WorldWideScience

Sample records for french speaking european

  1. European-French Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and Pretest in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Kaeser, Sylvie; Satink, Ton; Andresen, Mette; Martini, Rose; Thommen, Evelyne; Bertrand, Anne Martine

    2015-05-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version does not. To produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07 for use in areas of Europe where French is spoken and to test its cultural relevance in French-speaking Switzerland. Cross-cultural adaptation was done using established guidelines. Cultural relevance was analyzed with cognitive interviews of thirteen parents of children aged 5.0 to 14.6 years (mean age: 8.5 years, SD = 3.4), using think-aloud and probing techniques. Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the European-French, the Canadian-French, and the original versions of the DCDQ'07. Despite correct translation and expert committee review, cognitive interviews revealed that certain items of the European-French version were unclear or misinterpreted and further modifications were needed. After rewording items as a result of the outcomes of the cognitive interview, the European-French version of the DCDQ'07 is culturally appropriate for use in French-speaking Switzerland. Further studies are necessary to determine its psychometric properties.

  2. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  3. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  4. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouazé, André

    2002-01-01

    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  5. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  6. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  7. [Bioethics and the French speaking world: an answer to globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are we able, today, to take a step closer to bringing together the French speaking world and bioethics by realizing that their association could provide a profound view of the current evolution of our world characterized by what is referred to as globalization? Could we be even more ambitious and register the specificity of the rapport between the French speaking world and bioethics confronted with this global phenomenon of deconstruction/reconstruction of the planetary order by setting as its path a dynamic balance, which is an integral part of the use of the French language and cultural diversity, a central point in a truly pluridisciplinary and pluralist bioethics?

  8. Learning to Speak Everyday (Canadian) French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasdi, Terry; Mougeon, Raymond; Rehner, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the sociolinguistic competence of French immersion students. We first present an overview of the range of variation found in L1 speech and make a distinction between vernacular, informal, formal, and hyper-formal variants. We then compare the use of these forms in the speech of Canadian francophones and Grade 9 and 12…

  9. French-speaking Children's Freely Produced Labels for Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem eMaassarani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were coded by two raters who made judgments concerning the specific emotion category in which the responses belonged. Five- and 6-year-olds were quite accurate in labeling facial expressions of happiness, anger, and sadness but far less accurate for facial expressions of fear, surprise, and disgust. An improvement in accuracy as a function of age was found for fear and surprise only. Labeling facial expressions of disgust proved to be very difficult for the children, even for the 11-year-olds. In order to examine the fit between the model proposed by Widen and Russell (2003 and our data, we looked at the number of participants who had the predicted response patterns. Overall, 88.52% of the participants did. Most of the participants used between 3 and 5 labels, with correspondence percentages varying between 80.00% and 100.00%. Our results suggest that the model proposed by Widen and Russell is not limited to English-speaking children, but also accounts for the sequence of emotion labeling in French-Canadian children.

  10. French dissatisfactions on the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The author first notices that the French electricity professional consumers are dissatisfied with the results of the creation of the European domestic electricity market in 1997: price increase either on bills or on the wholesale markets, and even more price increases are to come. The author proposes to examine several issues: what has been done during the 6 or 7 past years, that is since the California crisis in 2000-2001, to put the European electrical reforms on a virtuous track? Have the basic market economy principles been respected to protect competitiveness of all energy consumer professionals? How and why the French government or EDF will make us pay gas, coal or CO 2 emission permits like in England or Germany whereas the French electricity production has mainly (90 or 95 per cent) a nuclear or hydraulic origin?

  11. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  12. Health Priorities in French-Speaking Swiss Cantons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chastonay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, the federal authorities, the cantons, and the communes share the responsibility of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion policies. Yet, the cantons are in most health matters independent in their decisions, thus defining as a matter of fact their own health priorities. We examined and analysed the content of the disease prevention and health promotion plans elaborated during the last decade in six French-speaking cantons with different political contexts and resources, but quite similar population health data, in order to identify the set health priorities. The plans appear significantly inhomogeneous in their structure, scope and priorities. Most of the formal documents are short, in the 16 to 40 pages range. Core values such as equity, solidarity and sustainability are explicitly put forward in 2/6 cantonal plans. Priority health issues shared by all 6 cantons are “physical activity/sedentariness” and “nutrition/food.” Mental health is explicitly mentioned in 5 cantonal plans, whereas tobacco and alcohol consumptions are mentioned 4 times. Less attention has been given to topics that appear as major public health challenges at present and in the future in Switzerland, eg, ageing of the population, rise of social inequalities, increase of vulnerable populations. Little attention has also been paid to issues like domestic violence or healthy work environments. Despite some heterogeneity, there is a common base that should make inter-cantonal collaborations possible and coordination with national strategies easily feasible.

  13. Energy challenges: European viewpoints and French answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gjidara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union attempts to improve the European energy market so that it is better coordinated because in a unified Europe it is no longer possible to act in isolation. The production of energy form renewable sources of great proportions demands a mutually linked European energy market if the aims established in the “Energy and Climate” programme and adopted in 2009 are to be achieved. The aim of this paper is to establish how the principles of European Law influence legal norming in energy issues and in the battle against global warming. The development of energy which does not emit carbon dioxide is in accordance with the aims set by the European Union. In that area, this development relies on regions, and not just countries which are not always able to implement defined ambitious aims. Energy continues in the majority of cases to depend on the power of countries and European control is limited. The European Union participates mainly in the co-ordination and support of national policy, within provisions relating to trans-European networks and within environment protection policy. In principle, the measures relating to the choice of each country from the various sources of energy and on the general structure of providing energy have been unanimously accepted. Particular attention has been given to comparing the French legal rules which are applied in the development of renewable sources of energy and the adaptation of the law on renewable sources of energy and laws on environmental protection to urban planning and the importance of supervision with European legal standards of regulation.

  14. French Speaking Skills of Grade 8 English Program Students. Research Report 82-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Margaret

    The speaking skills of grade 8 students in a core French program in Ottawa were compared with the skills of grade 6 students enrolled in the core program. A total of 337 grade 8 students were given a French speaking test. Two-hundred and nine students had taken the test in grade 6. In general, the grade 8 students seemed prepared to express basic…

  15. Two French-Speaking Cases of Foreign Accent Syndrome: An Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Macoir, Joel; Martel-Sauvageau, Vincent; Boudreault, Carol-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is an acquired neurologic disorder in which an individual suddenly and unintentionally speaks with an accent which is perceived as being different from his/her usual accent. This study presents an acoustic-phonetic description of two Quebec French-speaking cases. The first speaker presents a perceived accent shift to…

  16. So They Want Us to Learn French: Promoting and Opposing Bilingualism in English-Speaking Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayday, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s, bilingualism has become a defining aspect of Canadian identity. And yet, fifty years after the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was formed and with over forty years of federal government funding and supports for second-language education, relatively few English Canadians speak or choose to speak French. What…

  17. Building Bridges of Understanding with the French-Speaking People in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with French-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and French culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on France,…

  18. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students ( n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed.

  19. The Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS): Reliability and Validity with French-Speaking Adolescents in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Delhaye; Wim Beyers; Theo A Klimstra; Paul Linkowski; Luc Goossens

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS), an instrument initially developed for use with Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium, in French-speaking adolescents living in that same country. The instrument was administered to a sample of French-speaking adolescents ('N' = 625) and a carefully matched sample of Dutch-speaking adolescents ('N' = 630). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), factor structure, and mean scores...

  20. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. [The tobacco problem in French-speaking Africa and regional perspectives of the French-speaking African tobacco observatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Mokhtar Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    the themes which promote tobacco use to the target audiences (youth, women, the poorest groups). Everyday the tobacco industry recruits new African smokers to replace those who die. The future of the industry is represented by about 8 out of 10 people who began smoking before the age of 18 years old. It was imperative to establish a Tobacco Observatory in Francophone Africa (OTAF) in order to resituate the African tobacco situation, contribute to the development of the French-speaking nations in Africa, and to make known and increase awareness of its needs, its initiatives, and its actions across the world, and finally to effectively fight against tobacco and the industry's practices. One year after OTAF was established in Bamako thanks to the consolidated efforts of all its members and support of the French League against Cancer and the International Union against Cancer, OTAF OTAF is an independent entity whose mission is to gather, analyse and disseminate information on all aspects of tobacco with the objective of soliciting and supporting public health activities and interventions. It is a reference centre for Francophone Africa and a technical advisory group for the public authorities on tobacco issues. OTAF's work is counted upon to inform the public authorities on the most effective measures to use in the fight against tobacco. OTAF's duty is to promote activities which protect the health of young people and non-smokers, and communicate on the harmful effects of tobacco and the tobacco industry's practices. The goal is to organise a fight against tobacco based on solid, scientific data of the highest level of quality. OTAF is the only Francophone African surveillance organisation for monitoring the tobacco epidemic, and the practices, schemes and methods of the tobacco industry which are known to be dishonest Today, OTAF is a unique reference centre as far as the fight against tobacco is concerned in Francophone Africa. It is a partner in a number of projects

  2. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.

  3. An alternative to the scheduled death of radiotherapy in French speaking Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouelle Sone, A.; Bey, P.

    2002-01-01

    A description of the situation of the radiotherapy in French speaking Africa, from the point of view of the therapists and equipment. The economic context does not allow to consider the cancer problem as an emergency one. The epidemic of AIDS has pushed at the background every other question. (N.C.)

  4. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  5. Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.

  6. Orchestrating French Music Conservatories: European Political Interventions and Local Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskikh, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Supported by the omnipresent State in the past, French music education leans increasingly towards a more liberal and competitive model. In the current context of a decentralized economy and European integration, music conservatories are called upon to contribute to regional and municipal development and enhance European student mobility. How do…

  7. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory

  8. Vaccine criticism: Presence and arguments on French-speaking websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugier, A; Limousi, F; Lydié, N

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the presence of vaccine criticism on the French Web and to analyze strategies and arguments used by opponents of vaccination. The most frequently used keywords associated with the terms "vaccination" and "vaccine" on Google.fr in September 2013 were identified and searched for individually on Google.fr. The links presented in the first three pages of results were reviewed to identify the most frequent providers of information. The proportion of critical content was determined by website type and a content analysis was performed. The main preoccupations about vaccination were general concerns; types of website. Six major strategies and categories of arguments used by opponents of vaccination were identified: the manipulation of science, the use of shocking images and an appeal to emotions via testimonies, a general vaccination conspiracy, the individual's freedom of choice not respected, an unnatural act and a negative benefit/risk balance. It seems important to monitor online vaccination debates, to develop an institutional presence that meets the needs of Internet users and to help them develop a critical view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of natural gas in the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas has known a rapid development in the French-speaking part of Switzerland and this trend is still continuing. Natural gas represents 13% of the overall energy consumption, which lies significantly above the Swiss average and, in the year 2000, it should reach about 20%. In order to meet the expected growth of consumption, Gaznat has already contracted, under long term agreements, large quantities of natural gas from diversified sources. Underground storage capacities in nearby France have been considerably increased and new gas-pipelines are being built. These pipelines will enable to double the supply capacity of the French-speaking part of Switzerland within the next three years. (orig.) [de

  10. Posture verbs in French-speaking CLIL and non-CLIL learners of Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Spinhayer, Camille; Josse, Amélie; Eurosla 26 Conference

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has confirmed that CLIL learners clearly outperform non-CLIL learners (Dalton-Puffer 2011). Although lexicon has often received pride of place in CLIL research, it is striking that studies have rarely been pushed beyond the word level. This paper therefore investigates the acquisition of Dutch posture verb constructions (PVs) in French-speaking (non-)CLIL learners. As in other Germanic languages, Dutch frequently uses compulso...

  11. Assessing Dutch and English Immersion Education in French-Speaking Belgium: Linguistic, Cognitive and Educational Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Van Mensel, Luk; American Association for Applied Linguistics

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present a 5-year multidisciplinary research project on immersion education in French-speaking Belgium. Our project starts from the premise that although recently published surveys have confirmed that immersion learners outperform traditional L2 learners as far as target language test scores are concerned, it nonetheless remains largely unclear to what extent, in what respect and thanks to which (internal and external) processes and factors immersion students show increased l...

  12. Communicative teaching of French in upper secondary education and the improvement of pupils' interactive speaking proficiency through peer feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentrop, J.; Haenen, J.P.P.; de Graaff, R.

    2011-01-01

    Language teachers experience great difficulties in stimulating their students to speak the target language. In the Netherlands, this is certainly the case for French. Much time and energy are needed from the part of the teachers in order to engage their students in interactive speaking learning

  13. The Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS) : Reliability and validity with French-speaking adolescents in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, M.; Beyers, W.; Klimstra, T.A.; Linkowski, P.; Goossens, L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS), an instrument initially developed for use with Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium, in French-speaking adolescents living in that same country. The instrument was administered to a

  14. Raising European Citizens: Constructing European Identities in French and English Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inari Sakki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schools play a pivotal role in the formation of identities and in the political socialization of youth. This study explores the social representations of European integration in French and English school textbooks and shows how the social representations are discursively used to construct national and European identities. By analysing the history and civics textbooks of major educational publishers, this study aims to demonstrate how European integration is understood, made familiar and concretized in the school textbooks of the two influential but different European countries. The findings suggest some shared and some diverse patterns in the way the two European countries portray and construct the political project of European integration. These representations, constructed around French Europe in French textbooks and ambivalent Europe in English textbooks, share the images of a strong European economy and a French-led political Europe. However, they position themselves differently with respect to the United States, motivation for the European unification process and the significance of common values and heritage. In both countries textbooks draw upon memories that are important for group identity. While the French textbooks make European integration meaningful in reference to a shared post-war collective memory and to a cultural memory based on a more ancient idea of Europe, shared values and heritage, the English textbooks anchor it more strongly to domestic policy.

  15. Evaluation and comparison of epidural analgesia in labour related information on French and English-speaking websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitalier, Fabien; De Lamer, Sabine; Barbaz, Mathilde; Laffon, Marc; Remérand, Francis

    2018-01-31

    The medical information on the Internet is better in English than in other languages. The information about Epidural Analgesia In Labour (EAIL) available on French-speaking websites is of poor quality. The quality of the information about EAIL should be better in English, but there is no comparison available. This study has assessed and compared the quality of the information about EAIL available on French and English-speaking websites. Keywords "epidural", "épidurale" and/or "péridurale" were used in the French, Canadian and American Google ® and Yahoo ® search engines. Two independent assessors assessed the 20 first websites for each engine search. They used an evaluation form created from French, Canadian and American recommendations. This form assessed the structure quality (Structure Score/25) and the medical information quality (Medical Information Score/30) of the websites. The addition of both scores gives the Global Score (/55). Seventy-one websites were assessed, 39 French-speaking and 32 English-speaking websites. Structure, Medical Information and Global Scores (expressed as mean (SD)) were respectively 11 (4), 13 (5), 24 (8) for the French-speaking websites and 11 (4), 12 (4), 23 (7) for the English-speaking websites. There was no statistical significant difference between both languages. Information about EAIL available on French and English-speaking websites is of poor quality and there is no difference in the information quality, whatever the language. A consideration on Internet medical information improvement is needed. A high quality dedicated website should be created and broadcasted. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Orchestrating French Music Conservatories: European Political Interventions and Local Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raevskikh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the omnipresent State in the past, French music education leans increasingly towards a more liberal and competitive model. In the current context of a decentralized economy and European integration, music conservatories are called upon to contribute to regional and municipal development and enhance European student mobility. How do conservatories react to the restructuring of the competitive field? How do they affect European territorial cohesion? Are they managing adaptive or hybrid strategies with new conceptions of music education? Alternatively, do they gradually move away from the marketplace and become an obsolete and difficult heritage to maintain? To answer these questions, it is necessary to analyze the current balance of power among the different elements of the French multi-level system of conservatories, including communal, inter-communal, departmental, regional, national and European institutions. By combining different sources of spatial and statistical data, this paper contributes to constructing a comparative institutional geography of French multi-level territorial divisions. Extraction and treatment of the small data with SPSS statistical software allowed us to build a number of small-scale datasets that were merged to broader geographical databases from the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE. The geographical units that structure the INSEE databases (the zip and district codes, codes of regions, departments, GPS coordinates made possible the location of each conservatory within municipal, departmental, regional and national spaces. A cartographic approach to studying music conservatories allows the identification of problems that deserve further detailed qualitative and statistical study in the future.

  17. [Necrotizing fasciitis: results of a survey on management practices in French-speaking intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prost, N; Bosc, R; Brun-Buisson, C; Chosidow, O; Decousser, J-W; Dhonneur, G; Lepeule, R; Rahmouni, A; Sbidian, E; Amathieu, R

    2014-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) are rare and severe soft tissue infections associated with a high mortality rate. In order to assess the management of NF in French-speaking intensive care units (ICUs), we conducted a survey endorsed by the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR). Online self-administered survey. A link to an online survey was sent by email to 4620 anesthesiologists and/or intensivists and was available online from January to February 2014. One hundred and seventy-five physicians (3.8%) who worked in 135 ICUs filled out the online survey. Among respondents, 42% reported having managed up to two patients with NF during the previous year; 59% and 72% of respondents reported not having a surgical and a medical specialist consultant, respectively. A delayed access to the operating room (OR) of more than 6hours was reported in 31% of cases and access to the OR was reported not to be routinely considered as a priority in 13% of cases. Only 17% of respondents reported that time to transfer to the OR was never a cause for delayed surgery. The main causes for delayed surgery were: delayed diagnosis (45%), delayed validation of surgical intervention (37%), and difficulty of access to the OR (8%). Finally, 83% of respondents estimated that creating dedicated multidisciplinary teams for managing NFs could lead to improving outcomes. This survey illustrates the heterogeneous management of NF in French-speaking ICUs and points out several logistical aspects that should be improved to reduce the time to the first surgical debridement. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Productivity of lexical categories in French-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, M-T; Ouellet, C; Cohen, H

    2003-11-01

    The productivity of lexical categories was studied longitudinally in a sample of 17 young hearing-impaired French-speaking children with cochlear implants. Age of implantation ranged from 22 months to 76 months. Spontaneous speech samples were collected at six-month intervals over a period of 36 months, starting at the one-word stage. Four general measures of their linguistic production (number of utterances, verbal fluency, vocabulary, and grammatical production) as well as 36 specific lexical categories, according to the CHILDES codes, were computed in terms of tokens, i.e., total number of words. Cochlear-implanted children (CI) were compared to a French database of normally hearing children aged 2-4 compiled by the first author. Follow-up results indicate that, at the two-year post-implantation follow-up, noun, and verb morphology was significantly impaired. At the three-year follow-up, the cochlear-implanted group had recovered on adjectives, determiners and nouns, main verbs, and auxiliaries. The two groups differed significantly in processing locative adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and verbs (infinitive verb, modal, and modal lexical), but individual variability within the cochlear-implanted group was substantial. Results are discussed in terms of recovery and developmental trends and variability in the acquisition of lexical categories by French children two years and three years post-implantation.

  19. Synthesis of the scientific French speaking days on numerical codes in radiation protection, in radio physics and in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, D.; Makovicka, L.; Ricard, M.

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of the scientific French speaking days on numerical codes in radiation protection, in radio-physics and in dosimetry. The paper carries the title of 'French speaking' scientific days co-organized on October 2-3, 2003 in Sochaux by the SFRP, SFPM and FIRAM societies. It has for objective to establish the scientific balance sheet of this international event, to give the synthesis of current tendencies in the field of the development and of the use of the numerical codes in radiation protection, in radio-physics and in dosimetry. (author)

  20. A CERN fireman is an instructor for French-speaking Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Davide Pagnani, a team leader in the CERN Fire Brigade, is a Swiss Federal expert and instructor in the field of interventions involving radioactivity. Firemen from throughout the French-speaking part of Switzerland come to CERN for training exercises supervised by Davide.   Training on the radiation protection techniques.   Before joining the CERN Fire Brigade, Davide Pagnani studied in Rome to be a radiation protection technician working in control rooms. Since joining, he has specialised in interventions in incidents involving radioactive materials. "The CERN firemen are trained in this type of work. If there is a radioactive leak, special measures are needed to protect the firemen, bystanders and the environment", says Davide. The training of qualified firemen in radiation protection is organised in collaboration with the Radiation Protection Group of CERN's Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE). "I have been collaboratin...

  1. Reproducibility and relative validity of a food-frequency questionnaire for French-speaking Swiss adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Due to the distinct cultural and language differences that exist in Switzerland, there is little information on the dietary intake among the general Swiss population. Adequately assessing dietary intake is thus paramount if nutritional epidemiological studies are to be conducted. Objective : To assess the reproducibility and validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ developed for French-speaking Swiss adults. Design : A total of 23 men and 17 women (43.1±2.0 years filled out one FFQ and completed one 24-hour dietary recall at baseline and 1 month afterward. Results : Crude Pearson's correlation coefficients between the first and the second FFQ ranged from 0.58 to 0.90, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ranged between 0.53 and 0.92. Lin's concordance coefficients ranged between 0.55 and 0.87. Over 80% of participants were classified in the same or adjacent tertile using each FFQ. Macronutrient intakes estimated by both FFQs were significantly higher than those estimated from the 24-hour recall for protein and water, while no significant differences were found for energy, carbohydrate, fats (five groups, and alcohol. De-attenuated Pearson's correlation coefficients between the 24-hour recall and the first FFQ ranged between 0.31 and 0.49, while for the second FFQ the values ranged between 0.38 and 0.59. Over 40 and 95% of participants fell into the same or the adjacent energy and nutrient tertiles, respectively, using the FFQs and the 24-hour recall. Conclusions : This FFQ shows good reproducibility and can be used determining macronutrient intake in a French-speaking Swiss population in an epidemiological setting.

  2. Educational Research within the Administration: A Booming Business in the French-Speaking Part of Switzerland (1950-1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the formation and development of educational research institutions within the educational administration using the example of four research institutions in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The analysis gives insight into the institutionalisation process of education research outside the university with special focus on…

  3. Differentiated Financing of Schools in French-Speaking Belgium: Prospectives for Regulating a School Quasi-Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeuse, Marc; Derobertmasure, Antoine; Friant, Nathanael

    2010-01-01

    The school quasi-market in French-speaking Belgium is characterised by segregation. Efforts to apply measures that encourage greater social mixing have met with stiff resistance. In 2008 and 2009, turbulence was caused by the application of the "social mixing" law influencing the registration procedures. The purpose of this article is to…

  4. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  5. Screening for Dyslexia in French-Speaking University Students: An Evaluation of the Detection Accuracy of the "Alouette" Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Eddy; Colé, Pascale; Leloup, Gilles; Poracchia-George, Florence; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek

    2018-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a lifelong impairment affecting 5% to 10% of the population. In French-speaking countries, although a number of standardized tests for dyslexia in children are available, tools suitable to screen for dyslexia in adults are lacking. In this study, we administered the "Alouette" reading test to a normative sample…

  6. [Information quality in general public French-speaking websites dedicated to oral cancer detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, A; Kowalski, V; Chatellier, A; Babin, E; Bénateau, H; Veyssière, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal set by the French highest national authorities in the 2014-2019 Cancer Plan is to "heal more sick persons by promoting early diagnosis through screening". Screening requires information. Nowadays, Internet allows for access to information "in one click". The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of information found on the Internet. Several sites dedicated to oral cavity cancer screening were selected on Google. The quality of health information found in these sites was evaluated by the DISCERN questionnaire. The quality of decision support provided by the sites was evaluated by the IPDAS checklist. Twenty-seven sites were selected. The average DISCERN score was 25.1/75 (15/75 to 40/75). Eighteen sites (66.6%) had very poor, 8 sites (29.6%) had poor and 1 site had average information quality. IPDAS scores ranged from 11.1 to 38.1. Eight sites (29.6%) had less than 20%, 14 sites (51.9%) had between 20 and 30% and 5 sites (18.5%) had 30% or more validated criteria. No site achieved the pass mark. The quality of general public French-speaking website dedicated to oral cancer detection is very bad. The role of health professionals such as general practitioners and head and neck surgeons, remains essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Guidelines of the French Speaking Society for Chest Medicine for management of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2007-06-01

    Previously considered as a rare tumor, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has become a very important public health issue. In fact, MPM is a tumor with a poor survival, and its incidence is expected to continue to increase for at least the next 10 years. Asbestos exposure is the main factor involved in MPM pathogenesis. The diagnosis of MPM may be difficult because of differential diagnosis such as pleural benign disease induced by asbestos exposure or pleural metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Management of patients with MPM also remains complicated because they are often referred for evaluation late in the evolution of the disease. Moreover, MPM exhibits a high resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy; only few patients are candidates for radical surgery. New therapeutic strategies such as gene or cell therapy are still on clinical trial. Therefore, an optimal treatment of MPM is not clearly defined yet, despite the introduction of recent drugs. Between April 2005 and January 2006, the French Speaking Society for Chest Medicine (SPLF), in collaboration with other French scientific societies, brought together experts on mesothelioma to draw up recommendations in order to provide clinicians with clear, concise, up-to-date guidelines on management of MPM, presented in this report.

  8. Patients' need for information provision and perceived participation in decision making in doctor-patient consultation: Micro-cultural differences between French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerini, Anne-Linda; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    To explore micro-cultural differences in patients' need for information provision, perceived participation in decision making, and related concepts during the doctor-patient consultation between French- and Italian-speaking patients in Switzerland. In 2012, 153 French- and 120 Italian-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) were surveyed on their need for information provision, perceived participation in decision making, cLBP knowledge, psychological empowerment, and trust in their doctor. T-tests and regression analyses with interaction terms were performed. Results show that French- and Italian-speaking patients significantly differed in their participation in decision making, with French-speaking patients reporting higher involvement. Need for information provision was related to empowerment among French- and to trust among Italian-speaking patients. For participation in decision making, trust was the only related concept among French-, and cLBP knowledge among Italian-speaking patients. Significant interaction terms indicate a moderation of micro-cultural background. Findings point towards differences in the relationships between individual patient characteristics (i.e. knowledge, empowerment) and relational doctor-patient characteristics (i.e. trust) and patients' need for information provision and participation in decision making between French- and Italian-speaking patients in Switzerland. Doctors should be aware of these differences when dealing with patients of different micro-cultural backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of the French version of the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index: psychometric properties in French speaking school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliac, Bertrand; Birmes, Philippe; Bui, Eric; Allenou, Charlotte; Brunet, Alain; Claudet, Isabelle; Sales de Gauzy, Jérôme; Grandjean, Hélène; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Although the reliable and valid Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) is a widely used measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children, it has not been validated in French-speaking populations. The present study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the CPTS-RI in three samples of French-speaking school-children. Data was obtained from three samples. Sample 1 was composed of 106 children (mean (SD) age = 11.7(0.7), 50% females) victims of an industrial disaster. Sample 2 was composed of 50 children (mean (SD) age = 10.8(2.6), 44% females) who had received an orthopaedic surgical procedure after an accident. Sample 3 was composed of 106 children (mean (SD) age = 11.7(2.2), 44% females) admitted to an emergency department after a road traffic accident. We tested internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. We examined test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. In order to assess the convergent validity of the French version of the CPTS-RI and the Clinician Administered PTS Scale-Child and Adolescent (CAPS-CA), spearman-correlation coefficient was computed. To verify the validity of the cut-off scores, a ROC curve was constructed which evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of each score compared to the diagnosis with the CAPS-CA. We also used principal components analysis with varimax rotation to study the structure of the French version of the CPTS-RI. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87 for the French version of the CPTS-RI. Two-week test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient (n = 30) was 0.67. The French version of the CPTS-RI was well correlated with the CAPS-CA (r = 0.76, p 24 for the CPTS-RI, the sensitivity and specificities were 100% and 62.6%, respectively. The French version of the CPTS-RI demonstrated a three-factor structure. The CPTS-RI is reliable and valid in French-speaking children.

  10. Validation of the French version of the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index: psychometric properties in French speaking school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Olliac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the reliable and valid Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI is a widely used measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in children, it has not been validated in French-speaking populations. The present study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the CPTS-RI in three samples of French-speaking school-children. METHODS: Data was obtained from three samples. Sample 1 was composed of 106 children (mean (SD age = 11.7(0.7, 50% females victims of an industrial disaster. Sample 2 was composed of 50 children (mean (SD age = 10.8(2.6, 44% females who had received an orthopaedic surgical procedure after an accident. Sample 3 was composed of 106 children (mean (SD age = 11.7(2.2, 44% females admitted to an emergency department after a road traffic accident. We tested internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. We examined test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. In order to assess the convergent validity of the French version of the CPTS-RI and the Clinician Administered PTS Scale-Child and Adolescent (CAPS-CA, spearman-correlation coefficient was computed. To verify the validity of the cut-off scores, a ROC curve was constructed which evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of each score compared to the diagnosis with the CAPS-CA. We also used principal components analysis with varimax rotation to study the structure of the French version of the CPTS-RI. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87 for the French version of the CPTS-RI. Two-week test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient (n = 30 was 0.67. The French version of the CPTS-RI was well correlated with the CAPS-CA (r = 0.76, p 24 for the CPTS-RI, the sensitivity and specificities were 100% and 62.6%, respectively. The French version of the CPTS-RI demonstrated a three-factor structure. CONCLUSIONS: The CPTS-RI is reliable and valid in French-speaking children.

  11. The French electricity policy facing European integration and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, M.C.

    2004-02-01

    The french electricity policy is traditionally defined by public authorities. The preference for nuclear power implies great risk and severe damage to the environment. These features of french electricity policy are however questioned by the increasing influence of european law and the (relatively) recent recognition of the environmental issues of such policy. This thesis intends to study the consequences of two 'new' tendencies that seem to be inevitable in the field of electricity policy: the decreasing role of national public authorities and the diffusion of the concept of sustainable development. The theoretical model which underlies the organization of commercial exchanges is replacing the traditional intervention of the State. regarding of this basic good. The adoption of legal rules to organize the electricity market has involved the development of many economic instruments. Those instruments aim at modifying the electricity policy in accordance with the principle of integration of environmental dimension in sectoral policies. The main object of our work is to analyse the consequences of these changes in the concept of public utility as well as in the importance given to environmental protection in the new forms of electricity policies. (author)

  12. Online teaching of inflammatory skin pathology by a French-speaking International University Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Emilie; Battistella, Maxime; Vergier, Béatrice; Fiche, Maryse; Bertheau, Philippe; Têtu, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    project of this scope are numerous. The technical aspect of whole-slide imaging and storage needs to be developed by each university or group. The content needs to be regularly updated and its accuracy reviewed by experts in each individual domain. The learning modules also need to be promoted within the academic community to ensure maximal benefit for trainees. A collateral benefit of the project was the establishment of international partnerships between French-speaking universities and pathologists with the common goal of promoting pathology education through the use of multi-media technology including whole slide imaging.

  13. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce.The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts.Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation.Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France.While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  14. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion in the French speaking community of Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Y; Béduwé, C; Collignon, J L; Hubens, V; Levêque, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of mortality in Belgium and are a priority for the Five-year program of health promotion in the French speaking Community. It is declined in operational programs by priority thematics, including the heart health. With this framework, it appeared necessary to operationalize cardiovascular priorities. A process of systemic and participative planning was set up in order to seek operational strategies and actions, and to cover the whole population and actors concerned with these health problems. The various cardiovascular risk factors, which potentiate one another, are approached together and in a global way. Upstream to the risk factors, social health determinants play an important role in cardiovascular diseases and others diseases like cancers. Tracking cardiovascular risk factors among people 30 to 75 years is also proposed. It makes it possible to identify people at risk and to put forward individual and adapted measures. The plan integrates actions of health promotion (acting on the health determinants and factors which influence them) as well as actions aiming at improving tracking and the accompaniment of the patients in secondary and tertiary prevention. Actions on health determinants and the factors influencing them present moreover the advantage of being often common to many chronic diseases.

  15. The Evolution of beliefs and opinions on matters related to marriage and sexual behaviour among French-speaking Catholic Quebecers and English-speaking Protestant Ontarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Caia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family andsexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th centuryare a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normativesystem shared by the members of Quebec's main socio-religious group, French speakingCatholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare theevolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and English speakingOntario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviourfrom the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that theevolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with thehypothesis.FrenchLes auteurs proposent d’expliquer les importants changements qui se sontproduits, dans le Québec de la deuxième moitié du 20e siècle, dans lescomportements liés à la famille et à la vie sexuelle par la transformation dusystème normatif des membres de son principal groupe socio-religieux, lesfrancophones catholiques. À partir des données de sondages Gallup, ilscomparent l'évolution des opinions des francophones catholiques du Québec etdes anglophones protestants de l’Ontario sur des questions liées à la famille etau comportement sexuel et de famille des années 1950 à 2000. L’évolution desdifférences entre les deux groupes est compatible avec l’hypothèse.

  16. [Role of primaquine in malaria control and elimination in French-speaking Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briolant, S; Pradines, B; Basco, L K

    2017-08-01

    Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old). In the light of the recent recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), we propose to examine how primaquine can be used in French-speaking Africa to improve malaria control and move towards malaria elimination. Two indications supported by the WHO are of relevance in Africa. First, artemisinin-based combination therapies and primaquine given as a single low dose (0.25 mg base/kg) are effective to kill asexual and sexual parasites of P. falciparum, are well-tolerated, and have very little risk even in mild to moderate G6PD-deficient patients. This strategy may be helpful to contain transmission in an area in Africa where P. falciparum malaria incidence has decreased considerably. There is an ethical concern in administering primaquine as a gametocytocide as it does not confer any direct benefit to the treated patient. However, the single low-dose primaquine is most likely associated with very low risk for adverse hematological effects, and WHO recommends its use even without prior G6PD testing. In our opinion, clinical studies including G6PD test should be conducted to assess the safety of low-dose primaquine in African patients. Second, primaquine is effective and necessary for radical treatment of P. vivax and P. ovale, but the standard 14-day treatment (0.25-0.5 mg base/kg/day) is not

  17. Energy security and European Union. Proposals for the French presidency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    2008-04-01

    This report treats of energy security and of the two related topics which are the fight against climatic change and the economic growth. The first chapter analyses the energy risks that we will have to face. It makes a difference between the long-term risks (depletion of energy resources) and the short-term risks (supply disruption). Concerning the short-term risks, it is recalled that most of the supply incidents have an internal cause and that imports can have advantages and not only drawbacks. The second chapter approaches the delicate problem of European harmonization between the speech and the action when the energy security is in concern. A conclusion of this chapter is that the 'speaking with a single voice' goal can be reached only if improvements are made in the domain of solidarity between member states. The completion of the internal energy market is therefore a priority and the mission of regulators must include the security aspect. The third chapter treats of the particular case of the relation with the Russian supplier. It suggests to work for a lower energy dependence with respect to Russia, by developing the energy efficiency, the LNG industry, the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The fourth chapter deals with the relations with the Caspian sea surrounding countries in the perspective of gas exports towards Europe. Here again, the cooperation with Russia is of prime importance. It approaches also the problem of the gas negotiation with Turkey which requires a significant improvement of the consistency of European diplomacy in this area. The last chapter treats of the role of international organisations and of the dialogue in the domain of energy. It suggests some paths to develop the confidence between the different intervening parties. It stresses on the lack of transparency which disturbs the markets and weakens the security. (J.S.)

  18. Possessive Pronouns in European Portuguese and Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring European Portuguese (EP data into light, showing that, in spite of the lack of morphological evidence, the syntactic behaviour of possessives, across EP dialects, shows evidences for a tripartite possessive system (Cardinaletti, 1998; Cardinaletti & Starke, 1999. It will be argued that the syntactic position of possessives parallels the positions assumed for EP sentential subjects in non interrogative contexts: [Spec, AgrsP], [Spec, TP] and [Spec, VP]. As a matter of fact, depending on their syntactic properties and assuming, as null hypothesis, that the nominal head moves to Numb'º', possessives may occur in [Spec, AgrsNP], [Spec, NumbP] and [Spec, NP]. Furthermore, would it be so, this dialectal variation would be useful in order to understand the changes that have occurred in other romance languages in previous stages. It might be the case that the loss of weak possessive forms (“mien” in French parallels, among other things, the lack of sentential subjects in [Spec, TP].

  19. The Evolution of Beliefs and Opinions on Matters related to Marriage and Sexual Behaviour among French-speaking Catholic Quebecers and English-speaking Protestant Ontarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Laplante

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family and sexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th century are a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normative system shared by the members of Quebec’s main socio-religious group, Frenchspeaking Catholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare the evolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and Englishspeaking Ontario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviour from the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that the evolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with the hypothesis.

  20. Speaking

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, James

    2011-01-01

    Make yourself understood in business. This brand new self-study book is the perfect way for business people who spend a lot of time on the phone or in meetings and want to improve their spoken English, getting their message across effectively. The focus is on the key language required to speak English accurately in business. 'Collins English for Business' is a new series of self-study skills books which focus on the language you really need to do business in English - wherever you are in the world. Each title includes tips on how to communicate effectively and how to communicate inter-culturally. Other titles in the series: Listening and Writing. * Powered by COBUILD - using the real language of business English * Contents: Twenty 4-page units cover the key areas, such as Networking and Small Talk, Telephoning, Telephone and Video Conferencing, Presentations and Interviews. * Each unit contains: - Exercises focused on vocabulary or key structures - Grammar tips - Key phrases * Audio CD: dialogues are recorded...

  1. Systeme de fautes et correction phonetique par la methode verbo-tonale des francophones belges qui apprenent l'espagnol (Phonetic Correction and the Verbo-tonal Method for Teaching Spanish to French-speaking Belgians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Padilla, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Describes experiments in the field of phonetic correction. Several techniques used at the University of Mons for teaching Spanish pronunciation to French-speaking Belgians are explained. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  2. “i am speaking french but i am thinking in english”: an analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, first and second year students of French from the .... the study of. French to working standard --- will also become compulsory in second cycle ... to be carried out in the local languages to using English only right from Primary 1.

  3. Psychometric properties of the 7-item game addiction scale among french and German speaking adults

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Rothen, Stephane; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Background The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is a used to screen for addictive game use. Both cross cross-linguistic validation and validation in French and German is needed in adult samples. The objective of the study is to assess the factorial structure of the French and German versions of the GAS among adults. Methods Two samples of men from French (N?=?3318) and German (N?=?2665) language areas of Switzerland were assessed with the GAS, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Brief ...

  4. Word Family Size and French-Speaking Children's Segmentation of Existing Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Krott, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, affects English-speaking children's compound segmentation. This finding is consistent with a usage-based theory of language acquisition, whereby children learn abstract underlying linguistic structure through their experience with particular…

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale for use in French-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers, Magalie; Svotelis, Amy; Balg, Frederic; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) is a self-administered score specific for ankle osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent reliability and strong construct and criterion validity. Many recent randomized multicentre trials have used the AOS, and the involvement of the French-speaking population is limited by the absence of a French version. Our goal was to develop a French version and validate the psychometric properties to assure equivalence to the original English version. Translation was performed according to American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) 2000 guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Similar to the validation process of the English AOS, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version (AOS-Fr): criterion validity (AOS-Fr v. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] and SF-36 scores), construct validity (AOS-Fr correlation to single heel-lift test), and reliability (AOS-Fr test-retest). Sixty healthy individuals tested a prefinal version of the AOS-Fr for comprehension, leading to modifications and a final version that was approved by C. Saltzman, author of the AOS. We then recruited patients with ankle OA for evaluation of the AOS-Fr psychometric properties. Twenty-eight patients with ankle OA participated in the evaluation. The AOS-Fr showed strong criterion validity (AOS:WOMAC r = 0.709 and AOS:SF-36 r = -0.654) and construct validity (r = 0.664) and proved to be reliable (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.922). The AOS-Fr is a reliable and valid score equivalent to the English version in terms of psychometric properties, thus is available for use in multicentre trials.

  6. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  7. “I am speaking French but I am thinking in English”: An analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We consider how learners of French as a Foreign Language in the University of Ghana seem to fall, either consciously or unconsciously, on the English Language ... how the teacher of a foreign language class can take advantage of these productions to improve his teaching and also improve learning by his/her students.

  8. Psychometric properties of the 7-item game addiction scale among french and German speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Rothen, Stephane; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is a used to screen for addictive game use. Both cross cross-linguistic validation and validation in French and German is needed in adult samples. The objective of the study is to assess the factorial structure of the French and German versions of the GAS among adults. Two samples of men from French (N = 3318) and German (N = 2665) language areas of Switzerland were assessed with the GAS, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ-50-cc). They were also assessed for cannabis and alcohol use. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (Cronbach α = 0.85). A one-factor solution was found in both samples. Small and positive associations were found between GAS scores and the MDI, as well as the Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility subscales of the ZKPQ-50-cc. A small negative association was found with the ZKPQ-50-cc Sociability subscale. The GAS, in its French and German versions, is appropriate for the assessment of game addiction among adults.

  9. [The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS): a French-speaking validation and psychometric examination in young students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, N; Paquette, L

    2010-10-01

    In French-speaking countries, the concept of sensation seeking has been most widely assessed using the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale form V (SSS), since this instrument was validated (in French) more than 15 years ago. This instrument has received several criticisms which limit the internal and external consistencies. Indeed, five limitations of conception and form could reduce the fact that many researchers have found the SSSV to be valid and useful and, more importantly, the conclusions that can be drawn from studies in which it has been used (e.g; tautological relationships, a forced-choice format, language of some items is out-of-date). Arnett thus developed a new measurement (Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking, AISS) based on a new conceptualization of sensation seeking, which is characterized by the need for novelty and intensity of stimulation, whereas sensation seeking, as developed by Zuckerman, is marked by a need for novelty and complexity of stimulation. The AISS has been translated and validated in Spanish and in German. Both studies found support for the bi-dimensional structure of the instrument. Currently, there is no French-speaking version of the AISS, and because of the cultural differences between English- and French-speaking populations, we cannot simply translate the instrument without examining the reliability and the factorial validity. Hence, we followed the seven steps of the cross-cultural validation methodology for psychological questionnaires presented by Vallerand. Questionnaires were distributed to 782 young adults. Out of these questionnaires, 737 (94%) were returned. One hundred and sixteen questionnaires were removed because of missing data. Thus, a total of 621 young adults were included in the study. They were aged from 18 to 28 years (M=23.32, SD=2.79). They completed the SSS and the AISS. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the data set, using Amos 6.0, to assess the validity of the bi

  10. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-Speaking Swiss Sample: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Jerome; Zecca, Gregory; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Maggiori, Christian; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in a French-speaking Swiss sample and its relationship with personality dimensions and work engagement. The heterogeneous sample of 391 participants (M[subscript age] = 39.59, SD = 12.30) completed the CAAS-International and a short version…

  11. Do Teachers Coming from Diverse Ethno-Cultural Backgrounds Represent an Added Value for the Profession? Findings of a Study Conducted in French-Speaking Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Bauer, Stéphanie; Radhouane, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Research has drawn attention to a certain gap between the increasing ethno-cultural diversity of school enrolment and the relative ethno-cultural homogeneity of the teaching body. In French-speaking Switzerland very little attention has been paid to this matter. The purpose of this article is to analyse the potential added value associated with…

  12. Supportive care organisation in France: an in depth study by the French speaking association for supportive care in cancer (AFSOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotté, F; Hervé, C; Oudard, S; Bugat, M E; Bugat, R; Farsi, F; Namer, M; Tourani, J M; Tournigand, C; Yazbek, G; Richard, S; Krakowski, I

    2013-03-01

    Supportive care in cancer (SCC) was further enhanced in the Second National Cancer Act decreed in December 2009. The aim of our study was to assess current SCC efficacy. The French speaking association for supportive care in cancer (AFSOS) conducted an observational study to evaluate practices, organisations and information given to patients. A specific 32 point questionnaire was sent to 1621 French physicians (MDs) caring for cancer patients. Three different organisations were evaluated: the individual MDs, the transversal team and its particular structure specialised in global patient care specifically developed at comprehensive cancer centres - CCC. During their disease, 68% of patients received SCC, which was more available during the palliative period (90%) than at the diagnosis (44%). Our results found that 71% of cancer departments had a specific interdisciplinary cross-team to provide SCC, particularly in CCC (62%; p=0.01) while 37% had specific inpatient units. A specific organisation dedicated to home care was greater in CCC than in public or private centres (69%, 45%, 20% respectively; p=0.01). Adverse event information was performed more by an oncologist than other specialists (p=0.01). Our results suggest that the specific SCC organisation could be a useful management tool to improve supportive care for cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for Dyslexia in French-Speaking University Students: An Evaluation of the Detection Accuracy of the Alouette Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Eddy; Colé, Pascale; Leloup, Gilles; Poracchia-George, Florence; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek

    Developmental dyslexia is a lifelong impairment affecting 5% to 10% of the population. In French-speaking countries, although a number of standardized tests for dyslexia in children are available, tools suitable to screen for dyslexia in adults are lacking. In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i.e., phonological skills). However, the test's psychometric properties have not previously been available, and it is not standardized for adults. The results showed that, on the Alouette test, dyslexic readers were impaired on measures of accuracy, speed, and efficiency (accuracy/reading time). We also found significant correlations between the Alouette reading efficiency and phonological efficiency scores. Finally, in terms of the Alouette test, speed-accuracy trade-offs were found in both groups, and optimal cutoff scores were determined with receiver operator characteristic curves analysis, yielding excellent discriminatory power, with 83.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for reading efficiency. Thus, this study supports the Alouette test as a sensitive and specific screening tool for adults with dyslexia.

  14. Construction of an adaptable European transnational ecological deprivation index: the French version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, Carole; Delpierre, Cyrille; Dejardin, Olivier; Grosclaude, Pascale; Launay, Ludivine; Guittet, Lydia; Lang, Thierry; Launoy, Guy

    2012-11-01

    Studying social disparities in health implies the ability to measure them accurately, to compare them between different areas or countries and to follow trends over time. This study proposes a method for constructing a French European deprivation index, which will be replicable in several European countries and is related to an individual deprivation indicator constructed from a European survey specifically designed to study deprivation. Using individual data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey, goods/services indicated by individuals as being fundamental needs, the lack of which reflect deprivation, were selected. From this definition, which is specific to a cultural context, an individual deprivation indicator was constructed by selecting fundamental needs associated both with objective and subjective poverty. Next, the authors selected among variables available both in the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey and French national census those best reflecting individual experience of deprivation using multivariate logistic regression. An ecological measure of deprivation was provided for all the smallest French geographical units. Preliminary validation showed a higher association between the French European Deprivation Index (EDI) score and both income and education than the Townsend index, partly ensuring its ability to measure individual socioeconomic status. This index, which is specific to a particular cultural and social policy context, could be replicated in 25 other European countries, thereby allowing European comparisons. EDI could also be reproducible over time. EDI could prove to be a relevant tool in evidence-based policy-making for measuring and reducing social disparities in health issues and even outside the medical domain.

  15. Institutionalisation without internalisation. The cultural dimension of French-German conflicts on European Central Bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, F.A.W.J. van; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  16. Institutionalisation without Internalisation. The Cultural Dimension of French-German Conflicts on European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, F.A.W.J.; Jong, Eelke, De

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  17. Spelling Errors in French-speaking Children with Dyslexia: Phonology May Not Provide the Best Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Daniel; Costerg, Agnès; Plisson, Anne; Ruberto, Noémia; Varin, Joëlle

    2016-05-01

    For children with dyslexia, learning to write constitutes a great challenge. There has been consensus that the explanation for these learners' delay is related to a phonological deficit. Results from studies designed to describe dyslexic children's spelling errors are not always as clear concerning the role of phonological processes as those found in reading studies. In irregular languages like French, spelling abilities involve other processes than phonological processes. The main goal of this study was to describe the relative contribution of these other processes in dyslexic children's spelling ability. In total, 32 francophone dyslexic children with a mean age of 11.4 years were compared with 24 reading-age matched controls (RA) and 24 chronological-age matched controls (CA). All had to write a text that was analysed at the graphemic level. All errors were classified as either phonological, morphological, visual-orthographic or lexical. Results indicated that dyslexic children's spelling ability lagged behind not only that of the CA group but also of the RA group. Because the majority of errors, in all groups, could not be explained by inefficiency of phonological processing, the importance of visual knowledge/processes will be discussed as a complementary explanation of dyslexic children's delay in writing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The use of palliative sedation: A comparison of attitudes of French-speaking physicians from Quebec and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Serge; Blondeau, Danielle; Turcotte, Véronique; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Currat, Thierry; Foley, Rose-Anna; Beauverd, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Previous literature has suggested that laws and regulations may impact the use of palliative sedation. Our present study compares the attitudes of French-speaking physicians practicing in the Quebec and Swiss environments, where different laws are in place regarding physician-assisted suicide. Data were drawn from two prior studies, one by Blondeau and colleagues and another by Beauverd and coworkers, employing the same two-by-two experimental design with length of prognosis and type of suffering as independent variables. Both the effect of these variables and the effect of their interaction on Swiss and Quebec physicians' attitudes toward sedation were compared. The written comments of respondents were submitted to a qualitative content analysis and summarized in a comparative perspective. The analysis of variance showed that only the type of suffering had an effect on physicians' attitudes toward sedation. The results of the Wilcoxon test indicated that the attitudes of physicians from Quebec and Switzerland tended to be different for two vignettes: long-term prognosis with existential suffering (p = 0.0577) and short-term prognosis with physical suffering (p = 0.0914). In both cases, the Swiss physicians were less prone to palliative sedation. The attitudes of physicians from Quebec and Switzerland toward palliative sedation, particularly regarding prognosis and type of suffering, seem similar. However, the results suggest that physicians from Quebec could be slightly more open to palliative sedation, even though most were not in favor of this practice as an answer to end-of-life existential suffering.

  19. The Prevalence of Speech and Language Disorders in French-Speaking Preschool Children From Yaoundé (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoungui Oyono, Lilly; Pascoe, Michelle; Singh, Shajila

    2018-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of speech and language disorders in French-speaking preschool-age children in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon. A total of 460 participants aged 3-5 years were recruited from the 7 communes of Yaoundé using a 2-stage cluster sampling method. Speech and language assessment was undertaken using a standardized speech and language test, the Evaluation du Langage Oral (Khomsi, 2001), which was purposefully renormed on the sample. A predetermined cutoff of 2 SDs below the normative mean was applied to identify articulation, expressive language, and receptive language disorders. Fluency and voice disorders were identified using clinical judgment by a speech-language pathologist. Overall prevalence was calculated as follows: speech disorders, 14.7%; language disorders, 4.3%; and speech and language disorders, 17.1%. In terms of disorders, prevalence findings were as follows: articulation disorders, 3.6%; expressive language disorders, 1.3%; receptive language disorders, 3%; fluency disorders, 8.4%; and voice disorders, 3.6%. Prevalence figures are higher than those reported for other countries and emphasize the urgent need to develop speech and language services for the Cameroonian population.

  20. Zuckerman's revised alternative five-factor model: validation of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire in four French-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Jérôme; Hansenne, Michel; Baudin, Nicolas; Morizot, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the replicability of Zuckerman's revised Alternative Five-factor model in a French-speaking context by validating the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) simultaneously in 4 French-speaking countries. The total sample was made up of 1,497 subjects from Belgium, Canada, France, and Switzerland. The internal consistencies for all countries were generally similar to those found for the normative U.S. and Spanish samples. A factor analysis confirmed that the normative structure replicated well and was stable within this French-speaking context. Moreover, multigroup confirmatory factor analyses have shown that the ZKA-PQ reaches scalar invariance across these 4 countries. Mean scores were slightly different for women and men, with women scoring higher on Neuroticism but lower on Sensation Seeking. Globally, mean score differences across countries were small. Overall, the ZKA-PQ seems an interesting alternative to assess both lower and higher order personality traits for applied or research purposes.

  1. But Do They Speak French? A Comparison of French Immersion Programs in Immersion Only and English/Immersion Settings. Research Report 79-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    Students' use of French in unsupervised classroom situations and outside the classroom was investigated in immersion center schools (all students are involved in French immersion programs) and dual track schools (French immersion programs co-exist with regular English language programs). A total of 414 students in grades 3 and 4 were observed…

  2. The 2006 French Law - A Contribution to a European Policy? - Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; Linkohr, Rolf; Dupraz, Bernard; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Sido, Bruno; Vassaux, Alain; Golan, Paul; Leclere, Robert; Rycroft, Jeremy; Seppaelae, Timo

    2006-01-01

    On 28 June, the French 2006 law on the sustainable management of radioactive waste and materials was promulgated, after 15 years of research required by the Bataille law. What are the progresses stemming from this law? The next steps? What do the various French stakeholders, elected officials, trade unions and firms think about it? How is it perceived out of our borders? Can it be a contribution to a European policy? What are the progresses in the other Member States and what lessons can we draw from those? The management of radioactive waste is a question that goes far beyond the national framework of each country, and that must be treated as a priority, whatever the future energy policy. Since 2003, the 'Entretiens europeens' have engaged a dialogue between stakeholders of various socio-professional backgrounds from several countries and with the European Commission, in order to compare the selected options of management and to emphasize the best experiments, which could inspire an innovating European policy in the world. This fourth edition is intended to provide an updated State-of-play of the reflexions on these issues. These proceedings are organized as follows: 1 - Opening Address; 2 - first Round Table: The 2006 Law, What do French Stakeholders Think of it?; 3 - second Round table: The 2006 law, Information for national and Community policies; 4 - Debate between the participants and the audience

  3. Socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Guessous, Idris

    2018-01-12

    Food intake is a complex behaviour which can be assessed using dietary patterns. Our aim was to characterize dietary patterns and associated factors in French-speaking Switzerland. Cross-sectional study conducted between 2009 and 2012 in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, including 4372 participants (54% women, 57.3 ± 10.3 years). Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by principal components analysis. Three patterns were identified: "Meat & fries"; "Fruits & Vegetables" and "Fatty & sugary". The "Meat & fries" pattern showed the strongest correlations with total and animal protein and cholesterol carbohydrates, dietary fibre and calcium. The "Fruits & Vegetables" pattern showed the strongest correlations with dietary fibre, carotene and vitamin D. The "Fatty & sugary" pattern showed the strongest correlations with total energy and saturated fat. On multivariate analysis, male gender, low educational level and sedentary status were positively associated with the "Meat & fries" and the "Fatty & sugary" patterns, and negatively associated with the "Fruits & Vegetables" pattern. Increasing age was inversely associated with the "Meat & fries" pattern; smoking status was inversely associated with the "Fruits & Vegetables" pattern. Being born in Portugal or Spain was positively associated with the "Meat & fries" and the "Fruits & Vegetables" patterns. Increasing body mass index was positively associated with the "Meat & fries" pattern and inversely associated with the "Fatty & sugary" pattern. Three dietary patterns, one healthy and two unhealthy, were identified in the Swiss population. Several associated modifiable behaviours were identified; the information on socio- demographic determinants allows targeting of the most vulnerable groups in the context of public health interventions.

  4. Is the Perspective of a Closer French Policy toward Russian a threat for Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim BELGACEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current world is not moving as all specialists predicted. Brexit, Trump, everyone was wrong. This paper will have two targets: describing the French policy toward Russia, making a perspective on the future policy, whatever the new French presidency in 2017, Francois Hollande will transmit the key to his successor with new election. He refused to compete for a second mandate. It is good to remind that Hollande was involving in the Ukrainian affairs and had managed with Germany the Minsk I and II agreements. He also had suspended Mistral ships selling and approving sanctions against Russia. How will be the future with François Fillon, Marine Le Pen or other? The analysis will be focusing on the future relationships toward Russia and Eastern European Countries.

  5. [The Brumory test, an incidental long-term memory task designed for foreign, non-French-speaking people with low educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderaspoilden, V; Nury, D; Frisque, J; Peigneux, P

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive assessment among foreign patients is a growing need for several reasons: foreign patients have a different culture, they have an insufficient command of the language of the consulting center, and the available cognitive tools are largely unsuitable. For these reasons, we developed a non-verbal test of long-term memory called the Brumory test. This test is based on incident encoding of 48 colored images followed by retrieval by recognition. We compared the performance of indigenous participants with that of immigrant participants (mainly from Morocco). Immigrant participants did not speak French properly and had a low educational level. The results indicate no significant difference in memory performance between the two groups of participants. Moreover, the instructions were easily understood by immigrant participants, despite the fact they do not master French. We conclude that the Brumory test is an appropriate test to assess memory among foreign non-French-speaking patients people with low educational level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical and economical aspects of the wind energy development in the french and european energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agator, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the wind power use increase in the european union, the average wind turbines power increases also. These turbines are more adapted to little wind conditions. The offshore wind power is certainly the more adapted to the problem of implementation sites, meanwhile the offshore project costs are more expensive. More competitive costs are a challenge for the offshore wind channel. The author presents also the main technological evolutions, the french wind power industry and the future of this energy in France. (A.L.B.)

  7. French nuclear safety authorities: for a harmonization of nuclear safety at the European level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is working on 2 directives concerning nuclear energy: the first one is dedicated to nuclear safety and the second to the management of radioactive wastes and spent fuels. In the context of the widening of the European Union and of the inter-connection of the different electric power grids throughout Europe, the harmonization of the rules in the nuclear safety field is seen by manufacturers as a mean to achieve a fair competition between nuclear equipment supplying companies and by the French nuclear safety authorities (FNSA) as a mean to keep on improving nuclear safety and to be sure that competitiveness does not drive safety standards down. According to FNSA the 2 European directives could give a legal framework to the harmonization and should contain principles that reinforce the responsibility of each state. FNSA considers that the EPR (European pressurized water reactor) may be an efficient tool for the harmonization because of existing industrial cooperation programs between France and Germany and between France and Finland. (A.C.)

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Schaus, Jean; Demoulin, Christophe; Locquet, Médéa; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Dardenne, Nadia; Van Beveren, Julien; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Bruyère, Olivier

    Translation and validation of algo-functional questionnaire. The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman's correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some subscales of the SF-36) were assessed. The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow

  9. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…

  10. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella Questionnaire for French-Speaking Patients With Patellar Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Oppong-Kyei, Julian; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Bruyère, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. To date, no French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P into French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in 6 steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, use of an expert committee to reach a prefinal version, test of the prefinal version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterward, the psychometric properties of the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into 3 groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22), and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing an asymptomatic subject, the average ± SD scores on the VISA-PF were 53 ± 17 for the pathological group, 99 ± 2 for the healthy group, and 86 ± 14 for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent, with good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and divergent validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were low, and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid, and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):384-390. Epub 21 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5937.

  11. Complementary safety assessments of the French nuclear power plants (European 'stress tests'). Report by the French nuclear safety authority - December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    After having recalled the organisation of nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation in France, presented the French nuclear safety regulations (acts, decrees, orders, ASN decisions, rules and guides), described the nuclear safety approach in France (the 'defense in depth' concept), and ASN's sanctions powers, this report presents the French approach to complementary safety assessments (CSAs) with their different types of specifications (those consistent with European specification, those broader than the European specifications, and those which take into account some situations resulting from a malevolent act), and with the different categories of facilities concerned by these CSAs. It presents the organisation of the targeted inspections and outlines the transparency of this action and public information. Then, after an overview of the French nuclear power plant fleet, it discusses how earthquakes, flooding, and other extreme natural phenomena related to flooding are taken into account in the design of facilities and in terms of evaluation of safety margins. It describes the consequences of some critical situations (loss of electrical power supplies and cooling systems) and how they could be dealt with. It also addresses the different aspects of a severe accident management (organisation, measures, and actions to be performed) and the conditions related to the use of outside contractors

  12. Somatosensory evoked potentials in the assessment of peripheral neuropathies: Commented results of a survey among French-speaking practitioners and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot-Koutlidis, R; André-Obadia, N; Antoine, J-C; Attarian, S; Ayache, S S; Azabou, E; Benaderette, S; Camdessanché, J-P; Cassereau, J; Convers, P; d'Anglejean, J; Delval, A; Durand, M-C; Etard, O; Fayet, G; Fournier, E; Franques, J; Gavaret, M; Guehl, D; Guerit, J-M; Krim, E; Kubis, N; Lacour, A; Lozeron, P; Mauguière, F; Merle, P-E; Mesrati, F; Mutschler, V; Nicolas, G; Nordine, T; Pautot, V; Péréon, Y; Petiot, P; Pouget, J; Praline, J; Salhi, H; Trébuchon, A; Tyvaert, L; Vial, C; Zola, J-M; Zyss, J; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2015-05-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are increasingly performed for the assessment of peripheral neuropathies, but no practical guidelines have yet been established in this specific application. To determine the relevant indication criteria and optimal technical parameters for SSEP recording in peripheral neuropathy investigation. A survey was conducted among the French-speaking practitioners with experience of SSEP recording in the context of peripheral neuropathies. The results of the survey were analyzed and discussed to provide recommendations for practice. SSEPs appear to be a second-line test when electroneuromyographic investigation is not sufficiently conclusive, providing complementary and valuable information on central and proximal peripheral conduction in the somatosensory pathways. Guidelines for a standardized recording protocol, including the various parameters to be measured, are proposed. We hope that these proposals will help to recognize the value of this technique in peripheral neuropathy assessment in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Social and Health Care Access for the Physically Disabled in 19th Century French-Speaking Switzerland : A Double Process of Exclusion and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century, an unprecedented process of medicalisation and institutionalisation took place in Europe. The parallel development of urbanised and industrialised areas furthered the densification of a network of care institutions such as infirmaries and dispensaries, whilst medical tourism was developed among the upper classes stimulating the founding of new private clinics. A more institutional kind of care structure for people suffering from a disability also emerged. This medical and/or social care structure was part of a process of integration or exclusion, according to whether the disabled person’s state of health was likely to improve or not. This paper will focus on physically disabled persons, who were vaguely referred to as invalids or as “incurable” in 19th century institutional documents. Being mainly interested in French-speaking Switzerland, I will present the access to social and health care in the cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Neuchâtel.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life in French-Speaking Families With a Preschool-Aged Child Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mélina; Mercier, Céline; Mestari, Zakaria; Terroux, Amélie; Mello, Catherine; Bégin, Jean

    2017-09-01

    The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (Beach Center FQOL) is used to evaluate and develop family-centered intervention services. However, its use with families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in non-English speaking populations requires further investigation. The present study sought to assess the psychometric properties of a French translation of this scale on 452 parents of children aged 5 and under who were recently diagnosed with ASD. The resulting Satisfaction and Importance scales presented excellent internal consistency at the scale level and acceptable internal consistency at the subscale level. Theoretical model positing 5 dimensions of FQOL generally fit the data acceptably. Satisfaction ratings were found to be sensitive to changes and were negatively correlated with parenting stress.

  15. Emerging Voices: "Speak White": Language Policy, Immigration Discourse, and Tactical Authenticity in a French Enclave in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical case study of the Sentinelle Affair, a conflict between French language rights and the English Only educational policies of the Catholic Church in New England in the 1920s. An analysis of this conflict reveals a correspondence between programs of language centralization and the production of language differences…

  16. Isn't it time to start speaking about "European surgeons"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzareschi Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency surgery has become a neglected specialization in Europe and in many other parts of the world. In certain medical fields, emergency surgery isn't even considered an autonomous specialization. However every emergency surgeon must have a good formation in General Surgery but exist huge disparities between different European surgical formative systems. Methods An analysis of the main problems of the European surgical formative system was conducted. Results This discrepancy between formative systems is absolutely unacceptable and presents a notable hazard for the European Union, considering that surgical certifications are reciprocally recognized between programs within all European Union states. Conclusion Considering the increasing possibilities to move inside the European Union, is necessary to improve the European surgical formative system to warrant an uniform formation for all surgeons.

  17. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  18. The System of Creative Tasks for Activization of French and English Speaking of Future Teachers (Experience of Universities of Odessa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazian Marianna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In today's multi-ethnic world, one of the most important problems is the development of future teachers’ communicative competence, cultural pluralism, plurilingualism and tolerance. It is important to enrich individual person’s experience of language in its cultural contexts. This issue is related to such an important task as the activization of students’ speaking in foreign language classes. There is interesting experience of teaching speaking in French and English at universities in Odessa region. We offer the students the following system of creative tasks: representative (involve retelling the course of events, description of the characters; analytical (direct students to analyze the actions and behaviour of heroes of short stories, to compare the characters; hypothetical (guide students how to express their viewpoints on the factors that have influenced the nature of the character, his or her deeds. In addition to creative tasks the linguistic exercises are offered to the future teachers. These tasks have been developed in the process of studying the stories of Guy de Maupassant («La Parure», «Deux amis», «Le Papa de Simon», «Sur l’eau», « Clair de lune », O. Henry (« The Last Leaf», « The Gift of the Magi », John Galsworthy ( « Acme », « The First and the Last ».

  19. Pluralistic Approaches to Languages in the Curriculum: The Case of French-Speaking Switzerland, Spain and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Gerber, Brigitte; Lörincz, Ildikó; Haller, Michaela; Ivanova, Olga; Krumm, Hans-Jürgen; Reich, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    While the idea of plurilingual competence is widely established theoretically and promoted in European language policies, it is not implemented in educational practice, where separate plurilingualism is still dominant. The idea of languages as autonomous entities is e.g. reflected in the "Common European Framework of Reference for…

  20. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-02-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  1. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  2. Characterizing the genetic differences between two distinct migrant groups from Indo-European and Dravidian speaking populations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Liu, Xuanyao; Pillai, Esakimuthu Nisha; Chen, Peng; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-07-22

    India is home to many ethnically and linguistically diverse populations. It is hypothesized that history of invasions by people from Persia and Central Asia, who are referred as Aryans in Hindu Holy Scriptures, had a defining role in shaping the Indian population canvas. A shift in spoken languages from Dravidian languages to Indo-European languages around 1500 B.C. is central to the Aryan Invasion Theory. Here we investigate the genetic differences between two sub-populations of India consisting of: (1) The Indo-European language speaking Gujarati Indians with genome-wide data from the International HapMap Project; and (2) the Dravidian language speaking Tamil Indians with genome-wide data from the Singapore Genome Variation Project. We implemented three population genetics measures to identify genomic regions that are significantly differentiated between the two Indian populations originating from the north and south of India. These measures singled out genomic regions with: (i) SNPs exhibiting significant variation in allele frequencies in the two Indian populations; and (ii) differential signals of positive natural selection as quantified by the integrated haplotype score (iHS) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH). One of the regions that emerged spans the SLC24A5 gene that has been functionally shown to affect skin pigmentation, with a higher degree of genetic sharing between Gujarati Indians and Europeans. Our finding points to a gene-flow from Europe to north India that provides an explanation for the lighter skin tones present in North Indians in comparison to South Indians.

  3. A French-speaking speech-language pathology program in West Africa: transfer of training between Minority and Majority World countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzkhanian, Sylvia; Mijiyawa, Moustafa

    2013-02-01

    In West Africa, as in Majority World countries, people with a communication disability are generally cut-off from the normal development process. A long-term involvement of two partners (Orthophonistes du Monde and Handicap International) allowed the implementation in 2003 of the first speech-language pathology qualifying course in West Africa, within the Ecole Nationale des Auxiliaires Medicaux (ENAM, National School for Medical Auxiliaries) in Lome, Togo. It is a 3-year basic training (after the baccalaureate) in the only academic training centre for medical assistants in Togo. This department has a regional purpose and aims at training French-speaking African students. French speech-language pathology lecturers had to adapt their courses to the local realities they discovered in Togo. It was important to introduce and develop knowledge and skills in the students' system of reference. African speech-language pathologists have to face many challenges: creating an African speech and language therapy, introducing language disorders and their possible cure by means other than traditional therapies, and adapting all the evaluation tests and tools for speech-language pathology to each country, each culture, and each language. Creating an African speech-language pathology profession (according to its own standards) with a real influence in West Africa opens great opportunities for schooling and social and occupational integration of people with communication disabilities.

  4. Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ in a Non-Clinical French-Speaking Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Schmits

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers commonly use cannabis. Expectancies related to the effects of cannabis play an important role in its consumption and are frequently measured with the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency reliability, criterion validity of the French MEEQ. A sample of 1,343 non-clinical teenagers (14–18 years were recruited to answer a self-report questionnaire; 877 of them responded twice (one-year interval. A four-factor structure was obtained: Cognitive Impairment and Negative, Relaxation and Social Facilitation, Perceptual Enhancement and Craving and Negative Behavioral Effect Expectancies. It is concluded that the French MEEQ constitutes an appropriate tool to measure cannabis effect expectancies among adolescents.

  5. European Piano Schools : Russian , German and French classical piano interpretation and technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to characterize representative performances by famous pianists in order to determine main influential trends in performance, derived specifically from traditional piano practices referred to as National Piano Schools. Previous research (Lourenço, 2005, 2007 has shown strong musical correlation of particular characteristics, namely the aesthetic, the technical, the historic and the repertoire. The concept of piano interpretation school is a useful concept for analyzing the universe of piano performance. Piano pedagogy literature of each European National Piano School has been analyzed together with an empirical audio analysis of recordings through a check-list survey. Overall the main National Piano Schools consist of three essential branches: the Russian school; the German school; the French school. The identification of National Piano Schools provides a powerful framework of study and an awareness of Europe's elusive music heritage and it main influences. Furthermore, as pianists use their whole body to enhance their communication of the music's spiritual, emotional and dramatic essence, this study also aims to contribute into research on performance practice.

  6. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised is as effective as the original to detect dementia in a French-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, L; De Breucker, S; Van den Berge, M; Fery, P; Pepersack, T; Bier, J C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of the French version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R). The variability of the 3 versions of the ACE-R (A, B and C), performed by the same observer, hence mainly 2 or 3 times on 119 patients showing no progression, was first calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, t test and linear regression. The alpha coefficients of the 3 versions were obtained showing that the ACE-R versions can be considered as one, and an analysis of the interobserver variability was performed by Cohen's kappa coefficient, t test and linear regression on 12 patients. Eventually, we performed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to compare the sensitivities and specificities to detect dementia of the ACE, the ACE-R and Mini Mental State Examination on 319 consecutive patients. The ROC areas of sensitivities and specificities of the ACE and ACE-R were very similar. Two cutoffs were identified at 83/100 and 89/100 with a specificity to normality of 98.6% if the ACE-R score was ≥83 and a sensitivity to dementia of 98.4% if the ACE-R score was ≤89. ACE-R in French is as reliable and valid as the original version to detect dementia. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. How a European network may help with estimating methane emissions on the French national scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pison, Isabelle; Berchet, Antoine; Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Broquet, Grégoire; Conil, Sébastien; Delmotte, Marc; Ganesan, Anita; Laurent, Olivier; Martin, Damien; O'Doherty, Simon; Ramonet, Michel; Spain, T. Gerard; Vermeulen, Alex; Yver Kwok, Camille

    2018-03-01

    Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS located in France and surrounding countries. To assess the robustness of the fluxes deduced by our inversion system based on an objectified quantification of uncertainties, two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i) a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii) a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. In addition, our results for the two set-ups are compared with fluxes produced in the framework of the inversion inter-comparison exercise of the InGOS project. The seasonal variability in fluxes is consistent between different set-ups, with maximum emissions in summer, likely due to agricultural activity. However, very high monthly posterior uncertainties (up to ≈ 65 to 74 % in the sectorial run in May and June) make it difficult to attribute maximum emissions to a specific sector. On the yearly and national scales, the two inversions range from 3835 to 4050 Gg CH4 and from 3570 to 4190 Gg CH4 for the regional and sectorial runs, respectively, consistently with the InGOS products. These estimates are 25 to 55 % higher than the total national emissions from bottom-up approaches (biogeochemical models from natural emissions, plus inventories for anthropogenic ones), consistently pointing at missing or underestimated sources in the inventories and/or in natural sources. More specifically, in the sectorial set-up, agricultural emissions are inferred as 66% larger than estimates reported to the UNFCCC. Uncertainties in the total annual national budget are 108 and 312 Gg CH4, i.e, 3 to 8 %, for the regional and sectorial runs respectively, smaller than uncertainties in available bottom-up products, proving the added value of top-down atmospheric inversions. Therefore, even though the surface

  8. How a European network may help with estimating methane emissions on the French national scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS located in France and surrounding countries. To assess the robustness of the fluxes deduced by our inversion system based on an objectified quantification of uncertainties, two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. In addition, our results for the two set-ups are compared with fluxes produced in the framework of the inversion inter-comparison exercise of the InGOS project. The seasonal variability in fluxes is consistent between different set-ups, with maximum emissions in summer, likely due to agricultural activity. However, very high monthly posterior uncertainties (up to ≈ 65 to 74 % in the sectorial run in May and June make it difficult to attribute maximum emissions to a specific sector. On the yearly and national scales, the two inversions range from 3835 to 4050 Gg CH4 and from 3570 to 4190 Gg CH4 for the regional and sectorial runs, respectively, consistently with the InGOS products. These estimates are 25 to 55 % higher than the total national emissions from bottom-up approaches (biogeochemical models from natural emissions, plus inventories for anthropogenic ones, consistently pointing at missing or underestimated sources in the inventories and/or in natural sources. More specifically, in the sectorial set-up, agricultural emissions are inferred as 66% larger than estimates reported to the UNFCCC. Uncertainties in the total annual national budget are 108 and 312 Gg CH4, i.e, 3 to 8 %, for the regional and sectorial runs respectively, smaller than uncertainties in available bottom-up products, proving the added value of top-down atmospheric

  9. Proceedings of 5. French speaking scientific days on calculation codes for radioprotection, radio-physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Cornu, Marie; Mourlon, Christophe; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Dusiac, D.; Moignau, F.; Gouriou, J.; Million, M.; Moreno, B.; Chabert, I.; Lazaro, D.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Agelou, M.; De Carlan, L.; Patin, D.; Le Loirec, C.; Dupuis, P.; Gassa, F.; Guerin, L.; Batalla, A.; Leni, Pierre-Emmanuel; Laurent, Remy; Gschwind, Regine; Makovicka, Libor; Henriet, Julien; Salomon, Michel; Vivier, Alain; Lopez, Gerald; Dossat, C.; Pourrouquet, P.; Thomas, J.C.; Sarie, I.; Peyrard, P.F.; Chatry, N.; Lavielle, D.; Loze, R.; Brun, E.; Damian, F.; Diop, C.; Dumonteil, E.; Hugot, F.X.; Jouanne, C.; Lee, Y.K.; Malvagi, F.; Mazzolo, A.; Petit, O.; Trama, J.C.; Visonneau, T.; Zoia, A.; Courageot, Estelle; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Kutschera, Reinald; Le Meur, Gaelle; Uzio, Fabien; De Conto, Celine; Gschwind, Regine; Makovicka, Libor; Farah, Jad; Martinetti, Florent; Sayah, Rima; Donadille, Laurent; Herault, Joel; Delacroix, Sabine; Nauraye, Catherine; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Clairand, Isabelle; Horodynski, Jean-Michel; Pauwels, Nicolas; Robert, Pierre; VOLLAIRE, Joachim; Nicoletti, C.; Kitsos, S.; Tardy, M.; Marchaud, G.; Stankovskiy, Alexey; Van Den Eynde, Gert; Fiorito, Luca; Malambu, Edouard; Dreuil, Serge; Mougeot, X.; Be, M.M.; Bisch, C.; Villagrasa, C.; Dos Santos, M.; Clairand, I.; Karamitros, M.; Incerti, S.; Petitguillaume, Alice; Franck, Didier; Desbree, Aurelie; Bernardini, Michela; Labriolle-Vaylet, Claire de; Gnesin, Silvano; Leadermann, Jean-Pascal; Paterne, Loic; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.; Baechler, Sebastien; Prior, John O.; Thomassin, Alain; Arial, Emmanuelle; Laget, Michael; Masse, Veronique; Saldarriaga Vargas, Clarita; Struelens, Lara; Vanhavere, Filip; Perier, Aurelien; Courageot, Estelle; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Le-Meur, Gaelle; Monier, Catherine; Thers, Dominique; Le-Guen, Bernard; Blond, Serge; Cordier, Gerard; Le Roy, Maiwenn; De Carlan, Loic; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Caccia, Barbara; Andenna, Claudio; Charimadurai, Arun; Selvam, T Palani; Czarnecki, Damian; Zink, Klemens; Gschwind, Regine; Martin, Eric; Huot, Nicolas; Zoubair, Mariam; El Bardouni, Tarek; Lazaro, Delphine; Barat, Eric; Dautremer, Thomas; Montagu, Thierry; Chabert, Isabelle; Guerin, Lucie; Batalla, Alain; Moignier, C.; Huet, C.; Bassinet, C.; Baumann, M.; Barraux, V.; Sebe-Mercier, K.; Loiseau, C.; Batalla, A.; Makovicka, L.; Desnoyers, Yvon; Juhel, Gabriel; Mattera, Christophe; Tempier, Maryline

    2014-03-01

    These scientific days were organised by the 'technical protection' Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) in cooperation with the French society of medical physicists (SFPM), the Swiss Romandie association of radioprotection (ARRAD) and the associated laboratories of radio-physics and dosimetry (LARD). The objective of these days was to review the existing calculation codes used in radiation transport, source estimation and dose management, and to identify some future prospects. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Presentation of the conference days (L. De Carlan); 2 - Simulating radionuclide transfers in the environment: what calculation codes and for what? (C. Mourlon); 3 - Contribution of Monte-Carlo calculation to the theoretical foundation analysis of calibration procedures and dosemeters design for radioprotection photon dosimetry (J.M. Bordy); 4 - Use of calculation codes in R and D for the development of a new passive dosemeter for photons and beta radiations (B. Moreno); 5 - Development of a new virtual sources model for the Monte-Carlo prediction of EPID (Electronic Portal Imaging Device) images and implementation in PENELOPE (I. Chabert); 6 - Prediction of high-resolution EPID images for in-vivo dosimetry (D. Patin); 7 - 4D thorax modeling by artificial neural networks (P.E. Leni); 8 - Presentation of the calculation utilities of the book 'Calculation of ionizing radiations generated doses' (Vivier, Lopez, EDP Sciences 2012) (A. Vivier); 9 - RayXpert C : a 3D modeling and Monte-Carlo dose rate calculation software (C. Dossat); 10 - TRIPOLI-4 R Version 9 S Monte-Carlo code for radioprotection (F. Damian); 11 - Realistic radioprotection training with the digital school workshop (E. Courageot); 12 - Use of BEAMNRC code for dental prostheses influence evaluation in ENT cancers treatment by external radiotherapy (C. De Conto); 13

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, internal consistency and validation of the Spinal Function Sort (SFS) for French- and German-speaking patients with back complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borloz, S; Trippolini, M A; Ballabeni, P; Luthi, F; Deriaz, O

    2012-09-01

    Functional subjective evaluation through questionnaire is fundamental, but not often realized in patients with back complaints, lacking validated tools. The Spinal Function Sort (SFS) was only validated in English. We aimed to translate, adapt and validate the French (SFS-F) and German (SFS-G) versions of the SFS. Three hundred and forty-four patients, experiencing various back complaints, were recruited in a French (n = 87) and a German-speaking (n = 257) center. Construct validity was estimated via correlations with SF-36 physical and mental scales, pain intensity and hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS). Scale homogeneities were assessed by Cronbach's α. Test-retest reliability was assessed on 65 additional patients using intraclass correlation (IC). For the French and German translations, respectively, α were 0.98 and 0.98; IC 0.98 (95% CI: [0.97; 1.00]) and 0.94 (0.90; 0.98). Correlations with physical functioning were 0.63 (0.48; 0.74) and 0.67 (0.59; 0.73); with physical summary 0.60 (0.44; 0.72) and 0.52 (0.43; 0.61); with pain -0.33 (-0.51; -0.13) and -0.51 (-0.60; -0.42); with mental health -0.08 (-0.29; 0.14) and 0.25 (0.13; 0.36); with mental summary 0.01 (-0.21; 0.23) and 0.28 (0.16; 0.39); with depression -0.26 (-0.45; -0.05) and -0.42 (-0.52; -0.32); with anxiety -0.17 (-0.37; -0.04) and -0.45 (-0.54; -0.35). Reliability was excellent for both languages. Convergent validity was good with SF-36 physical scales, moderate with VAS pain. Divergent validity was low with SF-36 mental scales in both translated versions and with HADS for the SFS-F (moderate in SFS-G). Both versions seem to be valid and reliable for evaluating perceived functional capacity in patients with back complaints.

  11. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pastorino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Even if European Union (EU Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a relatively new concept and a few EU Member States are known to have introduced national laboratory biosecurity legislation. In France, recent regulations have reinforced biosafety/biosecurity in containment level 3 (CL-3 laboratories but they concern a specific list of pathogens with no correlation in other European Members States. The objective of this review was to summarize European biosafety/biosecurity measures concerning CL-3 facilities focusing on French specificities. Essential requirements needed to preserve efficient biosafety measures when manipulating risk group 3 biological agents are highlighted. In addition, International, European and French standards related to containment laboratory planning, operation or biosafety equipment are described to clarify optimal biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

  12. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Boris; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    Even if European Union (EU) Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work , national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a relatively new concept and a few EU Member States are known to have introduced national laboratory biosecurity legislation. In France, recent regulations have reinforced biosafety/biosecurity in containment level 3 (CL-3) laboratories but they concern a specific list of pathogens with no correlation in other European Members States. The objective of this review was to summarize European biosafety/biosecurity measures concerning CL-3 facilities focusing on French specificities. Essential requirements needed to preserve efficient biosafety measures when manipulating risk group 3 biological agents are highlighted. In addition, International, European and French standards related to containment laboratory planning, operation or biosafety equipment are described to clarify optimal biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

  13. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  14. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Klohn, Axel Max; Zesiger, Véronique; Freigburghaus, Franziska; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2009-08-24

    The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy.The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists.Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents.A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and coordinated responses through specific intervention projects.

  15. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freigburghaus Franziska

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy. The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Methods Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists. Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Results Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents. A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. Conclusion In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and

  16. Use of email, cell phone and text message between patients and primary-care physicians: cross-sectional study in a French-speaking part of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jonathan; Haller, Dagmar M; Sommer, Johanna; Junod Perron, Noelle

    2016-10-05

    Physicians' daily work is increasingly affected by the use of emails, text messages and cell phone calls with their patients. The aim of this study was to describe their use between primary-care physicians and patients in a French-speaking part of Switzerland. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted among all primary-care physicians of Geneva canton (n = 636). The questionnaire focused on the frequency of giving access to, type of use, advantages and disadvantages of email, cell phone calls and text messages communication between physicians and patients. Six hundred thirty-six questionnaires were mailed, 412 (65 %) were returned and 372 (58 %) could be analysed (37 refusals and three blanks). Seventy-two percent physicians gave their email-address and 74 % their cell phone number to their patients. Emails were used to respond to patients' questions (82 %) and change appointments (72 %) while cell phone calls and text messages were used to follow patients' health conditions. Sixty-four percent of those who used email communication never discussed the rules for email exchanges, and 54 % did not address confidentiality issues with their patients. Most commonly identified advantages of emails, cell phone calls and text messages were improved relationship with the patient, saving time (for emails) and improving the follow-up (for cell phone and text messages). The main disadvantages included misuse by the patient, interference with private life and lack of reimbursement. These tools are widely used by primary-care physicians with their patients. More attention should be paid to confidentiality, documentation and reimbursement when using email communication in order to optimize its use.

  17. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  18. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  19. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  20. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  1. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  2. European Union's French Presidency: priority to the fight against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    Very much like the Lisbon Agenda, the European strategy against climate change suffers from a discrepancy between high ambitions and weak collective instruments. As France takes the EU Presidency in July 2008, one of its priorities is precisely to make some significant progress in reducing the gap between ends and means. With the negotiation on the reform of the EU budget, a perfect opportunity of furthering the cooperation between European member states presents itself. A reformed EU budget could in fact become the first step towards an integrated environmental and energetic European policy, by reorienting spending towards climate change mitigation policies, and creating new resources

  3. Do Korean L2 learners have a "foreign accent" when they speak French? Production and perception experiments on rhythm and intonation

    OpenAIRE

    Grandon , Bénédicte; Yoo , Hiyon

    2014-01-01

    International audience; French and Korean are two languages with similar prosodic characteristics as far as rhythm and intonation are concerned. In this paper, we present the results of production and perception tests where we describe the prosodic characteristics of Korean L2 learners of French. Our aim is to analyze the impression of "foreign accent" for two prosodic components (intonation and rhythm) of speech produced by Korean L2 learners of French and the perception of this "accent" by ...

  4. Proceedings of the French Senate conference 'Going Nuclear in the Middle East - In search of an European Middle East policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, G.; De Rohan, J.; Malley, R.; Francois-Poncet, J.; Boroumand, L.; Cordesman, A.H.; Alani, M.; Hourcade, B.; Cerisier-ben Guiga, M.; Shihabi, M.; Singh, M.; Siegman, H.; Aubin De La Messuziere, Y.; Boillon, B.; Yasseen, F.; Barzani, M.; Chouet, A.; Filiu, J.P.; Heisbourg, F.; Giuliani, J.D.; Asseburg, M.; Spencer, C.; Solana Madagaria, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East today is quite clearly one of the global hotspots of the world. It is also a big challenge for the international community. The interests are due to geography, history, economics and also to the fact that what takes place in the Middle East is important for the security of rest of the world. These two days of conference organised by the French Senate took stock of the Middle East question through 6 round tables dealing with: 1 - General overview Nuclear Islam in the Middle East; 2 - How likely is a successful dialogue with Iran? 3 - What Future for the Palestinian People? 4 - 2010, A Renaissance for Iraq? 5 - The Latest on Al Qaeda? 6 - In search of a European Union Policy for the Middle East. This document gathers the talks of the different experts and the questions and answers from the participants. (J.S.)

  5. A strategic approach to a new organization of French and European research in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    To reinforce the synergy between the parties involved in French research, ANCRE (Alliance Nationale de Coordination de la Recherche pour l'energie) has just been set up. It brings together all public research organizations in France that are working on problems related to energy. Its three major assignments are to: favor and reinforce partnerships and the synergy between public research organizations, universities and corporations; identify the scientific, technological, economic and societal factors that impede industrial applications in this field; and propose joint long-term R and D projects and the procedures for a coordinated implementation of them

  6. FRENCH RESIDENCE PERMITS FOR NATIONALS OF COUNTRIES WITHIN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2002-01-01

    All persons not of French nationality who reside in France for more than three months consecutively, or who, in the case of repeated visits, are effectively present in France for more than three months in any six-month period, must obtain a residence permit. With this in view, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues members of the CERN personnel and their family members with a legitimation document equivalent to a residence permit (Carte spéciale FI or AT, Carte d'assimilé à un membre de mission diplomatique; hereafter: «MFA card»). However, a special procedure applies to persons with permanent resident status (c.f. announcement CERN/DSU-DO/RH/10306 published in March 2001 in CERN Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2001 and which can also be consulted on the Web pages of the Relations with the Host States Service). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed CERN that henceforth, a member of the personnel's family members who wish to take up gainful employment i...

  7. A Balkan-style French revolution?: The 1804 Serbian Uprising in European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian uprising of 1804-13, initially a peasant rebellion against abuses of power by local janissaries, turned into a national and social revolution from 1806. During its second phase (late 1806 - early 1807, Serbian insurgents openly proclaimed their demand for independence. Encouraged by their military achievements, the insurgent leaders began to seek wider Balkan support for their struggle against Ottoman domination. Although its political claims were a mixture of modern national and romantic historic rights, the uprising gave hope to all Balkan Christians that the Ottoman defeat was an achievable goal. For the Balkan nations it was a French Revolution adapted to local conditions: the principle of popular sovereignty was opposed to the principle of legitimism; a new peasant-dominated society was created in which, due to the lack of the aristocracy and well-established middle classes, agrarian egalitarianism was combined with the rising aspirations of a modern nation. Its long-term effects on the political and social landscape of the whole region justified the assessment of the eminent German historian Leopold von Ranke who described the uprising, by analogy with the French example, as the Serbian Revolution.

  8. Language Learning versus Vocational Training: French, Arab and British Voices Speak about Indigenous Girls' Education in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the first school for indigenous girls in Algeria that opened in Algiers in 1845. The founder, Eugenie Luce, taught girls the rudiments--French language and grammar, reading, arithmetic, and Arabic, while the afternoon hours were devoted to sewing. This early focus on teaching French in order to achieve the "fusion of…

  9. The European pressurized water reactor. The French-German advanced PWR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, M.P.; Seidelberger, H.; Broecker, B.; Serviere, G.

    1995-01-01

    In order to derive full benefit from the Franco-German experience and to maintain a continuous development process, the EPR is of an evolutionary design. It is also an innovative product, intended to combine competitiveness, improved operability and enhanced safety. With a large electrical output, in the range of 1400-1500 MW, the EPR has an excellent cost-size ratio and is fully adapted to the scarcity of sites. It is also suitable for the development of scale-down products based on the same technology. The progress in safety that can be achieved with the EPR can be used to further enhance the already very high level of safety of the current French and German nuclear plants: (1) by an improvement of the preventive level of the defence-in-depth concept, and (2) by the implementation of additional features, mainly for the containment, to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Economically, the generation cost objective of the EPR will be at least as good as that of the French N4 reactor series. Improvements in safety may imply some additional investment costs, compared with those of the current plants, but the EPR is designed to achieve reductions of the other components of the generation costs, i.e. the fuel cycle costs and the operation and maintenance costs. The paper also describes some major design features of of the EPR: the safety systems, the containment and confinement functions, the arrangement of buildings, protection against external attacks, the man-machine interface, and instrumentation and control. 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. European strategies benchmark of biogas production and valorization industries and French methanation industry forward-looking statements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume; Thual, Julien; Theobald, Olivier; Bardinal, Marc; Johansson, Hannele; Piccinini, Sergio; Maggioni, Lorenzo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Da Costa Gomez, Claudius; Fricke, Klaus; Collins, David; Dumont, Mathieu; Onno, Jean-Marc; Guerin, Bertrand; Ollivier, Denis; Pessiot, Carine; Charlot, Marie-Laure; Molinie, Lea; Vizy, Pascale; Krembel, David; Lamy, Jean-Michel; Ingremeau, Claire; Lukehurst, Clare

    2015-06-01

    In France, the biogas sector is developing. Currently two incentive programs for this sector have been set up: the Energy Methane Nitrogen Autonomy (EMAA) Plan and the call for projects '1500 biogas plants'. The information gathering about measures applied in the historical countries and in countries whose development is supported nowadays, is necessary for decision making and the development of national support strategy. The first part of this report presents the European state of development of biogas plants (28 countries of the European Union and Switzerland) and lists the actions implemented by each country. It details the situation in five countries: Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. The second part presents 20 detailed measures selected among the 30 measures identified during the benchmark phase. The three scenarios for the French sector until 2030 are composed of a socio-economic context, a package of measures, and a quantified simulation by category and by type of biogas recovery. (authors)

  11. French memorandum for revitalizing European energy policy with a view to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During the European Council at Hampton Court (October 2005), the European Heads of State or Government expressed the desire to see Europe's energy policy revitalized, given the new and increasingly tough challenges facing Europe and the world today, in particular concerning energy security on the one hand, and the need to combat climate change on the other. These guidelines were confirmed and clarified by the European Council on 15 and 16 December 2005, which particularly 'stressed the importance of an integrated approach to climate change, energy and competitiveness objectives, and underlined the fact that strategies to invest in cleaner and more sustainable energy, both within the EU and more widely, can support a range of policy objectives, including energy security, competitiveness, employment, air quality and reduced greenhouse gas emissions'. To make a contribution to the debate around these strategic questions ongoing in many arenas, and pending the publication of new documents announced by the Commission and the Presidency of the Council concerning European energy policy, France wishes to make known its point of view and propose areas for action in order to promote solutions to encourage the creation of safer and more sustainable energy systems both within the EU and with our partners, which would be accessible to all. This involves: - guaranteeing that the energy we produce, import and consume for our economic and social development remains available and economically accessible to all, both today and in the future; - progressing towards sustainable use of energy in that it must take account of environmental impacts and the depletion of fossil resources; - developing employment by promoting energy efficiency, renewable energies and other low greenhouse gas emitting technologies. After a reminder of the context and stakes (part 1), suggestions are made with regard to policies (part 2) and means, concerning the various types of consumption on the energy

  12. Electricity and energy policy: french specificities and challenges in the european framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In the today context of the electric power european market deregulation and the increase of the energy prices, the energy policy must change. The increase of the energy prices makes wonder the question of the competitiveness of the french economy: what type of supplies and which technological orientations will allow to reduce the constraints. After a presentation of the today electric power french market and the recently modifications bond to the deregulation, this note aims to describe the evolutions, since the first petroleum crisis, of the place given to the electric power in the energy policy, as the technological choices explaining the today structure he electricity production, characterized by the major part of the nuclear. Then the energy policy in matter of the electric power is discussed in the european context, to present the choices impacts facing the european objectives of energy security, environment and market liberalization. (A.L.B.)

  13. Energy security and European Union. Proposals for the French presidency; Securite energetique et Union Europeenne. Propositions pour la presidence francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C

    2008-04-15

    This report treats of energy security and of the two related topics which are the fight against climatic change and the economic growth. The first chapter analyses the energy risks that we will have to face. It makes a difference between the long-term risks (depletion of energy resources) and the short-term risks (supply disruption). Concerning the short-term risks, it is recalled that most of the supply incidents have an internal cause and that imports can have advantages and not only drawbacks. The second chapter approaches the delicate problem of European harmonization between the speech and the action when the energy security is in concern. A conclusion of this chapter is that the 'speaking with a single voice' goal can be reached only if improvements are made in the domain of solidarity between member states. The completion of the internal energy market is therefore a priority and the mission of regulators must include the security aspect. The third chapter treats of the particular case of the relation with the Russian supplier. It suggests to work for a lower energy dependence with respect to Russia, by developing the energy efficiency, the LNG industry, the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The fourth chapter deals with the relations with the Caspian sea surrounding countries in the perspective of gas exports towards Europe. Here again, the cooperation with Russia is of prime importance. It approaches also the problem of the gas negotiation with Turkey which requires a significant improvement of the consistency of European diplomacy in this area. The last chapter treats of the role of international organisations and of the dialogue in the domain of energy. It suggests some paths to develop the confidence between the different intervening parties. It stresses on the lack of transparency which disturbs the markets and weakens the security. (J.S.)

  14. Speaking of Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.

    2013-01-01

    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life in French-Speaking Families with a Preschool-Aged Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mélina; Mercier, Céline; Mestari, Zakaria; Terroux, Amélie; Mello, Catherine; Bégin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (Beach Center FQOL) is used to evaluate and develop family-centered intervention services. However, its use with families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in non-English speaking populations requires further investigation. The present study sought to assess the psychometric…

  16. Electricity and energy policy: French specificities and stakes in the European framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The present day context of liberalization of European power markets and increase of energy prices raises the question of the competitiveness of the French economy: what type of supply and what technological trend would allow to relax this constrain? It is therefore the overall main trends of the French energy policy that should be reexamined in the broader framework of Europe. This is the aim of this document. It presents, first, the present day organization of the French power market and the recent changes that have followed its opening to competition. Then, it describes the evolutions since the first petroleum shock and the share given to electricity in the French energy mix, the technological choices that have led to the present day domination of nuclear energy in the power generation means. Finally, this policy and its perspectives is compared to the main European trends in the domain of energy security, environment protection and market liberalization. It appears, in particular, that the choices made by France in the domain of electricity (demand mastery efforts, large share given to electricity, preponderance of nuclear power, development of renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power) have limited its energy bill and enhanced its energy independence. Also, all energy sources considered, they have led to a low level of CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to other developed countries. (J.S.)

  17. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  18. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  19. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, Internal Consistency and Validation of the Spinal Function Sort (SFS) for French- and German-Speaking Patients with Back Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borloz, S.; Trippolini, M. A.; Ballabeni, P.; Luthi, F.; Deriaz, O.

    Introduction Functional subjective evaluation through questionnaire is fundamental, but not often realized in patients with back complaints, lacking validated tools. The Spinal Function Sort (SFS) was only validated in English. We aimed to translate, adapt and validate the French (SFS-F) and German

  20. The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzcharles Mary-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI, and the Symptom Severity scale (SS measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31, measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and a visual analogue scale (VAS for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p  Conclusions The French FSDC is a valid instrument in French FM patients with reliability and construct validity. It is easily completed, simple to score, and has the potential to become the standard for measurement of polysymptomatic distress in FM.

  1. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  2. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  3. Adaptation and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Belief and Implementation scales for French-speaking Swiss nurses and allied healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloo, Henk; Desmedt, Mario; Morin, Diane

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate two psychometric properties of the French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales, namely their internal consistency and construct validity. The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales developed by Melnyk et al. are recognised as valid, reliable instruments in English. However, no psychometric validation for their French versions existed. Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey. Source data came from a cross-sectional descriptive study sample of 382 nurses and other allied healthcare providers. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and principal axis factor analysis and varimax rotation were computed to determine construct validity. The French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alphas close to the scores established by Melnyk et al.'s original versions. Principal axis factor analysis showed medium-to-high factor loading scores without obtaining collinearity. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 16-item Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs scale resulted in a four-factor loading structure. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 17-item Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale revealed a two-factor loading structure. Further research should attempt to understand why the French Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale showed a two-factor loading structure but Melnyk et al.'s original has only one. The French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales can both be considered valid and reliable instruments for measuring Evidence-Based Practice beliefs and implementation. The results suggest that the French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales are valid and reliable and can therefore be used to

  4. From the Stereotypification of the Non-European Other to the Prototypification of the European Self: A Case Study of Turkey’s Membership to the European Union from the French Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bogain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an era of increased globalisation, the need for a sense of belonging and an identity is becoming more pressing. The way nations form images of others and, conversely, conscious or unconscious images of themselves is becoming increasingly important as these images impact on public opinion and on political and decision-making discourse. With the development of supranationalism in Europe, the age-old notion of European identity has come more and more to the fore. Conflicting interpretations and a general disinclination to consider the matter leave the notion of European identity as polysemic as ever. Furthermore, the expansion of the EU has contributed to blurring this notion, so much so that in the collective psyche, it has become closely linked to the membership of the European Union and it is proving sometimes difficult to dissociate one from the other. In this context, the debate surrounding Turkey’s membership of the EU gives an insight into prototypical and stereotypical representations of Europe. As the controversy has been particularly salient in France, the aim of this study is to explore the European self-conceptions and images of the other through the example of France’s opposition to Turkey’s membership of the EU. For this purpose, opinion polls and the Press will be used as forms of narrative in order to highlight these representations and how they have evolved in time. The first part of the study will concentrate on the arguments put forward to justify the opposition to Turkey joining the EU. The second part will then evaluate how the image of the other contributes to the prototypical representation French citizens have of Europe.

  5. Eighty percent of French sport winners in Olympic, World and Europeans competitions have mutations in the hemochromatosis HFE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermine, Olivier; Dine, Gérard; Genty, Vincent; Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Fumagalli, Gabriela; Tafflet, Muriel; Guillem, Flavia; Van Lierde, Françoise; Rousseaux-Blanchi, Marie-Philippe; Palierne, Christian; Lapostolle, Jean-Claude; Cervetti, Jean-Pierre; Frey, Alain; Jouven, Xavier; Noirez, Philippe; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    The HFE gene encodes a protein involved in iron homeostasis; individuals with mutations in both alleles develop hemochromatosis. 27% of the French population is heterozygous for mutations in this gene. We found that 80% of the French athletes who won international competitions in rowing, Nordic skiing and judo display mutations in one allele of HFE, thus demonstrating the existence of a favourable phenotype linked to this heterozygosity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Comments on the Lambert case: the rulings of the French Conseil d'État and the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshi, Denard

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the decisions of the French Conseil d'Etat (Supreme Administrative Court) and the European Court of Human Rights in the Lambert case concerning the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. After presenting the facts of this case, the main legal question will be analyzed from an ethical and medical standpoint. The decisions of the Conseil d'État and then of the European Court of Human Rights are studied from a comparative legal perspective. This commentary focuses on the autonomous will of an unconscious patient and on the judicial interpretation of the right to life as recognized in article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Furthermore, it medically classifies artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as a "treatment" which has ethical and legal implications. While the majority of the bioethical community considers ANH a medical treatment, a minority argues that ANH is basic care. This classification is ambiguous and has conflicting legal interpretations. In the conclusion, the author highlights how a French lawmaker in February 2016, finally clarified the status of ANH as a medical treatment which reconciled the different values at stake.

  7. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  8. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  9. Influence of French Air Power Strategy in the European Union’s Military Operations in Africa (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Patrick Facon, Histoire de l’Armée de l’Air, provides the context of French operations in Africa in the broadest history of the French Air Force. 3 In...during the 2000s, including its 3 Patrick Facon, Histoire de L’armée de L’air (Paris: La...34, 8. 5 Facon, Histoire de L’armée de L’air, 451. 6 Facon, Histoire de L’armée de L’air, 458. The third phase began in 1994 after the Rwanda

  10. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  11. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, internal consistency and validation of the Hand Function Sort (HFS©) for French speaking patients with upper limb complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzelmann, M; Burrus, C; Hilfiker, R; Rivier, G; Deriaz, O; Luthi, F

    2015-03-01

    Functional evaluation of upper limb is not only based on clinical findings but requires self-administered questionnaires to address patients' perspective. The Hand Function Sort (HFS©) was only validated in English. The aim of this study was the French cross cultural adaptation and validation of the HFS© (HFS-F). 150 patients with various upper limbs impairments were recruited in a rehabilitation center. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation were made according to international guidelines. Construct validity was estimated through correlations with Disabilities Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, SF-36 mental component summary (MCS),SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) and pain intensity. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation. Cronbach's α was 0.98, test-retest reliability was excellent at 0.921 (95 % CI 0.871-0.971) same as original HFS©. Correlations with DASH were-0.779 (95 % CI -0.847 to -0.685); with SF 36 PCS 0.452 (95 % CI 0.276-0.599); with pain -0.247 (95 % CI -0.429 to -0.041); with SF 36 MCS 0.242 (95 % CI 0.042-0.422). There were no floor or ceiling effects. The HFS-F has the same good psychometric properties as the original HFS© (internal consistency, test retest reliability, convergent validity with DASH, divergent validity with SF-36 MCS, and no floor or ceiling effects). The convergent validity with SF-36 PCS was poor; we found no correlation with pain. The HFS-F could be used with confidence in a population of working patients. Other studies are necessary to study its psychometric properties in other populations.

  13. The Shared Burden: United States-French Coalition Operations in the European Theater of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    French; Henri Amouroux’s La grande histoire des Francais sous l’occupation, un 6... Histoire et Collections, 2004), 15. 27 Headquarters, Sixth Army Group Narrative History, Box 1, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Sixth...Headquarters, Department of Defense. JP 5-0: Joint Operations Planning, 2011. Historical Studies and Theory Amouroux, Henri. La Grande Histoire des Français

  14. Multilingualism in Brussels: "I'd Rather Speak English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul; Toebosch, AnneMarie

    2008-01-01

    Language is both a divisive and a unifying force in Brussels. Historically predominantly Dutch-speaking, surrounded by the officially Dutch-speaking federal state of Flanders, located in a majority Dutch-speaking nation-state, and with the majority of its Belgian citizens Francophone, Brussels has officially been bilingual Dutch-French since 1962.…

  15. New Speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2008-01-01

      En ny form for samfundsvidenskabeligt set uklart sprogbrug anvendes stadig oftere i organisation og politik. Ord som "sammenhængskraft", "myndighedsbetjening" og "kvalitetsløft" kritiseres ofte og kaldes varm luft eller new speak. Jeg vil hævde, at ordene i new speak rummer et dobbelt perspektiv......, uddannelse, militær etc.). Derfor er der gået varm luft og new speak i politisk og organisatorisk sprogbrug. Hvor funktionssystemer internt betjener sig af binært kodet kommunikation, må meddelelser mellem funktionssystemer nemlig afstå fra den klare veldefinerede tale.  ...

  16. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  17. Interview with Dr. Andre Davy, Honorary President, International Union of Phlebology; Honorary President, French Society of Phlebology; Honorary President, European Society of Phlebectomy. Interview by Jose Antonio Olivencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, A

    2000-06-01

    Dr. Davy is the Honorary President International Union of Phlebology, Honorary President French Society of Phlebology, Honorary President European Society of Phlebectomy. Dr. Andre Davy was born in 1924 in Basse, Normandy. I met Dr. Davy in 1967 in a World Congress of Phlebology in Amsterdam. I was so impressed with his skills and knowledge that when he later on proposed to be associated in the practice of phlebology, I accepted immediately. That lead to a very long medical and surgical partnership. He was an expert in the Muller phlebectomy and was also interested in chronic venous insufficiency, chronic stasis ulcer and lymphedema. He promoted sclerotherapy as part of the overall treatment of venous disease. In the early seventies, he started a training program that included not only theoretical but also practical knowledge of phlebology. In 1974 he published a book entitled, "Les Varices." He organized the first Franco-British Symposium of Phlebology that was held in Touquet in May 1981. That symposium was a complete success. It was immediately followed by a second Franco-British symposium and later on by the creation of the Venous Forum of the Royal Society of Medicine, the birth of the English journal "Phlebology," the North American Society of Phlebology, and the American Venous Forum. Later, he became Editor in Chief of Phlebologie, the journal of the French Society of Phlebology. He was named President of the French Society of Phlebology in 1986 and in 1989 President of the International Union of Phlebology. This very well educated and calm gentleman with a very outward tranquil appearance and great strength of character has always held strong opinions. He is now retired at his family home in Pont L'Eveque, France and spends his time reading, listening to the music of his favorite composers Verdi and Mahler, continuously visiting old friends such as Jean Van der Stricht, Robert Muller, Claude Gillot, and still remaining very close to his family. PAUL OUVRY

  18. Information report by the Commission for European Affairs on the French-German energy cooperation - Nr 534

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    As the French-German energy cooperation has been, until now, focused on the transition towards renewable energies, this report studies this issue of energy transition by distinguishing the purely technical dimension and the macro-economic aspect. The author first identifies the various reasons of the difficulties met by energy transition (they are essentially based on the intermittency). In order to be efficient, the cooperation must therefore comprise a portion dealing with the economic management of the energy system in order to protect markets from abnormal disturbances. As far as the technical dimension is concerned, the author discusses the multitude of still immature techniques to deal with intermittency and hazard, or with energy savings or recovery. He also addresses the technical diptych constituted by storage and grid (energy storage and smart grids are two different but related techniques). In the second part, the author addresses the economic dimension. He highlights the unsustainable cost of a transition made at a forced march, and discusses the relationship between price regulation, market management, and transition rate. Here, he outlines that nuclear energy remains indispensable to transition. Appendices present the main recent steps of the French-German energy cooperation, a comparison of the energy mix of these both countries, the German energy policy, and a discussion of a targeted energy mix

  19. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  20. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  1. Speak Up! Public Speaking for Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Felkar, Sarah; Mallette, Michelle; Meunier, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    Learn about public speaking for libraries in a session that is fun, friendly and not intimidating (as public speaking often can be). The speakers will discuss how public speaking is often an important part of working in a library.

  2. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Pastorino; Boris Pastorino; Xavier de Lamballerie; Xavier de Lamballerie; Rémi Charrel; Rémi Charrel

    2017-01-01

    Even if European Union (EU) Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a r...

  3. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. From 2020 to 2030, from Copenhagen to Paris: a mindset change for the European climate policy? (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The European Councils of March 2007 and October 2014 have defined the major guidelines of the European climate policy for the 2010-2020 and 2020-2030 decades. These commitments have then been used as negotiation road-maps for two major conferences on climate held under the United-Nations umbrella, in Copenhagen in 2009 and in Paris in December 2015. In both cases, the aim was, and still is, to reach a global agreement to take over the Kyoto Protocol. The first one was a failure for the European diplomacy and all hopes are now placed in the second, which may well be the last chance for the international climate talks. After seven years, time frames look similar but the context is very different. Domestically, the economic crisis has constrained the investment capacity of Member States and pushed competitiveness higher in the ranks of priorities. Internationally, the centre of gravity of energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions has shifted to emerging countries, advocating for an update of the North-South paradigm which had governed the Kyoto protocol. Lastly, although there is no coordinated action against global warming at this stage, the urgent need to act receives a wider support and more and more initiatives are taken, such as the ones recently announced by China and the United-States. Because of these elements, among others, the EU cannot simply extend the approach initiated seven years ago. The European climate policy opens a new chapter and the conclusions of the European Council of October 2014 have clearly set the tone. A change of mind-set may have occurred, in the sense that the 2030 targets reaffirm Europe's commitment to the shift towards a low carbon economy, while instigating more flexibility to ensure stronger cost-effectiveness. It is a strong signal for the world but this renewed approach still needs to be consolidated, both in the way of implementing the key reforms announced and in the way of approaching the Paris conference

  5. Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Dependence: The 2015 Recommendations of the French Alcohol Society, Issued in Partnership with the European Federation of Addiction Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Paille, François; Gillet, Claudine; Rigaud, Alain; Moirand, Romain; Dano, Corine; Dematteis, Maurice; Mann, Karl; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2016-01-01

    The latest French good practice recommendations (GPRs) for the screening, prevention, and treatment of alcohol misuse were recently published in partnership with the European Federation of Addiction Societies (EUFAS). This article aims to synthesize the GPRs focused on the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence. A four-member European steering committee defined the questions that were addressed to an 18-member multiprofessional working group (WG). The WG developed the GPRs based on a systematic, hierarchical, and structured literature search and submitted the document to two review processes involving 37 French members from multiple disciplines and 5 non-French EUFAS members. The final GPRs were graded A, B, or C, or expert consensus (EC) using a reference recommendation grading system. The treatment of alcohol dependence consists of either alcohol detoxification or abstinence maintenance programs or drinking reduction programs. The therapeutic objective is the result of a decision made jointly by the physician and the patient. For alcohol detoxification, benzodiazepines (BZDs) are recommended in first-line (grade A). BZD dosing should be guided by regular clinical monitoring (grade B). Residential detoxification is more appropriate for patients with a history of seizures, delirium tremens, unstable psychiatric comorbidity, or another associated substance use disorder (grade B). BZDs are only justified beyond a 1-week period in the case of persistent withdrawal symptoms, withdrawal events or associated BZD dependence (grade B). BZDs should not be continued for more than 4 weeks (grade C). The dosing and duration of thiamine (vitamin B1) during detoxification should be adapted to nutritional status (EC). For relapse prevention, acamprosate and naltrexone are recommended as first-line medications (grade A). Disulfiram can be proposed as second-line option in patients with sufficient information and supervision (EC). For reducing alcohol consumption, nalmefene is

  6. The European pressurized water reactor. Result of the French-German cooperation of experienced NPP suppliers and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 Framatome and Siemens, the two most experienced European nuclear power plant suppliers, decided to join the efforts for the development of a new reactor type for the next generation in their equally owned subsidiary nuclear power international (NPI). In 1992 Electricite de France and the major German utilities operating nuclear power plants merged their own development programs with that of nuclear power international and initiated the European pressurized water reactor (EPR) project. In order to reach the two major targets of the project, the licensability in both countries, France and Germany, and the competitiveness of nuclear energy with other alternative energy sources, the design basis which had differently developed in the two countries needed to be harmonized. In parallel, the licensing authorities of both countries extended their existing cooperation in the field of a safety survey of existing nuclear power plants to the definition of safety criteria for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Through this cooperation the licensability of EPR in France and Germany will be assured. Continuously performed cost analysis show in addition that also the second target of the project, the competitiveness with alternative primary energy sources, can be achieved. Thanks to the fruitful cooperation between all parties involved, satisfactory results have been achieved not by a simple superposition of existing design features but through a careful evaluation and combination of the best available alternatives. At the end of 1997 the basic design results were compiled in a final report. Subsequently an optimization phase was launched that further improves the competitiveness of the power generation costs. (orig.)

  7. December 7, 2000. General framework: the European and French contexts. Results of the Eole 2005 program: the lessons; 7 decembre 2000. Cadrage general: les contextes europeens et francais. Resultats du programme Eole 2005: les enseignements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L.; Chabot, B. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Grandidier, J.Y. [Association de l' Energie Eolienne en France, 11 - Narbonne (France); Germa, Ph. [IENA Environnement, France (France); Argenson, A.; Dugue, Ch. [Cabinet GERMA, 34 - Montpellier (France); Fassi Fihri, M.A. [Office National de l' Electricite (Morocco); Wagner, A. [Enron Wind Corp. (Germany); Krogsgaard, P. [BTM Consult ApS, Ringkbing (Denmark); Gonzalvez, C.H. [Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving (IDAE), Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    This first day of conference was organized in two parts: the first part was devoted to a presentation of the French and European contexts of the development of wind power. After a general presentation of the aims of the colloquium, a round table was organized about the European context of development of wind energy with its application to France in the framework of the new organization of the electric power industry. Testimonies about the means used by governments for the sustain of wind energy development were presented with the examples of Spain and Germany. The second part of the day was devoted to the presentation of the results of the French wind energy program 'Eole 2005' and of the lessons gained: detailed presentation of the sustain program for a minimum of 5000 MW installed power in 2010, strategic analysis of the program (projects, R and D actions, companies), the economical workability of wind power projects (tariffs, point-of-view of French and European operators), the export development prospects for the 2000-2005 era and the main international markets at the 2005-2010 vista (examples of Denmark, Portugal and Morocco). (J.S.)

  8. “The Image Speaks for Itself” – or does it?: Instant News Icons, Impromptu Publics, and the 2015 European “Refugee Crisis”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    and are declared to be “icons”. They stand out from the image abundance, grasp the attention of a broad, transnational public, and stir emotional reactions and heated debates. Usually, these iconic images are related to major news events and represent an ongoing conflict or crisis in society in a simple, univocal...... manner. They quickly turn into standard frames of reference in news and popular culture, seem to require no particular explanation, and are often proclaimed to “speak for themselves”. This article proposes the term “instant news icon” to define and gain a fuller understanding of the role performed...

  9. Evaluation of the application of the European guidelines for the diagnosis and clinical care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in six French ALS centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, B; Beghi, E; Vial, C; Bernard, E; Lautrette, G; Clavelou, P; Guy, N; Lemasson, G; Debruxelles, S; Cintas, P; Antoine, J C; Camdessanche, J P; Logroscino, G; Preux, P M; Couratier, P

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the extent to which the 2005 recommendations of the European Federation of Neurological Sciences (EFNS) on the multidisciplinary management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are followed in clinical practice. This was a multicentre observational study involving six French ALS referral centres receiving prevalent and incident cases. Recommendations were translated into ad hoc questions referring to key aspects of management, and their application was evaluated by a clinical research assistant who independently examined the medical charts (MCs). When necessary, an independent board-certified neurologist answered the questions based on examination of the MC and interview of the caring neurologist. Questions regarding diagnosis and communication were put to patients in a self-administered questionnaire. In all, 376 patients [176 incident, 200 prevalent cases; median age at diagnosis 62.8 years (interquartile range 55.7-72.3); sex ratio 1.37; 27.3% bulbar onset] were included. All the topics covered in the recommendations were evaluated: diagnostic delay (e.g. mean 13.6 months, associated with age and onset); breaking the news (e.g. criteria for communication quality were satisfactory in more than 90%); multidisciplinary and sustained support (e.g. clinic visits were scheduled every 2-3 months in 90%). Also considered were whether riluzole had been offered, symptom management, genetic testing, ventilation, communication defects, enteral nutrition, palliative and end-of-life care. Characteristics associated with poor compliance with some guidelines (schedule of visits, delayed riluzole initiation) were also identified. This is the first evaluation of the application of the EFNS recommendations for the management of ALS in a nationwide sample. The results allow us to highlight areas for improvement. © 2016 EAN.

  10. Dysarthria in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a binational, cross-sectional, case-controlled study in French and European Portuguese (FraLusoPark).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Serge; Cardoso, Rita; Sadat, Jasmin; Guimarães, Isabel; Mercier, Céline; Santos, Helena; Atkinson-Clement, Cyril; Carvalho, Joana; Welby, Pauline; Oliveira, Pedro; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Frota, Sónia; Letanneux, Alban; Vigario, Marina; Cruz, Marisa; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Viallet, François; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2016-11-17

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have to deal with several aspects of voice and speech decline and thus alteration of communication ability during the course of the disease. Among these communication impairments, 3 major challenges include: (1) dysarthria, consisting of orofacial motor dysfunction and dysprosody, which is linked to the neurodegenerative processes; (2) effects of the pharmacological treatment, which vary according to the disease stage; and (3) particular speech modifications that may be language-specific, that is, dependent on the language spoken by the patients. The main objective of the FraLusoPark project is to provide a thorough evaluation of changes in PD speech as a result of pharmacological treatment and disease duration in 2 different languages (French vs European Portuguese). Individuals with PD are enrolled in the study in France (N=60) and Portugal (N=60). Their global motor disability and orofacial motor functions is assessed with specific clinical rating scales, without (OFF) and with (ON) pharmacological treatment. 2 groups of 60 healthy age-matched volunteers provide the reference for between-group comparisons. Along with the clinical examinations, several speech tasks are recorded to obtain acoustic and perceptual measures. Patient-reported outcome measures are used to assess the psychosocial impact of dysarthria on quality of life. The study has been approved by the local responsible committees on human experimentation and is conducted in accordance with the ethical standards. A valuable large-scale database of speech recordings and metadata from patients with PD in France and Portugal will be constructed. Results will be disseminated in several articles in peer-reviewed journals and in conference presentations. Recommendations on how to assess speech and voice disorders in individuals with PD to monitor the progression and management of symptoms will be provided. NCT02753192, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  11. Brief Report: The Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS)--Factor Structure, Reliability, and Convergent Validity in French-Speaking University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Genoud, Philippe A.; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and the reliability of the French versions of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) in a sample of college students (N = 457, 18-25 years old). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized three-factor solution…

  12. To Speak or Not to Speak: Promoting the Dartmouth Model at a Small Private College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, William F.

    The paper reviews the selection and use of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model at Western Maryland College. The purpose was to produce a student who could read, understand, speak, and write French easily enough to make a foreign language major attractive and less formidable. The program proposed a three-semester sequence of intensive French…

  13. Agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocols thereto) between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 21 March 2000 by the representative of the Government of the French Republic and the Director General of the IAEA, and on 26 September 2000 by the representative of the European Atomic Energy Community. Pursuant to Article 23 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 26 October 2007, one month after the Agency has received notification from both France and the European Atomic Energy Community that their respective internal requirements for entry into force have been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocols, the Protocols entered into force on the same date

  14. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  15. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  16. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  17. Unforgettable French Memory Tricks to Help You Learn and Remember French Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Rice-Jones, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Unforgettable French uses memory tricks to teach and reinforce major points of rench grammar from the basics up to high school level, to learners of all ages. It may be used: by anyone who wishes to gain confidence in speaking French, as a evision aid, to consolidate the learner's grasp of grammatical points, to complement whatever French scheme you are using, and by French teachers at all levels, from elementary school through to adult. These tried-and-tested memory tricks help to explain "tri

  18. Bernard Zappoli's contribution to the French scientific life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2017-01-01

    In November 2014, at the annual meeting of the research group "Fundamental and Applied Microgravity" held in Carqueiranne, France, I was asked to speak on Bernard Zappoli and his accomplishments. The following is an edited transcription of the speech delivered in his honor following his recent retirement as the Head of The Physical Science Programme at the French Space Agency (CNES). After an introduction outlining his human qualities and retirement as engineer emeritus, his career is summarized. It then details the scientific activities he has undertaken during different periods of his career at several universities, the European Society of Propulsion ("Société européenne de propulsion", SEP), and the CNES. Special attention is devoted to the research groups at the CNES/CNRS that we initiated and the management of which I had been sharing with him for several years. Allusion is made to his recent and new retiree activities.

  19. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  20. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  1. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  2. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  3. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  4. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  5. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  6. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with others. However, you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There ... If it is hard to speak with a trach in place, special devices can help you learn to create sounds. One-way valves, called speaking valves, are placed ...

  7. Nr 832 and Nr 833 - Report made on the behalf of the foreign affairs Commission on: - the bill project nr 4 authorizing the approval of the amendment protocol of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the Swiss Federal Council related to the extension in the French territory of the domain of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research concluded on the 13 September 1965, and - the bill project nr 5 authorizing the approval of the agreement between the Government of the French Republic, the Swiss Federal Council, and the European organisation for nuclear research on the law applicable to companies intervening on the Organisation's domain to provide services with a trans-national character, and Appendix: texts of the Commission of foreign affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the European organisation for nuclear research as an example of a European achievement, and as a significant source of fallouts for the French economy. It comments the complex application of territoriality rules in the field of labour law, and notably the fact that the location of work performance prevails for the determination of the applicable law, and that this issue has significant implications for French companies. The third part recalls the long negotiation process and comments the content of both agreements

  8. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  9. The Bilingual Advantage for Immigrant Students in French Immersion in Canada: Linking Advantages to Contextual Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather…

  10. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  11. 32. European Sociability

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Louis-Antoine Caraccioli describes in his treatise Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe, how the model of French sociability through conversation has contributed to civilising all of Europe. On the Mind of Society That affable and easy disposition, which gains trust and is well liked in all countries, is not given to all men. I know only of the Italians, the French and perhaps the Swedish who have it in themselves to approach those they meet, and who speak to them willingly. ...

  12. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordjman, F.; Vivies, P. de; Pariente-David, S.; Zagury, Ph.; April, F.; Guenaire, M.; Greiveldinger, H.; Rottenberg, J.; Lemaire, Ch.; Gentou, H.; Lesaffre, Th.; Besnault, J.; Martin, S.; Mouton, F.R.; Boulanger, Ph.

    2003-05-01

    The following topics are discussed: the national and european regulation framework; the french market opening forms; the impacts (purchase policy) on the actors (big industrial groups) and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  13. The new European Energy Union - Toward a consistent EU energy and climate policy? A report for the French Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    In his opening statement in the European Parliament in July 2014, the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker highlighted 10 key priorities for his mandate. One of these consists in 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. Does this imply that this Energy Union will mark the beginning of a new approach toward European energy policy, or is it merely a re-framing of the debate? We argue in this paper that the new Energy Union will need a radically new approach to European energy and climate policy. A sound European energy and climate policy should be based on a set of well-defined objectives, and rely on well-articulated instruments to deliver in the most efficient way on these objectives. The current European energy and climate policy framework has major flaws on both fronts. The paper does not aim to provide a comprehensive list of the issues at stake with European energy and climate policy, which would be a daunting task, and builds on previous work conducted for the for the Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective (CGSP) in 2013.5 Instead, we focus on some key areas with the objective to make a series of concrete proposals for reform. This paper takes a practitioners' perspective, recognizing that a 'first best' economic approach is often not practical, and therefore putting forward policy recommendations which recognize the policy and institutional constraints that characterize European policy making. We start by discussing issues with the European Commission (EC) energy and climate policy objectives, and then suggest some potential reforms to the regulatory framework to deliver on these objectives. We successively cover in session 2 and 3 the policy levers for decarbonization and for security of supply, before discussing the necessary changes to the power market framework. We conclude by discussing how the financing and governance challenges associated

  14. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  15. Pilot-testing the French version of a provisional European organisation for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC) measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucette, A; Brédart, A; Vivat, B; Young, T

    2014-03-01

    Spiritual well-being is increasingly recognised as an important aspect of patients' quality of life when living with a potentially life-limiting illness such as cancer. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a measure for assessing spiritual well-being cross-culturally for people receiving palliative care for cancer. The pilot-testing phase of the study explored potential problems related to the content and administration of a provisional version of this measure. The French version was pilot-tested with 12 patients in a palliative and supportive day care unit in Paris. Participants were asked to complete the measure and the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL before being interviewed about their responses. The administration of the measure enabled participants to express the difficulties and existential concerns they experienced. The items were not considered intrusive, despite the sensitive topic of the measure. This article considers difficulties with items pertaining to 'religion' and 'spirituality' in the context of French culture. Overall, this measure appears to enhance holistic care, by providing caregivers with a means of broaching spirituality issues, a topic otherwise difficult to discuss in the context of palliative care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The position of the French coal industry on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de charbonnages de France sur la strategie de lutte contre l`acidification de la commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejean, M. [CDF Energie, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Charbonnages de France group (French coal industry) presents several objections to the projected European Commission program concerning the reduction of air pollution emission and acidification: reaching so rapidly the projected reduction level means a drastic improvement to the large burning plants, regardless of the low operating duration of the coal plants in France, which are used for electric power production only at peak or semi-base periods or in industries (principally food industry) with low energy duration requirements, and regardless of the important emission reductions already achieved in France. The coal industry proposes to simply apply the present IPPC directive; already, turning to circulating fluidized bed units has allowed important SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission reductions. The evolution of sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions in France between 1990 and 1995 is detailed

  17. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  18. French Society Abroad: The Popularization of French Dance throughout Europe, 1600-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paul Rinehart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dissemination of French dance, dance notation, and dance music throughout Europe, and it explains the reasons why French culture had such an influence on other European societies from 1600-1750. First, the paper seeks to prove that King Louis XIV played a significant role in the outpour of French dance and the arts. Next, the paper discusses prominent French writers of dance notation who influenced the spread of French dance literature and training throughout Europe. Finally, the paper delineates European composers and their involvement in the development and production of French dance music. Using academic, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, and other scholarly sources, this paper seeks to accurately present the information in an orderly fashion. The paper contains visual evidence of dance and music notation to assist the reader in understanding the subject matter. Additionally, theories of contemporary authors as well as authors from the time period are discussed to present concrete evidence. The two main types of dance discussed in the paper are ballroom and court dances, which were prominent within the French royal court. One major finding of the research is the fact that French court and ballroom dances were specifically designed to communicate the power and prestige of King Louis XIV; consequently, other European countries were influenced to strive for similar prestige. Another finding is that many forms of French dance notation were translated and published in other countries, which increased the use of French dance throughout Europe. Musically, European composers such as Handel and Mozart included elements of French dance music in their compositions, and thus played a significant role in prevalence of French dance music throughout Europe. Overall, this paper proves that French dance received wide recognition due to political influence, availability of dance notation, and the involvement of prominent composers.

  19. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  20. Dynamic Speaking Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent; Sabet, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an attempt to adopt dynamic assessment (DA) methods in classroom speaking assessments. The study reported in this article focused on four particular applications of dynamic speaking assessment (DSA). The first, "mediated assistance" (MA), involves interaction between an assistor and a learner to reveal problems in…

  1. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  2. The Speaking Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagoort, P.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    How does intention to speak become the action of speaking? It involves the generation of a preverbal message that is tailored to the requirements of a particular language, and through a series of steps, the message is transformed into a linear sequence of speech sounds (1, 2). These steps include

  3. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  4. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  5. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  6. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...

  7. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  8. Raymond de Saussure. First president of the European Psychoanalytical Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorel, H

    1998-02-01

    The author reviews the life and career of the Swiss psychoanalyst Raymond de Saussure, who died in 1971. A member of an ancient Protestant family with a distinguished intellectual record in Geneva, Saussure studied medicine and psychiatry before turning to psychoanalysis after a fateful encounter with Sigmund Freud, with whom he subsequently maintained intermittent contacts. His subsequent efforts to establish psychoanalysis as a discipline in its own right separate from psychiatry, especially in the French-speaking countries, are described in detail. We learn of his important role in the promotion of psychoanalysis, the organisation of psychoanalytic training and the publication of psychoanalytic material, including his own substantial theoretical and clinical contributions. He is shown also to have had a wide range of other interests. Particular stress is laid on Saussure's Europeanism, as revealed in his familiarity with Germanic as well as French-language culture, his activities in France in addition to Switzerland, his role as an ambassador for European culture during his New York period, and, most importantly, his commitment to the formation of the European Psychoanalytical Federation, of which he was the first President. The author notes too that Saussure was a man of unfailing courtesy.

  9. Developing the Students’ English Speaking Ability Through Impromptu Speaking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumettu, A.; Runtuwene, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    Having multi -purposes, English mastery has becomea necessary for us.Of the four language skills, speaking skill should get the first priority in English teaching and speaking skills development cannot be separated from listening.One communicative way of developing speaking skill is impromptu speaking,a method sudden speaking which depends only on experience and insight by applying spontaneity or improvisation. It is delivered based on the need of the moment of speaking using simple language.This research aims to know (1). Why impromptu speaking is necessary in teaching speaking? (2). How can impromptu speaking develop the students’ speaking skills.The method of this research is qualitative method and the techniques of data collection are: observation,interview and documentation. The results of data analysis using Correlation shows a strong relation between the students’ speaking ability and impromptu speaking method (r = 0.80).The research show that by using impromptu speaking method, the students are trained to interact faster naturally and spontaneously and enrich their vocabulary and general science to support speaking development through interview, speech, presentation, discussion and storytelling.

  10. [The Confusion Assessment Method: Transcultural adaptation of a French version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, V; Belmin, J; Blain, H; Bonin-Guillaume, S; Goldsmith, L; Guerin, O; Kergoat, M-J; Landais, P; Mahmoudi, R; Morais, J A; Rataboul, P; Saber, A; Sirvain, S; Wolfklein, G; de Wazieres, B

    2018-04-03

    The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a validated key tool in clinical practice and research programs to diagnose delirium and assess its severity. There is no validated French version of the CAM training manual and coding guide (Inouye SK). The aim of this study was to establish a consensual French version of the CAM and its manual. Cross-cultural adaptation to achieve equivalence between the original version and a French adapted version of the CAM manual. A rigorous process was conducted including control of cultural adequacy of the tool's components, double forward and back translations, reconciliation, expert committee review (including bilingual translators with different nationalities, a linguist, highly qualified clinicians, methodologists) and pretesting. A consensual French version of the CAM was achieved. Implementation of the CAM French version in daily clinical practice will enable optimal diagnosis of delirium diagnosis and enhance communication between health professionals in French speaking countries. Validity and psychometric properties are being tested in a French multicenter cohort, opening up new perspectives for improved quality of care and research programs in French speaking countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Le Francais parle en situation minoritaire: Volume I (French Spoken in Minority Situations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeon, Raymond; And Others

    A previous study indicated localities in which students speak French most of the time, localities where they speak it only sometimes, and one locality between the two extremes. The study reported here was of students in three localities belonging to the groups just mentioned, namely, Cornwall, Pembroke, and North Bay. It revealed that students who…

  12. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  14. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  15. French speaking meetings on fuzzy logic and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The LFA conferences are devoted to the presentation of the most recent works about the fuzzy sets theory and its possible applications to fuzzy control, classification, pattern recognition, data processing, decision making, reasoning, image processing and interpretation, fusion of informations, artificial intelligence and information management systems. Among the 39 articles reported in this book, one concerns the processing of NMR images in nuclear medicine and has been selected for Inis. (J.S.)

  16. French speaking meeting on fuzzy logics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The LFA meeting is a opportunity for university searchers and industrialists to meet each others and to present their most recent results on the theory of fuzzy sets and/or on its applications. The domain of applications ranges from the fuzzy control of processes to classifying, pattern recognition, data analysis, decision making, reasoning, image processing and interpretation, data fusion, artificial intelligence or data management systems. This issue of the LFA meeting inaugurates some new theories of uncertainty such as the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions or the qualitative approaches. From the 40 communications published in this book, two fall into the Inis scope (radioactive waste management and 3-D NMR imaging of brain tissues) and one into the Etde scope (fuzzy control of an electric-powered vehicle). (J.S.)

  17. French-speaking meeting on fuzzy logic and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 edition of LFA'97 meeting for fuzzy logic has been organized by the Pattern Recognition and Computer Vision Laboratory of the National Institute of Applied Sciences. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum for researchers and users of fuzzy logic and possibility theory to present and discuss theoretical researches and concrete applications. The domains in concern are: the control decision theory, the pattern recognition and image analysis, the artificial intelligence and the information systems. From the 41 papers of this book, two were selected for ETDE and deal with fuzzy regulation systems for heating systems and with fuzzy controllers for gas refining plants, and one was selected for INIS and deal with real-time surveillance and fuzzy logic control systems for nuclear power plants. (J.S.)

  18. The ProVent model learns to speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E

    2014-10-20

    Leroy and colleagues report on the accuracy of the Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation Prognostic Model ('ProVent') in a cohort study of patients ventilated for at least 21 days in one of three hospitals in the north of France. This study is noteworthy because it is the first to describe the performance of the ProVent model both outside the US and in a community hospital-based setting.

  19. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  20. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  1. Mixed states vs. pure mania in the french sample of the EMBLEM study: results at baseline and 24 months – European mania in bipolar longitudinal evaluation of medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azorin Jean-Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the clinical course and treatment patterns over 24 months of patients experiencing an acute manic/mixed episode within the standard course of care. Methods EMBLEM was a 2-year European prospective, observational study on outcomes of patients experiencing a manic/mixed episode. Adults with bipolar disorder were enrolled within the standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated or changed oral medication for treatment of acute mania. After completing 12 weeks of acute phase, patients were assessed every 3–6 months during the maintenance phase. We present the 24 month results, with subgroup analysis for mixed states (MS and pure mania (PM. These subgroup analyses are driven by the high proportion of antidepressants prescribed in this cohort. Results In France, 771 patients were eligible for the maintenance phase. 69% of patients completed the follow up over 24 months. The mean age was 45.5 years (sd = 13.6 with 57% of women. 504 (66% patients were experiencing a PM and 262 (34% a MS at baseline. The main significant differences in MS vs. PM at baseline were: a higher rate of women, and in the previous 12 months, a higher frequency of episodes (manic/mixed and depressive, more suicide attempts, more rapid cycling, fewer social activities and more work impairment. Over the 24 months of follow-up the MS group had a significantly lower recovery than PM (36% vs. 46%, p = 0.006. Overall, 42% of all patients were started on monotherapy and 58% on combination therapy; of those 35% and 30% respectively remained on their initial medication throughout the 24 months. At baseline, 36% were treated with an antidepressant, this proportion remains high throughout the follow-up period, with a significantly higher rate for MS vs. PM at 24 months (55% vs. 27%, p Conclusion In this large sample, MS occur frequently (34%, they are more severe at baseline and have a worse functional prognosis than PM. Although

  2. French participation in the world energy council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, Ch.; Roussely, F.; Francony, M.; Ailleret, F.; Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F.; Villaron, Th.

    1999-01-01

    The Revue de l'Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m 2 , the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l'Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary's office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  3. Latin Loans In French Contemporary Advertising: Socio-Cultural, Linguistic and Psychological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kudinova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Latin language borrowings in the modern French language. The functioning of Latin borrowings in French advertising is analyzed. The attention is drown to the socio-cultural, linguistic and psychological aspects of this functioning. General trends concerning latinisms in French language are the clear proof of the importance and vitality of Latin into French society. It was shown that the Latin language has greatly influenced the French cultural memory and common European culture.

  4. Jeu de cartes or Jeu Descartes: Business Cards in a French Course for the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegerias, Mary

    This paper discusses the use of French business cards in a college-level French language and culture course for professionals. Among other assignments, students were each given a different card and asked to speak about the design of their card, the business represented, idiomatic expressions and historical allusions on the card, and the use of…

  5. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  6. [In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology: a proposal concerning French terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitakis, J; Bahadoran, P; Braun, R; Debarbieux, S; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vabres, P

    2013-11-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a recently introduced non-invasive imaging technique allowing real-time examination of the skin in vivo. Whereas a substantial literature concerning RCM exists in English, so far there is no official terminology in French, despite the fact that an ever-growing number of French-speaking dermatologists now use this new imaging technique. The aim of the present study is to propose a French terminology for RCM in order to allow French-speaking dermatologists to communicate in a precise and homogeneous language on this topic. A group of French-speaking dermatologists with solid experience of RCM, members of the Non-invasive Cutaneous Imaging group of the French Society of Dermatology, endeavored to suggest terms in French concerning RCM. Each group member dealt with a specific paragraph. The members exchanged comments via email and the terminology was finalized during a meeting of the group members in Paris in June 2012. Descriptive terms referring to the RCM aspects of normal and diseased skin were proposed. Some of these already existed, being used in routine dermatopathology, while other specific terms were created or adapted from the English terminology. This terminology will allow French-speaking dermatologists using RCM to communicate their findings in a homogeneous language. It may be enriched in the future by the introduction of additional terms describing new aspects of both normal and, especially, diseased skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Phonetics in the Beginning and Intermediate Oral Proficiency-Oriented French Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Diane

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that early introduction to basic French phonetic features and systematic emphasis on phonics allows students to learn to speak French clearly understandable to native speakers and relatively accent-free. In addition, this approach tends to improve listening skills. Important phonetic features to include in classwork are detailed.…

  8. Does Year 12 French Improve Proficiency? Student Views and Student Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the attitudes of students concerning the benefit of Year 12 foreign language courses to the development of their oral and aural proficiency in the target language, i.e., French. While most students felt that their ability to speak and understand spoken French had improved as a result of the course, some expressed dissatisfaction with…

  9. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  10. Who speaks for science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A missinformed or uninformed public can stop anything even when it is clearly in society's benefit and the public will remain uninformed and uneducated in science until the media professionals decide otherwise, until they stop quoting charlatans and quacks, and until respected scientists speak up

  11. Public Speaking: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufen, Phyllis M.

    There is a simple but effective process for developing public speakers in elementary and junior high schools. After discussing the importance of effective speaking, the teacher puts a topic sentence, on favorite desserts for example, on the board or overhead projector and students think of their favorite desserts and some related words and…

  12. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  13. Alors, la chanson francaise? (And So, the French Song?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Louis Jean

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  14. Internal exposure in French nuclear power plants : 10 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C.; Gonin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Collectively speaking, internal exposure in French nuclear power plants is negligible. However, some quite high individual doses have been recorded. The details of cases of significant contamination are presented here in table form. A brief discussion of a few particular cases underscores the problems involved. (author)

  15. My Hesitation to Speak English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  16. Online Business Chinese Speaking Instruction: A Speak Everywhere Speaking Program for Practical Business Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bailu; Fukada, Atsushi; Hong, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of speaking skills, for technology and other reasons, it is difficult for foreign language instructors to provide ample speaking practice opportunities to students. However, particularly in business language teaching, speaking is crucial. To address this problem, the authors have created an oral program for a Business Chinese textbook on an online platform called Speak Everywhere. This article discusses general oral training issues and reports on the design of t...

  17. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  18. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  19. Europe – political cleavage in the French presidential elections .

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Pătruţiu Balteș

    2012-01-01

    The French presidential elections of 2012 brought a new political approach concerning the candidates speech, because Europe became one of the main electoral themes within a national election. In full European economic crisis, the French people seem more than ever interested about the future of European construction, and in this context, the presidential candidates had to tackle this topic of interest in their election campaign. Analyzing the speeches of the first three candidates among the Fr...

  20. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2002-01-01

    A report on the opening of the French gas market has been established, on the request of both the French minister of economy, finances and industry and the state secretary of industry, as expressed in their respective letters addressed to the president of the commission of electric power regulation (CRE). This report follows the step report on the opening of the French gas market published on January 15, 2002. It presents a status of the French gas market since August 2000, date of the enforcement of the European Union directive 98/30/CE, and expresses some recommendations about the main questions that should fall into the field of the future gas regulation. This report was elaborated before the project of law relative to the energy markets and published on October 24, 2002. These recommendations will have to be adapted to the dispositions of the law. This article presents some excerpts of the synthesis report. (J.S.)

  1. Vermittlungen - musically speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weymann, Eckhard; Metzner, Susanne; Fitzthum, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Bilingual publication - mixed content in English and German. Articles were written by participants in the First European Symposium "Improvisation Training in Music Therapy education" which took place in Hamburg, 1998.......Bilingual publication - mixed content in English and German. Articles were written by participants in the First European Symposium "Improvisation Training in Music Therapy education" which took place in Hamburg, 1998....

  2. The French energy policy... in Brussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    This document outlines that some official statements of the French Government within the European Commission about the application of directives related to energy are different from what is said or written in France. This double talk concerns the reduction of energy intensity, the prospective of total final energy demand, and the electricity consumption

  3. Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suranto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique. Speaking is one of the basic competence from the other fourth basic competence (listening, speaking, reading and writing. Speaking ability should be mastered by every students, in order to achieve that competence students should be given the right technique to study sepaking. The successfull of the students speaking can be seen from their ability to express idea, thought and feeling through speaking. The objective of this Action Research is to improve students’s oral communication skill through the debate technique. This study was conducted at MA Ma’arif Nu 5 Sekampung Lampung Timur from March to April 2014. The research data were taken from students in the eleventh class, with 28 students and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The research findings indicate that there are improvements in students’ english speaking skill through the debate technique. By analyzing data qualitatively and quantitatively from the end of the first cycle to the second cycle and it was found that the students’ English speaking skill increased 20,9% over the standard that has been determined by the researcher that is 65%. The researcher concludes that the students’ english speaking skill can be improve through the debate technique in learning process.   Key words : action research, debate technique, english speaking skill

  4. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: sing along!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Amélie; Bard, Céline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2006-10-01

    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were tested in the repetition and recall of words and notes of familiar material. Lyrics of familiar songs, as well as words of proverbs and prayers, were not better pronounced in singing than in speaking. Notes were better produced than words. In Experiment 2, the aphasic patients repeated and recalled lyrics from novel songs. Again, they did not produce more words in singing than in speaking. In Experiment 3, when allowed to sing or speak along with an auditory model while learning novel songs, aphasics repeated and recalled more words when singing than when speaking. Reduced speed or shadowing cannot account for this advantage of singing along over speaking in unison. The results suggest that singing in synchrony with an auditory model--choral singing--is more effective than choral speech, at least in French, in improving word intelligibility because choral singing may entrain more than one auditory-vocal interface. Thus, choral singing appears to be an effective means of speech therapy.

  5. Strategies for improved French-language health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alain P.; Timony, Patrick E.; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify strategies to improve the quality of health services for Francophone patients. Design A series of semistructured key informant interviews. Setting Northeastern Ontario. Participants A total of 18 physicians were interviewed. Ten physicians were interviewed in French, 7 physicians were women, and 10 physicians were located in urban communities. Methods Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to conduct a series of semistructured key informant interviews with family physicians practising in communities with a large Francophone population. Principles of grounded theory were applied, guided by a framework for patient-professional communication. Results were inductively derived following an iterative data collection–data analysis process and were analyzed using a detailed thematic approach. Main findings Respondents identified several strategies for providing high-quality French-language health services. Some were unique to non–French-speaking physicians (eg, using appropriate interpreter services), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg, using a flexible dialect), and some strategies were common to all physicians serving French populations (eg, hiring bilingual staff or having pamphlets and posters in both French and English). Conclusion Physicians interviewed for this study provided high-quality health care by attributing substantial importance to effective communication. While linguistic patient-to-physician concordance is ideal, it might not always be possible. Thus, conscious efforts to attenuate communication barriers are necessary, and several effective strategies exist. PMID:26505060

  6. La Grande Nation and Agriculture: The Power of French Farmers Demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Alons, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    France is considered a strong state, but French governments have always fiercely defended the interests of French farmers in European and global negotiations. Why would a ‘strong state’ be unable to resist farm lobby pressure? Is agriculture an exception to the French ‘strong state’ rule? This

  7. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  8. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Future perspectives of French dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval M.

    1996-01-01

    If the French deterrence must disappear in aid of an European deterrence, it will be necessary to take in account the development of nuclear weapon in Asia and then our deterrence system should maintain its credibility by getting the appropriate length. If policy problems are as important for civil nuclear than for military nuclear, it will be necessary to show concern about them because the Asian economy is in full development and Asia is not so frightened by nuclear power than Europe. (N.C.)

  10. The Study of the Phenomenon of Hesitation as a Cognitive Process in Iranian French Learners' Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Mehrabi, Marzieh; Safa, Parivash; Golfam, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    Hesitation, when speaking a foreign language, is studied through its components: beginnings, pauses, and repetitions. This paper aims to identify, through the study of this phenomenon, vulnerable zones among Iranian learners when they speak French. A case study of 30 adult learners shows that hesitation is not random and at different levels (A1 to…

  11. Prospects of the French offshore wind power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-12-01

    This market study about the French offshore wind power industry presents: 1 - the bases of the offshore wind power market: wind turbine operation principle, foundations and scale change; 2 - business model of offshore wind power projects: logistical, technical and financial challenges, cost structure and profitability of projects (investment, power generation costs, incentive mechanisms), project development time; 3 - European and French regulatory framework: the energy/climate package, the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' commitments for the development of renewable energies; 4 - start up of the French offshore wind power market: the onshore wind power market looking for growth relaying, the lateness of the offshore market, outlines of the call for bids and of the first phase launching (schedule, selected sites and candidates), market development stakes and opportunities; 5 - offshore wind power overview in Europe - lessons for the French market prospects: status of the European market (installed power/country, projects in progress), European leaders of the market (analysis of the British, Danish and German markets successful takeoff), specificities of the French market (are all favourable conditions present?); 6 - takeoff of the French market - what opportunities on the overall value chain?: front-end of the industry (manufacturers and component suppliers: industry structure, competition, R and D, subcontractors in France), back-end of the industry (developers/operators: sector analysis, ambitions, alliances, competences), specific French know-how in offshore installation and connection of wind turbines (reconversion of harbour areas, re-positioning of shipbuilding industry). (J.S.)

  12. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  13. Le vocabulaire disponible du francais, Tome 1. Le vocabulaire concret usuel des enfants francais et acadiens: Etude temoin (The Working French Vocabulary, Volume 1. Common Generic Terms Used by French and Acadian Children: A Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, William F.; And Others

    The first of a two-volume study of the relative accessibility of French vocabulary in French-speaking Canada presents statistical data concerning the frequency, distribution, valence, and accessibility of vocabulary related to 16 fundamental centers of interest found in normal conversation. The scope, procedures, and results of the study are…

  14. A vos marques! an accelerated French course

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Alison; Tippett-Spirtou, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    A Vos Marques! is an introductory course for students taking French as an option alongside their main degree course. It has been developed specifically for false beginners: students who have a slight acquaintance with the language.The course comprises a student's book, teacher's book and three 60-minute audio cassettes and, through fifteen chapters, follows the progress of an English-speaking student studying in Paris, whose achievements are designed to reflect those of the course user.Special features include:* activities involving pair and group work* an aid to self-

  15. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  16. French language space science educational outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  17. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  18. Improving English Speaking Fluency: The Role of Six Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Shahini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study, using an open interview, set out to investigate the roles six factors, including age, university education, teachers of English Language institutes, teaching English, dictionary, and note-taking, played in improving English speaking fluency of seventeen fluent Iranian EFL speakers. The participants were chosen purposefully based on the speaking scale of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The findings indicated that early age had a great impact on the participants’ speaking fluency. They mentioned that they could not pick up fluency if they had started learning English at older ages. Moreover, university education had no effect on enhancing their fluency. They stated that not having enough opportunities to speak English in classrooms, being exposed to wrong amounts of input from their classmates or even from some university instructors, having no access to English native speakers in English Language Departments, professors’ talking in native language out of classes, in their offices or even sometimes in classes all led to their losing motivation after entering the university. In contrast, teachers in English language institutes had a supportive role in increasing the participants’ English learning. Although two participants quit teaching English since it had a negative influence on their speaking, it had a positive impact on improving speaking ability of the rest. And finally, fruitful strategies were suggested on how to use dictionaries and note-takings.

  19. Do you speak Cernese?

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Translation Service's bilingual glossary, comprising over 4000 entries relating to specific terms used in the Laboratory, can now be accessed on-line via the Web. Members of the Translation and Minutes Service. First row, from left to right : François Siohan, Blandine Gallone, Rosmarie Meyer and Odile Martin. Second row, from left to right : Jean-Paul Cazals, Bernie Meares, Lisa Morris, Martine Dubois, Brigitte Lorenz and John Pym. Buckyball, tunnel de rétraction, crumble theory, pompe centrifuge à volute, culvert... Would you know how to translate these terms into French or English*? You probably won't even find them in a dictionary! It's a fact of life that organisations like CERN employ very specialised terminology, and of course, since our Organization has two official languages, it is faced with the daily task of having to find equivalents for often abstruse terms in French or English. This is just one of the tasks of the Translation and Minutes Service (AS-TM), which, as its name implies,...

  20. Speaking to Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    The ebbs and flows, which typically influences not just rhetoric around, but also how we think through nationalism, suggest nationalism is somehow at the core the same ‘thing’. But is it really? What connects the rise of nationalism in Australia in the 1880s, to the nationalism of the First...... surrounding refugees and migrancy in Australia and Europe (since this is what we are invited to do by the organisers), and how the deconstruction of such discourses might lead to more constructive ways of speaking through nation, might offer a way. I think Stan Grant’s book, Talking to My Country, through its...... combination of incisive criticism and insistence on constructive nation-(re)building offers an interesting launching pad. I am hoping to use Grant’s nation-rebuilding project to suggest ways that could open up similar spaces in equally exclusivist, the-nation-is-white-places in Europe. I am aware Grant has...

  1. Speak up-related climate and its association with healthcare workers' speaking up and withholding voice behaviours: a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David; Richard, Aline

    2018-03-23

    To determine frequencies of healthcare workers (HCWs) speak up-related behaviours and the association of speak up-related safety climate with speaking up and withholding voice. Cross-sectional survey of doctors and nurses. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression models SETTING: 4 hospitals with a total of nine sites from the German, French and Italian speaking part of Switzerland. Survey data were collected from 979 nurses and doctors. Frequencies of perceived patient safety concerns, of withholding voice and of speaking up behaviour. Speak up-related climate measures included psychological safety, encouraging environment and resignation. Perceived patient safety concerns were frequent among doctors and nurses (between 62% and 80% reported at least one safety concern during the last 4 weeks depending on the single items). Withholding voice was reported by 19%-39% of HCWs. Speaking up was reported by more than half of HCWs (55%-76%). The frequency of perceived concerns during the last 4 weeks was positively associated with both speaking up (OR=2.7, pspeaking up frequency (OR=1.3, p=0.005) and lower withholding voice frequency (OR=0.82, p=0.006). Resignation was associated with withholding voice (OR=1.5, pspeak up-supportive safety climate for staff safety-related communication behaviours, specifically withholding voice. This study indicates that a poor climate, in particular high levels of resignation among HCWs, is linked to frequent 'silence' of HCWs but not inversely associated with frequent speaking up. Interventions addressing safety-related voicing behaviours should discriminate between withholding voice and speaking up. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Barriers to offering French language physician services in rural and northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timony, Patrick E; Gauthier, Alain P; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Rural and Northern Ontario francophones face many health-related challenges including poor health status, a poor supply of French-speaking physicians, and the potential for an inability or reduced ability to effectively communicate with anglophone healthcare providers. As such, it can reasonably be expected that rural and Northern Ontario francophones experience barriers when receiving care. However, the experience of physicians working in areas densely populated by francophones is largely unexplored. This paper identifies barriers experienced by French-speaking and Non-French-speaking rural and Northern Ontario physicians when serving francophone patients. A series of key informant interviews were conducted with 18 family physicians practicing in rural and urban francophone communities of Northeastern Ontario. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis process. Five categories of barrier were identified: (1) language discordance, (2) characteristics of francophone patients, (3) dominance of English in the medical profession, (4) lack of French-speaking medical personnel, and (5) physicians' linguistic (in)sensitivity. Some barriers identified were unique to Non-French-speaking physicians (eg language discordance, use of interpreters, feelings of inadequacy), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg limited French education and resources), and some were common to both groups (eg lack of French-speaking colleagues/staff, added time commitments, and the particularities of Franco-Ontarian preferences and culture). Healthcare providers and decision makers may take interest in these results. Although physicians were the focus of the present article, the barriers expressed are likely experienced by other healthcare providers, and thus the lessons learned from this article extend beyond the physician workforce. Efforts must be made to offer educational opportunities for physicians and other healthcare providers working in areas densely populated by

  3. Who Speaks for Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Judging by the press coverage, it would seem that Europeans are the only ones concerned about conditions in Africa, but perhaps the media is not telling the whole story. According to Mark P. Fancher, chair of the National Conference of Black Lawyers' Section on International Affairs & World Peace and the author of "The Splintering of…

  4. Role de la societe dans l'acquisition et le maintien du francais par les eleves franco-ontariens (The Role of Society in the Acquisition and Maintenance of French by Franco-Ontarian Students)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeon, Raymond; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the social, educational and political factors in bilingual education and French language maintenance in Ontario. After the fourth grade, most Francophone children tend to speak English. Encouragement to use French must come from the social domain, beyond the school and the home. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. Writing Double: Politics and The African Narrative of French Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Erickson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies two African narratives of French expression ( Le Temps de Tamango of Boubacar Diop and L'Enfant de sable of Tahar ben Jelloun to see how they create a discourse of difference that challenges and deconstructs the conventions of the discursive system of French, its signifying practices, and its ideological underpinnings. The tactics of these narratives, which mark them as post-colonial in a strict sense (as opposed to neo-colonial, are productive of a radical other-meaning, a new meaning that "speaks" to the concerns of and problems confronting the non-Western writer.

  6. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  7. Decree N0 72-959 of 16 October 1972 publishing the Agreement of 28 July 1972 between the Government of the French Republic and the European Organisation for Nuclear Research concerning protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The Convention on Protection against Ionizing Radiation concluded between France and CERN determines the respective responsibilties of both parties in that field on French territory and its neighbourhood. It also defines the relevant competent bodies as well as the administrative structure and lays down the procedure to be followed in case of an incident. (NEA) [fr

  8. Students’ Motivation in Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Darul Ihsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the English teacher in the classroom, there will be some problems or conditions need to be accomplished. Teacher will see some of the students are very motivated, motivated or even feeling ignored in studying English. The learners who have contacted with English will find that some features are quite easy and extremely difficult. One of the more complicated problems of second or foreign languages learning and  teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom. Motivation is a concept without physical reality, we cannot see motivation; we see effort, interest, attitude and desire. For speaking, it is important first to give competence and then performance. Competence is more likely to the extent a communicator is motivated to be so. Motivation is the extent to which a communicator is drawn towards or pushed away from communicating competently in a given context then performed. This is a descriptive  quantitative research. The data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and analyzed to get the result.  The date taken from the students of Muhammadiyah 1 Senior High School Gresik in Easy-Speaking course. The researcher wanted to know the students’ motivation in practicing speaking English in Easy-Speaking course. The results show that 1 the learners effort in practicing speaking English is 56.1 %. 2 The learners’ interest in practicing speaking English is 49.7 %. 3 The learners’ attitude towards practicing speaking English is 59.9 %. 4 The learners’ desire in practicing speaking English is 71.43 %. Then, some suggestions are made: 1 Using media is very important both to increase the learners’ motivation and to give a big opportunity to learners to explore their idea. 2 Giving more variations techniques in teaching and learning process in order do not monotonous. 3 Giving prizes, encouraging and giving extra points for learners who can express their idea by speaking English well. 4 Creating

  9. An assessment of the measurement equivalence of English and French versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale in systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Delisle

    Full Text Available Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale scores in English- and French-speaking Canadian systemic sclerosis (SSc patients are commonly pooled in analyses, but no studies have evaluated the metric equivalence of the English and French CES-D. The study objective was to examine the metric equivalence of the CES-D in English- and French-speaking SSc patients.The CES-D was completed by 1007 English-speaking and 248 French-speaking patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF.A two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 CES-D items, including items 3 (Blues, 10 (Fearful, and 11 (Sleep. Prior to accounting for DIF, French-speaking patients had 0.08 of a standard deviation (SD lower latent scores for the Positive factor (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.25 to 0.08 and 0.09 SD higher scores (95% CI-0.07 to 0.24 for the Negative factor than English-speaking patients. After DIF correction, there was no change on the Positive factor and a non-significant increase of 0.04 SD on the Negative factor for French-speaking patients (difference = 0.13 SD, 95% CI-0.03 to 0.28.The English and French versions of the CES-D, despite minor DIF on several items, are substantively equivalent and can be used in studies that combine data from English- and French-speaking Canadian SSc patients.

  10. An assessment of the measurement equivalence of English and French versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Vanessa C; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D

    2014-01-01

    Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale scores in English- and French-speaking Canadian systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients are commonly pooled in analyses, but no studies have evaluated the metric equivalence of the English and French CES-D. The study objective was to examine the metric equivalence of the CES-D in English- and French-speaking SSc patients. The CES-D was completed by 1007 English-speaking and 248 French-speaking patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC) model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF). A two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect) showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 CES-D items, including items 3 (Blues), 10 (Fearful), and 11 (Sleep). Prior to accounting for DIF, French-speaking patients had 0.08 of a standard deviation (SD) lower latent scores for the Positive factor (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.25 to 0.08) and 0.09 SD higher scores (95% CI-0.07 to 0.24) for the Negative factor than English-speaking patients. After DIF correction, there was no change on the Positive factor and a non-significant increase of 0.04 SD on the Negative factor for French-speaking patients (difference = 0.13 SD, 95% CI-0.03 to 0.28). The English and French versions of the CES-D, despite minor DIF on several items, are substantively equivalent and can be used in studies that combine data from English- and French-speaking Canadian SSc patients.

  11. English-French bilingual children’s phonological awareness and vocabulary skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PiYu Chiang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children’s vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological awareness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by English phonological awareness, consistent with previous findings that phonological awareness skills transfer across languages. However, there was a small unique contribution from French expressive vocabulary size to French phonological awareness. The importance of vocabulary skills to the development of phonological awareness is discussed.

  12. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  13. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  14. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  15. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny E

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler "to speak," [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter "to repeat," [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer "to adore," [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire "to drink," [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal

  16. French descriptions of Wundt's laboratory in Leipzig in 1886.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Gyselinck, Valérie; Murray, David J; Bandomir, Christina A

    2002-08-01

    Translations are provided of extracts from reports by the French-speaking scholars Alfred Grafé and Emile Durkheim concerning the instructional procedures in place at Wundt's Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig in the summer of 1886. It is stressed that reports such as theirs were of importance, not only to researchers, but also to teachers and administrators concerned with how the new experimental psychology should be taught, especially with respect to practical classes.

  17. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  18. Transports and the environment: European comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    For different issues (freight transport, passenger transport, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, fuel consumption in transport and energy efficiency), and illustrated by data tables and figures, this report proposes assessments and comments of the impact on the environment, an overview of the French situation, a comparison with European countries, and an analysis of French peculiarities

  19. Does training make French speakers more able to identify lexical stress?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Sandra; Llisterri, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    This research takes the stress deafness hypothesis as a starting point (e.g. Dupoux et al., 2008), and, more specifically, the fact that French speakers present difficulties in perceiving lexical stress in a free-stress language. In this framework, we aim at determining whether a prosodic training could improve the ability of French speakers to identify the stressed syllable in Spanish words. Three groups of participants took part in this experiment. The Native group was composed of 16 speake...

  20. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  1. Improving communication between physicians and patients who speak a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Alexander; Perneger, Thomas V; Bovier, Patrick A; Loutan, Louis; Stalder, Hans

    2003-07-01

    Communication between physicians and patients is particularly challenging when patients do not speak the local language (in Switzerland, they are known as allophones). To assess the effectiveness of an intervention to improve communication skills of physicians who deal with allophone patients. 'Before-and-after' intervention study, in which both patients (allophone and francophone) and physicians completed visit-specific questionnaires assessing the quality of communication. Two consecutive samples of patients attending the medical outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in French-speaking Switzerland. The intervention consisted of training physicians in communicating with allophone patients and working with interpreters. French-speaking patients served as the control group. The outcomes measured were: patient satisfaction with care received and with communication during consultation; and provider (primary care physician) satisfaction with care provided and communication during consultation. At baseline, mean scores of patients' assessments of communication were lower for allophone than for francophone patients. At follow-up, five out of six of the scores of allophone patients showed small increases (P French-speaking patients: explanations given by physician; respectfulness of physician; communication; overall process of the consultation; and information about future care. In contrast, physicians' assessments did not change significantly. Finally, after the intervention, the proportion of consultations with allophone patients in which professional interpreters were present increased significantly from 46% to 67%. The quality of communication as perceived by allophone patients can be improved with specific training aimed at primary care physicians.

  2. Nuclear deterrence - The French nuclear adventure - The cockerel's spurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    This book reveals the secrets of the French strike force: the formidable adventure which provided France with first ranking strategic forces, the incredible fight given by Europe and the European Commission states to prohibit France from acquiring nuclear weapons, the US ambiguous game of accompanying France in her nuclear adventure in order to better monitor her, the core of deterrence with its doctrine of use, and for the future, the measures which will make French deterrence a decisive tool for worldwide peace

  3. Cross-cultural French adaptation and validation of the Impact On Family Scale (IOFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudas, Raphaël; Jégu, Jérémie; Grollemund, Bruno; Quentel, Elvire; Danion-Grilliat, Anne; Velten, Michel

    2013-04-23

    The IOFS (Impact On Family Scale) questionnaire is a useful instrument to assess the impact of chronic childhood conditions on general family quality of life. As this instrument was not validated in French, we proposed to translate, adapt and validate the IOFS questionnaire for clinical and research use in French-speaking populations. The sample studied comprised French-speaking parents with a child presenting a cleft lip or cleft lip and palate, aged 6 to 12 years and treated in the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. The 15-item version of the IOFS was translated into French and then sent to the parents by post. The structure of the measure was studied using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability was studied by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The French version of the IOFS questionnaire exhibited very good psychometric properties. For practitioners, this instrument will facilitate the assessment of the impact of chronic childhood conditions on quality of life among French-speaking families.

  4. A Contrastive Haitian Creole-English Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. M. R.; Hall, Beatrice L.

    1971-01-01

    Teachers must recognize that, according to every reliable linguistic survey of the French-speaking Caribbean area, all social classes, except recent European immigrants, speak French Carribbean Creole, not Standard French, as their first language. (JM)

  5. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  6. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  7. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  8. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  9. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  10. Multiple Minorities or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Plurilingual Learners? Re-Envisioning Allophone Immigrant Children and Their Inclusion in French-Language Schools in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Four out of five immigrants to Canada speak a language other than English or French as a first language. Immigration is increasingly transforming francophone minority communities. Allophone children acquire minority status on multiple levels within French-language schools, where they can become both a linguistic minority and a cultural minority…

  11. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  12. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  13. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  14. Speaking about the Internet…

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Although a lot of people know that the Web was invented at CERN, not many people know that CERN has also played a central role in developing the Internet in Europe. In the early 1990s the European Internet network looked like a star, with CERN at its center. The Organization was also one of the founding members of the Internet Society, which celebrated its first 20 years in a conference held in Geneva from 22 to 24 April. CERN was a special guest.   The Internet Society’s Global INET 2012 was a three-day international forum that celebrated the Internet Society’s 20th anniversary. The Society was created to provide a framework for the governance of the Internet, promote its development and keep it accessible to the largest possible number of users. “In 1992 CERN became a founding member of the Internet Society and it has remained a member ever since. CERN is also member of the Advisory Council,” says François Fluckiger from the IT Department wh...

  15. The Concept of Competence in the French-Language Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte-Beaudet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The author reports on an exploratory study to establish a semantic base for the concept of competence in the French-speaking literature on education. Doing so will make it possible to identify neighbouring concepts or notions that researchers can use to determine definitions and applications for the concept. The research team found only one…

  16. French Second-Language Teacher Candidates' Positions towards Allophone Students and Implications for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie; Arnett, Katy; Muilenburg, Lin Y.

    2017-01-01

    In Canada, there is a rising population of K-12 students who speak neither French nor English at home, and who are sometimes expected to learn both of the country's official languages in school. Applying the lenses of critical theory and positioning theory, this study uses questionnaire and interview data to frame considerations to explore how…

  17. Experimental Study of Learning French in the Public Schools: Report #1, 1959-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario). Research Dept.

    An experiment in language instruction undertaken in Canadian junior high schools during the 1960-61 school year is reported in this study. The pilot project: (1) examines the phenomena of learning to comprehend and speak French through two different but direct modes of instruction; (2) compares by achievement tests the results of the two modes of…

  18. Learn French In A Hurry Grasp the Basics of Francais Tout De Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Sure, you can blurt out Merci! and Oui! Oui! and Garcon! as well as the next tourist, but in truth your French lacks a certain je ne sais quoi. That just won't do if you're touring the City of Light or sunning in Tahiti or ordering a la carte in a Montreal cafe. Whether you're traveling to a French-speaking country or learning French for business, this pocket-sized primer is your passeport to one of the world's most beautiful-and useful-languages. Learn French in a Hurry features:Common French phrases (days of the week, numbers, letters)Pronunciation and conjugation tips and tricksGrammar made

  19. Partial validation of a French version of the ADHD-rating scale IV on a French population of children with ADHD and epilepsy. Factorial structure, reliability, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Catherine; Roche, Sylvain; Gaillard, Ségolène; Kassai, Behrouz; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Herbillon, Vania; Roy, Pascal; Rheims, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-known comorbidity in children with epilepsy. In English-speaking countries, the scores of the original ADHD-rating scale IV are currently used as main outcomes in various clinical trials in children with epilepsy. In French-speaking countries, several French versions are in use though none has been fully validated yet. We sought here for a partial validation of a French version of the ADHD-RS IV regarding construct validity, internal consistency (i.e., scale reliability), item reliability, and responsiveness in a group of French children with ADHD and epilepsy. The study involved 167 children aged 6-15years in 10 French neuropediatric units. The factorial structure and item reliability were assessed with a confirmatory factorial analysis for ordered categorical variables. The dimensions' internal consistency was assessed with Guttman's lambda 6 coefficient. The responsiveness was assessed by the change in score under methylphenidate and in comparison with a control group. The results confirmed the original two-dimensional factorial structure (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and showed a satisfactory reliability of most items, a good dimension internal consistency, and a good responsiveness of the total score and the two subscores. The studied French version of the ADHD-RS IV is thus validated regarding construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness. It can now be used in French-speaking countries in clinical trials of treatments involving children with ADHD and epilepsy. The full validation requires further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of LBB concept in French fast reactors: Application to SPX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbat, A.; Deschanels, H.; Sperandio, M.

    1997-01-01

    The leak before break (LBB) concept was not used at the design level for SUPERPHENIX (SPX), but different studies have been performed or are in progress concerning different components : Main Vessel (MV), pipings. These studies were undertaken to improve the defense in depth, an approach used in all French reactors. In a first study, the LBB approach has been applied to the MV of SPX plant to verify the absence of risk as regards the core supporting function and to help in the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) program. Defining a reference semi-elliptic defect located in the welds of the structure, it is verified that the crack growth is limited and that the end-of-life defect is smaller than the critical one. Then it is shown that the hoop welds (those which are the most important for safety) located between the roof and the triple point verify the leak-before-break criteria. However, generally speaking, the low level of membrane primary stresses which is favorable for the integrity of the vessel makes the application of the leak-before-break concept more difficult due to small crack opening areas. Finally, the extension of the methodology to the secondary pipings of SPX incorporating recent European works of DCRC is briefly presented

  1. The use of LBB concept in French fast reactors: Application to SPX plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbat, A.; Deschanels, H.; Sperandio, M. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The leak before break (LBB) concept was not used at the design level for SUPERPHENIX (SPX), but different studies have been performed or are in progress concerning different components : Main Vessel (MV), pipings. These studies were undertaken to improve the defense in depth, an approach used in all French reactors. In a first study, the LBB approach has been applied to the MV of SPX plant to verify the absence of risk as regards the core supporting function and to help in the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) program. Defining a reference semi-elliptic defect located in the welds of the structure, it is verified that the crack growth is limited and that the end-of-life defect is smaller than the critical one. Then it is shown that the hoop welds (those which are the most important for safety) located between the roof and the triple point verify the leak-before-break criteria. However, generally speaking, the low level of membrane primary stresses which is favorable for the integrity of the vessel makes the application of the leak-before-break concept more difficult due to small crack opening areas. Finally, the extension of the methodology to the secondary pipings of SPX incorporating recent European works of DCRC is briefly presented.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speaking Strategies Employed by Second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW

    speaking skills and more strategy training should be given in using wide varieties of speaking .... helpful, and meta cognitive strategies are important for ..... think of. Similarly, in compensating for the missing knowledge, gestures, word coinage.

  3. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  4. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  5. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  6. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  7. French memorandum for revitalizing European energy policy with a view to sustainable development; Memorandum de la France pour une relance de la politique energetique europeenne dans une perspective de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    During the European Council at Hampton Court (October 2005), the European Heads of State or Government expressed the desire to see Europe's energy policy revitalized, given the new and increasingly tough challenges facing Europe and the world today, in particular concerning energy security on the one hand, and the need to combat climate change on the other. These guidelines were confirmed and clarified by the European Council on 15 and 16 December 2005, which particularly 'stressed the importance of an integrated approach to climate change, energy and competitiveness objectives, and underlined the fact that strategies to invest in cleaner and more sustainable energy, both within the EU and more widely, can support a range of policy objectives, including energy security, competitiveness, employment, air quality and reduced greenhouse gas emissions'. To make a contribution to the debate around these strategic questions ongoing in many arenas, and pending the publication of new documents announced by the Commission and the Presidency of the Council concerning European energy policy, France wishes to make known its point of view and propose areas for action in order to promote solutions to encourage the creation of safer and more sustainable energy systems both within the EU and with our partners, which would be accessible to all. This involves: - guaranteeing that the energy we produce, import and consume for our economic and social development remains available and economically accessible to all, both today and in the future; - progressing towards sustainable use of energy in that it must take account of environmental impacts and the depletion of fossil resources; - developing employment by promoting energy efficiency, renewable energies and other low greenhouse gas emitting technologies. After a reminder of the context and stakes (part 1), suggestions are made with regard to policies (part 2) and means, concerning the various types of consumption on

  8. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  9. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  10. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  11. An Assessment of IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…

  12. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia

    2018-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  13. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  14. The use of PSA in the French regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesiez, H.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation gives a description of fundamental documents (since 1977-1978) through which have been set up in France probabilistic objectives, and PSAs, including shutdown states, performed for 900-1300 MWe PWR-type nuclear power plants. PSA developments and use, including fire PSA, level 2 and PSA for the future French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) are also discussed

  15. On Recursive Modification in Child L1 French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Roberge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates nominal recursive modification (RM in the L1 acquisition of French. Although recursion is considered the fundamental property of human languages, recursive self-embedding is found to be difficult for children in a variety of languages and constructions. Despite these challenges, the acquisition of RM proves to be resilient; acquirable even under severely degraded input conditions. From a minimalist perspective on the operations of narrow syntax, recursive embedding is essentially the application of a sequence of Merge operations (Chomsky 1995; Trotzke and Zwart 2014; therefore, given the universality of Merge, we do not expect to find cross-linguistic differences in how difficult recursion is. But if the challenging nature of recursion stems from factors which might differ from language to language, we expect different outcomes cross-linguistically. We compare new data from French to existing English data (Pérez-Leroux et al. 2012 in order to examine to what extent language-specific properties of RM structures determine the acquisition path. While children’s production differs significantly from their adult’s counterparts, we find no differences between French-speaking and English-speaking children. Our findings suggest that the challenging nature of recursion does not stem from the grammar itself and that what shapes the acquisition path is the interaction between universal properties of language and considerations not specific to language, namely computational efficiency.

  16. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  17. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  18. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  19. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  20. An exploratory study of discourse conventions in the European Parliament: Thanking in Spanish, French and Dutch Un estudio exploratorio de las convenciones discursivas en el parlamento europeo: los agradecimientos en español, francés y neerlandés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Goethals

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a small-scale corpus with Spanish, French and Dutch interventions in the plenary debates in the European Parliament, in order to verify whether there exist cultural differences in the use and the expression of the particular politeness strategy of thanking somebody. We find that thanking is more frequent in Spanish and French than in Dutch. In addition, it plays a more prominent role, e.g. because the acknowledgements are longer and receive more emphasis. Previous studies found that Dutch speakers tend to use many routine acknowledgements in contexts where there may be a threat to the negative face of one of the speech participants. Our study shows that French and Spanish speakers use more acknowledgements than Dutch when public positive face is at stake. The data also show the relevance of the concept of valuating politeness, as opposed to mitigating politeness, in order to describe the Spanish data.En este trabajo analizamos un corpus piloto de intervenciones españolas, francesas y neerlandófonas en los debates plenarios del Parlamento Europeo, con el fin de averiguar si existen diferencias interculturales en cuanto al uso y la expresión de una estrategia de cortesía particular, que son los agradecimientos. Comprobamos que los agradecimientos figuran con mayor frecuencia en los discursos de los españoles y los franceses que en los discursos de los neerlandófonos. Además, cobran más relieve, por ejemplo porque son más extensos y se enfatizan más. Estudios anteriores han observado que los neerlandófonos tienden a usar muchos agradecimientos rutinarios en contextos donde podría existir una amenaza para la imagen negativa de uno de los interlocutores. Nuestro estudio muestra que los franceses y los españoles usan más agradecimientos que los neerlandófonos cuando está en juego la imagen positiva. Los datos apuntan además hacia la relevancia del concepto de la cortesía valorizante, por oposición a la

  1. HIGHLIGHTS OF ROMANIAN AND FRENCH WINE MARKETS: THE EXAMPLE OF FRENCH CHAMPAGNE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubenot Marie-Noelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The market is a dynamic market in which the European Union plays a leading role as the main producer and exporter of vine products. In this area, four countries with strong agricultural and viticultural tradition dominate the market: France, Italy, Spain and Germany. But among the new eastern EU members, countries as Romania, with a favorable geography and climate and also a viticultural tradition, some may also play a more prominent role. Romania is part of the top 12 wine-producing countries, however Romania penalty to export large-scale production of wine. In contrast, France is the main producer and exporter of wine country. This situation is primarily due to the strategic choice of a very strong geographic labelisation of wine production and the emphasis on quality and even the excellence of its products, in particular thanks to a promotion policy. Two major non-exclusive solutions seem to emerge for Romania. On the one hand, it can copy to a certain extent the French solution by leveraging labelisation its wines. The French wine market is also the reference of the European Union in particular as regards the creation of the label: Appellation of Origin (PDO. The example of champagne is, in this context, remarkable. This product alone largely not only the volume and value of exports of wines, but also the volume and value of exports of all agricultural products. It can also try to increase its exports to emerging countries outside the European Union. Non-European areas are both a promise of growing opportunities in a context of economic crisis or post-crises and a threat to the European wine sector: in particular we think about America, Asia and Oceania. Indeed, the main third countries also wine producers are trying to increase their market share. This explains the new measures taken by the European authorities aimed at deep modernizing European wine sector.

  2. Beyond Fashoda: Anglo-French security cooperation in Africa since St-Malo

    OpenAIRE

    Chafer, Tony; Cumming, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Anglo-French security and defence collaboration. It begins by setting out the lack of UK-French security cooperation in Africa from the colonial to the early post-Cold War era. It then shows how there has been a degree of institutionalization of Anglo-French relations, alongside greater cooperation in terms of European Security and Defence Policy missions and the training of African peacekeepers. Next, this study explains the recent evolution of UK-French security rela...

  3. BRINGING POP-CULTURE INTO CLASSROOM: SPEAKING 3’S GOT TALENT ACTIVITY TO ENHANCE SPEAKING SKILL OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hasbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following the widespread and growing popularity of English communication across the globe, the implementation of and the research on innovation in language teaching is mushrooming, especially in the teaching of English speaking. This study aims at measuring how far pop-culture themed classroom activity named Speaking 3’s Got Talent gives impacts for students speaking skill improvement at IAIN Salatiga, through an observation of a class in the English Department with a number of students of 30 undertaking Speaking 3 course in the odd-semester of the academic year of 2016/2017. Using a quantitative approach, this research utilizes questionnaire and direct observation for collecting data, and makes use of three methods of data analysis namely questionnaire scale-analysis, CEFR (The Common European Framework speaking grid, and teacher’s made rubric for speaking for assessment which pinpoint three key measured variables namely students’ attitude toward the activity, teacher’s assessment toward students’ performance referring to both CEFR and teacher’s made rubric. This research finds that students had positive (excellent and very good attitude towards the time, English, avatar, expertise and assessment variables of the activity and viewed that it is effective in downgrading their degree of stage fright; secondly, students obtain excellent and very good assessment in both the CEFR and teacher’s made rubric model. The three methods of measurements implied its affectivity in enhancing university students’ speaking skill and both student and teacher assessment recommend this activity to be applied in English classrooms. Keywords: speaking skill, pop-cultural activity, attitude, stage fright, assessment

  4. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  5. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  6. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  7. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  8. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  9. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  10. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  11. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  12. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  13. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  14. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  15. From foreign to national: a review of the status of the French language in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Ndinga-Koumba-Binza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of the various statuses of the French language in Gabon, a French-speaking country in Central Africa. It reveals a process in which different generations of Gabonese people are increasingly learning, and thus conceptualising, French as a second language rather than a foreign language. Furthermore, some are also learning and conceptualising French as a mother tongue or initial language, rather than a second language. This process of reconceptualisation has somehow been encouraged by the language policy of the colonial administration and the language policy since the attainment of independence, the latter being a continuation of the former. The final stage of this process is that the language has been adopted among the local languages within the Gabonese language landscape.

  16. Effective Instruction of Public Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    竹野, 茂; Shigeru, TAKENO

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the instruction of public speaking in a large-size class. The author has been in charge of the speech classes,SPEECH III and SPEECH IV mainly for the second year students at Miyazaki Municipal University for several years. At the preparation stage of SPEECH III, and IV, he intended that the class size was about 30 students as one group in the lecture style. But, in reality, more than 50 students took the course. Then he had to rethink the way of teaching. To solve the prob...

  17. Ombud’s Corner: Do you speak CERNese?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    CERNese is the language spoken here: based on English and French, it’s a mixture of accents, pronunciations and body languages that go well together. CERNese is also an attitude: we make an effort to understand others and to ensure that other people understand what we say. Do you speak this language?   Joe works in an office with four colleagues who all share a national language, their direct supervisor also happens to be of the same nationality, and most of the communication in the team therefore also takes place in this language - one that Joe does not speak. Moreover, they often go for coffee together and although they sometimes remember their CERNese and invite him to go with them, they inevitably end up switching to the national language that he does not share. He feels very uncomfortable because he is not included in the conversations. Sometimes he suspects that they are talking about his work. What is worse is that sometimes he realises that they have shared...

  18. European Researchers Night, Students on Shift at ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Fons Rademakers

    2010-01-01

    During European Researchers' Night, on Friday 24 September 2010, from 17:00 to 24:00, pupils from French and Swiss schools visited ALICE and took shifts in the control room, helping the ALICE physicists run the experiment.

  19. Contribution to the study of french pitchblendes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Sarcia, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    The authors first review the characteristics of uraninite-pitchblende, as deduced of present literature. They set apart from typical pitchblende a black oxide aspect, which probably corresponds to neo-formations, and a 'para-pitchblende' aspect, which they relate to deep sur-oxidation of normal pitchblende. They insist on the easy replacement of pitchblende by silica. and give indications as to changes in vein stones (fluorite, quartz, etc...). A detailed study of paragenesis and successions in french uranium districts follows (including discussion of uranium of uranium-bearing coals). The authors attempt to classify french pitchblende veins. They are chiefly epithermal and poor in satellite ores. Three types of deposits are identified: massive - pitchblende type, silica type, fluorite type. These deposits, as those of Portugal, are included in granite, Central-European peri-batholitic types where uranium associates which Ni, Co, Bi and Ag, are in France both rare and poor. Finally, the authors attempt to bring out in the european Hercynian area a particular distribution of paragenetic types. (authors) [fr

  20. The Validity of Observational Measures in Detecting Optimal Maternal Communication Styles: Evidence from European Americans and Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Romo, Laura F.; Sigman, Marian; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Au, Terry K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of an observational coding system for assessing positive and negative maternal behaviors of Latino and European American mothers toward their adolescent children. Ninety Latino (54 Spanish speaking and 35 English speaking) and 20 European American mother-adolescent dyads participated in an observational study of…

  1. German and French experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture author presents experience in-service inspection programme of primary circuit components at home and abroad, implementation into WWER (world methodology and equipment) as well as system qualification. Objectives European network for inspection qualification (ENIQ) are presented

  2. English as a Second Language for French-Canadian Adults Who Travel to Florida: An ESP Syllabus Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Pierre

    A large number of middle aged and retired French-speaking Canadians spend time in Florida during the winter months. While most of them have some knowledge of English, they have a need for communicative competence in English in some business and social situations. This ESP (English for Specific Purposes) syllabus development project attempts to…

  3. Communicative Language Teaching: Changing Students’ Speaking Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Bayu Saputra

    2015-04-01

    This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.

  4. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  5. A Narrative Evaluation of Mandarin-Speaking Children With Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ying; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Yiwen; Jiang, Fan; de Villiers, Jill; Lee, Wendy; Liu, Xueman Lucy

    2018-02-15

    We aimed to study narrative skills in Mandarin-speaking children with language impairment (LI) to compare with children with LI speaking Indo-European languages. Eighteen Mandarin-speaking children with LI (mean age 6;2 [years;months]) and 18 typically developing (TD) age controls told 3 stories elicited using the Mandarin Expressive Narrative Test (de Villiers & Liu, 2014). We compared macrostructure-evaluating descriptions of characters, settings, initiating events, internal responses,plans, actions, and consequences. We also studied general microstructure, including productivity, lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and grammaticality. In addition, we compared the use of 6 fine-grained microstructure elements that evaluate particular Mandarin linguistic features. Children with LI exhibited weaknesses in 5 macrostructure elements, lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and 3 Mandarin-specific, fine-grained microstructure elements. Children with LI and TD controls demonstrated comparable performance on 2 macrostructure elements, productivity, grammaticality, and the remaining 3 fine-grained microstructure features. Similarities and differences are noted in narrative profiles of children with LI who speak Mandarin versus those who speak Indo-European languages. The results are consistent with the view that profiles of linguistic deficits are shaped by the ambient language. Clinical implications are discussed.

  6. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  7. Student Satisfaction with EFL Speaking Classes: Relating Speaking Self-Efficacy and Skills Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…

  8. Education as Invitation to Speak: On the Teacher Who Does Not Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansieleghem, Nancy; Masschelein, Jan

    2012-01-01

    As a response to "Le Fils," a film directed by the Dardenne brothers, we explore the idea of speaking as an invitation and juxtapose it against ideas of speaking as a transactional, calculative, calibrated, activity. Speaking tends to be understood as a relatively straightforward matter: as a means of communication structured by such values as the…

  9. Eight Hundred Years of Modern Language Learning and Teaching in the German-Speaking Countries of Central Europe: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of FLT in the German-speaking regions of Europe from medieval times to the present day, within a framework of language politics, communicative needs and educational ideologies. The languages addressed are French, Italian, Spanish, English, Russian and Turkish. Basic social and professional data of the various groups of…

  10. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  12. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  13. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  14. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  15. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  16. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  17. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  18. French translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire and the Brief Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efanov, J I; Shine, J J; Darwich, R; Besner Morin, C; Arsenault, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M; Izadpanah, A

    2018-04-01

    Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are important clinical devices for evaluating injuries and surgeries of the hand. However, some of the most widely used questionnaires, such as the MHQ and bMHQ, are currently unavailable in French, which prevents them from being used in the French Canadian province of Quebec as well as in other French-speaking nations. We therefore intend to develop valid and culturally adapted French translations of the afore-mentioned questionnaires. Two independent bilingual translators converted all English questionnaires to French. Two distinct translators then translated the French versions back to English in reverse-blinded fashion. Discrepancies between the original and second English versions were examined by a committee of four bilingual healthcare professionals before final French translations of all documents were produced. Thirty patients bilingual in French and English were then asked to complete the original and French versions of the MHQ and bMHQ. Their answers were compared in order to assess the accuracy of our translation. In light of these findings, revised French versions were produced. French versions of the MHQ and bMHQ questionnaires produced metrological qualities of validity and fidelity with an inter-class correlation superior to 0.90 and a kappa coefficient of 0.81 to 1. Clinical applicability revealed the distribution of scores according to disease process was reproducible between the English and French versions. PROM translation requires a rigorous process in order to achieve strong metrological qualities in both the original and translated versions. We produced French translations of the MHQ and bMHQ by abiding to the Beaton method of cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  20. “Gallia and Gaul, French and Welsh” (MWW, 3.1.89: Transposing Shakespeare’s ‘Favourite’ Foreign Accents into French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Mylène

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Merry Wives of Windsor has long been compared to a great babel of languages. The play contains a smattering of Spanish, Italian and Dutch and even a whole scene dedicated to the mistranslation of Latin. A large part of the play’s humour also heavily relies on the foreign accents of two characters: the French Doctor Caius and the Welsh parson Sir Hugh Evans. If Christopher Luscombe’s 2008/2010 production of The Merry Wives at Shakespeare’s Globe theatre in London bears testimony to the success of cross-language and accent-based comedy as a source of laughter on today’s English stage, it seems rather implausible, at first sight, that French translations, adaptations and stagings of these accents and linguistic idiosyncrasies should be greeted with the same degree of hilarity. Indeed, how should the Welsh and French accents, both representing real stumbling blocks for French-speaking translators of the play, be transposed into French? What translation strategies can the latter devise? And to what extent can some of those strategies be said to be politically correct? Focusing on Shakespeare’s ‘favorite’ (predominant accents and the significance and impact of such linguistic comedy, I shall examine the question of their problematic translation through the analysis and comparison of a number of translations and stagings of The Merry Wives of Windsor into French.

  1. French nuclear dissuasion after the cold war: continuity, ruptures, questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear dissuasion is a slow and permanent process of adjustment to the strategic environment. French dissuasion adaptation to the new international environment covers a full decade, starting in the 1989-1992 era with a re-evaluation of defense programs. It has been followed by the 1994 defense white book which opens up the European perspective and reaches its peak in 1996 with a series of major decisions: renouncement of surface-to-surface missiles, launching of the M51 program, end of nuclear tests and shift towards simulation, dismantling of fissile materials production facilities etc. This process shows up two logics: the one of continuity with the confirmation of the bases of the French nuclear doctrine, and the one of discontinuity with significant changes in the general domain of the French nuclear policy. It also opens up questions about the field of application of dissuasion and the future of the nuclear consensus. (J.S.)

  2. Transposition of ICRP-60 recommendations into French uranium mining regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, S.

    2001-01-01

    Directive 96/29/Euratom, drawn up from recommendations of the ICRP 60, must be transposed into French legislation before 13 May 2000. For the French uranium mining sector, two ministerial decrees, one for workers, the other for the environment, must be modified to take account of the new European rules. These modifications entail new statutory limits either for the workers, or to characterise the radiological impact on the environment. For the workers, the implementation since 1980 of a policy of optimising radiation protection in French mines enables us to envisage that these limits will be respected. For the environment, the application of new limits involves a new approach for the assessment of public doses, with the precise definition of critical groups and their realistic exposure scenario. (author)

  3. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  4. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  5. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  6. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  7. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  8. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  9. The Effect of “Speak Up” Training Toward Apprehension of Speaking in Front of Public

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia, Rizky Nur; Hidayati, Farida

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of “SPEAK uP” training toward apprehension of speaking in front of public.The characteristic subject of this study is to students of SMK Negeri 8 Semarang who took social worker studies as their major; mostly they are having apprehension in ability of speaking in front of public with high and extra high category level on apprehension of speaking in front of public, those students had agreed to join “SPEAK uP” training completely. This study generally...

  10. USING VISUAL MEDIA IN TEACHING SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baidawi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is considered the most important skill of language especially English because having ability to speak is one of the evidence that someone has good proficiency of the language itself. Therefore, it is very urgent to teach speaking to the students in order that they master it well. To teach speaking, the teacher must design learning activities as well as possible and it also must be supported by various teaching media especially visual media such as pictures, realia, television etc. in order that learning activities is more various, interesting and motivates students to participate actively. The presence of visual media presents different learning experience which can stimulate students to think creatively so that they always get new idea to express when they want to speak. Therefore, the more various the teacher uses the media, the better learning objectives students achieve

  11. Speaking Effectively: A Guide for Air Force Speakers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, John

    1989-01-01

    Speaking Effectively presents techniques on how to speak successfully. It takes a "how-to" approach to effective speaking in the Air Force and presents proven techniques as concisely and completely as possible...

  12. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  13. Satisfaction With Communication in Primary Care for Spanish-Speaking and English-Speaking Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Kori B; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Perrin, Eliana M

    Effective communication with primary care physicians is important yet incompletely understood for Spanish-speaking parents. We predicted lower satisfaction among Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking Latino and non-Latino parents. Cross-sectional analysis at 2-month well visits within the Greenlight study at 4 pediatric resident clinics. Parents reported satisfaction with 14 physician communication items using the validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). High satisfaction was defined as "excellent" on each CAT item. Mean estimations compared satisfaction for communication items among Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. We used generalized linear regression modeling, adjusted for parent age, education, income, and clinic site. Among Spanish-speaking parents, we compared visits conducted in Spanish with and without an interpreter, and in English. Compared to English-speaking Latino (n = 127) and non-Latino parents (n = 432), fewer Spanish-speaking parents (n = 303) reported satisfaction with 14 communication items. No significant differences were found between English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. Greatest differences were found in the use of a greeting that made the parent comfortable (59.4% of Spanish-speaking Latinos endorsing "excellent" vs 77.5% English-speaking Latinos, P English-speaking Latinos, P < .01). After adjusting for parent age, education, income, and study site, Spanish-speaking Latinos were still less likely to report high satisfaction with these communication items. Satisfaction was not different among Spanish-speaking parents when the physician spoke Spanish versus used an interpreter. Satisfaction with physician communication was associated with language but not ethnicity. Spanish-speaking parents less frequently report satisfaction with communication, and innovative solutions to enhance communication quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  15. Powernext and the liberalization of the French power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conil-Lacoste, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The 1996 European Directive concerning the opening of the power market to competition was transposed in France in February 2000, allowing the creation of a real power market. On November 26, 2001, Powernext launched standard hourly contracts with delivery of power on the French hub the day after trading. The market model chosen guarantees the liquidity, the transparency and the settlement of the transactions thanks to a very close cooperation with Clearnet and RTE. Since November 26, 2001, the volume traded on Powernext has increased on a regular basis reaching the 20 GWh daily plateau in February 2003. The liberalization of the electricity market involved the creation of new exchanges in Europe, by facilitating the power flow from one market to the other, and by causing a reduction of price spreads. Powernext's objective is to accompany the liberalization of the French and European electricity market by offering to its members products adapted to this new environment. (author)

  16. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  17. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  18. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  19. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  20. Are the French neurology residents satisfied with their training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, P; Roux, T; Le Guennec, L; Zuber, M

    2015-11-01

    There have been dramatic changes in neurology over the past decade; these advances require a constant adaptation of residents' theoretical and practical training. The French Association of Neurology Residents and the College of Neurology Teachers conducted a national survey to assess the French neurology residents' satisfaction about their training. A 16-item questionnaire was sent via e-mail to French neurology residents completing training in 2014. Data were collected and processed anonymously. Of eligible respondents, 126 returned the survey, representing approximately 40% of all the French neurology residents. Most residents (78%) rated their clinical training favorably. Seventy-two percent reported good to excellent quality teaching of neurology courses from their faculty. However, many residents (40%) felt insufficient their doctoral thesis supervision. All residents intended to enter fellowship training after their residency, and most of them (68%) planned to practice in a medical center. French neurology residents seemed satisfied with the structure and quality of their training program. However, efforts are required to improve management of the doctoral thesis and make private practice more attractive and accessible during the residency. In the future, similar surveys should be scheduled to regularly assess neurology residents' satisfaction and the impact of the forthcoming national and European reforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The nominalized infinitive in French : structure and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sleeman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European languages have both nominal and verbal nominalized infinitives. They differ, however, in the degree to which the nominalized infinitives possess nominal and verbal properties. In this paper, nominalized infinitives in French are analyzed. It is shown that, whereas Old French was like other Romance languages in possessing both nominal and verbal nominalized infinitives, Modern French differs parametrically from other Romance languages in not having verbal infinitives and in allowing nominal infinitives only in a scientific style of speech. An analysis is proposed, within a syntactic approach to morphology. that tries to account for the loss of the verbal properties of the nominalized infinitive in French. It is proposed that the loss results from a change in word order (the loss of the OV word order in favor of the VO word order and a change in the morphological analysis of the nominalized infinitive: instead of a zero suffix analysis, a derivational analysis was adopted by the speakers of French. It is argued that the derivational analysis restricted nominalization to Vo, which made nominalization of infinitives less ìverbalî than in other Romance languages

  2. French natural gas industry. Key-data 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The year 2000 is the year of deregulation of the European gas market. This short article reports on some significant economical data taken from a brochure edited by the French gas association: transport of natural gas (main suppliers), network (pipelines, distribution system), consumption (industry, residential and tertiary sectors), uses (vehicles, cogeneration units), liquefied petroleum gases (consumption in residential-tertiary, industry, agriculture and automotive applications). (J.S.)

  3. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes test: validation of a French version and exploration of cultural variations in a multi-ethnic city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Marie; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Chowne, Gabrielle; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Joseph, Lawrence; Gold, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of our study was to validate the French version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, a theory of mind test. The second aim was to test whether cultural differences modulate performance on this test. A total of 109 participants completed the original English version and 97 participants completed the French version. Another group of 30 participants completed the French version twice, one week apart. We report a similar overall distribution of scores in both versions and no differences in the mean scores between them. However, 2 items in the French version did not collect a majority of responses, which differed from the results of the English version. Test-retest showed good stability of the French version. As expected, participants who do not speak French or English at home, and those born in Asia, performed worse than North American participants, and those who speak English or French at home. We report a French version with acceptable validity and good stability. The cultural differences observed support the idea that Asian culture does not use theory of mind to explain people's behaviours as much as North American people do.

  4. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ginaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  5. Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Shiller, Douglas M

    2018-02-02

    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Under visually-cued conditions, reduced N1/P2 amplitude was observed during speaking vs. listening, reflecting a motor-to-sensory prediction. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of behavioral compensatory F1 response and the magnitude of this speaking induced suppression (SIS) for P2 during the altered auditory feedback phase, where a stronger compensatory decrease in F1 was associated with a stronger the SIS effect. Finally, under the auditory-cued condition, an auditory repetition-suppression effect was observed in N1/P2 amplitude during the listening task but not active speaking, suggesting that auditory predictive processes during speaking and passive listening are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  7. Evaluating Insurgency External Support Through the French-Algerian War, Vietnam War, and Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Constantine.27 Shortly thereafter, many Europeans began to settle in these regions. The Crémieux Decree of 1870 granted French citizenship to Jews...within Algeria, but denied French citizenship to Muslim Arabs and Berbers.28 This distinction in citizenship began the tensions within Algeria for...Revolution,” trans. Pierre Asselin and Paulina Kostrzewski, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Reference Collection of the Algerian National

  8. Assessment and perspective of the French wind sector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, Jerome; Ranchin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    This report first proposes an inventory of public and private research laboratories already involved in the field of wind energy, an inventory of their expertise, and an inventory of education and training programs in this field. The next part proposes a comparative study of research and education in the field of wind energy among European countries: presentation of French industrial actors, overview of the world wind energy industry, overview of the situation in some countries (Germany, Denmark, Spain and United States), overview of research in these countries and in France, overview of European education and comparison with France. The authors then report an identification of industrial R and D needs with a description of the French sector (industrial actors, public bodies and professional association, R and D laboratories), an analysis of the main development modalities (site selection, environmental study, town planning document, public survey, construction permit, connection to the grid), an analysis of main obstacles (connection, intermittency, environment as a source of conflicts and stakes, opponents), a brief evocation of tariffs, and an analysis of technology (current research themes, analysis of existing R and D European strategies). The last part reports an identification of strengths of the French research, and states some restructuring proposals

  9. Teletandem between French and Brazilian students: Some preliminary remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In its French-Brazilian version, the Teletandem Brazil project enables students from the University of Lille 3 (France and from the State University of São Paulo (Unesp, Brazil, to take part in online exchanges, based on the principles of autonomy and reciprocity. In this work, we will present some preliminary remarks on the construction of cultural identity representations by the students who took part in the project, from 2006 to 2012, the specificity of the exchanges we analyze being that most of the French students involved in them are third generation Portuguese. We will examine the consequences of the introduction of a third culture within exchanges which, linguistically speaking, are bilateral. The French students are often experiencing conflicting feelings toward Brazil and, similarly, the Brazilian students may have conflicting feelings towards Portugal and France. Our preliminary results show that the most successful linguistic exchanges occur when students face their own cultural identity with no feeling of superiority or inferiority.

  10. [Evidence-based medicine and French medical students: an appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsat, M; Bigot, P; Rouprêt, M; Campillo, B; Beley, S; Chautard, D; Beaufreton, C; Richard, I; Saint-André, J-P; Azzouzi, A-R

    2009-03-01

    Nowadays, evidence-based medicine (EBM) is essential to learn and to practice medicine. The aim of the current study was to investigate the baseline level of knowledge of French students regarding EBM. Between April and May2008, a questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 900students in their last year of medical study. On 327 answers, 297 (91%), 94 (29%) and 85 (26%) students declared they read, write and speak medical English. Ninety (28%) read an article of a French medical review once a month and 43 (13%) read an article of an international medical review once a month. Three hundred and eleven (95%) knew the bases of medical research on the Internet and 219 (67%) used them. Twenty-four (7%) had already participated in a editorial staff of a medical article, 7 (2%) had been co-authors. Two hundred and seventy-two (83%) had made an oral presentation during a medical staff and 3 (1%) during a congress. Finally, 237 (73%) understood the interest of the critical analysis of an article at the ECN and 70 (21%) thought they were prepared. The incapacity of learning EBM is one of the limits of the French medical training system. The introduction of the reading critical of an article at the ECN is the concrete beginning of an answer to this problem.

  11. Th european market of the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  12. Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, Francois

    2010-01-01

    The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

  13. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  14. Word Order Acquisition in Persian Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Despite the fact that the spoken-Persian language has no strict word order, Persian-speaking children tend to use other logically possible orders of subject (S, verb (V, and object (O lesser than the SOV structure.

  15. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  16. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    The innovation of Spolsky's (1989) model of second language learning is that it was presented in the form of a mathematic ... perceived proficiency in speaking Kinyarwanda and English. Methods .... is very effective for the learners' learning.

  17. French participation in the world energy council; Presence francaise au conseil mondial de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, Ch. [Secretariat General du Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Roussely, F.; Francony, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Ailleret, F. [Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F. [ADEME, Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Villaron, Th. [Conseil Mondial de l`Energie (France)

    1999-02-01

    The Revue de l`Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m{sup 2}, the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l`Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary`s office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  18. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  19. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  20. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  1. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  2. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  3. Discrimination at Work: Comparing European, French, and American Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mercat-Bruns, Marie

    2016-01-01

    How do the United States and France differ in laws and attitudes concerning discrimination at work? Franco-American scholar Marie Mercat-Bruns interviews prominent legal scholars to demonstrate how these two post-industrial democracies have adopted divergent strategies. Whereas employers in the United States and France rarely discriminate openly, deep systemic discrimination exists in both countries, each with a unique history of dealing with difference. Powerful and incisive, the book examin...

  4. Towards the development of European networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanreich, G.

    2004-01-01

    The second AFG (French Gas Association) forum, held on June 17, addressed the issue of links between European networks with presentations by Guenther Hainreich, Director of Trans-European Networks for the European Commission Energy and Transport DG, and Loannis Galanis, Assistant Unit Director for the European Commission Energy and Transport DG. The choice for this topic has been influenced by the opening of gas markets in Europe which supposes that two conditions are fulfilled: first, the existence of gas availabilities, and second, the development of transportation, storage and LNG terminal infrastructures. In this context, the national policies are today the regional variations of a European policy at the service of the reinforcement of isolated areas and of the sustain of expanding areas. It is thus necessary to consider the European point-of-view about the existing infrastructures, their development and their financing means

  5. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  6. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  7. Fostering elementary school children’s public speaking skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbein, Evelin; Golle, Jessika; Tibus, Maike

    2018-01-01

    Mastering public speaking is a competence which is already required in elementary school. Surprisingly, however, systematic research on the promotion of public speaking competence among elementary school children is scarce. In order to address this gap, we developed and evaluated a public speaking...... the training effects on public speaking skills and speech anxiety. The dependent variables were assessed via self-ratings (extent of public speaking skills, speech anxiety) and video ratings of a public speech (appropriateness of public speaking skills). Findings revealed positive training effects on public...... speaking skills overall: Participating in the training elicited more appropriate speeches in terms of nonverbal and organizational skills but did not influence speech anxiety....

  8. The history of forensic entomology in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, H; Krettek, R; Bratzke, H; Püschel, K; Zehner, R; Amendt, J

    2004-09-10

    Megnin's book "La fauna des cadaveres" published in 1894 in France is generally accepted as a mile-stone in forensic entomology. It is hardly known that at the same time this topic was likewise explored in the German-speaking countries. Even PMI estimation based on developmental data of blowflies was performed. After a more descriptive period in the first half of the 20th century the complexity and variability of insects' biological behavior were detected and formally investigated. Improved technical facilities, enhanced comprehension of scientific studies and multidisciplinary cooperation, enabled rapid progress in forensic entomology during the last decades. With the European Association for Forensic Entomology founded in 2002 the frame work for a high standard of competency at an international level was constituted.

  9. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  10. Long title: Protocol for evaluating a Consultation for Suffering at work in French-speaking Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bontemps

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This exploratory research project will provide a better understanding of issues of work-related psychological suffering and effective strategies to support patients. The absence of a control group and the impossibility of applying a randomised controlled design are constraints on this study.

  11. Mobile-assisted language learning community and culture in French-speaking Belgium: the teachers' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Eurocall

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the perceptions and uses of mobile technologies by 118 Belgian teachers in foreign language teaching and learning in secondary education. The purpose of the study is to analyze the teachers’ attitudes towards the use of mobile technologies in- and outside the classroom via an online questionnaire. The preliminary findings presented in this paper establish that the concept of a ‘Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) community’ does not yet exist in our context as the u...

  12. Teen Dating Violence in French-speaking Switzerland: Attitudes and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline De Puy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on dating violence has tended to focus on North American college students. This study innovates with data collected in Switzerland from a sample of 132 school pupils and vocational education students aged 14 to 22 using a self-administered questionnaire. The study investigates relationships between attitudes and experiences about dating violence and the effect of gender. Biases against women were common in the sample. Females reported less endorsement of patriarchal attitudes about women’s roles, but both genders reported similar levels of disparagement of women. Participants reported high rates of physical violence perpetration (41.9 percent and victimization (48.8 percent. Pro-violence attitudes were related to psychological and physical perpetration as well as physical victimization. For female respondents, essentialist beliefs about women’s innate abilities appear more persistent than beliefs about appropriate roles. Male participants endorsed both types of gender stereotypes at high rates. Male-perpetrated violence was perceived less favorably than female-perpetrated violence. Our data suggest that general attitudes toward violence are the most consistent predictor of physical and psychological aggression within dating relationships. More attention needs to be paid to subtypes among attitudes on women and violence, which past research assumed were monolithic. This study shows the need for prevention programs to address pro-violence attitudes.

  13. Substance use among sportive adolescents in the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bélanger, R.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXTE: Pour diverses raisons, les adultes et en particulier les parents croient que la pratique sportive à l'adolescence est un facteur de protection contre les comportements à risque tels que la consommation de substances. Les preuves présentes à l'intérieur de la littérature ne sont toutefois pas concluantes à ce sujet. Le principal objectif de notre étude était donc de comparer la prévalence de la consommation de substances psychoactives (licites et illicites) et de substances ergogéniq...

  14. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population. Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation. Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses. Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort. Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational levels. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  16. Mercury in plants and soils of the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinche, J P; Dvorak, V

    1975-01-01

    Samples of plants and soils from an agricultural (Changins/Nyon), industrial (Monthey) and urban (Le Vallon/Lausanne) area as well as samples from regions remote from the sources of atmospheric pollution have been analyzed for mercury. A contamination by the mercury of samples from the Monthey area could be ascertained. However, the average mercury content of 37 samples of leaves of trees and shrubs collected during fall 1974 in the Monthey area was lower by 53.2% as compared to the average value obtained in 1973;, this fact can be explained by the improved anti-pollution action taken by the chemical industry. No methyl mercury was found in the few samples from Monthey area analyzed for methyl mercury (4 samples of vegetables and one sample of tobacco leaves). On the other hand, all mushrooms, were they gathered in an area close or remote from the sources of mercury pollution, contained traces of methyl mercury (ranging between 1.9 and 28% of the total mercury content). Likewise, 4 samples of lichens gathered in Arolla (Valais) and La Fretaz/Bullet (Jura vaudois), both being remote mountain regions, did contain traces of methyl mercury (between 4.8 and 6.5% of total mercury content). Soils from Changins into which every other year, since 11 years, wheat treated with organomercury fungicides was sown, did not contain more mercury than soil from forests or mountain meadows. Samples of foliage of trees and shrubs from the vicinity of the municipal garbage combustion plant at Vallon (Lausanne) were clearly polluted by mercury. 18 references, 9 tables.

  17. Nuclear energy and european public opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents four texts related to the crucial question of the attitude towards nuclear energy in the countries of the European Union: the first text comments the results of a European Commission inquiry (2006), and is more especially concerned with a comparison between Germany and France where rather similar public opinions lead to very different political approaches; the second text presents a synthesis of inquiries concerning Germany; the third is a review of the main national studies realized in various european countries; the last text is drawn from a study realized by the Cnrs on the position of the French towards nuclear wastes

  18. Report on the behalf of the inquiry commission related to past, present and future costs of the nuclear sector, to the reactor exploitation duration, and to various economic and financial aspects of production and commercialization of nuclear electricity within the frame of the French and European electric mix, as well as to the consequences of the shutting down and dismantling of nuclear reactors, notably the Fessenheim power plant - Nr 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois; Baupin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This official report first describes the role of nuclear energy in the European electric system: economic context (pricing mode, interconnection leading to a European price), similar situations and different policies in Germany, Belgium and UK. It proposes the contribution of the inquiry commission: a constrained energy transition, a shared diagnosis on the status of the European electric system but two possible solutions, nuclear as an economy on its own requiring a strong commitment of public authorities. The next part addresses the front end of the nuclear cycle, i.e. how to ensure the supply of the French nuclear fleet (world resources, demand-supply balance, weak relationship between uranium price and nuclear electricity price). The inquiry commission outlines and discusses the roles of AREVA for the front end, EDF which tries to be less vulnerable, and the State (EDF's regulator and Areva's support). The third part addresses the maintenance and subcontracting expenses: maintenance as a major challenge to control costs, subcontracting as a choice of industrial policy. The inquiry commission notices that EDF has not yet reached a full control of maintenance and that subcontracting remains a matter of controversy. The fourth part discusses the fleet evolution: entry in the fourth decade, a life extension project which requires safety improvement. The inquiry commission discusses the numerous uncertainties of the industrial project, outlines that the construction of a new fleet requires huge investments, that the future of the nuclear fleet requires a global approach, and that shutting down nuclear plants requires support. The fifth part discusses the correct assessment of the amount of future expenses and how to secure their funding: the main future expenses are those related to installation dismantling and to nuclear wastes. The inquiry commission outlines the uncertainties about this funding. The sixth chapter addresses reprocessing activities, MOX fuel and

  19. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  20. Roads to Success in the Belgian French Community's Higher Education System: Predictors of Dropout and Degree Completion at the Université Libre De Bruxelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ortiz, Elena; Dehon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the factors that influence both dropout and (4-year) degree completion throughout university by applying the set of discrete-time methods for competing risks in event history analysis, as described in Scott and Kennedy (2005). In the French-speaking Belgian community, participation rates are very high given that higher…

  1. Ariane: NASA's European rival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The successful test launch of two three-quarter ton satellites in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane rocket last June firmly placed ESA in competition with NASA for the lucrative and growing satellite launching market. Under the auspices of the private (but largely French-government financed) Arianespace company, ESA is already attracting customers to its three-stage rocket by offering low costs.According to recent reports [Nature, 292, pp. 785 and 788, 1981], Arianespace has been able to win several U.S. customers away from NASA, including Southern Pacific Communications, Western Union, RCA, Satellite Television Corporation, and GTE. Nature [292, 1981] magazine in an article entitled ‘More Trouble for the Hapless Shuttle’ suggests that it will be possible for Ariane to charge lower prices for a launch than NASA, even with the space shuttle.

  2. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  3. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  4. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  5. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  6. The French Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Nazi Germany and Japan occupied huge areas at least for some period during World War II, and those territories became integral parts of their war economies. The book focuses on the policies of World War II aggressors in occupied countries. The unbalanced economic and financial relations were......). It substantiates these aspects in case studies of occupied countries and gives examples of the business policy of multinational companies under war conditions. The book also provides an account of differences and similarities of the two occupation systems. Economies under Occupation will interest researchers...... specialising in the history of economic thought as well as in economic theory and philosophy. It will also engage readers concerned with regional European and Japanese studies and imperial histories....

  7. Soil-to-plant, plant-to-milk and plant-to-meat transfers for the Oxi-sols in Tahiti, French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, B.

    2006-01-01

    French Polynesia is included in the latitude band 10 -30 degrees S.. In this band the total deposition of 137 Cs is about 1000 Bq.m -2; the French tests represent 13 % of this total deposition. The radiological survey of the French Polynesia environment exists since the beginning of the French nuclear program in 1966.It concerns 7 islands: Hiva Oa in the north (10 degrees S), Tubuai in the south (25 degrees S) and, from east to west, Mangareva, Hao, Rangiroa, Tahiti and Maupiti. Tahiti is a recent, high and volcanic island;it is the largest of the French Polynesia as a whole.Under tropical humid climate with heavy rainfalls, high summer temperatures, and excessive air humidity, the strong relief has been considerably eroded with the formation of particular soils, the oxi-sols.On these soils, in the Taravao peninsula, a cattle breeding farm of about 400 hectares has been studied since more than 30 years. Local milk is an important contributor to the ingestion dose in Tahiti and also an excellent item for the determination of the effective decrease of long -lived radionuclides in the environment. During the 1974 -1994 period the long term decrease for milk shows an effective half-live of 14.8 years and an environmental half-live of 24.8 years.In west european zones the effective half-live is about 5 years. To explain this difference we must mainly consider that the pasture zone in Taravao peninsula is a natural area whereas it is semi-natural in Europe. Moreover we assume that a 137 Cs stocking zone exists with very humic soils in some higher summits; a progressive lixiviation of 137 Cs could take place then. For the 1974 -1994 period the effective half live for the beef meat is about 11.5 years against 18.5 years for the environmental half-live. The difference between effective half-live for milk and meat can be explain by a greater collection zone for meat than for milk. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (F.T.) is about 10 (reporting dry matter) for the genus

  8. Examination of the validity and reliability of the French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Foucart, Jennifer; Verbanck, Paul; Turel, Ofir

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to develop and to validate a French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004). This instrument is usually applied as a unidimensional self-report measure for assessing trait self-control, which captures one's dispositional ability to resist short-term temptation in order to reach more valuable long-term goals. Data were collected from two independent samples of French-speaking individuals ( n 1 = 287; n 2 = 160). Results indicated that the French version of the BSCS can be treated as unidimensional, like the original questionnaire. Data also showed consistent acceptable reliability and reasonable test-retest stability. Acceptable external validity of constructs was supported by relationships with self-reported measures of impulsivity (UPPS), including urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance. Overall, the findings suggest that the average score of the French version of the BSCS is a viable option for assessing trait self-control in French speaking populations.

  9. Armed Conflict in the Chechen Republic in the French Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N. Malishevskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The active phase of the military operations of the armed conflict in Chechnya was completed in 2001. At that time, historians, analysts and journalists created a wide range of theoretical works concerning the conflict. A number of common features on the use of basic resources are discussed in these publications. The degree of accessibility of the sources which focus on the description of the conflict and its socio-political assessment is of great importance for researchers and their objectives. The author analyzes the European (French historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, considers publications and specialized monographs by French authors on the given subject. The author reveals the ideas about the consequences of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, articulated in the works of the European researchers. For the first time within the study of the Western historiography of the war in Chechnya the author analyzes these consequences for both the Russian and Chechen sides. Being one of the most influential historical traditions, French historiography dedicated to the armed conflict in Chechnya is in the stage of development and is characterized by a number of qualitative changes and conceptual approaches.

  10. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  11. STUDENTS’ ATTRIBUTIONS ON THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.

  12. The report of the French Academy of Science: 'Problems associated with the effects of low doses of ionising radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 the French Academy of Science published a report on 'Problems associated with low doses of ionising radiation'. This report aroused interest among French-speaking scientists and a translation in English was published a year later. The report pointed out that an important issue in radioprotection was not whether to accept or reject the linear no-threshold model but rather to test its validity. The aim of this review is to analyse the report and its recommendations, and to briefly indicate the progress which has been made and the questions which remain open. Three areas of the report are covered in this review: DNA repair, carcinogenesis and epidemiological data. (author)

  13. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  14. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  15. Development of French technical safety regulations: safety fundamental rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouleux, P.

    1982-09-01

    The technical regulation related to nuclear safety in France is made of a set of regulation texts, of a different nature, that define the requirements for the construction, commissioning and operations of nuclear facilities. Simultaneously, the safety authorities (Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires: SCSIN) issue recommendations or guides which are not strictly speaking regulations in the juridical sense; they are called ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (RFS). The RFS set up and detail the conditions, the respect of which is deemed to be complying with the French regulation pratice, for the subject to which they relate. Their purpose is to make known rules judged acceptable by safety authorities, thus making the safety review easier. The RFS program is described. A RFS -or a letter- can also give the result of the examination of the constructor and operator code (RCC) by safety authorities

  16. Development of French technical safety regulations: safety fundamental rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouleux, P.

    1983-01-01

    The technical regulation related to nuclear safety in France is made of a set of regulation texts, of a different nature, that define the requirements for the construction, commissioning and operating of nuclear facilities. Simultaneously, the safety authorities (Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires: SCSIN) issue recommendations or guides which are not strictly speaking regulations in the juridicial sense; they are called Regles Fondamentales de Surete (RFS). The RFS set up and detail the conditions, the respect of which is deemed to be complying with the French regulation practice, for the subject to which they relate. Their purpose is to make known rules judged acceptable by safety authorities, thus making the safety review easier. The RFS program is described. A RFS - or a letter - can also give the result of the examination of the constructor and operator codes (RCC) by safety authorities

  17. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in Indonesia has developed quickly in all of the fields. It is affected by many things in many ways. The need of English has also increased quickly in many parts of Indonesian life. To face it, teaching English at young ages or studentseems like the solution. Speaking is one of the skills that should be tough to the student. To get effective learning, it's useful to know what are factors contributing to the student speaking development. This research showed that there are some contributing factors to the students’ speaking development. Those factors are Teacher, Daily Practice, Listening to English Music, Family Support, Watching English Video and Movie, Motivation to Learn, Classroom Environment, Learning Material. Such as a good teacher would provide good learning. Support of the family would also give an effective outcome for the student's development. So, the factors should be known to get a better outcome for the students

  18. Revisiting the thinking-for-speaking hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel-Tolvig, Bjørn Nicola; Paggio, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Many studies try to explain thought processes based on verbal data alone and often take the linguistic variation between languages as evidence for cross-linguistic thought processes during speaking. We argue that looking at co-speech gestures might broaden the scope and shed new light on different...... thinking-for-speaking patterns. Data comes from a corpus study investigating the relationship between speech and gesture in two typologically different languages: Danish, a satellite-framed language and Italian, a verb-framed language. Results show cross-linguistic variation in how motion components......: In 28% of the cases, in fact, Italian speakers express manner in path-only speech constructions gesturally. This finding suggests that gestures may be instrumental in revealing what semantic components speakers attend to while speaking; in other words, purely verbal data may not fully account...

  19. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  20. Affective norms for 720 French words rated by children and adolescents (FANchild).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2017-10-01

    FANchild (French Affective Norms for Children) provides norms of valence and arousal for a large corpus of French words (N = 720) rated by 908 French children and adolescents (ages 7, 9, 11, and 13). The ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). Because it combines evaluations of arousal and valence and includes ratings provided by 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. Good response reliability was observed in each of the four age groups. Despite a significant level of consensus, we found age differences in both the valence and arousal ratings: Seven- and 9-year-old children gave higher mean valence and arousal ratings than did the other age groups. Moreover, the tendency to judge words positively (i.e., positive bias) decreased with age. This age- and sex-related database will enable French-speaking researchers to study how the emotional character of words influences their cognitive processing, and how this influence evolves with age. FANchild is available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Monnier/contributions .

  1. Validation of a French version of the pure procrastination scale (PPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Rochat, Lucien; Gay, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-08-01

    Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon that affects everyone's day-to-day life and interferes with the clinical treatment of several psychopathological states. To assess this construct, Steel (2010) developed the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), a short scale intended to capture the general notion of dysfunctional delay. The aim of the current study was to present a French version of this questionnaire. To this end, the 12 items of the PPS were translated into French and data were collected from an online survey in a sample of 245 French-speaking individuals from the general population. The results revealed that one item had problematic face validity; it was therefore removed. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed on the resulting 11-item version of the French PPS indicated that the scale was composed of two factors ("voluntary delay" and "observed delay") depending on a common, higher-order construct ("general procrastination"). Good internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found. External validity was supported by specific relationships with measures of personality traits, impulsivity, and subjective well-being. The French PPS therefore presents satisfactory psychometric properties and may be considered a reliable and valid instrument for research, teaching and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The French-German common safety approach for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Chevet, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    A common safety approach has been defined for future electronuclear plants in the framework of the French-German European Pressurised water Reactor (EPR) project. Improvements in the domain of containment are required in future reactors conception to prevent any risk of core fusion under high and low pressure. Another objective is to reduce significantly the radioactive releases due to other accidents in order to reduce spatial and temporal environmental and human protection procedures. Protection against external aggressions (plane fall, explosions, earthquakes,..), prevention of pipe rupture in the primary circuits, limitation of hydrogen production in the case of water-zirconium complete reaction, cooling of the reactor in the case of core fusion, and radiologic consequences of accidents are the main points discussed by the French-German safety authorities to define the common safety standards of the EPR project. (J.S.)

  3. Energy policies in French municipalities. Examples of best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P

    2001-11-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Deutsche Energie Agentur (DENA) organised in Berlin on November 22 and 23, 2001, the first seminar and forum of ideas and exchanges on the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies in France and in Germany. On this occasion, Ademe asked Energie-Cites - an association of European cities with a long practical experience in 'good practice' exchanges - to prepare a publication describing the experience of about ten French cities or local energy agencies in energy management issues. The case studies presented in this document concern the following cities: Besancon, Dole, Dunkerque, Lille, Montpellier, and the local energy agencies of Clermont-Ferrand (Aduhme), Grenoble, Montreuil-Vincennes, Mulhouse and Rennes. (J.S.)

  4. Energy policies in French municipalities. Examples of best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-11-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Deutsche Energie Agentur (DENA) organised in Berlin on November 22 and 23, 2001, the first seminar and forum of ideas and exchanges on the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies in France and in Germany. On this occasion, Ademe asked Energie-Cites - an association of European cities with a long practical experience in 'good practice' exchanges - to prepare a publication describing the experience of about ten French cities or local energy agencies in energy management issues. The case studies presented in this document concern the following cities: Besancon, Dole, Dunkerque, Lille, Montpellier, and the local energy agencies of Clermont-Ferrand (Aduhme), Grenoble, Montreuil-Vincennes, Mulhouse and Rennes. (J.S.)

  5. Transposition of the gas directive in French law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On September 25, 2002, the French government adopted the project of law relative to the energy markets. This project of law takes up the essential part of the measures proposed by the directive no 98/30/CE of the European Union from June 22, 1998, about the 'common rules of the internal natural gas market'. This paper makes a brief comment of the version of this project adopted by the senate. It presents also the position of the French gas association (AFG) about this transposition, its action during the first phase of the parliamentary debate, and what will be AFG's role after the enforcement of this law. Finally, a testimony of the Swiss society of gas and waters industry (SSIGE) about the opening of the natural gas market is given in conclusion. (J.S.)

  6. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  7. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  8. The CAM-ICU has now a French "official" version. The translation process of the 2014 updated Complete Training Manual of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit in French (CAM-ICU.fr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanques, Gérald; Garnier, Océane; Carr, Julie; Conseil, Matthieu; de Jong, Audrey; Rowan, Christine M; Ely, E Wesley; Jaber, Samir

    2017-10-01

    Delirium is common in Intensive-Care-Unit (ICU) patients but under-recognized by bed-side clinicians when not using validated delirium-screening tools. The Confusion-Assessment-Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) has demonstrated very good psychometric properties, and has been translated into many different languages though not into French. We undertook this opportunity to describe the translation process. The translation was performed following recommended guidelines. The updated method published in 2014 including introduction letters, worksheet and flowsheet for bed-side use, the method itself, case-scenarios for training and Frequently-Asked-Questions (32 pages) was translated into French language by a neuropsychological researcher who was not familiar with the original method. Then, the whole method was back-translated by a native English-French bilingual speaker. The new English version was compared to the original one by the Vanderbilt University ICU-delirium-team. Discrepancies were discussed between the two teams before final approval of the French version. The entire process took one year. Among the 3692 words of the back-translated version of the method itself, 18 discrepancies occurred. Eight (44%) lead to changes in the final version. Details of the translation process are provided. The French version of CAM-ICU is now available for French-speaking ICUs. The CAM-ICU is provided with its complete training-manual that was challenging to translate following recommended process. While many such translations have been done for other clinical tools, few have published the details of the process itself. We hope that the availability of such teaching material will now facilitate a large implementation of delirium-screening in French-speaking ICUs. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). All rights reserved.

  9. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  10. Parallel worlds? French and anglophone perspectives on health geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyez, Anne-Cécile; Collins, Damian; Fleuret, Sébastien

    2016-09-01

    In this short commentary, we address the following question: setting aside the issue of translation, do health geographers in France speak the same language as their English-speaking counterparts in various parts of the world? Specifically, do they have comparable empirical, theoretical and political concerns? We briefly survey the 'states of knowledge' in both fields for points of difference and similarity. We devote particular attention to the diverse contexts in which health geography is practiced. Our overarching goal is not to oppose two 'blocks'; nor is it to produce syntheses of two bodies of work. Rather, we seek to identify the diverse contexts in which geographic knowledge of health issues is produced, and to encourage reflection on what these mean for current and future collaboration across linguistic boundaries. We contend that meaningful Anglo-French comparative work will need to be particularly attentive to takes on theory that is 'the same, but different', to alternative spatial lenses (territory vs. place), and to sometimes sharply distinct perspectives on social difference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create cooperations between both policy mechanisms

  12. European Management Learning: A Cross-Cultural Interpretation of Kolb's Learning Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Terence

    1995-01-01

    A survey of a French business school with multinational branch campuses received 123 usable responses supporting the proposition that cross-cultural differences exist within each of Kolb's learning cycle stages. National profiles of learning preferences were developed for French, German, Spanish, Anglo-Irish, and Eastern European learners. (SK)

  13. The European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The present state of development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) is outlined. During the so-called harmonization phase, the French and German utilities drew up their common requirements and evaluated the reactor concept developed until then with respect to these requirements. A main result of the harmonization phase was the issue, in September 1993, of the 'EPR Conceptual Safety Feature Review File' to be jointly assessed by the safety authorities in France and Germany. The safety objectives to be met by the EPR are specified in the second part of the paper, and some details of the primary and secondary side safety systems are given. (orig.) [de

  14. Implications for the U.S. of Anglo-French Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    previous Labour government, has continued. Although there are many factors, it has been argued that the principal motivating force is the belief...jdin/index.shtml Bickerton, C. (2010, March). “Oh bugger, they’re in the tent”: British responses to French reintegration into NATO. European

  15. Synthesis of the report on the french gas market opening 24 october 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2002-10-01

    This document takes stock on the french gas market opening since august 2000, date of putting into force of the Directive 98/30/CE and proposes recommendations, after taking concerned parties opinion, on the the main questions relative to the future gas regulation: the market, the european harmonization, the tariffs, the distribution access, the transparency. (A.L.B.)

  16. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  17. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  18. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  19. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  20. Library Service to the Spanish Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anita R.

    This manual was developed to formalize Inglewood Public Library's existing policies and programs regarding library services to the Spanish speaking, and to define future program goals. The introduction discusses why such services have been initiated, why the manual was developed, and the potential benefits the manual has for library…

  1. Confident Communication: Speaking Tips for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Douglas A.

    This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…

  2. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  3. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  4. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  5. Idiom Comprehension in Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…

  6. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  7. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  8. Speaking and Listening in Content Area Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.

  9. Challenges in Learning to Speak Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…

  10. The role of research in nuclear regulation: A French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livolant, M.

    1997-01-01

    Roughly speaking, the French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute's role is similar in the French situation to the NRC administration role but with less authority role, which corresponds to another body in France. They define themselves as a technical support of the safety authorities. On the other hand, they have their own research laboratories. Among them, the most famous are the Phebus reactor and the Cabri reactor about which we have heard a lot these two days. They work on safety but also on protection of man and environment, management of accident conditions, security of transport, and safeguards. They have a relationship with utilities and with government authorities. With the utilities they have two types of technical evaluations. They make detailed technical studies of the safety reports presented to the authorities by the utility. On the research side, they participate in common research programs to resolve issues and to increase knowledge and understanding about safety related questions. With the governmental authorities, their role is to give advice on safety reports of existing or being-built installations and on more general policy questions like, for example, the safety principle to apply to the next generation of power plants. The decisions are left to the safety authorities, but they give a lot of advice and detailed studies about questions of safety

  11. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  12. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  13. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  14. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  15. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  16. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  17. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  18. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  19. Speaking Strategies Employed by Second Year Students at Mettu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicative language teaching should not just aim to teach learners the ... the speaking strategies employed by second year English major students at Mettu ... activities and strategy training in teaching learning process of speaking skills.

  20. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  1. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  2. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  3. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPEAKING FOR SENIOR MANAGERS: HOW A DIRECTOR SHOULD SPEAK?

    OpenAIRE

    Alemdar Yalçın; Ferah Burgul Adıgüzel

    2014-01-01

    The participants of this study, the aim of which was to determine the importance of speaking in career according to senior manager and speaking traits which a director should have, constitute fifteen senior manager who are working as counselor, deputy counselor, general director and chairman who were assigned by minister, prime minister or president. In this study which was based on qualitative data, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the data obtained was descriptively analyzed. A...

  5. Speaking up in case management, part II: implementing speaking up behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banja, John D; Craig, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Case managers will occasionally witness colleagues from their own or other healthcare disciplines providing care in ways that frankly deviate from or violate standards of care, rules, regulations, policies, and procedures. This article discusses the case manager's ethical obligation to speak up in such instances, as well as lists strategies and techniques that facilitate and enhance professional communications around "speaking up." All case management work environments. When healthcare professionals practice in ways that deviate from established policies, procedures, rules, regulations, and standards of care, they jeopardize the safety and welfare of their clients and, often, their employing institutions. Unfortunately, professionals often remain silent about such errors and deviations for fear that they might suffer retaliation if they speak up or because they do not anticipate a constructive or positive organizational response. Nevertheless, organizations and employees who recognize the value of speaking up can use a variety of strategies described in this article that enable speaking up to become a professional and organizational reality. Because they practice in the midst of multidisciplinary care, case managers have a marked opportunity to witness any number of practice standards being ignored or violated. Case managers need to develop communication skills and organizational savvy regarding how to approach and remedy such situations, especially when deviations from standards of care have become routine or "normalized." Critical elements in speaking up include cultivating a method to discern the moral perils of remaining silent, learning communication techniques to conduct emotionally challenging conversations, and building organizational leadership that recognizes the value of speaking up and supports safe harbors for employees who speak up appropriately.

  6. Who speaks for extinct nations? The Beothuk and narrative voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leggo

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beothuk of Newfoundland were among the first inhabitants of North America to encounter European explorers and settlers. By the first part of the nineteenth century the Beothuk were extinct, exterminated by the fishers and soldiers and settlers of western Europe. The last Beothuk was a woman named Shanadithit. She was captured and lived with white settlers for a few years before she died in 1829. Today all that remains of the Beothuk nation, which once numbered seven hundred to one thousand people, are some bones, arrowheads, tools, written records of explorers and settlers, and copies of drawings by Shanadithit in the Newfoundland Museum. In recent years several writers (all are white and male have written fiction and poetry and drama about the Beothuk, including Peter Such (Riverrun, 1973, Paul O'Neill (Legends of a Lost Tribe, 1976, Sid Stephen (Beothuk Poems, 1976, Al Pittman ("Shanadithit," 1978, Geoffrey Ursell (The Running of the Deer; A Play, 1981, Donald Gale (Sooshewan: A Child of the Beothuk, 1988, and Kevin Major (Blood Red Ochre, 1990. A recurring theme in all these narratives is the theme of regret and guilt. These narrative accounts of the Beothuk raise significant questions about voice and narrative, including: Who can speak for Native peoples? Who can speak for extinct peoples? Are there peoples without voices? How is voice historically determined? What is the relationship between voice and power? How are the effects of voice generated? What is an authentic voice? How is voice related to the illusion of presence? What is the relation between voice and silence? In examining contemporary narrative accounts of the Beothuk my goal is to reveal the rhetorical ways in which the Beothuk are given voice(s and to interrogate the ethical and pedagogical implications of contemporary authors revisiting and revisioning and re-voicing a nation of people long extinct.

  7. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  8. The French regime of civil liability for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    As civil liability for nuclear is a matter of discussion and initiatives at the European and international levels, the author proposes an overview of the legal framework of the French regime of civil liability for nuclear which is a combination of two international treaties (Paris and Brussels conventions) and a national arrangement (a 1968 law). He presents and comments the main characteristics of this regime (geographical scope of application, concerned activities, excluded events, covered damages, principles regarding operator's liability) and the improvements brought by Paris and Brussels convention review protocols

  9. Taming the Gypsy: How French Romantics Recaptured a Past

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Elizabeth Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the evolution of the Gypsy trope in Romantic French literature at a time when nostalgia became a powerful aesthetic and political tool used by varying sides of an ideological war. Long considered a transient outsider who did not view time or privilege the past in the same way Europeans did, the Gypsy, I argue, became a useful way for France's writers to contain and tame the transience they felt interrupted nostalgia's attempt to recapture a lost past. My wo...

  10. French studies on local blockages in LMFBR fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.; Jolas, P.; Seiler, J.M.

    1979-08-01

    This paper reviews experimental and theoretical studies done in FRANCE on the problem of partial subassembly blockages. The priorities are defined and the development of the French program in the European context is presented. Results of the out of pile experiments performed at CEA and EDF in single and two phases flow are given. A description of the main codes used to interpret these experiments is then shortly reviewed. It is found that the thermal behavior in single phase may be calculated with good precision, and that a simple semi-empirical formula can predict with good accuracy the number of channels blocked that lead to sodium boiling

  11. French Senate debate on nuclear deterrence; Dissuasion nucleaire francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincon, S. [UMP Cher (France); Bentegeat, H. [Cema, 75 - Paris (France); Verwaerde, D. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France); Quinlan, M. [IISS, Londre (United Kingdom); Tertrais, B. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    The Senate committee on foreign affairs, defence and the Armed Forces met at a round table session on 14 June 2006 to discuss French nuclear deterrence. Serge Vincon presided the discussion, which covered three aspects of the subject: first, an analysis of the current and medium-term future strategic contexts and their consequences for the role of deterrence, and thus whether or not current doctrine is matched to current and future threats; second, the assets dedicated to deterrence, how well they reflect doctrine and how they fit in with other defence priorities; and finally an examination of Britain position within NATO along with future possibilities arising from closer European defence cooperation. (author)

  12. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  13. Fearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activities for the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.

    2007-01-01

    Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…

  14. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and condition...

  15. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  16. Incorporating TED Talk Assignments into a Public-Speaking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to public speaking, advanced public speaking, hybrid/survey introduction to communication. Objectives: At the end of this activity, students will be able to (1) explain the elements of a speaking outline and discover these elements in real-world speech examples, (2) recreate outline formats effectively in their personal…

  17. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  18. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  19. A Comparative Study of Legal Terminologies in French and Romanian. The Translation of International Contract Law Terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana SFERLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article is a comparative study investigating the main aspects of legal terminology in French and Romanian. In this context, the analysis aims at translating French - Romanian, Romanian - French, terminologies of international commercial contracts. With this study we intend to improve the knowledge of legal terminology in Romanian. Romania has been faced lately, particularly since January 1st 2007, when it joined the European Union, with a real need for terminological studies, for dictionaries and data bases in all fields relating to translation and interpreting.

  20. Side event from the Coordination office at Warsaw: Latest developments on the French Wind Power Market: New rules, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; Elfassi, Paul; Froeding, Veronique; Petit, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    At the occasion of the 2010 edition of the European Wind energy Conference (EWEC 2010), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Side event on the latest developments of the French Wind Power Market. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The new regulatory framework under the 'Grenelle' laws: Wind energy planning. French National Action Plan: the wind energy challenge (Fabrice Cassin); 2 - The upcoming enforcement of the dangerous installations rules (ICPe) to wind power plants (Veronique Froeding); 3 - New tax system for wind energy projects and local acceptance (Jean-Francois Petit)