with an average value of {approx}4 {mu}s, show a noticeably weak dependence on bias.

  4. Testicular development in Siberian hamsters depends on frequency and pattern of melatonin signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, A K; Freeman, D A; Zucker, I; Prendergast, B J

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the impact of frequency and pattern of melatonin signals on reproductive development in Siberian hamsters. Juvenile males gestated in short day lengths and housed in constant illumination to suppress melatonin secretion were infused with melatonin for 5 h either once or twice per day for 20 days. Melatonin infusions at either frequency produced equivalent increases in testes and body weights that exceeded those of animals infused with saline but were indistinguishable from those of hamsters transferred to long day lengths. The reproductive system appears to be maximally stimulated by a single short melatonin signal each day. Other animals kept from birth in a short photoperiod were treated 6 h after onset of darkness with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist DL-propranolol to shorten melatonin secretion on the night of injection but not on subsequent nights. This permitted interpolation of short nightly melatonin signals of 4-5 h duration against a background of long melatonin signals of 10-12 h duration on other nights. Treatment regimes that maintained a 1:1 ratio of short to long melatonin signals for 8 wk stimulated reproductive development; a 1:2 signal ratio, in each of three different patterns, was uniformly ineffective. The number of successive short melatonin signals had little influence on the interval across which successive melatonin signals were summated to influence photoperiodic traits. The neuroendocrine axis appears more responsive to short melatonin signal frequency than pattern for development of the summer phenotype.

  5. Multi-resonance frequency spin dependent charge pumping and spin dependent recombination - applied to the 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M. A.; Lenahan, P. M.; Lelis, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a new electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) approach involving spin dependent charge pumping (SDCP) and spin dependent recombination (SDR) at high (K band, about 16 GHz) and ultra-low (360 and 85 MHz) magnetic resonance frequencies to investigate the dielectric/semiconductor interface in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). A comparison of SDCP and SDR allows for a comparison of deep level defects and defects with energy levels throughout most of the bandgap. Additionally, a comparison of high frequency and ultra-low frequency measurements allows for (1) the partial separation of spin-orbit coupling and hyperfine effects on magnetic resonance spectra, (2) the observation of otherwise forbidden half-field effects, which make EDMR, at least, in principle, quantitative, and (3) the observation of Breit-Rabi shifts in superhyperfine measurements. (Observation of the Breit-Rabi shift helps in both the assignment and the measurement of superhyperfine parameters.) We find that, as earlier work also indicates, the SiC silicon vacancy is the dominating defect in n-MOSFETs with as-grown oxides and that post-oxidation NO anneals significantly reduce their population. In addition, we provide strong evidence that NO anneals result in the presence of nitrogen very close to a large fraction of the silicon vacancies. The results indicate that the presence of nearby nitrogen significantly shifts the silicon vacancy energy levels. Our results also show that the introduction of nitrogen introduces a disorder at the interface. This nitrogen induced disorder may provide at least a partial explanation for the relatively modest improvement in mobility after the NO anneals. Finally, we compare the charge pumping and SDCP response as a function of gate amplitude and charge pumping frequency.

  6. TECHNIQUE AND DEVICE FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE OF VISCOELASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Murav’eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the characteristics of process fluids allows us to evaluate their quality, biological tissues – to differentiate healthy tissues and tissues with pathologies. Measuring the characteristics of process fluids allows us to evaluate their quality, biological tissues – to differentiate healthy tissues and tissues with pathologies. One of the complex acoustic parameters is the impedance, which allows one to fully evaluate the characteristics of viscoelastic media. Most of impedance methods of measurements require using two or more reference media and the availability of calibrated acoustic transducers. The aim of this work ware introduced a methods and construction for the experimental evaluation of the longitudinal and shear impedance of viscoelastic media based on measuring the parameters of the amplitude-frequency characteristics and calculating the elements of the electric circuit for replacing the piezoelectric element which vibrating in the test medium.The paper introduces a methods and construction of the experimental evaluation of the impedances of viscoelastic media. The suggested methods is allowed measuring longitudinal and shear impedances and determining velocities of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves and the values of the elastic moduli of viscoelastic media, including in various aggregate states. The technique is fairly simple to implement and can be reproduced using simple laboratory equipment.The obtained values of the acoustic impedances of the investigated media are in satisfactory agreement with their reference data. In contrast to the known methods for determining the acoustic impedance, the developed technique allows us to estimate with sufficient accuracy the parameter of the shear impedance of viscoelastic media that is difficult to measure at the frequencies of the megahertz range, which determines the shear modulus of the material and characterizes its resistance to shear deformations. The results of

  7. Viscoelasticity as a Biomarker for High-Throughput Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawetzki, Tobias; Eggleton, Charles D.; Desai, Sanjay A.; Marr, David W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of living cells are a label-free biophysical marker of cell viability and health; however, their use has been greatly limited by low measurement throughput. Although examining individual cells at high rates is now commonplace with fluorescence activated cell sorters, development of comparable techniques that nondestructively probe cell mechanics remains challenging. A fundamental hurdle is the signal response time. Where light scattering and fluorescence signatures are virtually instantaneous, the cell stress relaxation, typically occurring on the order of seconds, limits the potential speed of elastic property measurement. To overcome this intrinsic barrier to rapid analysis, we show here that cell viscoelastic properties measured at frequencies far higher than those associated with cell relaxation can be used as a means of identifying significant differences in cell phenotype. In these studies, we explore changes in erythrocyte mechanical properties caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum and find that the elastic response alone fails to detect malaria at high frequencies. At timescales associated with rapid assays, however, we observe that the inelastic response shows significant changes and can be used as a reliable indicator of infection, establishing the dynamic viscoelasticity as a basis for nondestructive mechanical analogs of current high-throughput cell classification methods. PMID:24268140

  8. Time-Dependent Coupled Perturbed Hartree-Fock and Density-Functional-Theory Approach for Calculating Frequency-Dependent (Hyper)Polarizabilities with Nonorthogonal Localized Molecular Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daoling; Li, Shaopeng; Peng, Liang; Gu, Feng Long; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-12

    The time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/density-functional-theory (TDHF/TDDFT) approach has been reformulated based on nonorthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs). Based on the NOLMO Fock equation, we have derived the corresponding NOLMO-TDHF/TDDFT equations up to the third order, and the formula for the frequency-dependent (hyper)polarizabilities has been given. Our approach has been applied to calculate both static and dynamic (hyper)polarizabilities of molecules varying from small molecules to large molecules. The NOLMO-TDHF/TDDFT approach can reproduce the reference canonical molecular orbital (CMO) results for all of our testing calculations. With the help of ongoing development of optimized local virtual molecular orbitals, the NOLMO-TDHF/TDDFT approach would be a very efficient method for large system calculations and tp achieve linear scaling.

  9. Frequency doubling in LiNbO3 using temperature dependent QPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Michele; Skettrup, Torben; Pedersen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We report the application of temperature-dependent quasi-phase matching (QPM) for second harmonic generation of green light using periodically field poled LiNbO3. In contrast to the usual QPM devices, here the fundamental and second harmonic waves are polarized orthogonally so that the second...

  10. Resistance to Change and Frequency of Response-Dependent Stimuli Uncorrelated with Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Ward, Ryan D.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Stimuli uncorrelated with reinforcement have been shown to enhance response rates and resistance to disruption; however, the effects of different rates of stimulus presentations have not been assessed. In two experiments, we assessed the effects of adding different rates of response-dependent brief stimuli uncorrelated with primary reinforcement…

  11. Viscoelastic properties of polymer composites during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel James

    Residual stresses that are induced during processing of polymer matrix composites lead to warpage of structural parts and can produce microcracks and other forms of damage. Process models that track the development of residual stresses in composites during processing have received growing attention in recent years. An accurate and easy to implement simulation will help lower the manufacturing cost by enabling engineers to predict and prevent the warpage in parts due to residual stress. The critical feature of a process model is the development of an accurate material model to predict mechanical properties throughout the entire manufacturing cycle. Material models are very complex since the matrix changes from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid at the end of cure. In this work several aspects of the curing, viscoelastic, and cure shrinkage behavior of an aerospace grade epoxy resin were characterized and modeled for the purpose of composites process modeling. Measurement of matrix viscoelastic properties during cure was accomplished through two experimental approaches, each suited to a particular range of cure states. To investigate the material behavior during later stages of cure after gelation, small beam specimens were tested in three-point bending. During early stages of curing, samples were examined by shearing the material between parallel plates in a rheometer. Specimens for each configuration were manufactured at several cure states and tested at a range of temperatures. These data were used to develop a material model to predict the relaxation modulus of the matrix at any time during cure. Additionally, moire interferometry was successfully applied to the measurement of the viscoelastic Poisson's ratio of the matrix through its entire glassy-to-rubbery transition. The matrix viscoelastic material models were then used to predict composite viscoelastic properties and correlated with experimental results. In addition, the viscoelastic shrinkage behavior of the

  12. Viscoelastic Fluid-Structure Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anita; Rothstein, Jonathan; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-11-01

    When a flexible object such as an elastic sheet is placed perpendicular to the flow of a Newtonian fluid, the structure can oscillate due to the shedding of separated vortices at high Reynolds numbers. If the same flexible object is placed in non-Newtonian flows, however, the structure's response is still unknown. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the flow of viscoelastic fluids can become unstable at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability. In this talk, we will discuss the fluid-structure interaction between a wormlike micelle solution at high Weissenberg number and a flexible elastic sheet in cross flow. Elastic flow instabilities have been observed for wormlike micelle solutions in a number of flows. Here we will study what happens when elastic flow instabilities occur in the vicinity of a thin flexible polymer sheet. We will show that the time varying fluid forces exerted on the structure can grow large enough to cause a structural motion which can in turn feed back into the flow to modify the flow instability. The static and dynamic responses of the flexible sheet will be presented for a series of flexible sheets oriented at different angles to the flow direction, for varying fluid flow rates, and for varying fluid compositions and properties. In addition, measurements of velocity profiles and flow-induced birefringence will be presented in order to quantify the time variation of the flow field and the state of stress in the fluid.

  13. Frequency-dependent stability of CNT Joule heaters in ionizable media and desalination processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudchenko, Alexander V.; Chen, Chuxiao; Cardenas, Alexis; Rolf, Julianne; Jassby, David

    2017-07-01

    Water shortages and brine waste management are increasing challenges for coastal and inland regions, with high-salinity brines presenting a particularly challenging problem. These high-salinity waters require the use of thermally driven treatment processes, such as membrane distillation, which suffer from high complexity and cost. Here, we demonstrate how controlling the frequency of an applied alternating current at high potentials (20 Vpp) to a porous thin-film carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composite Joule heating element can prevent CNT degradation in ionizable environments such as high-salinity brines. By operating at sufficiently high frequencies, these porous thin-films can be directly immersed in highly ionizable environments and used as flow-through heating elements. We demonstrate that porous CNT/polymer composites can be used as self-heating membranes to directly heat high-salinity brines at the water/vapour interface of the membrane distillation element, achieving high single-pass recoveries that approach 100%, far exceeding standard membrane distillation recovery limits.

  14. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, D; Peressini, D; Page, J H; Strybulevych, A; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz – 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  15. The frequency of diagnostic errors in radiologic reports depends on the patient's age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Sandra; Ekberg, Olle

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients who undergo treatment may suffer preventable medical errors. Some of these errors are due to diagnostic imaging procedures. Purpose: To compare the frequency of diagnostic errors in different age groups in an urban European population. Material and Methods: A total of 19 129 reported radiologic examinations were included. During a 6-month period, the analyzed age groups were: children (aged 0-9 years), adults (40-49 years), and elderly (86-95 years). Results: The frequency of radiologic examinations per year was 0.3 in children, 0.6 in adults, and 1.1 in elderly. Significant errors were significantly more frequent in the elderly (1.7%) and children (1.4%) compared with adults (0.8%). There were 60 false-positive reports and 232 false-negative reports. Most errors were made by staff radiologists after hours when they reported on examinations outside their area of expertise. Conclusion: Diagnostic errors are more frequent in children and the elderly compared with middle-aged adults

  16. Simplified frequency-dependent formulae for series-impedance matrices of single-core HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies that are ......The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies...... formula using Bessel equations exist, but they still have some complexity, e.g., hyperbolic cotangents and hyperbolic cosecants are used. Moreover, the series impedance matrix that is designed with these equations and used to estimate the resistance and reactance, requires the summation of at least eight...... different terms, all calculated in a different way. This paper simplifies the equations used in the loop method, by means of expansions in Taylor series, with other further simplifications that can be made for typical cable thicknesses and materials....

  17. The Frequency of Nonmotor Symptoms among Advanced Parkinson Patients May Depend on Instrument Used for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hwynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS of Parkinson's disease (PD may be more debilitating than motor symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and corecognition of NMS among our advanced PD cohort (patients considered for deep brain stimulation (DBS and caregivers. Methods. NMS-Questionnaire (NMS-Q, a self-administered screening questionnaire, and NMS Assessment-Scale (NMS-S, a clinician-administered scale, were administered to PD patients and caregivers. Results. We enrolled 33 PD patients (23 males, 10 females and caregivers. The most frequent NMS among patients using NMS-Q were gastrointestinal (87.9%, sleep (84.9%, and urinary (72.7%, while the most frequent symptoms using NMS-S were sleep (90.9%, gastrointestinal (75.8%, and mood (75.8%. Patient/caregiver scoring correlations for NMS-Q and NMS-S were 0.670 (<0.0001 and 0.527 (=0.0016, respectively. Conclusion The frequency of NMS among advanced PD patients and correlation between patients and caregivers varied with the instrument used. The overall correlation between patient and caregiver was greater with NMS-Q than NMS-S.

  18. Temperature dependence of low-frequency polarized Raman scattering spectra in TlInS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paucar, Raul; Wakita, Kazuki [Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Shim, YongGu; Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Alekperov, Oktay; Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, we examined phase transitions in the layered ternary thallium chalcogenide TlInS{sub 2} by studying the temperature dependence of polarized Raman spectra with the aid of the Raman confocal microscope system. The Raman spectra were measured over the temperature range of 77-320 K (which includes the range of successive phase transitions) in the low-frequency region of 35-180 cm{sup -1}. The optical phonons that showed strong temperature dependence were identified as interlayer vibrations related to phase transitions, while the phonons that showed weak temperature dependence were identified as intralayer vibrations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Viscoelastic properties of α-keratin fibers in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; André Meyers, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Considerable viscoelasticity and strain-rate sensitivity are a characteristic of α-keratin fibers, which can be considered a biopolymer. The understanding of viscoelasticity is an important part of the knowledge of the overall mechanical properties of these biological materials. Here, horse and human hairs are examined to analyze the sources of this response. The dynamic mechanical response of α-keratin fibers over a range of frequencies and temperatures is analyzed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The α-keratin fibers behave more elastically at higher frequencies while they become more viscous at higher temperatures. A glass transition temperature of ∼55°C is identified. The stress relaxation behavior of α-keratin fibers at two strains, 0.02 and 0.25, is established and fit to a constitutive equation based on the Maxwell-Wiechert model. The constitutive equation is further compared to the experimental results within the elastic region and a good agreement is obtained. The two relaxation constants, 14s and 359s for horse hair and 11s and 207s for human hair, are related to two hierarchical levels of relaxation: the amorphous matrix-intermediate filament interfaces, for the short term, and the cellular components for the long term. Results of the creep test also provide important knowledge on the uncoiling and phase transformation of the α-helical structure as hair is uniaxially stretched. SEM results show that horse hair has a rougher surface morphology and damaged cuticles. It also exhibits a lower strain-rate sensitivity of 0.05 compared to that of 0.11 for human hair. After the horse and human hairs are chemically treated and the disulfide bonds are cleaved, they exhibit a similar strain-rate sensitivity of ∼0.05. FTIR results confirms that the human hair is more sensitive to the -S-S- cleavage, resulting in an increase of cysteic acid content. Therefore, the disulfide bonds in the matrix are experimentally identified as one source of the strain

  20. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  1. SPH modeling and simulation of spherical particles interacting in a viscoelastic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Ellero, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we extend the three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) non-colloidal particulate model previously developed for Newtonian suspending media in Vázquez-Quesada and Ellero ["Rheology and microstructure of non-colloidal suspensions under shear studied with smoothed particle hydrodynamics," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 233, 37-47 (2016)] to viscoelastic matrices. For the solvent medium, the coarse-grained SPH viscoelastic formulation proposed in Vázquez-Quesada, Ellero, and Español ["Smoothed particle hydrodynamic model for viscoelastic fluids with thermal fluctuations," Phys. Rev. E 79, 056707 (2009)] is adopted. The property of this particular set of equations is that they are entirely derived within the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling formalism and therefore enjoy automatically thermodynamic consistency. The viscoelastic model is derived through a physical specification of a conformation-tensor-dependent entropy function for the fluid particles. In the simple case of suspended Hookean dumbbells, this delivers a specific SPH discretization of the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We validate the suspended particle model by studying the dynamics of single and mutually interacting "noncolloidal" rigid spheres under shear flow and in the presence of confinement. Numerical results agree well with available numerical and experimental data. It is straightforward to extend the particulate model to Brownian conditions and to more complex viscoelastic solvents.

  2. Emotion regulation and substance use frequency in women with substance dependence and borderline personality disorder receiving dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Seth R; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dysregulation such as BPD and substance dependence and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions.

  3. Mapping of permafrost surface and active layer properties using GPR: a comparison of frequency dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacitua, Guisella; Uribe, José Andrés; Tamstorf, Mikkel Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to detect internal features and conditions in the active layer of Zackenberg valley in North-East Greenland. For about 16 years there has been a monitoring programme that registers the physical and biological processes in the ecosystem.We aim to improve...... the monitoring accuracy of the active layer development and estimated soil water content. We used two different GPR frequencies to study their performance in High-Arctic cryoturbated soils. Here we present the analysis of the signal received by quantifying the power of the signal that is reflected from the top...... are suitable to measure thickness and to detect features in the active layer, the 400 MHz gives a better impression of the influence of the dielectric contrast effect from top of the permafrost zone which can be used to quantify the soil water content....

  4. Frequency-Dependent Seismic Waves in Fluid-Saturated Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fractures are the natural and essential elements of rock. Fracture systems are the most important features that define rock permeability and strength, as well as their anisotropy properties. Recent advancement in induced fracturing is a core part of the gas/oil shale technology, where fracture monitoring and control became a special topic of interest. Krauklis wave (K-wave) is the result of interaction between a fluid mass and elasticity of fracture walls, and it propagates primarily along the fracture systems in the fluid. At the fracture tips and fracture intersections it partially converts into the body waves. It is quite clear that incorporation of K-waves in a theory of wave propagation in fractured rock is one of the most important problems to solve for understanding of their seismic properties. One of the most fundamental properties of fractured rock is a fractal fracture distribution and it is rarely, if ever, taken into account in existing wave propagation theories. However, this property exists on a widest variety of scales and in particular reveals itself in a form of Gutenberg-Richter Law experimentally proven, starting from laboratory measurements and up to the global seismicity. We computed P and S-wave velocities of the rock containing fluid (and proppant) filled fractures, considering the effect of extremely slow and dispersive wave propagation within individual fractures. This was made possible by introducing the concept of "effective fracture-wave volume," and by evaluating the elastic constants of rock containing a complex, fractal network of fractures. These velocities were used to compute seismic waves reflected normally from a fractured reservoir. We demonstrate that by taking into account the Krauklis wave phenomenon for the fractally distributed fluid-filled fractures, it is possible to explain the observed low-frequency anomalies above the underground natural reservoirs. These anomalies include increase of amplitude and a phase delay of

  5. Digital timing: sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter and signal interpolation filter dependence on timing resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sanghee; Grazioso, Ron; Zhang Nan; Aykac, Mehmet; Schmand, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of our study is to investigate how the performance of digital timing methods is affected by sampling rate, anti-aliasing and signal interpolation filters. We used the Nyquist sampling theorem to address some basic questions such as what will be the minimum sampling frequencies? How accurate will the signal interpolation be? How do we validate the timing measurements? The preferred sampling rate would be as low as possible, considering the high cost and power consumption of high-speed analog-to-digital converters. However, when the sampling rate is too low, due to the aliasing effect, some artifacts are produced in the timing resolution estimations; the shape of the timing profile is distorted and the FWHM values of the profile fluctuate as the source location changes. Anti-aliasing filters are required in this case to avoid the artifacts, but the timing is degraded as a result. When the sampling rate is marginally over the Nyquist rate, a proper signal interpolation is important. A sharp roll-off (higher order) filter is required to separate the baseband signal from its replicates to avoid the aliasing, but in return the computation will be higher. We demonstrated the analysis through a digital timing study using fast LSO scintillation crystals as used in time-of-flight PET scanners. From the study, we observed that there is no significant timing resolution degradation down to 1.3 Ghz sampling frequency, and the computation requirement for the signal interpolation is reasonably low. A so-called sliding test is proposed as a validation tool checking constant timing resolution behavior of a given timing pick-off method regardless of the source location change. Lastly, the performance comparison for several digital timing methods is also shown.

  6. Temperature and frequency dependence of negative differential capacitance in a planar GaN-based p-i-n photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xichang; Xu, Jintong; Li, Chao; Qiao, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Planar GaN-based p-i-n photodetector was prepared by ion implantation. •A novel negative differential capacitance (NDC) effect is observed in the photodetector. •The NDC effect is due to the carrier confinement of the deep level centers formed by ion implantation. -- Abstract: In this work, back-illuminated planar GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors were fabricated by Si implantation into GaN-based p-i-n structure grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The dark current density of the photodetector is 1.03 nA/cm 2 under zero bias. The unbiased responsivity is 0.122 A/W at 360 nm, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 42%. Temperature and frequency dependence of capacitance versus voltage characteristics of the photodetectors are also investigated respectively. A novel negative differential capacitance (NDC) effect observed in the photodetector at room temperature under the frequency of 120 kHz or at low temperature under relative high frequency (such as 200 kHz). The NDC effect becomes much more obvious with the temperature or frequency decreased. This novel phenomenon is mainly due to the carrier confinement of the deep level centers in the detector, which mainly include lattice defects formed by high dose ion implantation and subsequent annealing

  7. Frequency-dependent alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy (4D AC-SECM) for local visualisation of corrosion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Kathrin; Erichsen, Thomas; Stratmann, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    For a better understanding of the initiation of localised corrosion, there is a need for analytical tools that are capable of imaging corrosion pits and precursor sites with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The lateral electrochemical contrast in alternating-current scanning electrochemical microscopy (AC-SECM) has been found to be highly dependent on the frequency of the applied alternating voltage. In order to be able to obtain data with optimum contrast and high resolution, the AC frequency is swept in a full spectrum at each point in space instead of performing spatially resolved measurements at one fixed perturbation frequency. In doing so, four-dimensional data sets are acquired (4D AC-SECM). Here, we describe the instrument set-up and modus operandi, along with the first results from the imaging of corroding surfaces. Corrosion precursor sites and local defects in protective organic coatings, as well as an actively corroding pit on 304 stainless steel, have been successfully visualised. Since the lateral electrochemical contrast in these images varies with the perturbation frequency, the proposed approach constitutes an indispensable tool for obtaining optimum electrochemical contrast.

  8. Viscoelasticity of subcortical gray matter structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Curtis L; Schwarb, Hillary; D J McGarry, Matthew; Anderson, Aaron T; Huesmann, Graham R; Sutton, Bradley P; Cohen, Neal J

    2016-12-01

    Viscoelastic mechanical properties of the brain assessed with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) are sensitive measures of microstructural tissue health in neurodegenerative conditions. Recent efforts have targeted measurements localized to specific neuroanatomical regions differentially affected in disease. In this work, we present a method for measuring the viscoelasticity in subcortical gray matter (SGM) structures, including the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus. The method is based on incorporating high spatial resolution MRE imaging (1.6 mm isotropic voxels) with a mechanical inversion scheme designed to improve local measures in pre-defined regions (soft prior regularization [SPR]). We find that in 21 healthy, young volunteers SGM structures differ from each other in viscoelasticity, quantified as the shear stiffness and damping ratio, but also differ from the global viscoelasticity of the cerebrum. Through repeated examinations on a single volunteer, we estimate the uncertainty to be between 3 and 7% for each SGM measure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the use of specific methodological considerations-higher spatial resolution and SPR-both decrease uncertainty and increase sensitivity of the SGM measures. The proposed method allows for reliable MRE measures of SGM viscoelasticity for future studies of neurodegenerative conditions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4221-4233, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring viscoela......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...... to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially...

  10. A stable numerical solution method in-plane loading of nonlinear viscoelastic laminated orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the tremendous growth in the development of advanced materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials, a new numerical method is developed to analyze and predict the time-dependent properties of these materials. Basic concepts in viscoelasticity, laminated composites, and previous viscoelastic numerical methods are presented. A stable numerical method, called the nonlinear differential equation method (NDEM), is developed to calculate the in-plane stresses and strains over any time period for a general laminate constructed from nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic plies. The method is implemented in an in-plane stress analysis computer program, called VCAP, to demonstrate its usefulness and to verify its accuracy. A number of actual experimental test results performed on Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates are compared to predictions calculated from the numerical method.

  11. Constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic responses of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Sanporean, Catalina-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform experimental investigation and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene (mPP) with application to lifetime assessment under conditions of creep rupture. Design/methodology/approach ......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform experimental investigation and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene (mPP) with application to lifetime assessment under conditions of creep rupture. Design...... an arbitrary three-dimensional deformation with small strains, and its parameters are found fitting the observations. Findings – Crystalline structure and molecular architecture of polypropylene strongly affect its time and rate-dependent behavior. In particular, time-to-failure of metallocene catalyzed...... in long-term creep tests. Keywords Metallocene catalyzed polypropylene, Viscoelasticity, Viscoplasticity, Creep rupture, Constitutive modeling, Elastoplastic analysis, Viscosity, Creep, Physical properties of materials Paper type Research paper...

  12. Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Viscoelastic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negaard, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    .... It would be useful if viscoelastic materials could be used to damp the vibration of such structures, however the behavior of a viscoelastic material in an extremely high g-loading is not well understood...

  13. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  14. Frequency-dependent changes in the paired-pulse index in the hippocampus of the freely moving adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorns, W R; Blaise, J H; Bronzino, J D

    2004-03-01

    The paired-pulse index (PPI) has been widely used as a measure of modulation of cellular excitability in the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. This paper presents a quantification of the changes in this measure of neuronal modulation as a result of the application of pulse trains having six different train frequencies (0.1, 1, 5, 8, 15, and 30 Hz) to one of the major efferent pathways to the dentate gyrus, the medial perforant path (MPP). Our findings indicate that the modulation of the first leg of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit is dependent on the frequency of the "burst train" applied to the perforant pathway. This methodological finding is of importance to all investigators studying hippocampal plasticity via LTP or LTD approaches. The different synaptic mechanisms implicated in being responsible for the changes in the PPI are also discussed.

  15. Oscillation frequency dependence of nonclassical rotation inertia of solid 4He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Y; Graves, J C; Kojima, H

    2007-07-06

    The nonclassical rotational inertia fraction of the identical cylindrical solid 4He below 300 mK is studied at 496 and 1173 Hz by a double resonance torsional oscillator. Below 35 mK, the fractions are the same at sufficiently low rim velocities. Above 35 mK, the fraction is greater for the higher than the lower mode. The dissipation peak of the lower mode occurs at a temperature approximately 4 mK lower than that of the higher mode. The drive dependence of the two modes shows that the reduction of the fraction is characterized by critical velocity, not amplitude or acceleration.

  16. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  17. Structural, magnetic characterization (dependencies of coercivity and loss with the frequency) of magnetic cores based in Finemet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinalde, M.; Infante, P.; Domínguez, L.; Blanco, J. M.; del Val, J. J.; Chizhik, A.; González, J.

    2017-12-01

    We report changes of coercivity, induced magnetic anisotropy, magneto-optical domain structure and frequency dependencies of coercivity and energy loss (up to 10 MHz) associated with the structural modifications produced by thermal treatments under applied magnetic field (field annealing) in toroidal wound cores of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 amorphous alloy. The thermal treatment (535 °C, 1 h) leads to the typical nanocrystalline structure of α-Fe(Si) nanograins (60-65% relative volume, 10-20 nm average grain size embedded in a residual amorphous matrix, while the magnetic field with the possibility to be applied in two directions to the toroidal core axis, that is in transverse (which is equivalent to the transverse direction of the ribbon) or longitudinal (equivalent to the longitudinal direction of the ribbon), develops a macroscopic uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the transverse (around 245 J/m3) or longitudinal (around 85 J/m3) direction of the ribbon, respectively. It is remarkable the quasi-unhysteretic character of the cores with these two kinds of field annealing as comparing with that of the as-quenched one. Magneto-optical study by Kerr-effect of the ribbons provides useful information on the domain structure of the surface in agreement with the direction and intensity of the induced magnetic anisotropy. This induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy plays a very important role on the Hc(f) and EL(f) curves, (f: frequency), being drastic the presence and direction of the induced magnetic anisotropy. In addition, these frequency dependencies show a significant change at the frequency around 100 Hz.

  18. Maturation trajectories of cortical resting-state networks depend on the mediating frequency band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheraz; Hashmi, Javeria A; Mamashli, Fahimeh; Michmizos, Konstantinos; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Bharadwaj, Hari; Bekhti, Yousra; Ganesan, Santosh; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian; Vaina, Lucia M; Rana, Kunjan D; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kenet, Tal

    2018-02-17

    The functional significance of resting state networks and their abnormal manifestations in psychiatric disorders are firmly established, as is the importance of the cortical rhythms in mediating these networks. Resting state networks are known to undergo substantial reorganization from childhood to adulthood, but whether distinct cortical rhythms, which are generated by separable neural mechanisms and are often manifested abnormally in psychiatric conditions, mediate maturation differentially, remains unknown. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to map frequency band specific maturation of resting state networks from age 7 to 29 in 162 participants (31 independent), we found significant changes with age in networks mediated by the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (31-80 Hz) bands. More specifically, gamma band mediated networks followed an expected asymptotic trajectory, but beta band mediated networks followed a linear trajectory. Network integration increased with age in gamma band mediated networks, while local segregation increased with age in beta band mediated networks. Spatially, the hubs that changed in importance with age in the beta band mediated networks had relatively little overlap with those that showed the greatest changes in the gamma band mediated networks. These findings are relevant for our understanding of the neural mechanisms of cortical maturation, in both typical and atypical development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Everyday memory problems in alcohol abuse and dependence: Frequency, patterns and patient-proxy agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Yang, Chung-Yuan; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2018-03-01

    Using self-report to assess everyday memory in alcoholics presents challenges given the presence of both memory and metamemory deficits. Accordingly, evaluation of the reliability and validity of proxy ratings as well as the frequency of these memory lapses are of clinical importance. In the present study, 180 patient-proxy dyads completed the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). 31.7% of proxy-rated versus 2.8% of patient-rated prospective memory scores fell in the impaired to below average range. 15% of proxy-rated retrospective memory scores were below average, whereas none of the patients reported problems in this regard. Longer delays between intention formation and action yielded better prospective memory performance, while the opposite was true for retrospective memory. Agreement between patients and proxies was generally poor to fair across severity levels and the magnitude of observed differences was large (standardized response mean > 0.8). For all PRMQ items, exact agreement occurred in 45.3% of the cases. Larger patient-proxy discrepancy was associated with older age, less education and greater disease severity. Proxy ratings were internally consistent, significantly correlated with objective memory performance, and were sensitive to differences in overall PRMQ performance between severity groups. Caution should be used in the interpretations of patients' reports. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency-Dependent Enhancement of Fluid Intelligence Induced by Transcranial Oscillatory Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano [Univ. of Siena (Italy). Dept. of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Godone, Marco [Univ. of Siena (Italy). Dept. of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience; Giovannelli, Fabio [San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Florence (Italy). Complex Unit of Neurology; Feurra, Matteo [Univ. of Siena (Italy). Dept. of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience; Matzen, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rossi, Alessandro [Univ. of Siena (Italy). Dept. of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience; Rossi, Simone [Univ. of Siena (Italy). Dept. of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience

    2013-08-05

    Everyday problem solving requires the ability to go beyond experience by efficiently encoding and manipulating new information, i.e., fluid intelligence (Gf) [1]. Performance in tasks involving Gf, such as logical and abstract reasoning, has been shown to rely on distributed neural networks, with a crucial role played by prefrontal regions [2]. Synchronization of neuronal activity in the gamma band is a ubiquitous phenomenon within the brain; however, no evidence of its causal involvement in cognition exists to date [3]. Here, we show an enhancement of Gf ability in a cognitive task induced by exogenous rhythmic stimulation within the gamma band. Imperceptible alternating current [4] delivered through the scalp over the left middle frontal gyrus resulted in a frequency-specific shortening of the time required to find the correct solution in a visuospatial abstract reasoning task classically employed to measure Gf abilities (i.e., Raven’s matrices) [5]. Crucially, gamma-band stimulation (γ-tACS) selectively enhanced performance only on more complex trials involving conditional/logical reasoning. The finding presented here supports a direct involvement of gamma oscillatory activity in the mechanisms underlying higher-order human cognition.