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Sample records for french reactors progres

  1. Recent progress in the detection of bursts in the canning in French reactors; Progres recents de la detection des ruptures de gaines dans les reacteurs francais G1, EL2, G3, EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupil, J; Grenon, M; Raffailhac, J; Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    method. A scintillator and an electronic system provide a specific signal of the fission products which is then marked on a recorder. In a case where the activity threshold is exceeded, the cell involved is isolated from the prospection system and taker, over by a 'follow-up' detector which follows the evolution of the crack. A year of working on the pile G{sub 1}, which is cooled by air at atmospheric pressure, has made it possible to obtain results on the operation of the canning-burst detection appliance, which has led us to perfect the original device by installing an 'evolution-meter' of the type described above for G{sub 3}. The reactor EL{sub 3}, cooled by heavy water, uses a detection system based on the measurement by GM counters of the activity of the fission gases carried by diluted helium into the heavy water, then extracted by hydro-cyclones. The selectivity of the system gives it a low sensitivity to parasite activities, and an excellent performance. (author) [French] Dans les piles refroidies par gaz carbonique sous pression, du type G{sub 3}, la radioactivite principale du gaz est celle de l'azote 16 creee par reaction {sup 16}O(n, p) {sup 16}N des neutrons rapides sur l'oxygene. Cette activite, de vie courte et de forte energie {beta}, masque l'activite des gaz de fission s'echappant par une fissure de gaine dans le gaz carbonique et oblige a utiliser une methode de separation materielle des produits de fission solides avant la detection proprement dite. Cette detection est faite par une chaine electronique speciale dont l'entree est un scintillateur associe a un photomultiplicateur. Un systeme de mesure d'evolution de fissure avec compensation des variations de puissance permet de suivre la vitesse d'evolution d'une fissure. Cet appareil, baptise evolumetre, est destine a ramener a une methode de zero la mesure de l'activite du gaz de refroidissement des canaux, il permet de s'affranchir: 1) de l'activite propre du gaz restant apres la discrimination

  2. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  3. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  4. 2012 review of French research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrade, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Proposed by the French Reactor Operators' Club (CER), the meeting and discussion forum for operators of French research reactors, this report first gives a brief presentation of these reactors and of their scope of application, and a summary of highlights in 2012 for each of them. Then, it proposes more detailed presentations and reviews of characteristics, activities, highlights, objectives and results for the different types of reactors: neutron beam reactors (Orphee, High flux reactor-Laue-Langevin Institute or HFR-ILL), technological irradiation reactors (Osiris and Phenix), training reactors (Isis and Azur), reactors for safety research purposes (Cabri and Phebus), reactors for neutronic studies (Caliban, Prospero, Eole, Minerve and Masurca), and new research reactors (the RES facility and the Jules Horowitz reactor or JHR)

  5. Recent technical progress in the French uranium industry; Les recents progres techniques dans l'industrie de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper reviews the present-day uranium production situation in France. The various stages of the treatment the concentrates receive, leading to the final production of the metal, are described briefly: dissolution, purification by extraction with a mixture of tributyl phosphate and white spirit, precipitation with ammonia, drying and calcination of the trioxide, reduction with hydrogen, cracked ammonia or preferably pure ammonia gas, fluorination with anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, and production of the metal by the calcium thermite process. Recent work of an original nature is discussed in greater detail. (author) [French] L'expose fait le point de la technique actuelle en ce qui concerne la fabrication de l'uranium en France. Il retrace brievement les diverses etapes du traitement des concentres pour aboutir au metal: mise en solution, purification par extraction au melange phosphate de tributylo-white spirit, precipitation par l'ammoniaque, sechage et calcination du trioxyde, reduction a l'hydrogene, a l'ammoniac craque ou mieux au gaz ammoniac pur, fluoruration par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre et elaboration du metal par calciothermie. De plus amples details sont donnes sur les realisations recentes d'un caractere original. (auteur)

  6. Recent technical progress in the French uranium industry; Les recents progres techniques dans l'industrie de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper reviews the present-day uranium production situation in France. The various stages of the treatment the concentrates receive, leading to the final production of the metal, are described briefly: dissolution, purification by extraction with a mixture of tributyl phosphate and white spirit, precipitation with ammonia, drying and calcination of the trioxide, reduction with hydrogen, cracked ammonia or preferably pure ammonia gas, fluorination with anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, and production of the metal by the calcium thermite process. Recent work of an original nature is discussed in greater detail. (author) [French] L'expose fait le point de la technique actuelle en ce qui concerne la fabrication de l'uranium en France. Il retrace brievement les diverses etapes du traitement des concentres pour aboutir au metal: mise en solution, purification par extraction au melange phosphate de tributylo-white spirit, precipitation par l'ammoniaque, sechage et calcination du trioxyde, reduction a l'hydrogene, a l'ammoniac craque ou mieux au gaz ammoniac pur, fluoruration par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre et elaboration du metal par calciothermie. De plus amples details sont donnes sur les realisations recentes d'un caractere original. (auteur)

  7. Renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2012-01-01

    While supposing the lifetime of all present PWR reactors would be extended to sixty years, the author compares two scenarios regarding the renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors: the first one over 40 years and the second one over 20 years. This renewal is based on the construction of EPR reactors at different rhythms. The author compares the associated production costs and assesses the exploitation costs. A renewal scenario over 40 years seems to give better results

  8. Neutronic study of the two french heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, J.

    1955-01-01

    The two french reactors - the reactor of Chatillon, named Zoe, and the reactor of Saclay - P2 - were the object of detailed neutronic studies which the main ideas are exposed in this report. These studies were mostly done by the Department of the Reactor Studies (D.E.P.). We have thus studied the distribution of neutronic fluxes; the factors influencing reactivity; the link between reactivity and divergence with the formula of Nordheim; the mean time life of neutrons; neutron spectra s of P2; the xenon effect; or the effect of the different adjustments of the plates and controls bar. (M.B.) [fr

  9. The nuclear instrumentation system of the French 1400 MWe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgerette, A.; Mauduit, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation systems in power reactors in France have made considerable advances thanks to technological progress. The appearance of an integrated digital protection system (SPIN) and the extension of digital techniques have considerably improved performance and operating flexibility. Working on the basis of technology developed jointly with the Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation Department at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Framatome and Merlin Gerin have designed the new nuclear instrumentation system for 1400 MW reactors. (authors). 4 figs

  10. French activities on gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.

    1996-01-01

    The gas cooled reactor programme in France originally consisted of eight Natural Uranium Graphite Gas Cooled Reactors (UNGG). These eight units, which are now permanently shutdown, represented a combined net electrical power of 2,375 MW and a total operational history of 163 years. Studies related to these reactors concern monitoring and dismantling of decommissioned facilities, including the development of methods for dismantling. France has been monitoring the development of HTRs throughout the world since 1979, when it halted its own HTR R and D programme. France actively participates in three CRPs set up by the IAEA. (author). 1 tab

  11. Advances made in French safety studies on pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelce, J.

    1979-01-01

    The programme of French safety studies on reactors is supposed to be known in its main outlines. A few recent results, obtained in different fields are presented. They concern the safety margins evaluation, the contamination transfer and the effect of external aggressions

  12. French experience in research reactor fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, Daniele

    1996-01-01

    Since 1963 Transnucleaire has safely performed a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied suitable packaging for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive material from front-end and back-end products and for power or for research reactors. Transportation of spent fuel from power reactors are made on a regular and industrial basis, but this is not yet the case for the transport of spent fuel coming from research reactors. Each shipment is a permanent challenge and requires a reactive organization dealing with all the transportation issues. This presentation will explain the choices made by Transnucleaire and its associates to provide and optimize the corresponding services while remaining in full compliance with the applicable regulations and customer requirements. (author)

  13. The French-German common safety approach for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Chevet, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    A common safety approach has been defined for future electronuclear plants in the framework of the French-German European Pressurised water Reactor (EPR) project. Improvements in the domain of containment are required in future reactors conception to prevent any risk of core fusion under high and low pressure. Another objective is to reduce significantly the radioactive releases due to other accidents in order to reduce spatial and temporal environmental and human protection procedures. Protection against external aggressions (plane fall, explosions, earthquakes,..), prevention of pipe rupture in the primary circuits, limitation of hydrogen production in the case of water-zirconium complete reaction, cooling of the reactor in the case of core fusion, and radiologic consequences of accidents are the main points discussed by the French-German safety authorities to define the common safety standards of the EPR project. (J.S.)

  14. Integrity of pressurized water electronuclear reactor vessels. The case of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document aims at identifying elements related to design, manufacturing and control during operation of reactor vessels of the French electronuclear fleet, and more precisely as far as vessel ferrule is concerned. It briefly describes the typical design and elements of most of French PWR vessels with respect to the reactor type (900 MWe, 1300 MWe, 1450 MWe, EPR). It recalls some measures regarding design (for embrittlement assessment) and manufacturing processes (forging operations for shell fabrication, coatings). It discusses the different manufacturing defects which have been noticed (under the coatings, due to hydrogen, and intergranular loss of cohesion due to re-heating). It more particularly comments defects noticed on a Belgium power station reactor in Doel, defects due to hydrogen and some other defects noticed in the French reactor fleet. It presents the different types of control which are performed on vessel shells during operation

  15. Alternative fuels for the French fast breeder reactors programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.; Bernard, H.; Mansard, B.

    1989-01-01

    French fast breeder reactors use mixed oxide as reference fuel. A great deal of experience has been gained in the behaviour and manufacture of oxide fuel, which has proved to be the most suitable fuel for future commercial breeder reactors. However, France is maintaining long-term alternative fuels programme, in order to be in a position to satisfy eventually new future reactor design and operational requirements. Initially, the CEA in France developed a carbide-based, sodium-bonded fuel designed for a high specific power. The new objective of the alternative fuels programme is to define a fuel which could replace the oxide without requiring any significant changes to the operating conditions, fuel cycle processes or facilities. The current program concentrates on a nitride-based, helium-bonded fuel, bearing in mind the carbide solution. The paper describes the main characteristics required, the manufacturing process as developed, the inspection methods, and the results obtained. Present indications are that the industrial manufacture of mixed nitride is feasible and that production costs for nitride and oxide fuels would be not significantly different. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. Evolution of general design requirements for french pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, G.; Jalouneix, J.; Rollinger, F.

    1988-10-01

    The design of French pressurized water reactors is based first on deterministic principles, using the well-known defense in depth concept. This safety approach, basically reflected current American practice at that time, which consisted notably in designing engineered safeguard systems capable of limiting the consequences of accidents assumed to be credible despite the preventive measures taken. Further reflections have led to complete this approach, resulting in modifications to regulatory practice, mainly related to better practical assimilation of the problems arising during plant unit operation and reactor control after an accident and to the determination to enhance the overall consistency of the safety approach. As regards system redundancy, it should be noted that common cause failures can result in the total loss of a redundant system. System redundancy aspects will be dealt with in Chapter 2. As regards study of design basis accidents, attention was focused on the human intervention stage following automatic activation of protection and safeguard systems. This resulted, for all plant units, in the revision of operating procedures, accompanied by examination of the means required for their implementation. These subjects will be discussed in Chapter 3. Finally, as regards equipment classification, the range of equipment subjected to particular requirements, formerly limited to design basis safety classified equipment, was enlarged to include important for safety equipment. This subject will be dealt with in Chapter 5

  17. French experience in using programmable systems for the control and the protection of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained in the use of two automated systems important to safety in 1300 MWE French nuclear reactors: the numerical integrated protection system (SPIN) and the logical control system (CONTROBLOC)

  18. French approach in fuel pin modelling for fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascard, R [CEA-Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the general philosophy on the problem of fuel modelling now prevailing in France after a twelve years period of tremendously increasing knowledge on fuel behavior. When the Rapsodie fuel pin was designed in 1962 , little was known about the behavior of a mixed oxide fuel pin under fast flux ; but a large body of knowledge on UO{sub 2} behavior in thermal reactor was available together with some sparse irradiation results on (U Pu)O{sub 2} in French experimental reactors. The performances assigned to the pin were then rather modest in rating (400 w/cm) and in burnup (30,000 MWd/t). The AISI 316 steel in solution annealed state was chosen as cladding material. The clad itself was supposed to deform by thermal creep due to fission gas pressure (100% release), and was affected consequently by a strain limit criteria. The importance of clad temperature ({approx}650 deg.) was considered only in connection with thermal creep, the possibility of a chemical reaction between mixed oxide and clad being at that time hardly suspected. Rapsodie had only been at full power for a few months when appeared the evidence of stainless steel swelling under a fast neutrons flux. This swelling was observed on Rapsodie pins as soon as they experienced sufficient neutrons dose, roughly one year later. This entirely new problem came immediately in the front stage (and is still of major importance today), and was at the origin of the change from the Rapsodie to the Fortissimo core in order to accelerate materials testing versus void swelling by multiplying the flux by a factor two. Even with unforeseen swelling, the design of the Rapsodie and later on Fortissimo pin, allowed not only to reach the goal burnup, but to increase it steadily to roughly 100,000 MWd/t. Since then, the French approach in fuel pin design has still retained something of its original simplicity, and technological efficiency, attitude which is justified by the following

  19. The Psychosis Recent Onset GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S) : Defining Dimensions and Improving Outcomes in Early Psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith J.; Castelein, Stynke; van Es, Frank; Scholte-Stalenhoef, Anne Neeltje; van de Willige, Gerard; Smid, Henderikus; Visser, Ellen; Knegtering, Henderikus; Bruggeman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders are among the most complex medical conditions. Longitudinal cohort studies may offer further insight into determinants of functional outcome after a psychotic episode. This paper describes the Psychosis Recent Onset in GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S) that currently contains data on

  20. The Psychosis Recent Onset GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S: defining dimensions and improving outcomes in early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith J Liemburg

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders are among the most complex medical conditions. Longitudinal cohort studies may offer further insight into determinants of functional outcome after a psychotic episode. This paper describes the Psychosis Recent Onset in GRoningen Survey (PROGR-S that currently contains data on 1076 early-episode patients with psychosis, including symptoms, personality, cognition, life events and other outcome determinants. Our goal in this report is to give an overview of PROGR-S, as a point of reference for future publications on the effect of cognition, personality and psychosocial functioning on outcomes. PROGR-S contains an extensive, diagnostic battery including anamnesis, biography, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, drug use, neuropsychological assessment, personality questionnaires, and physical status tests. Extensive follow-up data is available on psychopathology, physical condition, medication use, and care consumption. Sample characteristics were determined and related to existing literature. PROGR-S (period 1997-2009, n = 718 included the majority of the expected referrals in the catchment area. The average age was 27 (SD = 8.6 and two-thirds were male. The average IQ was lower than that in the healthy control group. The majority had been diagnosed with a psychotic spectrum disorder. A substantial number of the patients had depressive symptoms (479/718, 78% and current cannabis or alcohol use (465/718, 75%. The level of community functioning was moderate, i.e. most patients were not in a relationship and were unemployed. The PROGR-S database contains a valuable cohort to study a range of aspects related to symptomatic and functional outcomes of recent onset psychosis, which may play a role in the treatment of this complex and disabling disorder. Results reported here show interesting starting points for future research. Thus, we aim to investigate long-term outcomes on the basis of cognition, personality, negative

  1. The French liquid metal fast breeder reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The strong French LMFBR development and the corresponding success obtained up to now show that there is no technical insuperable barrier to fast breeder construction. This satisfactory evolution is in fact the conjunction of a strong incentive due to the lack of other resources, a firm and permanent stand of the government, and an obstinate effort of all the teams involved in the LMFBR field. The changeover to industrial level should be helped by the simplicity of the French organization for fast breeder. Finally, the development of LMFBR on a larger scale is helped by international agreements through which the present French know-how can be put at the disposal of other partners, and the general knowledge can be improved by setting common R and D programmes. A quite successful example of such agreements is given by the German-French agreement, and we hope that new partners will join us soon. (orig.) [de

  2. Analysis of French (Paluel) pressurized water reactor design differences compared to current US PWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    To understand better the regulatory approaches to reactor safety in foreign countries, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commisssion has reviewed design information on the Paluel nuclear power plant, one of the current standard 1300-MWe plant operating in France. This report provides the staff's evaluation of major design differences between this standardized French plant and current US pressurized water reactor plants, as well as insights concerning French regulatory practices. The staff identified approximately 25 design differences, and an analysis of the safety significance of each of these design features is presented, along with an assessment comparing the relative safety benefit of each

  3. Safety of Research Reactors. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements for all main areas of safety for research reactors, with particular emphasis on requirements for design and operation. It explains the safety objectives and concepts that form the basis for safety and safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of new research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives and concepts, and they are to be applied to the extent practicable for existing research reactors. The safety requirements established in this publication for the management of safety and regulatory supervision apply to site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation (including utilization and modification), and planning for decommissioning of research reactors (including critical assemblies and subcritical assemblies). The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies and other organizations with responsibilities in these areas and in safety analysis, verification and review, and the provision of technical support.

  4. Development of French programme on fast reactors, from March 1976 to March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.

    1977-01-01

    The following milestones of the French LMFBR programme are reported: RAPSODIE (irradiation experiments in order to study the behaviour of the different fuel components of a sodium cooled fast reactor); PHENIX (the burn-up of the first core has reached the nominal value of 50,000MWD/T); SUPER-PHENIX (status of construction)

  5. Assessment of the high temperature fission chamber technology for the French fast reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, C.; Filliatre, P.; Geslot, B.; Domenech, T.; Normand, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA (France)

    2011-07-01

    High temperature fission chambers are key instruments for the control and protection of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. First, the developments of those neutron detectors, which are carried out either in France or abroad are reviewed. Second, the French realizations are assessed with the use of the technology readiness levels in order to identify tracks of improvement. (authors)

  6. French experience in design, operation and revamping of nuclear research reactors, in support of advanced reactors development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Bergeonneau, P.; Merchie, F.; Minguet, J.L.; Rousselle, P.

    1996-01-01

    The French nuclear program is strongly based on the R and D work performed in the CEA nuclear research centers and particularly on the various experimental programs carried out in its research reactors in the frame of cooperative actions between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Framatome and Electricite de France (EDF). Several types of research reactors have been built by Technicatome and CEA to carry out successfully this considerable R and D work on fuels and materials, among them the socalled Materials Testing Reactors (MTR) SILOE (35 MW) and OSIRIS (70 MW) which are indeed very well suited for technological irradiations. Their simple and flexible design and the large irradiation space available around the core, the SILOE and OSIRIS reactors can be shared by several types of applications such as fuel and material testings for nuclear power plants, radioisotopes production, silicon doping and fundamental research. It is worthwhile recalling that Technicatome and CEA have also built research reactors fully dedicated to safety experimental studies, such as the CABRI, SCARABEE and PHEBUS reactors at Cadarache, and others dedicated to fundamental research such as ORPHEE (14 MW) and the Reacteur a Haut Flux -High Flux Reactor- (RHF 57 MW). This paper will present some of the most significant conceptual and design features of all these reactors as well as the main improvements brought to most of them in the last years. Based on this wide experience, CEA and Technicatome have specially designed for export a new multipurpose research reactor named SIRIUS, with two versions depending on the utilization spectrum and the power range (5 MW to 30 MW). At last, CEA has recently launched the preliminary project study of a new MTR, the Jules Horowitz Reactor, to meet the future needs of fuels and materials irradiations in the next 4 or 5 decades, in support of the French long term nuclear power program. (J.P.N.)

  7. French studies and research program in pressurized water reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    1986-06-01

    The aim of researches developed now in France on water reactor safety is to obtain means and knowledge allowing to control accidental situations, including severe situations beyond design basis accidents. The main studies and researches concerning water reactors and described in this report are the following ones: core cooling accident and prevention of severe accidents, fuel behavior in accidental situation, behavior of the containment building, fission product transfer and releases in case of accident, problems related to equipment aging, and, methodology of risk analysis and ''human factor'' studies. Most of these studies follow an analytic approach of phenomena [fr

  8. French gas cooled reactor experience with moisture ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.; Brie, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the history of operation of six gas cooled reactors in France, some experience has been gained with accidental water ingress into the primary system. This occurred as a result of leaks in steam generators. This paper describes the cause of the leaks, and the resulting consequences. (author). 2 refs, 8 figs

  9. The safety of French pressurised water reactors: a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.-C.

    1993-01-01

    France has invested heavily in nuclear technology and is today, arguably, the dominant player in the industry: in EdF we have a utility operating over 50 reactors; in Cogema we have a company operating in every sector of the fuel cycle industry; and in Framatome, perhaps the major nuclear reactor constructor in the world. As wedded as the country is to nuclear energy, France has to be aware of any potentially harmful developments - politically, socially and industrially. Neither can the international arena be neglected, where events can have a profound effect on France's worldwide interests. The following articles demonstrate how much energy and ingenuity France is devoting to resolving the many critical issues facing its nuclear industry, including safety, economics and waste disposal. (Author)

  10. French safety authority projects in the field of research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Raymond, P.; Duthe, M.; Abou Yehia, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an outline of some actions initiated by the French safety authority in the field of research and test reactors. An important action concerns the definition of the authorisation criteria for the implementation of experiments in these reactors. In particular, it is necessary to define clearly in which conditions an experiment may be authorised internally by the operating organisation or needs a formal approval by the safety authority. The practice related to the systematic safety reassessment of old facilities and the regulatory provisions associated with the decommissioning are presented after a discussion on the ageing issues. (author)

  11. Technical evolution and operation of French CO2 cooled reactors (UNGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthion, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The technical evolution of the five French CO 2 cooled reactors (UNGG) from 1981 to 1986 needs to be outlined. These technical evolutions concerned the fuel element of Bugey 1 which is now slightly enriched, as well as the load reduction operation required by the grid. In addition work in underway to increase the safety at the two St Laurent units, or to repair the hot steel upper-structures of Chinon-3 unit

  12. The irradiation test program for transmutation in the French Phenix fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Chaucheprat, P.; Fontaine, B.; Brunon, E.

    2004-01-01

    Put on commercial operation in July 1974, the French fast reactor Phenix reached a 100 000 hours operation time in september 2003. When the French law relative to long lived radioactive waste management was promulgated on December 1991, priority was given to Phenix to be run as a research reactor and to carry on a wide irradiation program dedicated to study transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. After a major renovation program required to extend the reactor lifetime, Phenix power buildup took place in 2003. Experimental irradiations have been loaded in the core, involving components for heterogeneous and homogeneous transmutation modes, americium targets, technetium 99 metal pins and isolated isotopes for integral cross-sections measurements. Associated post- irradiated examination programs are already underway or planned. With new experiments to be loaded in the core in 2006 the Phenix reactor remains to be a powerful tool providing an important experimental data on fast reactors and on transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products, as well as it will contribute to gain further experience in the framework of the GENERATION IV International Forum. (authors)

  13. Review of In-Service Inspection and Repair Technique Developments for French Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, F.

    2005-01-01

    In-service monitoring of nuclear plants is indispensable for both the Operator and the Regulator. The notion of in-service monitoring ranges from the continuous monitoring of the reactor in operation to the thorough in-service reactor inspection during programmed shutdowns. However, the highly specific environment found in French liquid metal fast reactor plants - Phenix and Superphenix - makes monitoring and inspection complicated because of the use of a sodium coolant that is hot, opaque, and difficult to drain.The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in collaboration with its traditional French partners, Electricite de France utilities and FRAMATOME/Novatome Engineering, decided to conduct a 6-yr research and development program (1994-2000) to explore this problem vis-a-vis Superphenix, as well as the possibilities of intervening within the reactor block or on components in a sodium environment. Furthermore, the safety reevaluation of Phenix, conducted between 1994 and 2003, represented an excellent 'test bench' during which the limits of inspection processes - applied to an integrated reactor concept - were surpassed using techniques such as fuel subassembly head scanning, ultrasonic examination of the core support, and visual inspection of the cover-gas plenum following a partial sodium draining. Repair techniques were investigated for cleaning of sodium wet structure surfaces, cutting of damaged parts, and welding in sodium aerosol atmosphere. Both conventional and laser processes were tested

  14. Alternative fuels for the French fast breeder reactors programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.; Bernard, H.; Mansard, B.

    1988-01-01

    At the present time, due to the very competitive cost per kWh produced in France by the PWRs, it appears clear that, despite the improved use of uranium by FBRs, they will only be developed if the cost of the fuel cycle is sufficiently lower than that of the PWRs to compensate for the additional investment. The current economic programme has fixed the following fuel related objectives: - burn-up as high possible, the value of 150 000 MWd/t being considered as a minimum, and not a final target to be achieved, - extension of the duration of reactor operation cycles, leading to high in-pile times for fuel. Reaching the latter objective depends on obtaining high internal breeding gain performances, so that the total reactivity drop related to fuel impoverishment can be minimized. In this respect, a large diameter oxide fuel and/or an axial heterogeneous core concept can be envisaged. Dense fuels could form another solution. The feasibility of the fabrication of carbide and nitride fuels has been demonstrated in several countries and there is currently convergence towards a single type of process based on a carbothermic reaction. The optimization of fabrication procedures for these fuels must be continued to satisfy economic requirements and to obtain a fabrication cost of the same order or magnitude as that of oxide, although higher. If this target is achieved, fabrication will not be the major criterion for the selection of the FBR fuel, which will then be a function of the cost of reprocessing, performances under irradiation and reactor operating requirements

  15. Experience relevant to safety obtained from reactor decommissioning operations in the French Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudel, B.; Langlois, G.

    1979-01-01

    From among the nuclear facilities constructed in France the authors cite eight large reactors, ranging from critical assemblies to power reactors, that have been finally shut-down since 1965. A brief account is given of the way in which the various operations were carried out after the final control rod drop, a distinction being drawn between the shut-down proper and the containment and dismantling work. A description is also given, from the technical and regulatory standpoint, of the final stage attained, and mention is made of French safety arrangements and of the part played by the safety services during decommissioning operations. Among the lessons derived from French experience, the authors mention the completion of operations without any serious safety problems, and with guarantees for the protection of personnel and the population as a whole, by conventional techniques; the advantage of planning decommissioning operations from the very beginning of construction of the facilities; and the importance of filing descriptive documents. In view of the experience gained, the French Atomic Energy Commission has devised internal procedures for facilitating the application of regulations governing the shut-down and decommissioning phases, which are aimed at preserving surveillance procedures similar to those in force during normal operation. (author)

  16. French experience concerning expansion compensating devices on the primary systems of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, B.; Raynal, A.

    1980-01-01

    French experience in the use of large expansion bellows in the presence of hot sodium is extremely limited. This stems from the 'pool' structure of the primary circuit, adopted in France to eliminate the need to solve expansion problems affecting the primary piping of loop reactors. Furthermore, until the present time, the use of bellows on secondary circuits has neither been implemented nor considered. A few bellows nevertheless exist on the Phenix and Super-Phenix reactors, and these perform separation functions, for example, between sodium at different temperature and/or pressures, or tightness functions in gaseous environment at the component penetrations in the slabs. The dimension criteria applied to these bellows are the general rules for structural dimensioning. Since they do not form part of a circuit wall, they do not need to be discussed. Note, however, that these components have not raised any particular problems thus far. Expansion bellows exist in France on the primary circuits of certain nuclear reactors of the natural uranium/graphite/gas type. These reactors have been in operation for many years, and some lessons can be drawn from this experience in the use of bellows in representative conditions on power reactor circuits. Liquid sodium raises specific problems with respect to circuit operation and material behavior. However, many problems in the use of bellows are independent of the fluid conveyed in the circuits. This is why the experience gained with gas type power reactors appears to be useful in considering the possible future use of bellows on sodium reactor circuits

  17. Acoustic detection of a cavitation noise in the French breeder reactor Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, M.; Desprets, A.

    1981-06-01

    The French Phenix reactor is provided with an in-core multi-sensor acoustic surveillance system. But its efficiency with regard to early boiling detection is still to be proven. For lack of boiling events within the core, a cavitating dummy steel subassembly has been loaded into the reactor, as a simulation of boiling signal. Cavitation is controlled through a slow rise of the primary flow in various core conditions: isothermal situation and during a rise of power. Assuming that the signal to noise ratio is of the same order of magnitude for cavitation signals as for boiling ones, the response of several signal processing techniques is evaluated. Pulse connecting seems to be the most efficient conventional method while pattern recognition appears as a promising alternative solution

  18. ASTEC-CATHARE2 benchmarks on French PWR 1300MWe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Philippot, Marc; Foucher, Laurent; Guillard, Gaetan; Fleurot, Joelle

    2009-01-01

    The French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) is performing a level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2) on the French 1300 MWe reactors. This PSA-2 is heavily relying on the ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS (Germany). In order to assess the reliability and the quality of physical results of the ASTEC V1.3 code as well as the PWR 1300 MWe reference input deck, an important series of benchmarks with the French best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code CATHARE 2 V2.5 has been performed on 14 different severe accident scenarios. The present paper details 2 out of the 14 studied scenarios: a 12 inches cold leg Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and a 2 tubes Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR). The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary and secondary circuits is thoroughly investigated and the ASTEC results of the core degradation phase are presented. Overall, the thermal-hydraulic behavior given by the ASTEC V1.3 is in very good agreement with the CATHARE 2 V2.5 results. (author)

  19. France - About the possibility to stop the 19 French reactors which are over 30 years of service. Overview of conditions for phasing out nuclear under condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, Yves

    2011-03-01

    After having set a 30 year limit for a nuclear reactor life, the author analyses the associated consequences in terms of loss of production (while taking the load factor of the concerned reactors into account). He indicates the French production of different resources (nuclear, conventional thermal, hydraulic, renewable) and the French energy consumption, assesses the avoided production due to the shutting down of the 19 reactors, outlines that the present reactor fleet is under-exploited, and addresses the peak issue

  20. Safety approach and R and D program for future french sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beils, Stephane; Carluec, Bernard; Devictor, Nicolas; Fiorini, Gian Luigi; Sauvage, Jean Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents briefly the safety approach as well as the R and D program that is underway to support the deployment of future French Sodium-Cooled fast Reactors (SFRs): A) Safety objectives and principles for future reactors. The content of the first section reflects the works of AREVA, CEA, and EDF concerning the safety orientations for the future reactors. The availability of such orientations and requirements for the SFRs has to allow introducing and managing the process that will lead to the detailed definition of the safety approach, to the selection of the corresponding safety options, and to the identification and motivation of the supporting R and D. B) Strategy and roadmap in support of the R and D for future SFRs. This section describes the R and D program led jointly by CEA, EDF, and AREVA, which has been developed with the objectives to be able to preliminarily define, by 2012, the safety orientations for the future SFRs, and to deduce from them the characteristics of the ASTRID prototype. (author)

  1. The French Atomic Energy Commission program in the field of reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinelli, C.; Bernard, P.; Thomas, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The worldwide slowing-down of the nuclear reactor construction must not lead to decrease the Research and Development effort. Particularly, in the field of the Nuclear Instrumentation and Control, new technologies are quickly changing: sensors, electronics, optronics, computer science... The nuclear industry is reluctant to the introduction of new concepts and of sophisticated technologies. Safety requires highly qualified systems. The development process must respect each step: - interest evaluation of the new idea, - designing and manufacturing of a prototype equipment, - qualification using an experimental facility or with a simulator, - qualification in operational condition (reliability, ageing, accidental standards...). We present an overview of the French CEA program covering the IC domain from the sensors to the operator screen

  2. U.S. and French approaches to reactor pressure vessel integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesbach, T.J.; Buchalet, C.; Server, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of radiation embrittlement on the reactor pressure vessel must be considered for continued safe operation of nuclear power plants. The consequences of radiation embrittlement require detailed assessments of the margins of safety against brittle fracture of the vessel. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and U.S. Regulations often use conservative approaches for these assessments which can eventually lead to severe operational hardships for some plants. Taking a look at alternative integrity approaches, such as those demonstrated in France, could ultimately result in improved ASME Code and Regulatory limits. The French studies have shown the significance of performing proper in- service inspections to reliably show that no defects larger than a predetermined size (or class) exist in the inspected region of a vessel. The predetermined size is based upon previous studies on the types of manufacturing defects which can potentially exist in French vessels. Enhanced linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methodologies can be applied to evaluate such defects to assure that brittle fracture will not occur

  3. Status of French R and D for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigon, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Present PWRs lead to a significant reduction of electricity cost when compared to other sources. Then it seems reasonable to keep the main features of PWRs when looking for improvements of investment cost, of operating and fuel costs, of flexibility and of safety. Besides that we have to think about uranium conservation; if nuclear starts again in many countries, as we hope, the uranium market could get into a crisis during the first half of the 21st century, and uranium shortage could become a reality. Advanced PWRs are also aimed at fissile material saving. The three French partners CEA, EdF and FRAMATOME decided to lead a three year programme 1984-1987. FRAMATOME in fact had started a little bit earlier, namely in 1982 (first publication in RNG - a French technical journal) and developed the RCVS, spectral shift convertible reactor core (for both Uranium and Plutonium fuel). FRAMATOME's effort is estimated to about 40.10 6 FF per year. EdF, R and D Division, is associated with this feasibility study. CEA performs an R and D programme, the objectives of which are: to support FRAMATOME for RCVS design; to explore a wider range of parameters in order to estimate the feasibility and the interest of tight lattice PWR cores. Simultaneously, EdF is defining the preliminary specifications of ''REP 2000'' (future standard for French PWRs in the year 2000 and following); the objectives of REP 2000 are: load follow capacity; cost effectiveness; operation flexibility. FRAMATOME's RCVS and the CEA RSM feasibility study have to be considered in this context. The main objectives are: 1) To improve performances, safety and to minimise cost; 2) To save fissile materials according to a global strategy; 3) While minimum modifications of present PWR components will be accepted. The R and D budget for PWRs (outside safety) of French CEA is around 450 10 6 FF per year. Among this, 40 10 6 FF/year are devoted to tight lattice core feasibility studies (period 1984-1987). 3 figs

  4. Behaviour and microstructure of stainless steels irradiated in the french fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, P.; Gilbon, D.

    1991-01-01

    The burn-up of Fast Breeder Reactors is limited by the irradiation induced dimensional changes and mechanical properties of structural materials used for replaceable in-core components. This paper describes the behaviour improvements and also the radiation-induced microstructures of the different steels used for fuel pin cladding and wrapper tubes in French reactors. Materials of fuel pin cladding are austenitic steels whose main problem is swelling. Improvements in swelling resistance by cold-working, titanium additions and modifications of matrix (Fe-Cr-Ni) from SA 316 to CW 15-15 Ti are shown. These improvements are correlated with a best stability of microstructure under irradiation. Beneficial effects of phosphorus addition and multistabilisation (NbVTi) on radiation induced microstructure and swelling resistance are also shown. Austenitic steels used for wrapper tubes are limited both by swelling and by void embrittlement. The ferritic F17 (17Cr), ferritic-martensitic EM12 (9Cr-2MoNbV) and martensitic EM10 (9Cr-1Mo) steels present high swelling resistance. Nevertheless radiation-induced embrittlement is observed in EM12 and especially in F17. This embrittlement results from a fine and uniform radiation enhanced precipitation in ferrite grains. By contrast, the microstructure of fully martensitic EM10 steel is mush more stable and its ductile-brizzle transition temperature stays below 0 0 C. 12 figs

  5. The European pressurized water reactor. The French-German advanced PWR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, M.P.; Seidelberger, H.; Broecker, B.; Serviere, G.

    1995-01-01

    In order to derive full benefit from the Franco-German experience and to maintain a continuous development process, the EPR is of an evolutionary design. It is also an innovative product, intended to combine competitiveness, improved operability and enhanced safety. With a large electrical output, in the range of 1400-1500 MW, the EPR has an excellent cost-size ratio and is fully adapted to the scarcity of sites. It is also suitable for the development of scale-down products based on the same technology. The progress in safety that can be achieved with the EPR can be used to further enhance the already very high level of safety of the current French and German nuclear plants: (1) by an improvement of the preventive level of the defence-in-depth concept, and (2) by the implementation of additional features, mainly for the containment, to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Economically, the generation cost objective of the EPR will be at least as good as that of the French N4 reactor series. Improvements in safety may imply some additional investment costs, compared with those of the current plants, but the EPR is designed to achieve reductions of the other components of the generation costs, i.e. the fuel cycle costs and the operation and maintenance costs. The paper also describes some major design features of of the EPR: the safety systems, the containment and confinement functions, the arrangement of buildings, protection against external attacks, the man-machine interface, and instrumentation and control. 5 figs, 2 tabs

  6. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-15

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10{sup -6} per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective

  7. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10 -6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of

  8. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  9. The use of LBB concept in French fast reactors: Application to SPX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbat, A.; Deschanels, H.; Sperandio, M.

    1997-01-01

    The leak before break (LBB) concept was not used at the design level for SUPERPHENIX (SPX), but different studies have been performed or are in progress concerning different components : Main Vessel (MV), pipings. These studies were undertaken to improve the defense in depth, an approach used in all French reactors. In a first study, the LBB approach has been applied to the MV of SPX plant to verify the absence of risk as regards the core supporting function and to help in the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) program. Defining a reference semi-elliptic defect located in the welds of the structure, it is verified that the crack growth is limited and that the end-of-life defect is smaller than the critical one. Then it is shown that the hoop welds (those which are the most important for safety) located between the roof and the triple point verify the leak-before-break criteria. However, generally speaking, the low level of membrane primary stresses which is favorable for the integrity of the vessel makes the application of the leak-before-break concept more difficult due to small crack opening areas. Finally, the extension of the methodology to the secondary pipings of SPX incorporating recent European works of DCRC is briefly presented

  10. The use of LBB concept in French fast reactors: Application to SPX plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbat, A.; Deschanels, H.; Sperandio, M. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The leak before break (LBB) concept was not used at the design level for SUPERPHENIX (SPX), but different studies have been performed or are in progress concerning different components : Main Vessel (MV), pipings. These studies were undertaken to improve the defense in depth, an approach used in all French reactors. In a first study, the LBB approach has been applied to the MV of SPX plant to verify the absence of risk as regards the core supporting function and to help in the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) program. Defining a reference semi-elliptic defect located in the welds of the structure, it is verified that the crack growth is limited and that the end-of-life defect is smaller than the critical one. Then it is shown that the hoop welds (those which are the most important for safety) located between the roof and the triple point verify the leak-before-break criteria. However, generally speaking, the low level of membrane primary stresses which is favorable for the integrity of the vessel makes the application of the leak-before-break concept more difficult due to small crack opening areas. Finally, the extension of the methodology to the secondary pipings of SPX incorporating recent European works of DCRC is briefly presented.

  11. Complementary Safety Assessments for Research Reactors for the French Nuclear Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassiotis, Christophe; Rigaud, Antoine; Evrard, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    The 'Autorite de surete nucleaire' (ASN) requested licensees to undertake stress tests, called complementary safety assessments (CSA), of their installations on May 5th 2011, following the accident that occurred in Japan on March 11th 2011. Their mission consisted in providing feedback on the consequences of potential extreme events. In this process, all the French facilities were divided into three categories of decreasing priority, depending on two main factors: on the one hand, their vulnerability to the various phenomena that led to the Fukushima accident, and on the other hand, the amount of radioactive elements that would be dispersed in the event of a failure of the safety functions. On the 79 high-priority facilities, only five of them are research or experimental reactors (including two currently shutdown or in decommissioning) and their operators (the 'Comissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives' (CEA) and the 'Institut Laue Langevin') submitted their reports to the ASN on September 15 th 2011. Concerning the lower-priority facilities, including three other facilities (two research reactors operated by the CEA and a facility operated by ITER Organization) the deadline was September 15 th 2012. Finally, the remaining facilities were not asked to submit a report yet, but they will have to do it later, mainly on the occasion of their next periodic safety review. The analyses of the cliff-edge effects, that may occur in extreme situations (exceptional scale event, combination of several disasters...), led to the definition of a hardened safety core concept by the 'Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire' (IRSN). This hardened safety core of structures, equipment and organizational measures must ensure the ultimate protection of the concerned facilities in extreme situations : it is designed to prevent severe accidents (or curb their progression), limit large scale releases for extreme accidents, and enables the operating teams to

  12. Neutronic study of the two french heavy water reactors; Etude neutronique des deux piles francaises a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The two french reactors - the reactor of Chatillon, named Zoe, and the reactor of Saclay - P2 - were the object of detailed neutronic studies which the main ideas are exposed in this report. These studies were mostly done by the Department of the Reactor Studies (D.E.P.). We have thus studied the distribution of neutronic fluxes; the factors influencing reactivity; the link between reactivity and divergence with the formula of Nordheim; the mean time life of neutrons; neutron spectra s of P2; the xenon effect; or the effect of the different adjustments of the plates and controls bar. (M.B.) [French] Les deux reacteurs francais - la pile de Chatillon, appelee ZOE, et la pile de Saclay, designee dans la suite par P2 - ont fait l'objet d'etudes neutroniques detaillees dont les principales sont exposees dans ce rapport. Ces etudes ont ete pour la plupart effectuees dans le cadre du Departement des Etudes de Piles (D.E.P.). Nous avons ainsi entre autre etudie la distribution du flux neutronique; les facteurs influencants la reactivite; le lien entre reactivite et divergence par la formule de Nordheim; le temps de vie moyen des neutrons; les spectres de neutrons de P2; l'effet xenon; ou encore l'effet des differents reglages des plaques et barres de controles. (M.B.)

  13. French studies on blow-down accident in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelce, J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects on fuel elements and containment buildings resulting from a rapid blow-down accident and the effectiveness of proposed emergency systems are currently being evaluated in France, using the so-called first generation computer codes. Some of these were developed by the constructing organization Framatome for the design of actual power plants; others were developed by the Nuclear Safety Division to back-up related safety studies. These codes are considered to be inadequate and for several years a large effort has been made jointly by EDF and safety authorities, and with the technical assistance of CEA, to make a significant improvement in the methods of assessment. Framatome also participates in this work to some extent. A more physical method is proposed. In particular, selected models are supported by a quite comprehensive experimental programme which is mainly analytical in nature, as follows: (1) Basic analysis, using experiments which are planned or in progress, such as CANON, MOBY-DICK, SUPER MOBY-DICK, REBECA (critical flow at the break and between sub-compartments of the containment building), ECOTRA (condensation on inner walls), TAPIOCA (phase separation at small cracks), EPIS (water and steam mixing during emergency injection), EDGAR (fuel cladding behavior). (2) More intricate or semi-integral analysis such as OMEGA and ERSEC (tests on in-core heat transfer during blow-down and rewetting), both of which are in progress, in-pile PHEBUS loop due to start operating in 1977 (fuel behavior during the accident), pump tests (EVA, POMPE). Future methods of assessing the reactor itself will include the physical models thus perfected: A first code, (CLYSTERE) has been written and can be used. Although it has not been validated experimentally, it can already evaluate the effect of some physical phenomena on the development of the accident. Work is being done on reconstructing the general flow chart of this code in order to improve the conditions of use, in

  14. R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)

  15. Progress report of the French program, and basic design of the Jules Horowitz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the SILOE reactor was shutdown on December 23, 1997, France has been entirely depending on the OSIRIS reactor to conduct the material and fuel irradiation programmes necessary to the evolution of its nuclear power plants and to prepare the future by analysing further reactor designs which might originate in other strategies, namely in the fuel cycle field. The Jules Horowitz reactor, which operation scheduled to start in 2006, will last 50 years, must cover all irradiation needs including, as far as possible, those related to fast breeder reactor studies, more particularly since the SUPERPHENIX reactor shutdown was announced. RJH reactor studies therefore focus on the increase of flux levels and the search for the limit performance of U 3 Si 2 based MTR fuels. (author)

  16. Status of the French research in the field of molten salt nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, M.; Israel, M.; Fauger, P.; Lecocq, A.

    1977-01-01

    The research program of the CEA in the field of molten salt nuclear reactors has been concerned with MSBR type reactors (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor). The papers written after having performed the theoretical analysis are entitled: core, circuits, chemistry and economy; they include some criticisms and suggestions. The experimental studies consisted in: graphite studies, chemical studies of the salt, metallic materials, the salt loop and the lead loop [fr

  17. The significance of the human factor in the safety of nuclear reactors: the French experience and the lessons of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houze, C.; Oury, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    The importance of the human factor to French nuclear safety policy and the application of human fallibility as a parameter of safety analysis are described. The impact of reactor operating experience on future theoretical and practical application considerations is discussed. Particular reference is given to the lessons of Three Mile Island

  18. Publication of the second amendment to the German-French Convention on the construction and operation of a very high flux reactor and to its complementary agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Full text in German, English, and French of the amendment to the London Convention of December 9, 1981 between the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning the operating cost and the use of the high flux reactor in Grenoble at the Max-von-Laue Institute. (HP) [de

  19. Description of the french graphite reactor and of the experiments performed in 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, J.; Leduc, C.; Zaleski, C.P.

    1957-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the experiments performed on the G1 reactor, experiments fully described in the papers following (670 'B to P'). The main results are given together with some comments. The neutronic parameters of the core, a description of the most important structures, and a few words of the tests leading to normal operation of the reactor under load complete our survey. (author) [fr

  20. French experience and prospects in the reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-06-01

    Experience acquired in France in the field of reprocessing spent fuels from fast breeder reactors is recalled. Emphasis is put on characteristics and quantities of spent fuels reprocessed in La Hague and Marcoule facilities. Then reprocessing developments with the realisation of the new pilot plant TOR at Marcoule, new equipments and study of industrial reprocessing units are reviewed [fr

  1. Programme of hot points eradication (Co-60) led on French PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, A.; Ridoux, P.; Anthoni, S.; Brun, C.

    1998-01-01

    The question of hot points (pellets rich in cobalt 59 or in cobalt 60 in a PWR type reactor), is studied from the radiation protection point of view. The purpose is to see how to optimize the radiation protection, the elimination of these hot points can bring an improvement. (N.C.)

  2. The Use of Prestressed Concrete Vessels in the French Power Reactor Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, F.; Dambrine, C.; Gaussot, D.

    1963-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of pre-stressed concrete for the G2 and G3 reactors at Marcoule and for the EDF3 reactor now under construction at Chinon. The first two reactors have been operating at power since 1959 and 1960 respectively. Messrs. Conte and Dambrine discuss the problems that arose during construction of the vessels for G2 and G3 and also deal with the experience gained in operation - experience which suggests that they are extremely safe- Work on the EDF3 vessel, begun at Chinon in the second half of 1961, is still under way and should be finished towards the end of 1963. Mr. Gaussot discusses the reasons for choosing this type of vessel, the results of calculations and mock-up tests, and the problems presented by the construction itself. A number of studies have been devoted to the future prospects of prestressed concrete structures for reactors. It would seem that working pressures could be increased, if desired, and, in any case, that dimensions could be considerably enlarged, thus offering the chance of integral-type solutions. (author) [fr

  3. The French Fast Reactor Program - Innovations in Support to Higher Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauché, François

    2013-01-01

    • From the experience of ASTRID first phase of conceptual design studies (2010-2012), two remarks can be made: → Higher requirements in safety and operability lead to higher costs that cannot be fully recovered by advances in technology. This puts additional pressure on the next phases of the design to optimize the design and to keep the costs to the minimum. → There is a clear link between the level of safety that can be achieved and the maturity of the technology, i.e. the experience accumulated in R&D, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of past reactors. In the field of fast neutron reactors, this gives a strong advantage to the sodium technology, because strengths and weaknesses are well mastered. • Meeting the high requirements set for ASTRID and serving R&D needs of innovative options will require increased industrial and international collaboration

  4. Cooperative Russian-French experiment on plutonium-enriched fuels for fast burner reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabud'ko, L.M.; Kurina, I.A.; Men'shikova, T.S.; Rogozkin, B.D.; Maershin, A.A.; Langi, A.; Pillon, S.

    2001-01-01

    Various kinds of nuclear fuels with an increased plutonium content are under study according to the program including three stages: fabrication, irradiation in BOR-60 reactor, post-irradiation examination. Flowsheets for fabricating pelletized and vibrocompacted fuels of UPu 0.45 O 2 , UPu 0.45 N, UPu 0.6 N, PuN + ZrN, PuO 2 + MgO are presented along with basic fuel properties. The irradiation of oxide fuel is carried out in an individual irradiation device at rated maximum temperature of the fuel at the beginning of irradiation equal to 2100 deg C. The irradiation of nitride fuel and the fuel based on inert matrices is performed in the other device with the aim of limitation of maximum temperature by the value of 1550 deg C. The duration of irradiation for all fuel types constitutes 750 EFPD. Fuel element charge in Bor-60 reactor core was realized in 2000 [ru

  5. Modeling relations between the composition and properties of French light water reactor waste containment glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, D.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Fillet, C.; Pacaud, F.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Models have been developed to calculate the density, molten-state viscosity and initial corrosion rate according to the chemical composition of glass formulations used to vitrify high-level fission product solutions from reprocessed light water reactor fuel. Developed from other published work, these models have been adapted to allow for the effects of platinoid (Ru, Pd, Rh) inclusions on the molten glass rheology. (authors). 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  6. World-wide French experience in research reactor fuel cycle transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1963 Transnucleaire has safely performed a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied suitable packagings for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive material from front-end and back-end products and for power or for research reactors. Transportation of the nuclear fuel material for power reactors is made on a regular and industrial basis. The transportation of material for the research reactor fuel cycle is quite different due to the small quantities involved, the categorisation of material and the numerous places of delivery world-wide. Adapted solutions exist, which require a reactive organisation dealing with all the transportation issues for LEU and HEU products as metal, oxide, fresh fuel elements, spent fuel elements including supply of necessary transport packaging and equipment. This presentation will: - explain the choices made by Transnucleaire and its associates to provide and optimise the corresponding services, - demonstrate the capability to achieve, through reliable partnership, transport operations involving new routes, specific equipment and new political constraints while respecting sophisticated safety and security regulations. (author)

  7. The French R and D programme for fast reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, P.; Bourgeois, M.; Calame-Longjean, A.; Miquel, P.; Sauteron, J.

    1979-01-01

    The process employed is the Purex process adapted to the specific case of fast breeder reactor fuels. The results achieved have demonstrated that the aqueous method can be applied to these fuels: nearly ten years of operation in the ATl workshop which reprocesses RAPSODIE fuels, and the good results obtained at the Marcoule pilot facility on large batches of fuel attest to this achievement. The CEA effort continues principally on extrapolation to industrial scale, thanks mainly to experiments conducted on industrial prototypes and to the launching of the TOR project, which will, as of 1984, allow reprocessing of FBR fuels on a significant scale, and which will provide extensive additional resources for R and D activities

  8. Neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel wall - a comparison of French and German procedures and strategies in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, N.; Jendrich, U.

    2003-01-01

    While the neutrons within the core may take part in the chain reaction, those neutrons emitted from the core are basically lost for the energy production. This 'neutron leakage' represents a loss of fuel efficiency and causes neutron embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall. The latter raises safety concerns, needs to be monitored closely and may necessitate mitigating measures. There are different strategies to deal with these two undesirable effects: The neutron emission may be reduced to some extent all around the core or just at the 'hot spots' of RPV embrittlement by tailored core loading patterns. A higher absorption rate of neutrons may also be achieved by a larger water gap between the core and the RPV. In this paper the inter-relations between the distribution of neutron flux, core geometry, core loading strategy, RPV embrittlement and its surveillance are discussed at first. Then the different strategies followed by the German and French operators are described. Finally the conclusions will highlight the communalities and differences between these strategies as different approaches to the same problem of safety as well as economy. (authors)

  9. Comparison between MAAP and ECART predictions of radionuclide transport throughout a French standard PWR reactor coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervouet, C.; Ranval, W.; Parozzi, F.; Eusebi, M.

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of a collaboration agreement between EDF and ENEL, the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) and ECART (ENEL Code for Analysis of radionuclide Transport) predictions about the fission product retention inside the reactor cooling system of a French PWR 1300 MW during a small Loss of Coolant Accident were compared. The volatile fission products CsI, CsOH, TeO 2 and the structural materials, all of them released early by the core, are more retained in MAAP than in ECART. On the other hand, the non-volatile fission products, released later, are more retained in ECART than in MAAP, because MAAP does not take into account diffusion-phoresis: in fact, this deposition phenomenon is very significant when the molten core vaporizes the water of the vessel lower plenum. Centrifugal deposition in bends, that can be modeled only with ECART, slightly increases the whole retention in the circuit if it is accounted for. (authors). 18 refs., figs., tabs

  10. Recent developments concerning French fuel elements used in natural uranium - graphite - CO{sub 2} reactor systems; Developpements recents des elements combustibles francais de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M; Stohr, J A; Jeanpierre, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    internal can of the annular element, has necessitated very much research work. - the exact temperature drop at the contact between the uranium and the can, and the strength of the lower end of the cartridge are points which are increasingly crucial in the case of the annular element. All in all the annular element thus calls for a great research effort. This effort is justified by the big step forwards in which it will result in the case of the EDF reactors thanks to its high specific power and to the high weight of uranium in each cartridge. (authors) [French] La politique choisie en France pour le developpement des elements combustibles destines aux reacteurs de l'Electricite de France, consiste a chercher, pour chaque pile nouvelle, a beneficier au maximum des progres techniques les plus recents en etudiant chaque fois un nouvel element combustible permettant une puissance par canal aussi elevee que possible. Les derniers elements combustibles ainsi etudies par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique sont de deux types differents: un element a tube d'uranium ferme aux deux extremites et refroidi exterieurement (ce type d'element, retenu pour les reacteurs EDF 2, EDF 3 et EDF 4 permet des puissances specifiques maximum de l'ordre de 6 MW/t). Un element a tube d'uranium ouvert, refroidi interieurement et exterieurement, appele clemont annulaire et dont on etudie la possibilite pour EDF5. Un tel element peut permettre des puissances specifiques superieures a 12 MW/t. Ces deux types d'elements possedent des caracteristiques communes: la gaine, pour le refroidissement externe, comporte des ailettes en chevron. Ce type de profil, qui a recu recemment des ameliorations notables augmentant son efficacite thermique, a l'avantage important d'eviter les vibrations de cartouche mais a pose des problemes technologiques de tenue au cyclage thermique qui ont necessite une etude approfondie. les cartouches sont placees a l'interieur de chemise en graphite, ce qui limite les efforts

  11. How to bring the nuclear share to 50 pc without stopping any reactor, nor increasing CO2 emissions. The issue of renewal of the French nuclear reactor fleet is also part of the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2013-01-01

    In a first article, after having recalled the present situation of the French energy mix, the author analyses the consequences of the shutting down of 22 nuclear reactors by 2025 to bring the nuclear share down from 75 to 50 per cent. Different options are discussed: fossil energy (but CO 2 emissions would be impacted), renewable energy (hydroelectricity cannot be further developed, biomass can be useful for heat networks, and wind energy is limited). The author examines the possibilities of decreasing electricity consumption, and of a significant contribution of gas plants. He compares direct gas- and fuel oil-based heating with heating with electricity produced by gas plants. A second article addresses the issue of renewal of the French nuclear reactor fleet. It discusses how to choose the right renewal pace, and an assessment of exploitation losses

  12. Recent progress in the detection of bursts in the canning in French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupil, J.; Grenon, M.; Raffailhac, J.; Roguin, A.

    1959-01-01

    electronic system provide a specific signal of the fission products which is then marked on a recorder. In a case where the activity threshold is exceeded, the cell involved is isolated from the prospection system and taker, over by a 'follow-up' detector which follows the evolution of the crack. A year of working on the pile G 1 , which is cooled by air at atmospheric pressure, has made it possible to obtain results on the operation of the canning-burst detection appliance, which has led us to perfect the original device by installing an 'evolution-meter' of the type described above for G 3 . The reactor EL 3 , cooled by heavy water, uses a detection system based on the measurement by GM counters of the activity of the fission gases carried by diluted helium into the heavy water, then extracted by hydro-cyclones. The selectivity of the system gives it a low sensitivity to parasite activities, and an excellent performance. (author) [fr

  13. Assessment of the French and US embrittlement trend curves applied to RPV materials irradiated in the BR2 materials test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaouadi, R.; Gerard, R.; Boagaerts, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in monitored through the surveillance programs associated with predictive formulas, the so-called embrittlement trend curves. These formulas are generally empirically derived and contain the major embrittlement-inducing elements such as copper, nickel and phosphorus. There are a number of such trend curves used in various regulatory guides used in the US, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. These trend curves are often supported by surveillance data and regularly assessed in view of updated surveillance databases. With the recent worldwide move towards life extension of existing reactors above their initially-scheduled lifetime of 40 years, adequate and accurate modeling of irradiation embrittlement becomes a concern for long term operation. The aim of this work is to assess the performance of the embrittlement trend curves used in a regulatory perspective. The work presented here is limited to US and French trend curves because the reactor pressure vessels of the Belgian nuclear power plants are either Westinghouse or Framatome design. The chemical composition of the Belgian RPVs being very close to the one of the French 900 MW units, the French trend curve is used except for the Doel 1-2 units for which these curves are not applicable due to the higher copper content of the welds. In this case, the U.S. trend curves are used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of the embrittlement trend curves used in a regulatory perspective to represent the experimental data obtained in the BR2 reactor. In particular, the French (FIM, FIS) and the US (Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2, ASTM E900-02, EWO and EONY) formulas are of prime interest. The results obtained clearly show that the French trend curves tend to over-estimate the actual irradiation hardening while the US curves under-estimate it. Within the long term operation perspective, both over- and under-estimating are undesirable and therefore the

  14. Jost Bürgi's aritmetische und geometrische Progreß Tabulen (1620) edition and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a groundbreaking scholarly treatment of the German mathematician Jost Bürgi’s original work on logarithms, Arithmetische und Geometrische Progreß Tabulen. It provides the first-ever English translation of Bürgi’s text and illuminates his role in the development of the conception of logarithms, for which John Napier is traditionally given priority. High-resolution scans of each page of the his handwritten text are reproduced for the reader and as a means of preserving an important work for which there are very few surviving copies. The book begins with a brief biography of Bürgi to familiarize readers with his life and work, as well as to offer an historical context in which to explore his contributions. The second chapter then describes the extant copies of the Arithmetische und Geometrische Progreß Tabulen, with a detailed description of the copy that is the focus of this book, the 1620 “Graz manuscript”. A complete facsimile of the text is included in the next chapter, a...

  15. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  16. Description of the french graphite reactor and of the experiments performed in 1956; Presentation du premier reacteur a graphite francais et des experiences effectuees en 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussac, J; Leduc, C; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    This paper is an introduction to the experiments performed on the G1 reactor, experiments fully described in the papers following (670 'B to P'). The main results are given together with some comments. The neutronic parameters of the core, a description of the most important structures, and a few words of the tests leading to normal operation of the reactor under load complete our survey. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente les experiences qui furent faites sur le reacteur G1 et dont la description en detail fait l'objet des rapports suivants (670 'B a P'). Les principaux resultats sont fournis ici et commentes. On trouvera en outre les caracteristiques neutroniques du coeur actif de la pile, une description des principales installations et une mention des essais qui ont conduit au fonctionnement normal du reacteur en puissance. (auteur)

  17. The 40 year deadline for the French nuclear stock. Decision process, strengthening option and costs associated with a possible lifetime extension beyond 40 years of EDF reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the lifetime extension problematic (PLEX) for nuclear plants in a general context (strategy of lifetime extension, and uncertainty and lack of return on experience), and in the case of France (emergence of a strategy of lifetime extension, economic challenges of an extension, uncertainty on investments required by an extension, risk of imposed implicit decisions). It gives a rather detailed overview of the French nuclear reactor fleet, of the status of EDF-operated reactors (construction stages, main lifetime events, regulatory situation of currently exploited reactors) and of their characteristics (common operation principle, main components, main safety functions, main considered severe accidents). It addresses safety issues related to ageing and to the post-Fukushima re-assessment (problematic, robustness increase, limits and weaknesses of additional safety assessments). It presents the currently performed improvements (safety referential, applicable strengthening requirements like safety re-examinations and requirements introduced after Fukushima, applied strengthening prescriptions drawn from additional safety assessments or from the third decennial inspection, with their limitations and perspectives). It proposes strengthening scenarios along with their challenges (in terms of requirement level, procedure and agenda). Three scenarios are proposed (degraded safety, preserved safety, strengthened safety) and analysed in terms of protection against aggressions, diffuse robustness, prevention and management of reactor accident, prevention and management of pool accidents, ultimate control and assistance means. Scenarios are finally compared in terms of costs

  18. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  19. Organic chemistry and radiochemistry: study of chemical interactions between iodine and paint of French nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aujollet, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In Phebus (French in pile facility; PWR scale 1/5000) experiments, performed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, few quantities of organic iodides were registered after interaction between iodine and reactor containment paint. This study concerns all mechanisms of chemical reactions between iodine and the polymer of the paint in order to estimate the organic iodides released from the paint. At first, all the paint components had been identified. Several models of chemical sites of the polymer were synthesized and tested with iodine in different conditions of temperature and radiation. These experiments showed interactions between iodine and secondary or tertiary amines by charge transfer. In few cases, the complex of tertiary amines creates oxidation reactions. (author)

  20. French experience in operating pressurized water reactor power stations. Ten years' operation of the Ardennes power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teste du Bailler, A.; Vedrinne, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    In the paper the experience gained over ten years' operation of the Ardennes (Chooz) nuclear power station is summarized from the point of view of monitoring and control equipment. The reactor was the first pressurized water reactor to be installed in France; it is operated jointly by France and Belgium. The equipment, which in many cases consists of prototypes, was developed for industrial use and with the experience that has now been gained it is possible to evaluate its qualities and defects, the constraints which it imposes and the action that has to be taken in the future. (author)

  1. Burst slug detection system in french power reactors (1961); La detection des ruptures de gaines dans les reacteurs de puissance francais (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megy, J; Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Gas samples are taken from the channels of the reactor and the short lived fission products are electrostatically collected to be analysed by a phosphor and photomultiplier system. The electrostatic collection and rotating electrode detector is described and its main uses exposed. Experience has shown the interest of measuring the evolution of fission products activities and not their absolute value only. In this way, data processing equipment have been designed and adapted to the detection apparatus. The system developed and realized for the G-l - G-2 - G-3 - EDF-1 - EDF-2 reactors are compared. (authors) [French] Un prelevement de gaz est effectue dans les canaux du reacteur et les produits de fission a vie courte sont collectes electrostatiquement pour etre analyses par un ensemble scintillateur-photomultiplicateur. Le detecteur a collection electrostatique et electrode tournante est decrit et ses applications principales sont exposees. L'experience a montre l'interet de mesurer l'evolution des activites en produits de fission et non seulement leur valeur absolue. D'ou le developpement d'ensembles de traitement des informations associes aux chaines de detection. Comparaison des realisations sur les reacteurs G-l - G-2 - G-3 - EDF-1 et EDF-2. (auteurs)

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-H-6:2, 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:3, 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:6 Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils; the 100-H-9, 100-H-10, and 100-H-13 French Drains; the 100-H-11 and 100-H-12 Expansion Box French Drains; and the 100-H-14 and 100-H-31 Surface Contamination Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of removal actions for the 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils (subsite 118-H-6:2); 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils (118-H-6:3); and Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils. This CVP also documents remedial actions for the following seven additional waste sties: French Drain C (100-H-9), French Drain D (100-H-10), Expansion Box French Drain E (100-H-11), Expansion Box French Drain F (100-H-12), French Drain G (100-H-13), Surface Contamination Zone H (100-H-14), and the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Surface Contamination Zone (100-H-31)

  3. The French nuclear power plant reactor building containment contributions of prestressing and concrete performances in reliability improvements and cost savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouelle, P.; Roy, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Electricite de France's N4 CHOOZ B nuclear power plant, two units of the world's largest PWR model (1450 Mwe each), has earned the Electric Power International's 1997 Powerplant Award. This lead NPP for EDF's N4 series has been improved notably in terms of civil works. The presentation will focus on the Reactor Building's inner containment wall which is one of the main civil structures on a technical and safety point of view. In order to take into account the necessary evolution of the concrete technical specification such as compressive strength low creep and shrinkage, the HSC/HPC has been used on the last N4 Civaux 2 NPP. As a result of the use of this type of professional concrete, the containment withstands an higher internal pressure related to severe accident and ensures higher level of leak-tightness, thus improving the overall safety of the NPP. On that occasion, a new type of prestressing has been tested locally through 55 C 15 S tendons using a new C 1500 FE Jack. These updated civil works techniques shall allow EDF to ensure a Reactor Containment lifespan for more than 50 years. The gains in terms of reliability and cost saving of these improved techniques will be developed hereafter

  4. Perspectives for the french R and D program for high and very high temperature reactors - HTR2008-58172

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, P.; Hittner, D.; Delbecq, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A R and D programme has been launched addressing the needs of the development of an indirect cycle flexible modular HTR operating at 850 deg. C for electricity generation and/or heat production for industrial processes. In the frame of this program, several significant technical challenges required to demonstrate the viability and performance of the system have been successfully addressed. Design and safety analysis needed the development of computational tools, therefore reactor physics, and thermo-fluid dynamics codes have been developed and are now in the process of being validated in the frame of international code-to-code and code to experiment benchmarks. Most importantly, the performance of the HTR/VHTR fuel identified as TRISO-coated particle must prove to be excellent in operating as well as accidental conditions. A manufacturing and quality control process has been developed and now fuel qualification based on irradiation and heating safety tests is being prepared on the basis of irradiation programs in France and in the frame of the GENERATION IV International Forum (GIF) as well as the development of fuel behaviour models including performance data, failure particle prediction and long-term integrity of the coating. Material and component technologies have been investigated in normal and accident conditions for V/HTR objectives. Significant progress has been made for vessel structures and reactor core structural elements. Major challenges still lie ahead for plate type compact intermediate heat exchangers, especially at temperatures above 850 deg. C, but an alternative solution with helical tubes is also being developed. In order to demonstrate that materials have adequate performance over long service life under impure helium environment and constraints, the research programme focuses on microstructural and mechanical property data, long-term irradiation behaviour, corrosion, modelling and codification of design rules as well as qualification of

  5. The European pressurized water reactor. Result of the French-German cooperation of experienced NPP suppliers and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 Framatome and Siemens, the two most experienced European nuclear power plant suppliers, decided to join the efforts for the development of a new reactor type for the next generation in their equally owned subsidiary nuclear power international (NPI). In 1992 Electricite de France and the major German utilities operating nuclear power plants merged their own development programs with that of nuclear power international and initiated the European pressurized water reactor (EPR) project. In order to reach the two major targets of the project, the licensability in both countries, France and Germany, and the competitiveness of nuclear energy with other alternative energy sources, the design basis which had differently developed in the two countries needed to be harmonized. In parallel, the licensing authorities of both countries extended their existing cooperation in the field of a safety survey of existing nuclear power plants to the definition of safety criteria for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Through this cooperation the licensability of EPR in France and Germany will be assured. Continuously performed cost analysis show in addition that also the second target of the project, the competitiveness with alternative primary energy sources, can be achieved. Thanks to the fruitful cooperation between all parties involved, satisfactory results have been achieved not by a simple superposition of existing design features but through a careful evaluation and combination of the best available alternatives. At the end of 1997 the basic design results were compiled in a final report. Subsequently an optimization phase was launched that further improves the competitiveness of the power generation costs. (orig.)

  6. French LEU fuel for research reactor with emphasis on the Osiris experience of core conversion and reactor operation with the new fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.-M.

    1981-09-01

    One of the various activities carried out in France concerned with the design, fabrication and development of nuclear fuels was the development by the CEA of a plate type fuel (Caramel fuel). A Caramel fuel element is in the form of a plate consisting of two tight covering zircaloy sheets in which the UO 2 platelets are confined themselves within the network of a zircaloy grid. The plane geometry provides an effective means of overcoming the drawback of poor uranium oxide conductivity, and makes it possible to combine high specific power with low fuel temperature. The chief advantages of this fuel are the following: it is a very low enriched fuel. It can be used in research reactors demanding high volumetric powers and neutron fluxes, with a required enrichment significantly lower than 20% 235 U. The difference between the densities of UO 2 matrix and U-Al, 10.3 and 1.6 g/cm respectively, leads to a higher uranium charge, making it possible to reduce the enrichment to between 3 and 10%. Owing to fuel dispersion, any loss of tightness only puts a small amount of fissile material in contact with the coolant, thus limiting any contamination of the primary circuit. Another safety factor is the operating temperature, which is considerably lower than the temperature at which fission gases are liberated

  7. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  9. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  10. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  11. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  12. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  13. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  14. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  15. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  16. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  17. Decision no. 2011-DC-0216 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the Laue Langevin Institute to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facility (high flux reactor - INB no. 67) in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the Laue Langevin Institute, operator of the high flux research reactor (RHF) of Grenoble (France). (J.S.)

  18. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  19. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  20. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  1. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  2. Interesting Developments in UO{sub 2} Technology; Progres interessants dans la technologie du bioxyde d'uranium; Interesnye usovershenstvovaniya tekhnologii UO{sub 2}; Recientes progresos en la tecnologia del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. A.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-11-15

    }. With the ability to perform in-reactor measurements a new phase of more meaningful experiments is just starting. These will determine whether any potential economic advantage lies in novel forms of fuel. Meanwhile, continuing development of sintered UO{sub 2} in the simple rod geometry will provide stiff competition. (author) [French] Maintenant que plusieurs reacteurs alimentes au bioxyde d'uranium sont en exploitation normale, on peut considerer que les performances nucleaires de cette matiere sont satisfaisantes et il faut se rejouir de voir se realiser encore de nouveaux progres dans cette branche de la technologie. L'evenement le plus remarquable dans ce domaine est assurement la decouverte des chercheurs de Battelle qui ont observe recemment qu'a haute temperature un monocristal de UO{sub 2} etait doue d'une tres forte conductivite thermique. A la suite d'une controverse sur ce point, une experience d' irradiation faite a Chalk River a montre que les grains de grande dimension formes dans des elements combustibles en fonctionnement ne presentent pas necessairement cette conductivite accrue. Les experiences de laboratoire ont revele que cette augmentation de la conductivite ne se presente que dans les compositions hypostoechiometriques et ne depend guere de l'absence de joint de grain. En fait, la forte conductivite peut etre obtenue dans des frittes polycristallins, si l'on maintient la composition stoechiometrique optimum. On sait depuis longtemps qu' il est possible de reduire rallongement des gaines en menageant des depressions sur chacune des bases des pastilles de UO{sub 2}; on a montre par la suite que si on laissait un vide aux extremites de l'empilement des pastilles, la tendance du combustible a remplir ce vide etait entravee par la dilatation diametrale des pastilles et leur interaction mecanique avec la gaine. On a realise un tres grand progres en vue de reduire los distensions de la gaine lorsqu'on s'est rendu compte que les dilatations longitudinales

  3. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  4. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  5. Progrès de l'intégration régionale, rôle et stratégie du Groupe de la

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mgv3643

    8 déc. 2009 ... 1. Progrès de l‟Intégration Régionale,. Rôle et Stratégie du Groupe de la Banque Africaine de Développement dans la promotion de l‟intégration régionale en Afrique. Gabriel Mougani. Département NEPAD, Intégration Régionale et Commerce ...

  6. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollion, H.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components [fr

  8. Boron analyses in the reactor coolant system of French PWR by acid-base titration ([B]) and ICP-MS (10B atomic %): key to NPP safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouvet, Fabien; Roux, Sylvie; Carabasse, Stephanie; Felgines, Didier

    2012-09-01

    Boron is widely used by Nuclear Power Plants and especially by EDF Pressurized Water Reactors to ensure the control of the neutron rate in the reactor coolant system and, by this way, the fission reaction. The Boron analysis is thus a major factor of safety which enables operators to guarantee the permanent control of the reactor. Two kinds of analyses carried out by EDF on the Boron species, recently upgraded regarding new method validation standards and developed to enhance the measurement quality by reducing uncertainties, will be discussed in this topic: Acid-Base titration of Boron and Boron isotopic composition by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer - ICP MS. (authors)

  9. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  10. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 7. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (French concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (French concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  11. Reactor cooling systems thermal-hydraulic assessment of the ASTEC V1.3 code in support of the French IRSN PSA-2 on the 1300 MWe PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Philippot, Marc; Foucher, Laurent; Guillard, Gaetan; Fleurot, Joelle

    2010-01-01

    The French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) is performing a level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2) on the French 1300 MWe PWRs. This PSA-2 study is relying on the ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS (Germany). In order to assess the reliability and the quality of physical results of the ASTEC V1.3 code as well as the PWR 1300 MWe reference input deck, a wide-ranging series of comparisons with the French best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code CATHARE 2 V2.5 has been performed on 14 different severe-accident scenarios. The present paper details 4 out of the 14 studied scenarios: a 12-in. cold leg Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), a 2-tube Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), a 12-in. Steam Line Break (SLB) and a total Loss of Feed Water scenario (LFW). The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary and secondary circuits is thoroughly investigated and compared to the CATAHRE 2 V2.5 results. The ASTEC results of the core degradation phase are also presented. Overall, the thermal-hydraulic behavior given by the ASTEC V1.3 is in very good agreement with the CATHARE 2 V2.5 results.

  12. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  13. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  14. Progrès de la médecine, progrès technologiques et pratiques cliniques : les soignants se racontent Medical progress, technology and clinical practice: caregivers share their daily challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Fortin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une étude anthropologique des pratiques cliniques en milieux de soins tertiaires, cet article s’intéresse aux défis posés par les progrès médicaux et technologiques en unités de soins intensifs (aigus et en unités d’oncologie pédiatrique (chroniques. Ces progrès interpellent quotidiennement médecins et personnel infirmier, posant des défis pour lesquels peu de réponses existent. Normes et valeurs s’actualisent en ces lieux où des enjeux entourant la vie, la “qualité” de vie, et la mort sont quotidiens. L’hôpital pédiatrique est certes un endroit où tous les espoirs sont permis. C’est aussi un lieu où la mort est à apprivoiser ; elle devient un choix, s’imposant rarement d’elle-même. Sur la base des témoignages des soignants et de nos propres observations, nous proposons une réflexion sur la ‘fin de vie’, objet d’un choix difficile, en dialogue avec la technologie qui la rend possible. Ces différentes voix témoigneront de rationalités parfois parallèles, convergentes ou divergentes, et des normes et valeurs qui s’affrontent, se rencontrent et se négocient dans l’espace social de la clinique.Stemming from an anthropological study of clinical practices in tertiary health care institutions, our paper focuses on challenges brought by medical and technological progress in paediatric intensive care units (acute and oncology units (chronic. This progress affects clinicians and nurses daily, posing challenges for which there are no ‘easy’ solutions. Norms and values surface in these clinical settings where issues regarding life, quality of life and death are part of everyday practice. A paediatric hospital is certainly a place where all hopes are warranted, but it is also a place where death must be acknowledged. Death is in fact often a question of choice as it almost always avoidable. Through the testimonies of health care professionals and our own field observations, we offer a

  15. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  16. Recent progress in fission product separation; Progres recents de la separation des produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    saturated with magnesium in order to avoid as far as possible the extraction of strontium, extraction of strontium at pH 4. (author) [French] La methode decrite a Geneve en 1958 a ete experimentee avec succes. Des ameliorations importantes ont ete apportees a ce procede: 1 - Initialement, la precipitation phosphotungstique du cesium etait suivie d'une reprise a la baryte en centrifugeuse et d'une distillation de l'ammoniac dans un concentrateur. Ensuite, l'hydroxyde de baryum etait elimine par precipitation carbonique et centrifugation. 1 - Il a ete prouve que la distillation de l'ammoniac pouvait etre remplacee par une evaporation au cours de la centrifugation, ce qui supprime le concentrateur. Il a ensuite ete possible d'effectuer la carbonatation sur le melange solide-liquide provenant de l'attaque a la baryte. 2 - Pour appliquer le precedent procede au traitement des solutions provenant des combustibles uranium-molybdene, nous avons recommande une concentration qui maintient en solution le molybdene par complexation par l'acide phosphorique. Cette complexation fournit une suspension de phosphate de zirconium et de phosphotungstate d'ammonium. Ils sont separes en repassant en milieu basique qui fait precipiter la zircone, puis en revenant en milieu acide, la suite du traitement restant le meme. 3 - Les etudes sur les proprietes d'echange des sels d'hetero-polyacides poursuivies dans plusieurs pays ont toujours rencontre l'ecueil des mauvaises qualites mecaniques de ces produits. Cette difficulte a ete surmontee en emprisonnant le phosphotungstate d'ammonium dans une matrice en phosphate de zirconium. L'echangeur obtenu possede: - des proprietes mecaniques satisfaisantes - une capacite de 0,1 milliequivalent par gramme en milieu acide nitrique concentre. II est eluable et regenerable par une solution d'un sel d'ammonium. Le schema de recuperation de ces differents produits de fission est succinctement le suivant: - extraction des terres rares par l'acide di-2-ethyl hexyl

  17. Changing the food environment: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-07-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been banned. Since 2007, companies in France's food industry have had the option of signing the national government's "Charte d'engagement volontaire de progrès nutritionnel" (charter of commitments to nutritional improvements) which aims to benefit all consumers. A standard reference document, developed by public authorities as the basis for decisions made by a committee of experts in the food industry, aims to validate the voluntary commitments made by companies to improve the nutrient content of the foods they produce. There is strict follow-up. A Food Quality Observatory was created in 2009 to monitor the nutrient quality of the food supply in France. Various results show the positive impact of these actions.

  18. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  19. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Zaetta, A.; Johner, J.; Mathoniere, G.

    2000-01-01

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  20. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  1. Progrès de la cartographie et pratique de la ville: Moscou ou la culture de la désorientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis ECKERT

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Un plan de la ville de Moscou publié en 1997 représente un progrès remarquable de la cartographie urbaine en Russie. Cela est d'autant plus vrai qu'il est fort difficile de se repérer dans un quartier, étant donné la structure complexe du bâti et l'absence de panneaux indicateurs. L'apparition de ce plan témoigne de l'ouverture croissante de la société russe, qui tourne graduellement le dos à la culture du secret.

  2. The French nuclear power programme and energy policy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1988-01-01

    After briefly describing the Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences in Western Europe, especially its psychological effects, the French nuclear energy programme is presented in detail. The role of standardization and education as well as of construction time and cost is pointed out. Moreover, the results of the programme are given including extension of the capable French nuclear power industry, economical and ecological benefits. Future measures such as increase of the flexibility of nuclear power plants, improved fuel management, reduction of personnel radiation doses and employment of advanced reactors (the reactor system N4) will facilitate French efforts to free the country from mineral oil and coal imports. (author)

  3. French nuclear industry exportations: companies and organisations, achievements and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, V.; Pailler, S.; Miniere, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Journes, F.; Ouali, F.; Brochard, D.; Choho, T.; Lagarde, D.; Anglaret, P.; Kottman, G.; Mockly, D.; Ouzounian, G.; Cordier, P.Y.; Prenez, J.C.; Arpino, J.M.; Jaouen, C.; Jolly, B.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers a series of short articles in which the following players: French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Electricity of France (EdF), French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), AREVA, ALSTOM, the Association of French Nuclear Industry Exporters (AIFEN), the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and the French Society of Nuclear Energy (SFEN) present their competencies in their respective fields and their strategies and commercial offers for exports. 2 articles are dedicated to the achievements of the French nuclear industry in China and another details the cooperation between SFEN and its foreign counterparts. Another article briefly presents the EPR and ATMEA reactors. (A.C.)

  4. Progrès de la connaissance du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi de 1993 à 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette chronique, la vingt et unième d’une série qui a commencé avec l’année 1949, couvre la période 1993-2008 et a pour objectif de faire le point sur les progrès réalisés sur la connaissance du Congo (République démocratique du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, dans le domaine de la géographie mais aussi dans les domaines des sciences naturelles et des sciences humaines qui peuvent fournir des données utiles ou indispensables aux géographes. Chaque référence bibliographique, livre ou article, est accompagnée d’un bref commentaire qui en retient les éléments principaux et surtout les faits ou les idées qui intéressent particulièrement les géographes. L’article comporte onze chapitres dont les plus importants concernent le milieu naturel, la géographie de la santé, la démographie, l’histoire (y compris l’histoire récente, la vie sociale et économique des campagnes traditionnelles et modernes, le secteur informel, les aspects de la vie urbaine. Les événements dramatiques qui se sont produits dans ces territoires africains au cours des quinze dernières années ont rendu la recherche sur le terrain particulièrement difficile tant pour les chercheurs nationaux que pour les chercheurs étrangers, ce qui se traduit notamment par une part de plus en plus importante des recherches menées en milieu urbain.This paper, the 21st issue of an edition of books and paper reviews on the knowledge of three countries of former Belgian Africa (DR Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi, covers the period 1993-2008. A short text for each reference points out the facts or ideas that are useful for geographers. The paper is composed of eleven sections. The most important are coping with the natural environment, health geography, population geography, history (including recent events, social and economic life in traditional and modern rural areas, informal economy, and urban geography. During the last sixteen years, conditions for field

  5. IAEA coordinated research program on `harmonization and validation of fast reactor thermomechanical and thermohydraulic codes using experimental data`. 1. Thermohydraulic benchmark analysis on high-cycle thermal fatigue events occurred at French fast breeder reactor Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-06-01

    A benchmark exercise on `Tee junction of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) secondary circuit` was proposed by France in the scope of the said Coordinated Research Program (CRP) via International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The physical phenomenon chosen here deals with the mixture of two flows of different temperature. In a LMFR, several areas of the reactor are submitted to this problem. They are often difficult to design, because of the complexity of the phenomena involved. This is one of the major problems of the LMFRs. This problem has been encountered in the Phenix reactor on the secondary loop, where defects in a tee junction zone were detected during a campaign of inspections after an operation of 90,000 hours of the reactor. The present benchmark is based on an industrial problem and deal with thermal striping phenomena. Problems on pipes induced by thermal striping phenomena have been observed in some reactors and experimental facilities coolant circuits. This report presents numerical results on thermohydraulic characteristics of the benchmark problem, carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3 and a boundary element code BEMSET. From the analysis with both the codes, it was confirmed that the hot sodium from the small pipe rise into the cold sodium of the main pipe with thermally instabilities. Furthermore, it was indicated that the coolant mixing region including the instabilities agrees approximately with the result by eye inspections. (author)

  6. ThyPROgr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintziori, Gesthimani; Watt, Torquil; Veneti, Stavroula

    2018-01-01

    The thyroid-related patient-reported outcome measure ThyPRO is currently the most reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of thyroid-related quality of life. The objective of the current study was to translate the original (85 items) and short (39 items) versions of ThyPRO into the Gree...

  7. Characterisation of Chlorine Behavior in French Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Bererd, N.; Petit, L.; Laurent, G.; Lamouroux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine 36 is one of the main radionuclides of concern for French graphite waste disposal. In order to help the understanding of its leaching behaviour under disposal conditions, the respective impact of temperature, irradiation and gas radiolysis on chlorine release in reactor has been studied. Chlorine 36 has been simulated through chlorine 37 ion implantation in virgin nuclear graphite samples. Results show that part of chlorine is highly mobile in graphite in the range of French reactors operating temperatures in relation with graphite structural recovering. Ballistic damage generated by irradiation also promotes chlorine release whereas no clear impact of the coolant gas radiolysis was observed in the absence of graphite radiolytic corrosion. (author)

  8. French Strategy and Programs [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    • In spite of the recent Fukushima accident, the use of nuclear energy still remains a necessity for many countries With a mastered and always improved safety, nuclear energy will go on contributing to the world energy needs, reducing fossil fuel dependency and GHG emissions. • With the help of large international collaborations, CEA is committed to demonstrate potential pathways for making significant progress for future fast neutrons reactors and their corresponding fuel cycle. • In synergy with nuclear energy, the renewable energies must be widely developed

  9. Progrès apportés par l'utilisation des zéolithes en cracking catalytique Advances Resulting from Using Zeolites in Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilly Ch.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but d'exposer les progrès intervenus dans le cracking catalytique depuis l'utilisation des tamis moléculaires. II présente les nouveaux catalyseurs, compare leurs propriétés et leurs performances à celles des catalyseurs traditionnels et décrit les modifications et les progrès technologiques qu'ont entraînés l'utilisation des zéolithes. II se limite au cracking catalytique en lit fluide (FCC qui est le type de mise en oeuvre de loin le plus exploité. The aim of this article is to describe advances made in catalytic cracking since molecular sieves began being used. New catalyts are described, their properties and performances are compared with those of traditional catalysts, and the changes and technological advances resulting from the use of zeolites are explained. The article is limited to fluid catalytic cracking IFCCI which is by far the most widely used procedure.

  10. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  11. Comparison between MAAP and ECART predictions of radionuclide transport throughout a French standard PWR reactor coolant system; Transport des radionucleides dans le circuit primaire d`un REP: comparaison des codes MAAP et ECART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervouet, C.; Ranval, W. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France); Parozzi, F.; Eusebi, M. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of a collaboration agreement between EDF and ENEL, the MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program) and ECART (ENEL Code for Analysis of radionuclide Transport) predictions about the fission product retention inside the reactor cooling system of a French PWR 1300 MW during a small Loss of Coolant Accident were compared. The volatile fission products CsI, CsOH, TeO{sub 2} and the structural materials, all of them released early by the core, are more retained in MAAP than in ECART. On the other hand, the non-volatile fission products, released later, are more retained in ECART than in MAAP, because MAAP does not take into account diffusion-phoresis: in fact, this deposition phenomenon is very significant when the molten core vaporizes the water of the vessel lower plenum. Centrifugal deposition in bends, that can be modeled only with ECART, slightly increases the whole retention in the circuit if it is accounted for. (authors). 18 refs., figs., tabs.

  12. The new French code for PWR in service inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, R; Hutin, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents the new french code for pressured water reactor in service inspection. The historic regulatory basis is presented, together with the new regulatory act (dating back to the 26 february 1974) and the major guidelines of the french practice for in service inspection of PWR components. (TEC).

  13. French regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Decrees providing for the enforcement of the radiation protection laws allow establishments to provide the individual surveillance of the workers exposure to ionizing radiations. A decree is relative to the dismantling of the fuel fabrication plant at Pierrelatte. A decree allows the Cea to modify a laboratory on irradiated fuels at Saclay. A departmental order allows EDF to continue the taking of samples in water, liquid and gaseous effluents releases for the operating site of Paluel and Flamanville. Some decrees are relative to the radioactive material transport. A law about the evaluation of environmental impact in a transfrontier context has been passed ( 17 activities such nuclear power plants, reactors, facilities devoted to the production, enrichment of nuclear fuel, storage, and processing of spent fuels are listed). A decree allows the transfer of ORIS by cea-Industry, Cea subsidiary sold to the Schering group. (N.C.)

  14. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  15. Lessons learned from exchanges between the french and german safety authorities. Comparison of the safety levels achieved for reactors built in these two countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droulers, Y.

    1988-12-01

    It is important to emphasize, right at the beginning, the exceptional extent of the assessment work performed over several years on the nuclear power plants in each country (exchange of confidential documents, communication of incidents during the plant building stage, specialist visits to the site, joint reports by the Franco-German Commission on all important safety problems). The D.F.K. (Franco-German Commission) has been the official framework for these exchanges since 1976 (the exchanges relating to FESSENHEIM and its ''twin'' plant NECKARWESTHEIM 1 began as far back as 1973 and were pursued, when construction of CATTENOM began, by a comparison with PHILIPPSBURG). Apart from its annual plenary session, it presently comprises 6 standing working groups dealing respectively with general safety problems (including primary system technology problems and exchanges on incidents discussed by two subcommittees), emergency plans, radiation protection problems, radioactive waste, fuel cycle installations, fast breeder reactors. It is also worth noting the regular meetings held by the standing groups of experts (GPR and RSK), which have enabled periodical assessment of the extent to which the approaches of the two countries to the main safety problems are tending to converge (severe accidents, operating feedback, containment, followup on the TMI and CHERNOBYL accidents, etc) and the exchanges between the IPSN and the GRS on the corresponding research programs

  16. Fast reactors worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Vignon, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution of fast reactors over the past 30 years, and their present status. Fast reactor development in different countries is described, and the present position, with emphasis on cost reduction and collaboration, is examined. The French development of the fast breeder type reactor is reviewed, and includes: the acquisition of technical skills, the search for competitive costs and the spx2 project, and more advanced designs. Future prospects are also discussed. (U.K.)

  17. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  18. Technical advances and energy substitutions in the transportation sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromenschlager-Philippe, F.

    2002-11-01

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (authors)

  19. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  20. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  1. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  2. The EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Dupuy, Ph.; Gupta, O.; Perez, J.R.; Emond, D.; Cererino, G.; Rousseau, J.M.; Jeffroy, F.; Evrard, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Azarian, G.; Chaumont, B.; Dubail, A.; Fischer, M.; Tiippana, P.; Hyvarinen, J.; Zaleski, C.P.; Meritet, S.; Iglesias, F.; Vincent, C.; Massart, S.; Graillat, G.; Esteve, B.; Mansillon, Y.; Gatinol, C.; Carre, F.

    2005-01-01

    This document reviews economical and environmental aspects of the EPR project. The following topics are discussed: role and point of view of the French Nuclear Safety Authority on EPR, control of design and manufacturing of EPR by the French Nuclear Safety Authority, assessment by IRSN of EPR safety, research and development in support of EPR, STUK safety review of EPR design, standpoint on EPR, the place of EPR in the French energy policy, the place of EPR in EDF strategy, EPR spearhead of nuclear rebirth, the public debate, the local stakes concerning the building of EPR in France at Flamanville (Manche) and the research on fourth generation reactors. (A.L.B.)

  3. Reactor. Mind picture of the future Jules-Horowitz Reactor (RHJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustache, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives information about the future research reactor, named Reactor Jules-Horowitz (RJH). This irradiation reactor will be placed at industrialists disposal, for research concerning the competitiveness and the safety french electro-nuclear park. Principles and innovations are detailed. This reactor will respect the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable). (A.L.B.)

  4. CER. Research reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrade, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Networking and the establishment of coalitions between research reactors are important to guarantee a high technical quality of the facility, to assure well educated and trained personnel, to harmonize the codes of standards and the know-ledge of the personnel as well as to enhance research reactor utilization. In addition to the European co-operation, country-specific working groups have been established for many years, such as the French research reactor Club d'Exploitants des Reacteurs (CER). It is the association of French research reactors representing all types of research reactors from zero power up to high flux reactors. CER was founded in 1990 and today a number of 14 research reactors meet twice a year for an exchange of experience. (orig.)

  5. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  6. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  7. Status of the French GCR programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported that France has had no research and development programmes for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) since 1979, when the decision was taken to end these studies for budgetary reasons. However, recognizing the value of HTGR technology, the French specialists have been continually monitoring developments in this field throughout the world and obtaining necessary scientific and technical experience implementing the HTGR decommissioning programme, the schedule and technological aspects of which are described

  8. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  9. Seismic re-evaluation of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, R.

    1995-01-01

    After a presentation of the seismic inputs which have been taken into account in the design of the French Nuclear Power Plants, the re-assessed values of these inputs are shown. Some considerations about the specificity of the French PWR program with regard to the standardisation of plants are given together with the present objectives of seismic re-evaluations. Finally the main results of the seismic re-analysis being performed for the Phenix Fast Reactor are considered. (author)

  10. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  11. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  12. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  13. Would the re-structuration of the French nuclear industry be necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the recent propositions to reorganize the French industry of reactors in view to increase its efficiency on the export markets. Based on a critic of the choices of reactor technologies offered to export market, the Roussely report published on June 2010 recommends to crown the French electricity utility as the leader of a so-called 'French team' and to let him free to negotiate the sale of reactor of any technology that it would prefer as a Gen-2 reactor for example, and to place the French nuclear reactor constructor in a position of sub-contractor. The government has not followed this recommendation rightly. Based on an analysis of the changing world market of reactors, we defuse the criticism addressed to Areva on his choice, as well as the recommendation to open the present catalog of reactors to other models. The analysis leads to underline the importance of Areva's technological and industrial resources and the limited advantages of the EDF's skills in matter of architect-engineering and nuclear operation for winning export contracts. At the end of the day the mercantile approach which motivates the promoters of this tentative reform for competing with entrants prosing low cost nuclear reactors has been disapproved by the government, and that before the Fukushima accidents. We conclude by observing that only a flexible coordination between French industrial players would be useful for improving export performances of the French nuclear industry. (author)

  14. Status of French breeder development and German-French cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors in France is at present characterized by the successful operation of the 250 MW reactor, Phenix, and the speedy progress made in construction of the 1200 MW Superphenix plant. The technical concept of Superphenix is a logical extension of the Phenix concept, i.e., the pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor. While the only change in the primary system has been an increase in capacity, the main modification over Phenix is the change from small modular steam generators to four large units. The development of the work to date does not cast any doubt upon the envisaged date of first criticality in the second half of 1982. The basis of German-French cooperation is a joint declaration by the then Ministers for Research of the two countries on February 13, 1976 in which the Ministers had expressed themselves in favor of close cooperation between both countries in the development of safe, reliable and economic fast breeder reactors. On this basis, the two governments, the research centers and the industrial partners in the two countries, including the previous partners in Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, agreed on the general principles of this cooperation. Meanwhile, the cooperation formalized in 1977 has been activated. Both in research and development and among planning and building industries the exchange of know-how and cooperation is in full swing. The joint company, SERENA, is the pool for the know-how introduced by the partners and the sole representative of the partners in the scheme. (orig.) 891 UA [de

  15. French participation in the world energy council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, Ch.; Roussely, F.; Francony, M.; Ailleret, F.; Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F.; Villaron, Th.

    1999-01-01

    The Revue de l'Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m 2 , the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l'Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary's office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  16. The Use of Prestressed Concrete Vessels in the French Power Reactor Programme; Les caissons en beton precontraint dans le programme francais des reacteurs de puissance; Korpusy iz predvaritel'no napryazhennogo betona vo frantsuzskoj programme ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov; Empleo de recipientes de presion de hormigon pretensado en el programa frances de reactores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, F. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Marcoule (France); Dambrine, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gaussot, D. [Electricite de France, Clamart (France)

    1963-10-15

    This paper deals with the use of pre-stressed concrete for the G2 and G3 reactors at Marcoule and for the EDF3 reactor now under construction at Chinon. The first two reactors have been operating at power since 1959 and 1960 respectively. Messrs. Conte and Dambrine discuss the problems that arose during construction of the vessels for G2 and G3 and also deal with the experience gained in operation - experience which suggests that they are extremely safe- Work on the EDF3 vessel, begun at Chinon in the second half of 1961, is still under way and should be finished towards the end of 1963. Mr. Gaussot discusses the reasons for choosing this type of vessel, the results of calculations and mock-up tests, and the problems presented by the construction itself. A number of studies have been devoted to the future prospects of prestressed concrete structures for reactors. It would seem that working pressures could be increased, if desired, and, in any case, that dimensions could be considerably enlarged, thus offering the chance of integral-type solutions. (author) [French] La communication traite de l'application du beton precontraint aux reacteurs G2 et G3 de Marcoule et au reacteur EDF 3, en construction a Chinon. Les reacteurs sont en puissance depuis respectivement 1959 et I960; le CEA indique les problemes qui se sont poses pendant la construction du caisson du reacteur, et la lecon tiree des observations faites en service, qui tend a demontrer la tres grande securite de ces appareils. La construction du caisson de EDF3 a commence a Chinon dans la deuxieme partie de 1961; elle est en cours actuellement et sera terminee vers la fin de 1963. L'EDF presente les raisons du choix de ce caisson, les resultats des calculs et des essais sur maquette ainsi que les problemes poses par la construction. Diverses etudes ont ete faites sur les perspectives futures des ouvrages en beton precontraint pour reacteurs. Il semble que l 'on puisse realiser, si on le desire, une elevation

  17. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  18. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  19. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  20. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  1. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  2. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  3. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  4. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  5. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  6. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  7. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  8. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements combustibles, une simplification du systeme de

  9. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, J C [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  10. French-Finnish colloquium on safety of French and Russian type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukka, M.; Jaervinen, M.; Minkkinen, P.; Ukkola, A.; Levomaeki, L.

    1994-01-01

    The French-Finnish Colloquium on Safety of French and Russian Type Nuclear Power Plants was held in June, 14th - 16th, 1994, in Lappeenranta, Finland. The main topics of the colloquium were: VVER and RBMK reactors; Industrial safety studies for VVER's in FRAMATOME; Structural safety analysis of Ignalina NPP; Thermalhydraulic system (BETHSY) and analytical experiments for French NPP; Test facilities simulating VVER plants during accidents; PACTEL - facility for VVER thermal hydraulics; High burn-up fuel and reactivity accidents; Overview of severe accident research at Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute of CEA; Research of severe accidents in Finland; Review of main activities concerning computer codes used for VVER thermal-hydraulic safety analysis in OKB Gidropress; CATHARE code; APROS computer code, new developments; TRIO and TOLBIAC computer codes; ESTET and N3S softwares; HEXTRAN - 3D reactor dynamics code for VVER accident analysis; An overview the boron dilution issue in PWRs; Boron mixing transients in a 900 MW PWR vessel for a reactor start-up operation; and Problem of boric acid dilution in IVO

  11. Dosimetry and fluence calculations on french PWR vessels comparisons between experiments and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimal, J.C.; Bourdet, L.; Guilleret, J.C.; Hedin, F.

    1988-01-01

    Fluence and damage calculations on PWR pressure vessels and irradiation test specimens are presented for two types of reactor: the franco-belgian (reactor CHOOZ) and the french reactors (CPY program). Comparisons with measurements are given for activation foils and fission detectors; most of them are about irradiation test specimen locations; comparisons are made for the Chooz plant on vessel stainless steel samplings and in the reactor pit

  12. Waste Disposal Research and Development in the United States of America; L'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique: Travaux de Recherche et Progres Accomplis; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0414 ; Investigaciones y Trabajos Realizados en los Estados Unidos en Materia de Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struxness, E. G.; Cowser, K. E.; De Laguna, W.; Jacobs, D. G.; Morton, R. J.; Tamura, T. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1960-07-01

    A review of the waste-disposal research and development carried out in the United States of America is given. The major research effort concerns the conversion of high-level liquid wastes into solids. At Hanford and Oak Ridge low-level wastes are disposed to the ground in pits, cribs and lagoons. Geochemical studies related to waste disposal are conducted at Hanford, Oak Ridge and the University of North Carolina. Experiments with soil columns ate described ; these are more effective for the decontamination of waste streams than either cribs or pits. The most suitable exchange materials for the soil columns are found to be vermiculite supported by rock phosphate and the latter supported by graded gravel. The progress of research work on the possibility of injecting radioactive liquid wastes into porous formations through deep wells and disposing of radioactive wastes in impermeable formations by hydraulic fracturing is outlined. (author) [French] L'auteur passe en revue les recherches effectuees aux Etats-Unis en matiere d'elimination des dechets radioactifs et les progres accomplis dans ce domaine. En matiere de recherche, on s'attache principalement a la conversion en solides des dechets liquides de haute activite. A Hanford et a Oak Ridge, les dechets de faible activite sont elimines par decharge terrestre dans des coffres, puits et depots lagunaires. Des etudes de geochimie se rapportant a l'elimination des dechets sont en cours a Hanford, a Oak Ridge et l'Universite de Caroline du Nord. Le memoire decrit les experiences faites avec des colonnes ; pour decontaminer les dechets liquides, ces dernieres sont plus efficaces que les coffres ou les puits. Les substances echangeuses d'ions les plus appropriees pour les colonnes sont vermiculite-phosphate naturel-gravier trie. L'auteur expose les progres dea travaux de recherche portant sur la possibilite d'injecter des dechets radioactifs liquides dans des formations poreuses, par decharge dans des puits profonds, et

  13. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  14. The use of PSA in the French regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesiez, H.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation gives a description of fundamental documents (since 1977-1978) through which have been set up in France probabilistic objectives, and PSAs, including shutdown states, performed for 900-1300 MWe PWR-type nuclear power plants. PSA developments and use, including fire PSA, level 2 and PSA for the future French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) are also discussed

  15. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  16. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  17. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  18. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  19. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  20. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  1. French development program on fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Bourgeois, M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to close the fuel cycle of fast reactors makes the development of the cycle installations (fuel fabrication, irradiated assembly conditioning before reprocessing, reprocessing and waste management) especially independent with the development of the reactor. French experience with the integrated cycle over a period of about 25 years, the tonnage of fuels fabricated (more than 100 t of mixed oxides) for the Rapsodie, Phoenix and SuperPhoenix reactors, and the tonnage of reprocessed fuel (nearly 30 t of plutonium fuel) demonstrate the control of the cycle operations. The capacities of the cycle installations in existence and under construction are largely adequate for presents needs, even including a new European EFR reactor. They include the Cadarache fuel fabrication complex, the La Hague UP2-800 reprocessing plant, and the Marcoule pilot facility. Short- and medium-term R and D programs are connected with fuel developments, with the primary objective of very high burnups. For the longer term and for a specific plant to reprocess fast reactor fuels, the programs could concern new fabrication and reprocessing systems and the study of the consequences of the reduction in fuel out-of-core time

  2. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  3. Training within the French nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusselin, F.

    1987-01-01

    Training dispensed by the EDF Nuclear and Fossil Generation Division has contributed significantly toward successful startup and operation of French nuclear power plants. In 1986, the time-based availability of 900 MW PWRs totaled 85 %. This is just one example of how EDF training programs have benefited from 150 reactor-years of operating experience and the ensuing opportunities for perfecting and testing of training tool effectiveness. These programs have been adopted by utilities in other countries where suitable local facilities are making advantageous use of EDF training experience and methods. EDF expertise is also transferred to these countries indirectly through the simulator manufacturer

  4. The fuel of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the different steps of the preparation of nuclear fuels performed by Cogema. The documents starts with a presentation of the different French reactor types: graphite moderated reactors, PWRs using MOX fuel, fast breeder reactors and research reactors. The second part describes the fuel manufacturing process: conditioning of nuclear materials and fabrication of fuel assemblies. The third part lists the different companies involved in the French nuclear fuel industry while part 4 gives a short presentation of the two Cogema's fuel fabrication plants at Cadarache and Marcoule. Part 5 and 6 concern the quality assurance, the safety and reliability aspects of fuel elements and the R and D programs. The last part presents some aspects of the environmental and personnel protection performed by Cogema. (J.S.)

  5. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  6. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  7. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  8. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  9. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  10. Elements on reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to achieve the two-fold goal of maximizing the energy obtained from reactor fuel and ensuring the large flexibility of plant operation in respect to safety regulations and keeping the reactor integrity the control of PWRs is generally based on real time monitoring and analysing of independent neutronic parameters: thermal power release, axial power distribution in the core and temperatures of the primary loop. Two control chains more or less coupled according to the control chosen mode are in charge of the control of these parameters. With the brief history of control in French power reactors the advanced X control mode adopted by Framatome for N4 plants is described in detail. A summary of N4 reactor control and protection system is included

  11. Nuclear reactor (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, M.L.

    1960-01-01

    The first French plutonium-making reactors G1, G2 and G3 built at Marcoule research center are linked to a power plant. The G1 electrical output does not offset the energy needed for operating this reactor. On the contrary, reactors G2 and G3 will each generate a net power of 25 to 30 MW, which will go into the EDF grid. This power is relatively small, but the information obtained from operation is great and will be helpful for starting up the power reactor EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3. The paper describes how, previous to any starting-up operation, the tests performed, especially those concerned with the power plant and the pressure vessel, have helped to bring the commissioning date closer. (author) [fr

  12. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  13. French steam generator design developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginier, R.; Campan, J.L.; Pontier, M.; Leridon, A.; Remond, A.; Castello, G.; Holcblat, A.; Paurobally, H.

    1986-01-01

    From the outset of the French nuclear power program, a significant R and D effort has been invested in improvement of the design and operation of Pressurized Water Reactors including a special committment to improving steam generators. The steam generator enhancement program has spawned a wide variety of specific R and D resources, e.g., low temperature hydraulic models for investigation of areas with single-phase flow, and freon-filled models for simulation of areas of steam generators experiencing two-phase flow (tube bundles and moisture separators). For the moisture separators, a large scale research program using freon-filled models and highly sophisticated instrumentation was used. Tests at reactor sites during startup of both 900 MWe and 1300 MWe have been used to validate the assumptions made on the basis of loop tests. These tests also demonstrated the validity of using freon to simulate two-phase flow conditions. The wealth of knowledge accumulated by the steam generator R and D program has been used to develop a new design of steam generators for the N4 plants. The current R and D effort is aimed at qualifying the N4 steam generator model and developing more comprehensive models. One prong of the R and D effort is the Megeve program. Megeve is a 25 MW steam generator which simulates operating conditions of the N4 model. The other prong is Clotaire, a freon-filled steam generator model which will be used to qualify thermal/hydraulic design codes used for multidimensional calculations for design of tube bundles

  14. The AFR. An approved network of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Gabriele [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Betriebs- und Sicherheitsfragen an Forschungsreaktoren (AFR)

    2012-10-15

    AFR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Betriebs- und Sicherheitsfragen an Forschungsreaktoren) is the German acronym for 'Association for Research Reactor Operation and Safety Issues' which was founded in 1959. Reactor managers of European research reactors mainly from the German linguistic area meet regularly for their mutual benefit to exchange experience and knowledge in all areas of operating, managing and utilization of research reactors. In the last 2 years joint meetings were held together with the French association of research reactors CER (Club d'Exploitants des Reacteurs). In this contribution the AFR, its members, work and aims as well as the French partner CER are presented. (orig.)

  15. French N4 Series Design and Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    The construction contract for the first two N4 units. on the Chooz site close to the French-Belgian border (Chooz B1 and B2). was awarded by Electricite de France (EDF) to Fumarate in May 1984. At present, project construction is approximately 50% complete for unit B1. The main civil works are practically finished and the reactor vessel and the steam generator were delivered on site by mid-1988. The connection to the grid by 1991 appears quite feasible. Continuation of the French nuclear power programme in the 1990s, specifically on the CIVEX and Penly sites, is based on this model. The N4 thus follows the four-loop, 1,300 MW class series designated P.a. whose first unit is Cattenom 1, which will serve in the following as a reference to appreciate the design evolution of the N4 NSSS. The design evolutions selected to reach these objectives are in technical continuity with the previous series, integrate the vast experience gained within the French programme and abroad, and were supported by a large R and D programme and further by industrial qualification tests

  16. Report on the behalf of the inquiry commission related to past, present and future costs of the nuclear sector, to the reactor exploitation duration, and to various economic and financial aspects of production and commercialization of nuclear electricity within the frame of the French and European electric mix, as well as to the consequences of the shutting down and dismantling of nuclear reactors, notably the Fessenheim power plant - Nr 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois; Baupin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    fourth-generation reactors: choice made by France of the MOX option, research options for fourth-generation reactors. The seventh part addresses the nuclear risks: new tools of crisis management, a compensation system which only partially takes risks into account. The next part addresses the share of nuclear in the French energy mix: national debate on energy transition, characteristics of the main scenarios. The inquiry commission states that a life extension of the nuclear fleet seems necessary to face the increasing demand, but useless in case of a possible demand decrease. The last part addresses issues of commercialization of nuclear electricity in a context of market liberalization

  17. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  18. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  19. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  20. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  1. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  2. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  3. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  4. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  5. Severe Accidents: French Regulatory Practice for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of a continuous and iterative process, the French Safety Authority asks the utility EDF to implement equipment and procedure modifications on the operating reactors, in order to cope with the most likely Severe Accident sequences. As a result of Probabilistic Safety Assessments published in 1990, important equipment and procedure modifications are being implemented on the French PWRs to improve the safety in shutdown states. The implementation of another set of modifications against some reactivity accident sequences is also in progress. More recently, the Safety Authority expressed specific Severe Accident requirements in terms of instrumentation, equipment qualification, high pressure core melt accidents and hydrogen risk prevention. In that respect, EDF was asked to implement hydrogen recombiners on its reactors. On the other hand, the French Safety authority is involved with its German counterpart in the assessment process of the European Pressurized Water Reactor Project. In consistency with the common recommendations of the Safety Authorities involved, Severe Accident provisions for this reactor are being taken into account at the design stage

  6. The fast breeder reactor Rapsodie (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.; Zaleski, C.P.

    1962-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the Rapsodie project, the French fast breeder reactor, as it stands at construction actual start-up. The paper provides informations about: the principal neutronic and thermal characteristics, the reactor and its cooling circuits, the main handling devices of radioactive or contaminated assemblies, the principles and means governing reactor operation, the purposes and locations of miscellaneous buildings. Rapsodie is expected to be critical by 1964. (authors) [fr

  7. Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol; Rapport: progres demontrables de la France selon le protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

  8. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  9. The control of reactor outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouget, Y.H.; Berteloot, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The 1985-1992 period was marked by a continuous decay in French reactors operation. This situation has led the Committee for Outages Mastery to take steps for the improvement of nuclear power plants availability. The control of reactor outages requires an integrated vision of the safety, duration, dosimetry, costs and security aspects and a perfect management of contractors. The paper describes the methodology used for the management and the maintenance of the French PWR reactors stock. A detailed schedule of maintenance tasks with dose estimations is now required from each site to anticipate and optimize the duration of outages. Thanks to this action, a significant reduction of the maintenance costs is observed for the 1992-1995 period. (J.S.). 2 figs

  10. The future of the French civil nuclear sector. Report synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Considering the evolution of the French civil nuclear industry by 2030, this study examines its different dimensions: energy policy, safety and security of uranium supplies, nuclear competitiveness, environmental and safety issues, public acceptance, consequences of non proliferation international and French policies, industrial, human and research capacities, and so on. Thus, this report presents the actors involved in the French civil nuclear sector, gives an overview of the reactor market, highlights the main aspects of the fuel cycle and of the waste management, stresses the need of a new organisation for this sector to face the domestic as well as the international challenges. It discusses the possible ways for a wider financing and a higher competitiveness. It identifies new means for an ambitious civil nuclear policy. Fifteen recommendations are proposed

  11. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories; Progres recents dans la conception et l'equipement des laboratoires de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R; Duhamel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent quels sont les principes generaux qui president a la conception d'un laboratoire a des travaux et des manipulations sur des substances radioactives. Les difficultes a surmonter sont de deux ordres: 1) celles qui proviennent du danger d'irradiation externe; 2) celles qui proviennent du danger de contamination interne. A titre d'exemple, les auteurs decrivent les realisations francaises dans ce domaine et en particulier: - le laboratoire de haute activite de Saclay, - le laboratoire d'examen des combustibles irradies de Saclay, - le laboratoire chaud du CEN-Grenoble, - les laboratoires alpha, beta, gamma du CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Enfin, le rapport decrit les materiaux de protection mis en oeuvre pour ces realisations. (auteur)

  12. Technology of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelet, F.

    2016-01-01

    This academic report for graduation in engineering first presents operation principles of a nuclear reactor core. It presents core components, atomic nuclei, the notions of transmutation and radioactivity, quantities used to characterize ionizing radiations, the nuclear fission, statistical aspects of fission and differences between fast and slow neutrons, a comparison between various heat transfer fluids, the uranium enrichment process, and different types of reactor (boiling water, natural uranium and heavy water, pressurized water, and fourth generation). Then, after having recalled the French installed power, the author proposes an analysis of a typical 900 MWe nuclear power plant: primary circuit, reactor, fuel, spent fuel, pressurizer and primary pump, secondary circuit, aspects related to control-command, regulation, safety and exploitation. The last part proposes a modelling of the thermodynamic cycle of a pressurized water plant by using an equivalent Carnot cycle, a Rankine cycle, and a two-phase expansion cycle with drying-overheating

  13. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  15. Decree no. 96-978 from October 31, 1996 giving permission to the French atomic energy Commission (CEA) to create a basic nuclear installation intended to maintain under supervision and in an intermediate dismantling state the old basic nuclear installation no. 28, named Monts d'Arree-EL 4 nuclear power plant (a decommissioned reactor), in the Monts d'Arree site of the Loqueffret town (Finistere, Brittany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borotra, F.; Lepage, C.

    1996-01-01

    This decree from the French ministry of industry and postal services gives permission to the CEA to create a new basic nuclear installation, named EL 4D, which is devoted to the storage of materials from the partially dismantled Monts d'Arree EL 4 reactor. Thus, the CEA is allowed to carry out confining works on the reactor building with the closure of all apertures with the exception of the personnel entry sieve, on the circuits and equipments of the reactor vessel with the plugging of fuel channels, heavy water, helium and demineralized water pipes and of the heads of control rod drive mechanisms and other channels, and on the primary coolant circuit outside the reactor vessel and the steam generators with the installation of welded hatches. The irradiated fuels building, the solid wastes repository, the ventilation building, the heavy water and helium circuits, the fuel handling systems and the effluents treatment plant will be completely dismantled. The other buildings will be pulled down. The rest of the decree enumerates the general technical and safety prescriptions which have to be followed in order to ensure the protection of the personnel against ionizing radiations and of the environment against radioactive pollution. (J.S.)

  16. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  17. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  18. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  19. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  20. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  1. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  2. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  3. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  4. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  5. Electricity supplies in a French nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As the operation of a nuclear power station requires a power supply system enabling this operation as well as the installation safety, this document describes how such systems are designed in the different French nuclear power stations to meet the requirements during a normal operation (when the station produces electricity) or when it is stopped, but also to ensure power supply to equipment ensuring safety functions during an incident or an accident occurring on the installation. More precisely, these safety functions are provided by two independent systems in the French nuclear power stations. Their operation is briefly described. Two different types of nuclear reactors are addressed: pressurised water reactors (PWR) of second generation, EPR (or PWR of third generation)

  6. Material accountancy and control practice at a research reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Maurel, J.J.; Tromeur, Y.

    1982-01-01

    This session surveys the regulations, organization, and accountancy practice that compose the French State System of Accountancy and Control. Practical examples are discussed showing how inventories are verified at a critical assembly facility and at a materials testing reactor

  7. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  8. Nuclear power: which industrial approach will preserve a French asset?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machenaud, H.

    2012-01-01

    France's strategic decision in favor of nuclear energy in the 1970's has given rise to an organization of this industry with clearly defined roles and responsibilities for all parties. This has led to the mastering of industrial production of the whole chain from mining to fuel reprocessing and to waste disposal. Nuclear safety was at any stage of the chain the priority number one. The French nuclear industry is present on the international scene and thus maintain its know-how and capacities despite the ups and downs of the nuclear market. Today 240.000 people work in France in the nuclear sector. France has followed a consistent energy policy during the last 50 years and benefits from an important and homogeneous fleet of reactors which has generated a rich feedback experience on reactor operation. The tasks that face the French nuclear industry are: -) to comply with the requirements of the Complementary Safety Assessments that have been performed on all French nuclear facilities, -) to maintain and upgrade the power plants (most of them are facing their 3. decennial overhaul), -) to prepare the nuclear systems of tomorrow, and -) to export the French know-how

  9. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  10. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  11. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  12. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  13. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  14. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  15. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  16. The N4 plant: culmination of French PWR experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, J.; Houyez, A.; Journet, J.; Pierrard, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The model N4 series of 1400MWe class PWR plants has been developed in France from a unique base of technical and operating experience. It meets the French government's requirement for a reactor free of constraints due to licensing agreements with overseas companies, with enhanced safety features and incorporating the lessons of Three Mile Island. In particular, improvements have been made to the reactor vessel, the steam generators, the primary pumps and control systems. The units are capable of daily load following and extended operation between refuelling. The N4 plant includes a new design of turbine-generator. (author)

  17. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  18. RHTF 2, a 1200 MWe high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, Jacques

    1978-01-01

    After having adapted to French conditions the 1160 MWe G.A.C. reactor, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and French Industry have decided to design an High Temperature Reactor 1200 MWe based on the G.A.C. technology and taking into account the point of view of Electricite de France and the experience of C.E.A. and industry on the gas cooled reactor technology. The main objective of this work is to produce a reactor design having a low technical risk, good operability, with an emphasis on the safety aspects easing the licensing problems

  19. An example of the use of robotics in French nuclear power plants the ISIS robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguy, J.; Thirion, H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report how Robotics in French nuclear power plants (NPP) is used to solve maintenance problems. One of the most typical example of the use of robotics in French NPP is the ISIS robot. The first generation of this robot has performed the repair of corroded upper internal structures in Chinon A3 gaz cooled reactor. Two robots of this type have successfully welded more than 200 repair parts in the core without major failure during more than 12,000 hours

  20. The Thermos process heat reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    The THERMOS process heat reactor was born from the following idea: the hot water energy vector is widely used for heating purposes in cities, so why not save on traditional fossil fuels by simply substituting a nuclear boiler of comparable power for the classical boiler installed in the same place. The French Atomic Energy Commission has techniques for heating in the big French cities which provide better guarantees for national independence and for the environment. This THERMOS technique would result in a saving of 40,000 to 80,000 tons of oil per year [fr

  1. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  2. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  3. Applications: fission, nuclear reactors. Fission: the various ways for reactors and cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review is presented concerning the various nuclear reactor systems developed in France by the CEA: the UNGG (graphite-gas) system with higher CO 2 pressures, bigger fuel assemblies and powers higher than 500 MW e, allowed by studies on reactor physics, cladding material developments and reactor optimization; the fast neutron reactor system, following the graphite-gas development, led to the Superphenix reactor and important progress in simulation based on experiment and return of experience; and the PWR system, based on the american license, which has been successfully accommodated to the french industry and generates up to 75% of the electric power in France

  4. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  5. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  6. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  7. Generation IV reactors: economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.; Bertel, E.

    2003-01-01

    The operating nuclear reactors were built over a short period: no more than 10 years and today their average age rounds 18 years. EDF (French electricity company) plans to renew its reactor park over a far longer period : 30 years from 2020 to 2050. According to EDF this objective implies 3 constraints: 1) a service life of 50 to 60 years for a significant part of the present operating reactors, 2) to be ready to built a generation 3+ unit in 2020 which infers the third constraint: 3) to launch the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) prototype as soon as possible in order to have it operating in 2010. In this scheme, generation 4 reactor will benefit the feedback experience of generation 3 and will take over in 2030. Economic analysis is an important tool that has been used by the generation 4 international forum to select the likely future reactor systems. This analysis is based on 4 independent criteria: the basic construction cost, the construction time, the operation and maintenance costs and the fuel cycle cost. This analysis leads to the evaluation of the global cost of electricity generation and of the total investment required for each of the reactor system. The former defines the economic competitiveness in a de-regulated energy market while the latter is linked to the financial risk taken by the investor. It appears, within the limits of the assumptions and models used, that generation 4 reactors will be characterized by a better competitiveness and an equivalent financial risk when compared with the previous generation. (A.C.)

  8. The yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The financial problems of the nuclear power industry in France are explained. Cogema, the waste reprocessing company ventured into the French financial futures market and lost money. It is trying to sue its brokers over this disaster. Framatome, the State reactor manufacturer is trying to diversify into aeronautics, electronics and foodstuffs. The electric utility EdF is sliding into debt and, with no price rise allowed, this situation will get worse. Theoretically EdF should be delivering cheap electricity from nuclear power stations. However, French electricity prices are not significantly cheaper than those of Germany and the United Kingdom. The generating capacity will increase greatly over the next few years. The availability of existing plants is also improving. In spite of efforts to export its electricity (about 10% is exported) EdF seem unable to make its extra electricity cheaper and is heavily in debt. The fast breeder programme has also not lived up to expectations due to a sodium leak at Superphenix. (U.K.)

  9. Planning and developing the French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1983-01-01

    Since France has been compelled to free itself from the domination of oil, it has undertaken a nuclear programme capable of providing for nearly one third of its energy needs by 1990. Some years after the first oil crisis, a good part of the battle has already been won: 22 reactor units of 900 MW each have been connected to the grid and account for 40% of the electricity produced in France, while 12 other 900 MW units, together with the first 1300 MW units, are under construction. Nuclear power has thus become an industrial reality possessed of the tools appropriate for the whole fuel cycle, which has managed to cope with costs and meet deadlines, and has developed a safe and reliable product. With these positive results despite inevitable incidents the French nuclear industry has come of age. There are, however, handicaps which remain to be overcome: high investment costs, operating constraints and continuing doubt on the part of the public. The efforts deployed in these three spheres are beginning to bear fruit. As a result, implementation of the French nuclear programme is being continued, albeit at a slower rate, for the aim is no longer to replace oil by nuclear power as soon as possible, but rather to keep up with the rise in consumption. In pursuing its nuclear efforts, France will henceforth be stressing progress in terms of quality, which can still be achieved in terms of increased reliability (incorporation of feedback), better economic return (initiation of a new series known as ''N4''), easier operation (improvement of the man-machine interface) and also more independence. The ''frenchification'' of the light-water reactor has from the beginning been seen as one of the means of achieving this independence. This also applies to mastery of the whole fuel cycle. And finally, fast breeders represent the next stage

  10. Neutron transport. Physics and calculation of nuclear reactors with applications to pressurized water reactors and fast neutron reactors. 2 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, J.; Reuss, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the main physical bases of neutron theory and nuclear reactor calculation. 1) Interactions of neutrons with matter and basic principles of neutron transport; 2) Neutron transport in homogeneous medium and the neutron field: kinetic behaviour, slowing-down, resonance absorption, diffusion equation, processing methods; 3) Theory of a reactor constituted with homogeneous zones: critical condition, kinetics, separation of variables, calculation and neutron balance of the fundamental mode, one-group and multigroup theories; 4) Study of heterogeneous cell lattices: fast fission factor, resonance absorption, thermal output factor, diffusion coefficient, computer codes; 5) Operation and control of reactors: perturbation theory, reactivity, fuel properties evolution, poisoning by fission products, calculation of a reactor and fuel management; 6) Study of some types of reactors: PWR and fast breeder reactors, the main reactor types of the present French program [fr

  11. Progress in RPV-examination of the Chooz-A vessel (and the French procedures, its new developments (MIS5))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samman, J; Martin, E; Lacroix, R [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Groupe des Labs.

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the French Chooz-A reactor. It describes the method used for in-service inspection of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). The ultrasonic testing procedure is described, showing its advantages and limitations. The supplementary ultrasonic examination is also described, as well as the validation of underclad cracks detection and sizing. Historical data is also provided. (TEC).

  12. Generalities about nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Beroux, P.

    2012-01-01

    From Zoe, the first nuclear reactor, till the current EPR, the French nuclear industry has always advanced by profiting from the feedback from dozens of years of experience and operations, in particular by drawing lessons from the most significant events in its history, such as the Fukushima accident. The new generations of reactors must improve safety and economic performance so that the industry maintain its legitimacy and its share in the production of electricity. This article draws the history of nuclear power in France, gives a brief description of the pressurized water reactor design, lists the technical features of the different versions of PWR that operate in France and compares them with other types of reactors. The feedback experience concerning safety, learnt from the major nuclear accidents Three Miles Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) is also detailed. Today there are 26 third generation reactors being built in the world: 4 EPR (1 in Finland, 1 in France and 2 in China); 2 VVER-1200 in Russia, 8 AP-1000 (4 in China and 4 in the Usa), 8 APR-1400 (4 in Korea and 4 in UAE), and 4 ABWR (2 in Japan and 2 in Taiwan)

  13. The Oklo reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Russell

    1986-01-01

    The construction of a reactor, capable of producing a controlled nuclear chain reaction, has been one of the most complex achievements of modern science. That a similar reaction might take place in nature did not play a role in the thinking of the nuclear scientists responsible for it. Yet, 14 years ago, French scientists discovered that just such a phenomenon apparently occurred in western Africa almost 2 billion years ago. In this article Russell McNeil describes this fascinating curiosity and a recent attempt to model it mathematically

  14. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first industrial-scale fast breeder reactor (FBR) is the Superphenix I at Crays-Melville. It was designed and built by Novatome, a French company, and Ansaldo, an Italian company. The advantages of FBRs are summarized. The status of Superphenix and the testing schedule is given. The stages in its power escalation in 1986 are given. The article is optimistic about the future for FBRs and expects FBRs to take over from PWRs at the beginning of the 21st Century. To achieve economic viability, European financial cooperation for the research and development programme is advocated. (UK)

  15. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  16. Fuel recycling and 4. generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Gauche, F.; Mathonniere, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 4. generation reactors meet the demand for sustainability of nuclear power through the saving of the natural resources, the minimization of the volume of wastes, a high safety standard and a high reliability. In the framework of the GIF (Generation 4. International Forum) France has decided to study the sodium-cooled fast reactor. Fast reactors have the capacity to recycle plutonium efficiently and to burn actinides. The long history of reprocessing-recycling of spent fuels in France is an asset. A prototype reactor named ASTRID could be entered into operation in 2020. This article presents the research program on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, gives the status of the ASTRID project and present the scenario of the progressive implementation of 4. generation reactors in the French reactor fleet. (A.C.)

  17. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  18. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  19. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  20. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  1. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  2. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  3. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  4. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  5. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  6. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  7. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  8. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  9. The European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The present state of development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) is outlined. During the so-called harmonization phase, the French and German utilities drew up their common requirements and evaluated the reactor concept developed until then with respect to these requirements. A main result of the harmonization phase was the issue, in September 1993, of the 'EPR Conceptual Safety Feature Review File' to be jointly assessed by the safety authorities in France and Germany. The safety objectives to be met by the EPR are specified in the second part of the paper, and some details of the primary and secondary side safety systems are given. (orig.) [de

  10. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  11. Multimedia on nuclear reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, Javier; Puig, Francesc

    2010-01-01

    The paper present an example of measures that have been found to be effective in the development of innovative educational and training technology. A multimedia course on nuclear reactor physics is presented. This material has been used for courses at master level at the universities; training for engineers at nuclear power plant as modular 2 weeks course; and training operators of nuclear power plant. The multimedia has about 785 slides and the text is in English, Spanish and French. (authors)

  12. Astrid (fast breeder nuclear reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), a French project of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, fourth generation reactor which should be fuelled by uranium 238 rather than uranium 235, and should therefore need less extracted natural uranium to produce electricity. The operation principle of fast breeder reactors is described. They notably directly consume plutonium, allow an easier radioactive waste management as they transform long life radioactive elements into shorter life elements by transmutation. The regeneration process is briefly described, and the various operation modes are evoked (iso-generator, sub-generator, and breeder). Some peculiarities of sodium-cooled reactors are outlined. The Astrid operation principle is described, its main design innovations outlined. Various challenges are discussed regarding safety of supply and waste processing, and the safety of future reactors. Major actors are indicated: CEA, Areva, EDF, SEIV Alcen, Toshiba, Rolls Royce, and Comex. Some key data are indicated: expected lifetime, expected availability rate, cost. The projected site is Marcoule and fast breeder reactors operated or under construction in the world are indicated. The document also proposes an overview of the background and evolution of reactors of 4. generation

  13. Reactor physics activities in France. October 1983 - September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinelli, C.; Salvatores, M.

    1984-10-01

    The major activities of the Fast Reactor Physics Program during the period October 1983 - September 1984 are reviewed: experimental and theoretical studies, computer codes. The LWR program brought improvements in the field of the Advanced Reactors and of the plutonium re-use on French PWRs. Are reviewed experimental studies and facilities, theoretical studies (transport theory, radioactive decay library)

  14. Automated reactor protection testing saves time and avoids errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the Pressurized Water Reactor units in the French 900MWe series were designed, the instrumentation and control systems were equipped for manual periodic testing. Manual reactor protection system testing has since been successfully replaced by an automatic system, which is also applicable to other instrumentation testing. A study on the complete automation of process instrumentation testing has been carried out. (author)

  15. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cette, W [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-09-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author).

  16. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cette, W.

    1997-01-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author)

  17. French ESPN order, codes and nuclear industry requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugier, C.; Grandemange, J.M.; Cleurennec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Work on coding safety regulations applicable to large equipment was undertaken in France as of 1978 to accompany the construction of a French nuclear plant. The needs of manufacturers were threefold: translate the design rules from the American licensor, meet the safety objectives expressed in French regulations published at that time through coding of industrial practices (order of February 26, 1974) and stabilize the work reference system between the operator - consultant - and the manufacturer responsible for applying technical recommendations. Significant work was carried out by AFCEN (the French Association for the Design, Construction and Operating Supervision of the equipment for Electronuclear boilers), an association created for this purpose, leading to the publication of a collection of rules related to mechanical equipment for pressurised water reactors, RCC-M and RSE-M, which will be discussed later, and also in several other technical fields: particularly mechanical equipment in fast neutron reactors, RCC-MR, electricity (RCC-E), and fuel (RCC-C). (authors)

  18. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. General synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, M.; Lecocq, A.

    1983-03-01

    After a brief recall of the MSBR project, French studies on molten salt reactors are summed up. Theoretical and experimental studies for a graphite moderated 1000 MWe reactor using molten Li, Be, Th and U fluorides cooled by salt-lead direct contact are given. These studies concern the core, molten salt chemistry, graphite, metals (molybdenum, alloy TZM), corrosion, reactor components [fr

  19. Status of fast reactors and ADS programmes in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astegiano, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Status of French fast reactor and ADS program in France covers the following topics: data on power generation from NPPs; status of fast reactors, namely Rapsodie, Phenix and Super Phenix; research and development programs concerned with fast gas cooled and sodium cooled reactors

  20. French administrative practice and design codes for nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    French regulations on boilers and pressure vessels have prevailed for a very long time, the first measure having been promulgated on 29 October 1823. Restraining the attention to nuclear pressure vessels it must be pointed out regulations and enforcement by public authorities are more stringent than they are for conventional pressure vessels. The first part of this paper will be devoted to regulations with a special attention to the decree of 26 February 1974 and to the practice of public authorities in this field with special attention given to the Bureau de Controle de la Construction Nucleaire (BCCN = Bureau of Inspection of Nuclear Design and Manufacturing). The second part of this paper will deal with the French construction codes for nuclear components RCC-M (water reactors) and RCC-MR (elevated temperature design)

  1. Pressurized water reactors: the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Py, J.P.; Yvon, M.

    2007-01-01

    EPR (originally 'European pressurized water reactor', and now 'evolutionary power reactor') is a model of reactor initially jointly developed by French and German engineers which fulfills the particular safety specifications of both countries but also the European utility requirements jointly elaborated by the main European power companies under the initiative of Electricite de France (EdF). Today, two EPR-based reactors are under development: one is under construction in Finland and the other, Flamanville 3 (France), received its creation permit decree on April 10, 2007. This article presents, first, the main objectives of the EPR, and then, describes the Flamanville 3 reactor: reactor type and general conditions, core and conditions of operation, primary and secondary circuits with their components, main auxiliary and recovery systems, man-machine interface and instrumentation and control system, confinement and serious accidents, arrangement of buildings. (J.S.)

  2. French regulatory requirements concerning severe accidents in PWRs and associated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Homme, A.; Pelce, J.

    1986-07-01

    This report gives a global view of the French reactor safety approach; aspects in relation with severe accidents are pointed out: safety goals regarding population, and safety goals regarding plant design. Ultimate or U procedures involving physical phenomena of severe accidents are then described. R. and D. programs have been defined with regard to the priorities resulting from this approach [fr

  3. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  4. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  5. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  6. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  7. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  8. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors; Developpement des reacteurs a graphite et uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Saitcevsky, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The French natural uranium-graphite power-reactor programme has been developing - from EDF 1 to EDF 4 - in the direction of an increase of the unit power of the installations, of the specific and volume powers, and of an improvement in the operational security conditions. The high power of EDF 4 (500 MWe) and the integration of the primary circuit into the reactor vessel, which is itself made of pre-stressed concrete, make it possible to make the most of the annular fuel elements already in use in EDF 1, and to arrive thus at a very satisfactory solution. The use of an internally cooled fuel element (an annular element) has led to a further step forward: it now becomes possible to increase the pressure of the cooling gas without danger of causing creep in the uranium tube. The use of a pre-stressed concrete vessel makes this pressure increase possible, and the integration of the primary circuit avoids the risk of a rapid depressurization which would be in this case a major danger. This report deals with the main problems presented by this new type of nuclear power station, and gives the main lines of research and studies now being carried out in France. - Neutronic and thermal research has made it possible to consider using large size fuel elements (internal diameter = 77 mm, external diameter 95 mm) while still using natural uranium. - The problems connected with the production of these elements and with their in pile behaviour are the subject of a large programme, both out of pile and in power reactors (EDF 2) and test reactors (Pegase). - The increase in the size of the element leads to a large lattice pitch (35 to 40 cm). This makes it possible to consider having one charging aperture per channel or for a small number of channels, whether the charge machine be inside or outside the pressure vessel. In conclusion are given the main characteristics of a project for a 500 MWe power station using such a fuel element. In particular this project is compared to EDF 4

  9. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors; Developpement des reacteurs a graphite et uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Saitcevsky, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The French natural uranium-graphite power-reactor programme has been developing - from EDF 1 to EDF 4 - in the direction of an increase of the unit power of the installations, of the specific and volume powers, and of an improvement in the operational security conditions. The high power of EDF 4 (500 MWe) and the integration of the primary circuit into the reactor vessel, which is itself made of pre-stressed concrete, make it possible to make the most of the annular fuel elements already in use in EDF 1, and to arrive thus at a very satisfactory solution. The use of an internally cooled fuel element (an annular element) has led to a further step forward: it now becomes possible to increase the pressure of the cooling gas without danger of causing creep in the uranium tube. The use of a pre-stressed concrete vessel makes this pressure increase possible, and the integration of the primary circuit avoids the risk of a rapid depressurization which would be in this case a major danger. This report deals with the main problems presented by this new type of nuclear power station, and gives the main lines of research and studies now being carried out in France. - Neutronic and thermal research has made it possible to consider using large size fuel elements (internal diameter = 77 mm, external diameter 95 mm) while still using natural uranium. - The problems connected with the production of these elements and with their in pile behaviour are the subject of a large programme, both out of pile and in power reactors (EDF 2) and test reactors (Pegase). - The increase in the size of the element leads to a large lattice pitch (35 to 40 cm). This makes it possible to consider having one charging aperture per channel or for a small number of channels, whether the charge machine be inside or outside the pressure vessel. In conclusion are given the main characteristics of a project for a 500 MWe power station using such a fuel element. In particular this project is compared to EDF 4

  10. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  11. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  12. Towards EPR (European pressurized reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    According to the French industry minister, it is nonsense continuing delaying the construction of an EPR prototype because France needs it in order to renew timely its park of nuclear reactors. The renewing is expected to begin in 2020 and will be assured with third generation reactors like EPR. A quick launching of the EPR prototype is necessary to have it being in service by 2012, the feedback operating experience that will be accumulated over the 8 years that will follow will be necessary to optimize the industrial version and to have it ready by 2020. The EPR reactor has indisputable assets: modern, safer, more competitive and it will produce less wastes than present nuclear reactors. The construction cost of an EPR prototype is estimated to 3 milliard Euros and the nuclear industry operators propose to finance it completely. The EPR prototype does not jeopardize the ambitious French program about renewable energy sources, France is committed to produce 21% of its electricity from renewable energies by 2010 and 10 milliard Euros will be invested over this period on wind energy. Nuclear energy and alternative energies must be considered as 2 aspects of a diversified energy policy. (A.C.)

  13. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  14. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  15. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  16. The French partitioning-transmutation programme, assets and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation studies are covered by the 1991 French law concerning radioactive waste management. The programme is progressing with a dual approach: - What can be done in partitioning-transmutation? At what cost? In what timescale? - How can long-term gains and short-term disadvantages be qualified and quantified? The first approach concerns technical know-how. The studies based on today's technologies are continuing (reactors, fuels and targets, separation of radionuclides by solvents). The second approach involves an assessment activity, based firstly on studies of scenarios. Pertinent assessment criteria must be brought out. (authors)

  17. French study and research program on water cooled reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammite, R.

    1985-05-01

    Electricite de France and the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), joined to obtain, in several fields, the knowledge and qualified calculation tools, they need to develop new means to face the potential consequences of accidents. The bringing on of an important number of PWR units in France in the eightys involves a focusing on these studies. The main fields concerned are the following ones: core cooling accidents and severe accident prevention; fuel behavior in case of accident; containment behavior in accidental situation; emission, transfer and release of fission products in case of accident; probabilistic risk analysis, human factor and earthquakes [fr

  18. Analysis of fire risk in French pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin; Brauns; Deletre; Laborde; Malet; Haller; Vachon; Rebuffat

    1988-10-01

    In a nuclear power station, as in other industrial Installations, fire can be the cause of considerable damage involving loss of capital for the operator along with loss of availability for electrical energy production which must be made up for at a later date. But to make matters worse, fire could also compromise safety of the installation, in order words it could be the cause of an accident involving discharge of radioactivity into the environment, if special precautions were not taken. Clearly then, in view of installation availability and of the very high level of safety which must be guaranteed, fire protection becomes an issue of the utmost importance. Although, practically speaking, fire protection is a composite issue affecting availability as much as installation safety, it is the latter subject which we intend to discuss in our paper

  19. Evaluation of the french test reactors irradiation embrittlement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miannay, D.; Dussarte, D.; Soulat, P.

    1988-07-01

    The shifts of CV 41J energy index temperatures due to irradiation measured in France have been stored in a data bank and are analysed. According to a simple physically based model which is here-after verified, correlations are proposed for Base Metal (BM) and Weld Metal (WM). The achemical and phosphorus components of the chemical factor are equivalent. However, nickel and copper play a leading part in BM and WM respectively. The copper nickel interaction is not evident. These correlations are for cleavage fracture and not for intergranular fracture. This work is subject to revision and extension

  20. Reactor operation feed-back in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, C.; Fourest, B.; Libmann, J.

    1982-09-01

    The Nuclear Safety Department (DSN), technical support of French Safety Authorities, is, in particular, in charge of the analysis of reactor operation and of measures taken consequently to incidents. It proposed the criteria used to select significant incidents; it analyzes such incidents. DSN also analyzes the operating experience of each plant, several years after starting. It examines foreign incidents to assess in what extent lessons learned can be applied to french reactors. The examples presented show that to improve the safety of units operation, the experience feed-back leads to make arrangements, or modifications concerning not only circuits or materials but often procedures. Moreover they show the importance of procedures concerning the operations carried out during reactor shutdown

  1. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  2. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  3. To benefit from the market opportunities, the French nuclear sector must accelerate its change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therond-Koos, C.

    2016-01-01

    An independent think-tank gives its meaning on the future of nuclear energy and on the assets of the French nuclear industry to obtain contracts and tenders in international markets. Nuclear power appears to be a necessary passage for a quick transition towards a no-carbon emitting power production. Between 2006 and 2015 the construction of about 80 reactors was launched and IAEA expects a growth rate of nuclear power production somewhere between +50 and +100% by 2030. 6 countries: United States, Russia, France, Japan, China and South-Korea have developed a nuclear industry and are able to export reactor technology. Concerning reactor construction, France's share of the world market is about 10% and France ranks third behind Russia (33%) and American-Japanese companies (33%). China will be soon a reactor supplier. On the nuclear fuel business, AREVA is also a major player. At the world scale only a few companies operate in the reactor construction field because of technological, industrial but also regulation challenges. The Hinkley Point C project is crucial for the French nuclear industry because of the attractiveness of the contract and mainly because it is an opportunity to show the ability of the French nuclear enterprises to end projects on time and it may be considered a reference to win other export contracts. (A.C.)

  4. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  5. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  6. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  7. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  8. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  9. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  10. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  11. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  12. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  13. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  14. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  16. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  17. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  18. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  19. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  20. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  1. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  2. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)

  4. EDF's (Electricite de France) in service control for GCR type reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillet, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of the data acquisition and processing systems developed by the French EDF for controlling and testing the mechanical properties (thermal stress, deformations, cracks,...) of prestressed concrete vessels for GCR type reactors

  5. Okulo natural reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Minoru

    1993-01-01

    French CEA has reported in 1972 that natural nuclear reactors existed in Okulo uranium deposit in Gabon in Africa, that caused nuclear fission chain reaction (Okulo phenomena) spontaneously two billion years ago. The fission products and transuranic elements produced by the natural reactors have been preserved in strata without movement while subjected to geological phenomena for such very long years. 16 zones of the natural reactors have been discovered so far. The geological features of the Okulo uranium deposit are explained. The total amount of 235 U lost by the chain reaction was estimated to be about 6t, and the fission products were about 6t. The Okulo phenomena offered the valuable results of the synthetic formation disposal test that the nature has carried out for such long years. The significance of the study on natural analog is discussed. Organic substances and the mechanism of holding and movement of uranium and fission nuclides, the stability of uraninite and the age measurement of the deposit by Nd-Sm process are reported as the main results. (K.I.)

  6. The French nuclear team ready to conquer new market shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.B.; Varin, P.; Verwaerde, D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to reinforce their partnership, EDF, CEA and AREVA have founded the France Nuclear Platform (FNP). FNP is a tripartite body that will allow EDF, CEA and AREVA to build a consistent common position to respond to the worldwide demand in terms of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle or spent fuel processing. Potential clients and particularly first-time buyers want to buy far more than nuclear reactors, they want to buy the whole experience of the most important nuclear operator in the world which is a guarantee of success, safety and security. In order to stay ahead of the competition, the French nuclear industry can rely on high quality standards, a policy of innovation and a well-developed safety culture. Today's promising markets for nuclear energy are concentrated in Asia: in China a growth rate of 60% over the next 15 years is expected for nuclear power, in India projects for the construction of several EPR are ongoing. (A.C.)

  7. Light-water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevon, G.

    1983-01-01

    This work gives basic information on light-water reactors which is advanced enough for the reader to become familiar with the essential objectives and aspects of their design, their operation and their insertion in the industrial, economic and human environment. In view of the capital role of electric energy in the modern economy a significant place is given to electron-nuclear power stations, particularly those of the type adopted for the French programme. The work includes sixteen chapters. The first chapter relates the history and presents the various applications of light water reactors. The second refers to the general elementary knowledge of reactor physics. The third chapter deals with the high power light-water nuclear power station and thereby introduces the ensuing chapters which, up to and including chapter 13, are devoted to the components and the various aspects of the operation of power stations, in particular safety and the relationship with the environment. Chapter 14 provides information on the reactors adapted to applications other than the generation of electricity on an industrial scale. Chapter 15 shows the extent of the industrial effort devoted to light-water reactors and chapter 16 indicates the paths along which the present work is preparing the future of these reactors. The various chapters have been written to allow for separate consultation. An index of the main technical terms and a bibliography complete the work [fr

  8. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  9. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  10. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  11. Research reactor safety - an overview of crucial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1998-01-01

    Chronology of the commissioning orders of the French research reactors illustrates the importance of the time factor. When looking at older reactors, one must, on one hand, demonstrate, not only the absence of risks tied to the reactor's ageing, but, on the other hand, adapt the reactor's original technical designs to today's safety practices and standards. The evolution of reactor safety requirements over the last twenty years sometimes makes this adaptation difficult. The design of the next research reactors, after a one to two decades pause in construction, will require to set up new safety assessment bases that will have to take into account the nuclear power plant safety evolution. As a general statement, research reactor safety approaches will require the incorporation of specific design rules for research reactors: experience feedback for one of a kind design, frequent modifications required by research programmes, special operational requirements with operators/researchers interfaces. (author)

  12. Research reactor safety - an overview of crucial aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverie, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1998-07-01

    Chronology of the commissioning orders of the French research reactors illustrates the importance of the time factor. When looking at older reactors, one must, on one hand, demonstrate, not only the absence of risks tied to the reactor's ageing, but, on the other hand, adapt the reactor's original technical designs to today's safety practices and standards. The evolution of reactor safety requirements over the last twenty years sometimes makes this adaptation difficult. The design of the next research reactors, after a one to two decades pause in construction, will require to set up new safety assessment bases that will have to take into account the nuclear power plant safety evolution. As a general statement, research reactor safety approaches will require the incorporation of specific design rules for research reactors: experience feedback for one of a kind design, frequent modifications required by research programmes, special operational requirements with operators/researchers interfaces. (author)

  13. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Quinot, P. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Bloc Reacteur et Boucles Primaires, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Ingenierie et Service, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  14. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Quinot, P.; Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  15. Progress in the development of the neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV SFR: simulations and experimental validations [ANIMMA--2015-IO-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, C.; Filliatre, P.; De Izarra, G. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Elter, Zs.; Pazsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goteborg, (Sweden); Verma, V.; Hellesen, C.; Jacobsson, S. [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, (Sweden); Hamrita, H.; Bakkali, M. [CEA, DRT, LIST, Sensors and Electronic Architecture Laboratory, Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Chapoutier, N.; Scholer, A-C.; Verrier, D. [AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier F-69456 Lyon, (France); Cantonnet, B.; Nappe, J-C. [PHONIS France S.A.S, Nuclear Instrumentation, Avenue Roger Roncier, B.P. 520, F-19106 Brive Cedex, (France); Molinie, P.; Dessante, P.; Hanna, R.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Odic, E. [Supelec, Department of Power and Energy System, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Jadot, F. [CEA, DEN, DER, ASTRID Project Group, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor will rely on high temperature fission chambers installed in the reactor vessel and capable of operating over a wide-range neutron flux. The definition of such a system is presented and the technological solutions are justified with the use of simulation and experimental results. (authors)

  16. The European Pressurized Water Reactor. A safe and competitive solution for future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverenz, R.; Gerhard, L.; Goebel, A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Pressurized Water Reactor - the EPR - is a PWR in the 1600 MW class. Its design is based on experience feedback from several thousand reactors x years of light water reactor operation worldwide, primarily those incorporating the most recent technologies: the French N4 and the German KONVOI reactors. It is an evolutionary design that ensures continuity in the mastery of PWR technology, minimizing the risk for the customer. (author)

  17. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  18. Reactor engineering and engineered reactor safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings give the full text of the lectures held by acknowledged French experts at the KTG Seminar in Mainz on March 10, 1987, all dealing with the leading topic of the current status of reactor engineering and development in France. Although the basic engineering principles and construction lines as well as the safety philosophy are the same in France as in West Germany, there have been distinctive developments over many years in the two countries that by now are not well known even among experts in this field, and hence cannot be properly assessed. Non-availability of relevant surveys or other type of literature in the German language reviewing the French developments is another factor that hitherto was a handicap to mutual exchange of information. The seminar was intended to close this gap. The proceedings should be read by all those in West Germany who wish to be informed about the developments in reactor engineering and reactor safety in France. (orig./DG) [de

  19. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  20. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  1. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  2. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  3. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  4. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  5. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  6. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  7. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  8. French lessons - can they help the US nuclear industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasper, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Many analyses of the politics and economics of nuclear energy in the United States rely on comparisons of US reactor programs with those of France, which have proven to be more successful. The kernel of the comparison is that France has a large and growing nuclear system that produces most of the country's electricity, little political resistance, electric rates that are among the lowest in Europe, and independence from the vicissitudes of the oil markets. By contrast, in the US there are widespread political resistance and unfavorable public opinion, uncertainty about future plans for nuclear energy, and a generally costly set of reactors that produce about 15% of the country's electricity. What is more, the relatively expensive American plants are often thought of to be less safe than their cheaper French counterparts. In attempting to explain the French success and the US failure, observers have been all too prone to single out as the root cause a particular political or economic factor that differs between the two countries. One of the major shortcomings of this approach is that there are a number of relevant differences, any of which could play a part in affecting the countries' nuclear programs and which may not be easily changed. Moreover, implicit in each explanation is a prescription for how to aid the ailing nuclear industry in the United States--a prescription that may well be questionable

  9. The role of research in nuclear regulation: A French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livolant, M.

    1997-01-01

    Roughly speaking, the French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute's role is similar in the French situation to the NRC administration role but with less authority role, which corresponds to another body in France. They define themselves as a technical support of the safety authorities. On the other hand, they have their own research laboratories. Among them, the most famous are the Phebus reactor and the Cabri reactor about which we have heard a lot these two days. They work on safety but also on protection of man and environment, management of accident conditions, security of transport, and safeguards. They have a relationship with utilities and with government authorities. With the utilities they have two types of technical evaluations. They make detailed technical studies of the safety reports presented to the authorities by the utility. On the research side, they participate in common research programs to resolve issues and to increase knowledge and understanding about safety related questions. With the governmental authorities, their role is to give advice on safety reports of existing or being-built installations and on more general policy questions like, for example, the safety principle to apply to the next generation of power plants. The decisions are left to the safety authorities, but they give a lot of advice and detailed studies about questions of safety

  10. Vitrification of reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.

    1993-01-01

    The vitrification of low and intermediate level wastes from the NPP operation has been studied in the frame of a Franco-Czech agreement. The laboratory experiments concentrated on a search for a suitable borosilicate glass matrix which could incorporate relatively high quantities of boron and sodium, main components of liquid wastes from the WWER reactor type NPPs. A relatively wide area of waste compositions has been studied and properties of glasses suitable for the technology and waste disposal were measured. Great attention has been paid to the chemical stability (leachability), other properties like thermal dependence of viscosity and electrical conductivity of melts, and the microstructure of the final solidification product have also been evaluated. The feasibility of the vitrification process has been proved during pilot plant tests which were accomplished at the French establishment in Marcoule. The results of tests were promising. (authors). 4 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Vitrification of reactor wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. des Procedes de Retraitement; Sussmilch, J [Nuclear Research Institut, Rez (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31

    The vitrification of low and intermediate level wastes from the NPP operation has been studied in the frame of a Franco-Czech agreement. The laboratory experiments concentrated on a search for a suitable borosilicate glass matrix which could incorporate relatively high quantities of boron and sodium, main components of liquid wastes from the WWER reactor type NPPs. A relatively wide area of waste compositions has been studied and properties of glasses suitable for the technology and waste disposal were measured. Great attention has been paid to the chemical stability (leachability), other properties like thermal dependence of viscosity and electrical conductivity of melts, and the microstructure of the final solidification product have also been evaluated. The feasibility of the vitrification process has been proved during pilot plant tests which were accomplished at the French establishment in Marcoule. The results of tests were promising. (authors). 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  13. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  14. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  15. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  16. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  17. EPR by Areva. EPR the 1600+ MWe reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the GEN III+ EPR reactor designed by the Areva and Siemens consortium. The EPR reactor is a direct descendent of the well-proven N4 and KONVOI reactors, the most modern reactors in France and Germany. The EPR was designed by teams from KWU/Siemens and Framatome, EDF in France and the major German utilities, working in collaboration with both French and German safety authorities. The EPR integrates the results of decades of R and D programs, in particular those performed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. The EPR benefits from the experience of several thousand reactor-years of operation of pressurized water reactor technology. This experience has put 87 AREVA PWRs online throughout the world. Innovative Features: - An outer shell covering the reactor building, the spent fuel building and two of the four safeguard buildings provides protection against large commercial or military aircraft crash. - A heavy neutron reflector that surrounds the reactor core lowers uranium consumption. - An axial economizer inside the steam generator allows a high level of steam pressure and therefore high plant efficiency. - A core catcher allows passive collection and retention of the molten core should the reactor vessel fail in the highly unlikely event of a core melt. - A digital technology and a fully computerized control room with an operator friendly man-machine interface improve the reactor protection system.

  18. EPR by Areva. EPR the 1600+ MWe reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents the GEN III+ EPR reactor designed by the Areva and Siemens consortium. The EPR reactor is a direct descendent of the well-proven N4 and KONVOI reactors, the most modern reactors in France and Germany. The EPR was designed by teams from KWU/Siemens and Framatome, EDF in France and the major German utilities, working in collaboration with both French and German safety authorities. The EPR integrates the results of decades of R and D programs, in particular those performed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. The EPR benefits from the experience of several thousand reactor-years of operation of pressurized water reactor technology. This experience has put 87 AREVA PWRs online throughout the world. Innovative Features: - An outer shell covering the reactor building, the spent fuel building and two of the four safeguard buildings provides protection against large commercial or military aircraft crash. - A heavy neutron reflector that surrounds the reactor core lowers uranium consumption. - An axial economizer inside the steam generator allows a high level of steam pressure and therefore high plant efficiency. - A core catcher allows passive collection and retention of the molten core should the reactor vessel fail in the highly unlikely event of a core melt. - A digital technology and a fully computerized control room with an operator friendly man-machine interface improve the reactor protection system

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  20. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions

  2. A critical summary of microscopic fast-neutron interactions with reactor structural, fissile and fertile materials; Apercu critique des interactions microscopiques des neutrons rapides avec les materiaux de construction et les matieres fissiles et fertiles utilisees dans les reacteurs; Kriticheskij obzor mikroskopicheskog o vzaimodejstviya bystrykh nejtronov s konstruktsionnymi, rasshcheplyayushchimis ya i vosproizvodyashchim i reaktornymi materialami; Resumen critico de las interacciones microscopicas de los neutrones rapidos con los materiales estructurales fisionables y fertiles utilizados en los reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A B [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    Prevailing knowledge of fast-neutron-induced reactions utilized in the nuclear design of reactor systems is reviewed. Principal emphasis is placed upon microscopic experimental methods, results and precisions. Fast-neutron scattering is considered in detail, including the results of experimental determinations of scattering from oxygen, iron, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, thorium and uranium. Representative results of experimental studies of fast-neutron capture and fast-neutron-induced fission are given. The measurements discussed not only provide results of considerable applied usefulness but axe also examples of the application of advanced experimental nuclear techniques. Areas of limited, conflicting or non-existent experimental information are outlined. A prognosis of future knowledge of fast-neutron reactions is made, with emphasis on the fulfillment of reactor requirements for basic nuclear data. (author) [French] L'auteur fait le point des connaissances sur les reactions provoquees par les neutrons rapides sur lesquelles on tend a fonder les projets de reacteurs. Il met en relief les methodes, les resultats et la precision de mesures experimentales a l'echelle microscopique. Il etudie en detail la diffusion des neutrons rapides, et donne les resultats de mesures experimentales de diffusion dans l'oxygene, le fer, le zirconium, le niobium, le tungstene, le thorium et l'uranium. Il donne les resultats les plus significatifs d'etudes experimentales sur la capture des neutrons rapides et sur la fission provoquee par des neutrons rapides. Les mesures etudiees, non seulement fournissent des renseignements d'une utilite pratique considerable, mais aussi constituent des exemples de l'application de techniques experimentales nucleaires a la pointe du progres. L'auteur indique les domaines ou les donnees experimentales sont limitees, contradictoires ou inexistantes. Il se livre a des pronostics sur le developpement des connaissances experimentales en matiere de

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Radiation protection on EPR: comparative approach of the French and Finnish regulatory reviewing process and optimization at the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arial, E.; Couasnon, O.; Latil-querrec, N.; Evrard, J.M.; Herviou, K.; Riihiluoma, V.; Beneteau, Y.; Foret, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Taking the opportunity to evaluate the preliminary safety report of the French EPR reactor built in Flamanville, the IRSN proposes to assess the history of EPR, from the decision to implement studies in the 90's to the French and German cooperation, and finally to the construction of a unit in Finland and in France, and to make a synthesis of the assessment of radiation protection arrangements. This assessment presents the dose targets (calculated reference doses) planned by the nuclear operators in the design phase as well as the global radiation protection optimization process and a comparison of French and Finnish analyses. In France, for example, EDF performed a detailed optimization analysis of selected tasks known to have a major contribution to the annual average collective dose (thermal insulation, logistics, valve maintenance, opening/closing of the vessel, preparation and checks of steam generators, on-site spent fuel management, and waste management). The optimization process is based (in France) on an iterative method. A comparison between the EPR collective dose target and doses received in other pressurized water reactors that are close to the EPR design (Konvoi of German design, French existing units, etc.) is also presented. This synthesis was carried out by the IRSN, the expert body of the French nuclear safety authority, in association with Electricite de France (EDF), the French operator, and the authority for nuclear safety in Finland (STUK). It summarizes more than 15 years of studies and partnership, focusing on radiation protection, in the design phase of the EPR. (authors)

  6. Low power modular power generating reactors or Small Modular Reactors (SMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenais, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Electronuclear reactors were small reactors at the beginning, and then tend to be always bigger and more powerful, but since some recent times, several countries specialized in reactor design and fabrication (USA, Russia, China, and South Korea) have been developing Small Modular Reactors (SMR) of less than 300 MW. As France has already produced feasibility studies and is about to launch a SMR development programme, the author comments some specific aspects of this new architecture of reactors, characterises the targeted markets, gives an overview of the various more or less advanced existing concepts: a floating barge in Russia, the SMART 100 MW project in South Korea, several concepts in the USA (the mPower 125 MW, the NuScale 45 MW, the Westinghouse 225 MW, and the HI-SMUR 160 MW projects), the ACP 100 MW in China, the CAREM 27 MW in Argentina. French projects developed by the CEA, EDF, Areva and DCNS are then presented

  7. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  8. Foreign direct investments into French real estate

    OpenAIRE

    BRIZARD, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to draw the global trend of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in the French real estate market since 2008 and to understand foreign investors’ behavior and the incentives which urge them to invest in French property market. This study relies on the numerous yearly reports released by consulting and real estate companies and gives an overview of FDI since 2008. From a legal point of view, the French property market is extremely organized. Acquiring, holding and sel...

  9. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  10. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels [sr

  14. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  15. Radio cobalt in French rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrechts, A.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopes 58 and 60 of cobalt present in liquid wastes from nuclear plants or from fuel reprocessing plant of Marcoule are fixed in the different compartments of French rivers. The activity levels of radio-cobalt vary according to the sampled compartments nature (bryophyta > immersed plants > sediment > fish). Elsewhere, laboratory experimentations show that the contamination of fish occurs essentially from the water way rather than from food. Cobalt is mainly fixed by kidneys; muscles is no more than 30 % of the total fish activity. (author)

  16. French programme for HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported that in the frameworks of the French HTR research program, stopped in 1979 the HTR coated particle fuel, fuel rod and prismatic fuel element design have been successfully developed and irradiation tested in France and specific examination methods for irradiated fuel particles, rods and graphite blocks have been developed. Currently CEA is involved in fission product transport experiments sponsored by the US Department of Energy and performed in the COMEDIE loop. Finally the CEA follows progress and developments in HTR fuel research and development throughout the world. 1 tab

  17. Future perspectives of French dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval M.

    1996-01-01

    If the French deterrence must disappear in aid of an European deterrence, it will be necessary to take in account the development of nuclear weapon in Asia and then our deterrence system should maintain its credibility by getting the appropriate length. If policy problems are as important for civil nuclear than for military nuclear, it will be necessary to show concern about them because the Asian economy is in full development and Asia is not so frightened by nuclear power than Europe. (N.C.)

  18. French regulations and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the organization and the role of safety authorities in France in matter of waste management. They precise the French policy in waste storage and treatment: basic objectives, optimization of waste management. The safety requirements are based upon the barrier principle. Safety requirements about waste conditioning and waste disposal are mentioned. In addition to the safety analysis and studies described above, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute assists the ministerial authorities in the drafting of ''basic safety rules (RFS)'', laying down safety objectives. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 deal with safety aspects in spent fuel storage and in transportation of radioactive materials [fr

  19. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  20. German-French PWR cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, F.; Vignon, D.

    1990-01-01

    In April 1989, the two leading European nuclear power plant vendors, Framatome and Siemens, signed an agreement on cooperation covering the joint development and worldwide marketing of pressurized water reactors. For this purpose a joint subsidiary, Nuclear Power International (NPI) was founded, in which equal interests are held by Framatome and Siemens. The firm has its headquarters in Paris and another sales office in Erlangen. Its main activities are the coordination of the development of a joint advanced pressurized water reactor technology and the marketing of pressurized water reactors. Until the joint technology under development has reached commercial maturity, the lines so far developed by the parent companies will continue to be distributed. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear. Areva, a French fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    This article comments the difficulties and problems faced by Areva for its activity of nuclear reactor construction, and which leaded to the transfer of this activity from Areva to EDF while Areva will keep its uranium providing and fuel enrichment activities. These difficulties and problems concern the Flamanville EPR (the construction is 5 years late, vessel defects have just been identified, cost overruns), the Finnish EPR (7 years late, a 5 billions cost overrun), the Jules Horowitz research reactor (5 years late, cost overrun), and strategic choices (notably with respect to the post-Fukushima context). The article also outlines that other activities (mining, enrichment, reactor maintenance) are still doing well, and then briefly discusses the future of Areva NP

  2. The Hidden Lincoln in French Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln has never served as a model for French politicians. He was indeed compared to Carnot, the organizer of the French Revolutionary wars. But when Clemenceau led France in WWI, when De Gaulle stood for France’s independence in WWII, nobody thought of comparing them to Lincoln. This essay analyzes French public opinion during the American Civil War with a focus on Lincoln, based on a study of the few French books published between 1860 and 1865 on the US, diaries, a sample of conservative and republican daily papers, weekly reviews and illustrated newspapers.

  3. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Colloquial French: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to French as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in French in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial French is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range

  4. Crisis in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, F.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the economics of the French nuclear power industry. It considers the dominant position of nuclear power in the French energy system, stresses the scale and causes of the current (1990) economic crisis and dispels the popular misconceptions on the cost efficiency of the French programme. The evidence is based on widely available French documents and articles. The report begins by looking at the background of nuclear power in France then discusses the problem of overcapacity, the technical problems and fall in load factors, generating costs and electricity prices and finally, strategic issues are considered. (UK)

  5. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  9. The Flamanville 3 EPR reactor; Le reacteur EPR Flamanville 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    On April 10. 2007, the french government authorized EDF to create on the site of Flamanville ( La Manche) a nuclear base installation containing a pressurized water EPR type reactor. This nuclear reactor, conceived by AREVA NP and EDF, is the first copy of a generation susceptible to replace later, at least partly, the French nuclear reactors at present in operation.Within the framework of its mission of technical support of the Authority of Nuclear Safety ( A.S.N.), the I.R.S.N. widely contributed successively: to define the general objectives of safety assigned to this new generation of pressurized water nuclear reactors; to analyze the options of safety proposed by EDF for the EPR project; To deepen, upstream to the authorization of creation, the evaluation of the step of safety and the measures of conception retained by EDF that have to allow to respect the objectives of safety which were notified to it. (N.C.)

  10. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  11. IRSN research programs concerning reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is made up of 3 parts. The first part briefly presents the missions of IRSN (French research institute on nuclear safety), the second part reviews the research works currently led by IRSN in the following fields : -) the assessment of safety computer codes, -) thermohydraulics, -) reactor ageing, -) reactivity accidents, -) loss of coolant, -) reactor pool dewatering, -) core meltdown, -) vapor explosion, and -) fission product release. In the third part, IRSN is shown to give a major importance to experimental programs led on research or test reactors for collecting valid data because of the complexity of the physical processes that are involved. IRSN plans to develop a research program concerning the safety of high or very high temperature reactors. (A.C.)

  12. Which life expectancy for EDF reactors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, P.; Fluchere, J.; Giraud, B.; Poizat, F.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled that the French nuclear reactors have been designed for a 40-year long life with a 30-year depreciation, the authors notice that foreign reactors which are identical or older get a 60 year operation authorization. The authors analyse the age of the nuclear reactors which are currently operating in the world, in terms of age, of country. They also discuss the license renewal process in the USA. In the next part they analyse the conditions of a life extension to 60 years. These conditions concern material monitoring, maintenance strategy for the replacement of components, the condition of installations, personnel management and behaviour. Appendices contain a table of operating reactors which are still being operated and more than 30 year old, the status of license renewal applications to the US NRC

  13. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  14. Some views on nuclear reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, P.Y. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a speech given by Pierre Y. Tanguy (Electricite de France) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting held in Bethesda, MD in 1994. He describes the EDF nuclear program in broad terms and proceeds to discuss operational safety results with EDF plants. The speaker also outlines actions to enhance safety planned for the future, and he briefly mentions French cooperation with the Chinese on the Daya Bay project.

  15. Revisiting the cost escalation curse of nuclear power. New lessons from the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Rangel, Lina; Leveque, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Since the first wave of nuclear reactors in 1970 to the construction of Generation III+ reactors in Finland and France in 2005 and 2007 respectively, nuclear power seems to be doomed to a cost escalation curse. In this paper we reexamine this issue for the French nuclear power fleet. Using the construction costs from the Cour des Comptes report, that was publicly available in 2012, we found that previous studies overestimated the cost escalation. Although, it is undeniable that the scale-up ended up in more costly reactors, we found evidence of a learning curve within the same size and type of reactors. This result confirms that standardization is a good direction to look, in order to overcome the cost escalation curse. (authors)

  16. Licensing procedures and safety criteria for research reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.L.; Lerouge, B.

    1980-11-01

    This paper summarizes the recent evolution of the French research reactor capacity, describes the licensing process, the main safety criteria which are taken into consideration, and associated safety research. Some of the existing facilities underwent important modifications to comply with more severe safety criteria, increase the experimental capabilities or qualify new low-enrichment fuels for research reactors. At the end, a few considerations are given to the consequences of the Osiris core conversion

  17. Sodium components cleaning status in the Italian fast reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, B [CNEN-RIT/MAT - Laboratorio Sviluppo Processi - C.S.N. Cassacia, Rome (Italy); Labanti, V [CNEN-DRV, Bologna (Italy); Mennucci, M [NIRA, Genoa (Italy)

    1978-08-01

    As a consequence of the Italian Fast Reactor Development, mainly aimed to the PEC project and to the participation in the French Superphenix project, it is of increasing importance to set up a reliable method for specific reactor components and related test loops. The first problem was the cleaning of the PEC fuelling machine. In order to perform the routine maintenance of the machine an alcohol cleaning method based on the use of 2-butoxyethanol-NN dimethylformamide mixture has been proposed.

  18. Nuclear energy. The innovations of the N4 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The coupling to the electric network of the two first units of N4 type reactors, on the site of Chooz in the Ardennes, marks the third great step of the French nuclear programme of PWR type reactors, after the realization of 34 units of 900 MWe and 20 units of 1300 M We. The nuclear boiler N4, realizes a new evolution in power, in performances and in reliability. (N.C.)

  19. French high level wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.J.; Sombret, C.G.

    1980-06-01

    The first French spent fuel reprocessing plant went on stream in 1956 at Marcoule. Since then, all French irradiated fuels and some foreign spent fuels have been reprocessed either in this plant or in a subsequent plant built at La Hague. Marcoule is primarily devoted to metallic fuels, and La Hague to oxide fuels. The fission products solutions generated by reprocessing are acid liquids. They are stored on site in double walled stainless steel tanks fitted with a cooling device to deal with thermal release due to radioactive decay. Although these liquids are retrievable and can be transfered from one tank to another, and in spite of the fact that no disturbance such as overheating or leakage has ever occurred, a decision was made to solidify these solutions in order to make interim storage and, later on, ultimate disposal, safer and easier to control. Glass was chosen, because it is a flexible medium to deal with and it answers the quality requirements of ultimate disposal as well as the manufacturing constraints, such as equipment corrosion, volatilization during fabrication, and suitability to casting into canisters

  20. Murder in French criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.

  1. Fuel assemblies for PWR type reactors: fuel rods, fuel plates. CEA work presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1976-01-01

    French work on PWR type reactors is reported: basic knowledge on Zr and its alloys and on uranium oxide; experience gained on other programs (fast neutron and heavy water reactors); zircaloy-2 or zircaloy-4 clad UO 2 fuel rods; fuel plates consisting of zircaloy-2 clad UO 2 squares of thickness varying between 2 and 4mm [fr

  2. The new electricity of France PWR: calculation scheme of neutron leakages from the reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, T.; Bourdet, L.; Nimal, J.C.; Brandicourt, G.; Champion, G.

    1987-04-01

    A new calculation scheme is adapted to evaluate neutron fluxes in the reactor cavity and the containment of next french PWR. In this scheme a large part is given to Monte Carlo method, coupled with SN-method, in order to take into account multiple neutron diffusions and the complexity of the reactor geometry

  3. Breeding characteristics analysis of a commercial fast reactor cooled with sodium liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, N.; Shigehiro, A.

    1982-01-01

    The fast reactor breeding characteristics and its safety is analysed. As reference, for a preliminar analysis, the specifications of Super-Phenix, reactor french of 1200 MWe, are used, varying some parameters after aiming to verify its effects on duplication time. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  5. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  8. The making of French nuclear energy policy. Through the relationship between civilian and military use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The French history of nuclear development clearly shows the inseparability of its civilian use from military use. In France, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Electricite de France (EDF) have played an important role in research and development of nuclear technology since the postwar period. At first, the two organizations had kept great autonomy, but the government reinforced its control on them because France needed nuclear deterrence against the Soviet Union. France began using plutonium in 1952, and the Suez crisis in 1956 showed the need for nuclear force to ensure its independence. After this event, France managed the first nuclear test using plutonium in 1960. As for enriched uranium, they have long had great difficulty in securing it. The uranium enrichment technology became crucial also in civilian use in this period. EDF proposed the pressurized water reactor (PWR), which requires enriched uranium, as the future reactor type because of its economic advantage, but CEA wanted to continue developing the gas-cooled reactor (GCR) because of its independence in nuclear fuel supply. Finally, they chose PWR because a French enrichment facility was built in 1967. From such French history, we can say that the civilian and military use of nuclear technology are inseparable. (author)

  9. The absent father of Sino-French cinema: Contemporary Taiwanese cinema and 1950s French auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, ME

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. In contemporary Sino-French cinema, father characters who are dead, long lost or geographically distant leave gaping holes in the lives of the offspring left behind. The absent fathers in Sino-French films by Taiwanese auteurs Cheng Yu-chieh, Hou Hsiao-hsien and Tsai Ming-liang serve as metaphors for French auteurs. French New Wave films constitute the majority of the intertexts; however, early 1950s French cinema and even late nineteenth-century painting reflect th...

  10. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  11. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 257 ... be regarded, according to Gouws (2007: 314), as externally motivated products. .... Fair attention is given to different style or normative levels, i.e. .... differs enough from standard French to be regarded as a new emerging lan- ..... Tous les leaders des par-.

  12. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  13. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  14. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  15. French for Specific Purposes: The Hawaiian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouis, Mustapha

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of and the reaction to a course in Business French at the University of Hawaii. Its success, coupled with its recognition by state and academic officials, brought about the initiation of similar courses in other languages and the development of French for travel industry management majors. (SED)

  16. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  17. The French Language in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  18. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  19. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. Health Information in French (français)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

  1. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Sano, Tamotsu; Ueda, Sabuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the liquid surface disturbance in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A horizontal flow suppressing mechanism mainly comprising vertical members is suspended near the free liquid surface of coolants in the upper plenum. The horizontal flow of coolants near the free liquid surface is reduced by the suppressing mechanism to effectively reduce the surface disturbance. The reduction in the liquid surface disturbance further prevails to the entire surface region with no particular vertical variations to the free liquid surface to remarkably improve the preventive performance for the liquid surface disturbance. Accordingly, it is also possible to attain the advantageous effects such as prevention for the thermal fatigue in reactor vessel walls, reactor upper mechanisms, etc. and prevention of burning damage to the reactor core due to the reduction of envolved Ar gas. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  7. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  9. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, I.; Gutscher, E.

    1980-01-01

    The core contains a critical mass of UN or U 2 N 3 in the form of a noncritical solution with melted Sn being kept below a N atmosphere. The lining of the reactor core consists of graphite. If fission progresses part of the melted metal solution is removed and cleaned from fission products. The reactor temperatures lie in the range of 300 to 2000 0 C. (Examples and tables). (RW) [de

  10. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  11. French participation in the world energy council; Presence francaise au conseil mondial de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, Ch. [Secretariat General du Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Roussely, F.; Francony, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Ailleret, F. [Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F. [ADEME, Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Villaron, Th. [Conseil Mondial de l`Energie (France)

    1999-02-01

    The Revue de l`Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m{sup 2}, the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l`Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary`s office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  12. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  13. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  14. Stars War in French Gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergaud, Olivier; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the careers from a sample of more than 1,000 top French chefs over more than twenty years and link it to the success or reputation of the restaurants where they have worked. This allows us to test what are the determinants of success but also to investigate the dynamics...... of performance and reputation, stressing the importance of the quality of apprenticeships, mentoring and entrepreneurship spirit. We find that the prestige of the restaurant where individuals work is on average declining along the career, and that the quality of apprenticeship is strongly related to the future...... success as chef. We also find that prices of restaurants with higher reputation are more sensitive to bad signals....

  15. Disputing Rossellini: Three French perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Harvey-Davitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his burgeoning body of film theoretical work the French philosopher Jacques Rancière repeatedly turns to some canonical films by Neorealist pioneer Roberto Rossellini. Not simply retreading tired motifs of Neorealism, Rancière’s comments offer some profound new insights, revolutionising prior perspectives on Rossellini. In this article I shall put Rancière’s perspective into dialogue with two of the most significant of these perspectives: André Bazin’s and Gilles Deleuze’s. In doing so I shall claim that Rancière’s approach departs radically from the canonised, standardised Neorealist conception of Rossellini. Instead, I wish to claim that he describes a modernist artist primarily concerned with aesthetic clashes. In doing so I shall contemplate how the meaning of these films has evolved since the era of their contemporary reception, demonstrating the congruence and disparity between these three disparate approaches.

  16. Impact of French advertising campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads

  17. Joint German/French S4-Analytical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miemczyk, H.

    1979-03-01

    A joint German/French program was initiated to investigate in detail the behaviour of artificially defected fuel pins in a sodium loop of the SILOE reactor at Grenoble/France. Three irradiation experiments have been conducted in SILOE on representative SNR-type fuel pins (mixed oxide, low density, stainless steel cladding, external diameter 6 mm). The first experiment, S2, had been an unirradiated pin with a large interstitial defect (machined slit of 30x1 mm). The two following pins, S4 and S3, have been pre-irradiated in RAPSODIE (365 efpd, 10.6 % burnup). The main results of the S4-experiment are described and evaluated in the present report. They concern the following important aspects: sodium-uranate/plutonate formation and its kinetics, fuel loss, fission product release and fuel behaviour

  18. Monitoring and aid to diagnosis of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousellin, A.; Trenty, A.; Benas, J.C.; Renault, Y.; Busquet, J.L.; Mouhamed, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improvise safety and availability in its nuclear power plants, EDF has designed a new generation of monitoring systems integrated into a workstation for monitoring and aid to diagnosis (PSAD). These systems perform on-line monitoring of the main power plant components and PSAD stations provide homogeneous aid to diagnosis which enable plant personnel to pinpoint the mechanical behavior of plant equipments. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerably free them from routine tasks. The first version of the prototype is working on a French plant at Tricastin. This version includes the software host structure and two monitoring functions: the reactor coolant pumps and the turbo-generator monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring (ISM) and Loose Parts Detection function (LPD) are under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1996. (authors)

  19. Protection of French nuclear power plants against flooding risks - 15307

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaud, J.

    2015-01-01

    In France, the flooding risk has been taken into account since the beginning of the nuclear program and has been reinforced following operating feedback from French and international power plants. The main events which led to reinforcement were the partial flooding in the Blayais NPP that occurred in 1999 and the Fukushima accident in 2011. The current French fleet is composed of 58 PWR reactors located on 19 sites: 4 sites are sea side, 1 side is located on an estuary and all other are located on river side. The lessons learned from the Blayais event are: -) an update of the hazard evaluation of the risks, -) a new assessment of the sufficiency of the protective measures, and -) the taking into account of aggravating risks associated to support functions such as site inaccessibility, loss of off-site power, etc. The lessons learned from the Fukushima accident have confirmed and enhanced lessons from the Blayais event. In addition the Fukushima accident has underlined the need to have sufficient margins beyond the design to avoid cliff edge effects. The improvements implemented on the Blayais and the Belleville sites are detailed

  20. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  1. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  2. French Society Abroad: The Popularization of French Dance throughout Europe, 1600-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paul Rinehart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dissemination of French dance, dance notation, and dance music throughout Europe, and it explains the reasons why French culture had such an influence on other European societies from 1600-1750. First, the paper seeks to prove that King Louis XIV played a significant role in the outpour of French dance and the arts. Next, the paper discusses prominent French writers of dance notation who influenced the spread of French dance literature and training throughout Europe. Finally, the paper delineates European composers and their involvement in the development and production of French dance music. Using academic, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, and other scholarly sources, this paper seeks to accurately present the information in an orderly fashion. The paper contains visual evidence of dance and music notation to assist the reader in understanding the subject matter. Additionally, theories of contemporary authors as well as authors from the time period are discussed to present concrete evidence. The two main types of dance discussed in the paper are ballroom and court dances, which were prominent within the French royal court. One major finding of the research is the fact that French court and ballroom dances were specifically designed to communicate the power and prestige of King Louis XIV; consequently, other European countries were influenced to strive for similar prestige. Another finding is that many forms of French dance notation were translated and published in other countries, which increased the use of French dance throughout Europe. Musically, European composers such as Handel and Mozart included elements of French dance music in their compositions, and thus played a significant role in prevalence of French dance music throughout Europe. Overall, this paper proves that French dance received wide recognition due to political influence, availability of dance notation, and the involvement of prominent composers.

  3. The yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This is an account of a paper appeared in Energy Economist, February 1988 and contains a severe critique of the French nuclear power policy, in particular the Electricite de France, Cogema and Framatome. It is argued that the blueprint of the original nuclear power program has not been achieved in many topics. Points of critique to the EdF are: the electricity price, overcapacities and financial indeptedness. The French industries are not flourishing due to ample supply of cheap energy, nor do French nuclear manufacturers sell the fast breeder technology throughout the world. (qui)

  4. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  5. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2014-01-01

     COLLOQUIAL FRENCH is easy to use and completely up to date!Specially written by experienced teachers for self-study or class use, the course offers a step-by-step approach to written and spoken French. No prior knowledge of the language is required.What makes COLLOQUIAL FRENCH your best choice in personal language learning?Interactive - lots of exercises for regular practiceClear - concise grammar notesPractical - useful vocabulary and pronunciation guideComplete - including answer key and reference sectionWhether you''re a business traveller, or about to take up a daring challenge in adventu

  6. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  7. The PWR fuel cycle. Utilization of uranium in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, E.

    After having briefly described the core of a pressurized water reactor, the fuel is examined and, in particular, the change in reactivity that governs the renewal of the fuel. The present French nuclear units are taken as example and it is shown that with the development of the nuclear complex, it is no longer possible to reason on the basis of an isolated reactor, since the running of a reactor is set by the network and its working constraints become a priority. The optimization of the fuel control must therefore cover the total cost [fr

  8. The French post irradiation examination database for the validation of depletion calculation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roque, Benedicte; Marimbeau, Pierre; Bioux, Philippe; Toubon, Herve; Daudin, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental programmes conducted in France by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in order to validate spent fuel inventory calculations for core studies as well as fuel cycle studies. This large experimental programme was obtained in collaboration with our French partners, Electricite de France (EDF), FRAMATOME-ANP and COGEMA. The experimental data are based on chemical analysis measurements from fuel rod cuts irradiated in French reactors for PWR-UOx and MOx fuels, then dissolved in CEA laboratories, and from full assembly dissolutions at the COGEMA/La Hague reprocessing plants for UOx fuels. This enables us to cover a large range of UOx fuels with various enrichments in 235 U, 3.1% to 4.5%, associated with burnups from 10 GWd/t to 60 GWd/t. Recently, MOx fuels have also been investigated, with an initial Pu amount in the central zone of 5.6% and a maximum burnup of 45 GWd/t. Uranium, Plutonium, Americium, Curium isotopes and some fission products were analysed. Furthermore, Fission Products involved in Burn up Credit studies were measured. The experimental database contains also data for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) with irradiated samples of BWR 9x9 and full BWR assemblies dissolutions. Furthermore some data exist for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) with small samples irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. An overview of ongoing programmes is also presented. (author)

  9. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  10. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  11. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  12. EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) The advanced nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy, which provides a steady supply of electricity at low cost, has its rightful place in the energy mix of the 21. century, which puts the emphasis on sustainable development. The EPR is the only 3. generation reactor under construction today. It is an evolutionary reactor that represents a new generation of pressurized water reactors with no break in the technology used for the most recent models. The EPR was developed by Framatome and Siemens, whose nuclear activities were combined in January 2001 to form Framatome ANP, a subsidiary of AREVA and Siemens. EDF and the major German electricity companies played an active part in the project. The safety authorities of the two countries joined forces to bring their respective safety standards into line and draw up joint design rules for the new reactor. The project had three objectives: meet the requirements of European utilities, comply with the safety standards laid down by the French safety authority for future pressurized water reactors, in concert with its German counterpart, and make nuclear energy even more competitive than energy generated using fossil fuels. The EPR can guarantee a safe, inexpensive electricity supply, without adding to the greenhouse effect. It meets the requirements of the safety authorities and lives up to the expectations of electricity utilities. This document presents the main characteristics of the EPR, and in particular the additional measures to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, the leak-tight containment, the measures to reduce the exposure of operating and maintenance personnel, the solutions for an even greater protection of the environment. The foreseen development of the EPR in France and abroad (Finland, China, the United States) is summarized

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  15. CARRYING OF FRENCH VISAS FOR HOLDERS OF CATEGORY 'EF' FRENCH ATTESTATIONS DE FONCTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organisation that members of the personnel resident in Switzerland and holding Category 'EF' French Attestations de functions are not obliged to be in possession of French visas. When temporarily travelling through France on OFFICIAL CERN BUSINESS, provided they are carrying the valid Attestation and a valid national passport with them.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  16. The development of fast reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.

    1982-01-01

    Only minor changes were introduced in the French nuclear programme by the new government in 1981. The operating conditions of Rapsodie were very satisfactory up to January 1982. After a leak in the double primary jacket (nitrogen circuit) the reactor was shut down for investigations. Phenix is continuing to operate smoothly. Construction of Super Phenix (Creys Malville power plant) is proceeding normally though with some delay. The studies for the future (after Creys Malville) are following their way both for the Project 1500 (Super Phenix 2) and for the specific plants of the fuel cycle. Research and development are largely directed toward Super Phenix 1 needs and the prospects of Super Phenix 2. International cooperation remains very intensive. The financial resources devoted to the development of fast reactors are globally stable. Including fuel cycle and safety (but excluding the Phenix operation) about 1300 millions of francs will be devoted to fast reactors by the C.E.A. in 1982. (author)

  17. The safety of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panossian, J.; Tanguy, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of the status of the safety level of modern pressurized water reactors, that is to say those that meet the safety criteria accepted today by the international nuclear community. We will mainly rely on the operating experience and the Probabilistic Safety Assessments concerning French reactors. We will not back over the basic safety concepts of these reactors, which are well known. We begin with a brief review of some of the lessons learned from the two main accidents discussed in the present meeting. Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, without entering into details presented in previous papers. The presentation ends with a rather lengthy conclusion, aimed more at those not directly involved in the technical details of nuclear safety matters

  18. [The French medecine pricing committee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, D

    2017-09-01

    The French medicine pricing committee (CEPS) has to reconcile several major constraints, including optimal patient access to medicines and a good control of expenditures on reimbursable medicines. From 2013 to 2015, drug price decreases and discounts obtained by CEPS contributed more than € 5 billion to the balance of the health insurance accounts. As for price setting, there is a significant drop in the prices of medicines in France once they are registered for reimbursement. France is affected by a limited, but costly, flow of innovative medicines, whose prices are higher than those of previous generations, a reflection of an international gradient to which France is obviously subject, despite prices that remain at the low end of the range in Western Europe. The provision of innovative medicines for all patients who need them has been ensured in France over the last fifteen years at a controlled cost. But with the arrival of new expensive products, a resolute policy of control of expenditures must take over from the fall in prices, and original financing channels will have to be explored. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  20. New generation of French ISIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, J.; Cattiaux, G.; Clicques, J.; Landez, J.P.; Birac, A.M.; Benoist, P.; Viard, J.

    1986-11-01

    Up to now, 110 pre- or inservice inspections of PWR vessels have been performed both in France and aboard by the mean of the first generation of french ISIM named MIS. Due to the increase of the number inspections which have to be realized in the next years, a new generation of ISIM have been developed. The first one is named MIS 5. The general structure of the mechanical part of MIS has not been changed, some improvements have been introduced to take in account the experience and facilitate maintenance, mounting, dismounting and transportation. The main changes lie in the control system and data acquisition and analysis equipment. The versatility of computers is widely used. A parametrizing unit allows to set all the parameters both for the tools and for the ultrasonic equipment and the data acquisition system. The ultrasonic equipment is able of managing 32 channels. Data are recorded simultaneously on Winchester disk, bulk memory and cassette of a HP 1000 computer (serial 900) and cassette. SOFTWARES have been developed by INTERCONTROLE for acquisition and analysis which allow to exhibit results automatically on screen printer or/and plotter. All the electronics and computer equipment are set in a shelter outside of the containement, linked to the MIS by 2 cables. 7 refs

  1. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  2. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  3. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordjman, F.; Vivies, P. de; Pariente-David, S.; Zagury, Ph.; April, F.; Guenaire, M.; Greiveldinger, H.; Rottenberg, J.; Lemaire, Ch.; Gentou, H.; Lesaffre, Th.; Besnault, J.; Martin, S.; Mouton, F.R.; Boulanger, Ph.

    2003-05-01

    The following topics are discussed: the national and european regulation framework; the french market opening forms; the impacts (purchase policy) on the actors (big industrial groups) and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  4. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  5. language teacher recruitment in the French

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We first present the broad lines of the French system of language teacher recruitment in ... Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Spanish, Turkish and .... knowledge and learning ability), the higher the Department's.

  6. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and presumably based on the present participle diff erant. (from differer), which in French means ... grammatical items that can fill the determiner slot). But ... or opposition which gives them form [ ... ] Here the ..... Here is a simple example from ...

  7. French bank mergers and acquisitions performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Ben Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of mergers and acquisitions on French bank performance. Performance is measured by potential gains in efficiency and value creation. We first analyzed efficiency using the data envelopment analysis (DEA under input oriented with variable returns to scale to obtain the efficiency scores. Second, we analyzed the impact on French bank value creation following mergers-acquisitions operations of a set of control variables (model 1 and explicative variables measuring strategic similarities between bidders and targets (model 2. The sample studied is composed of French bank mergers-acquisitions happening between 1996 and 2006 and implying one of the 14 greatest French banking groups. Empirical result showed that mergers and acquisitions have been traduced by an improvement in the overall efficiency by 17.82% and a shareholder value reduction by 5.14%

  8. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  9. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2002-01-01

    A report on the opening of the French gas market has been established, on the request of both the French minister of economy, finances and industry and the state secretary of industry, as expressed in their respective letters addressed to the president of the commission of electric power regulation (CRE). This report follows the step report on the opening of the French gas market published on January 15, 2002. It presents a status of the French gas market since August 2000, date of the enforcement of the European Union directive 98/30/CE, and expresses some recommendations about the main questions that should fall into the field of the future gas regulation. This report was elaborated before the project of law relative to the energy markets and published on October 24, 2002. These recommendations will have to be adapted to the dispositions of the law. This article presents some excerpts of the synthesis report. (J.S.)

  10. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  11. developing french for specific purposes in the nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Following the changing role of the French Language from a vehicle of French culture to a vehicle of Science, Technology, Commerce and Diplomacy, the teaching of French as a foreign language (FFL) around the world has shifted emphasis from literary studies to what has come to be known as French for Specific Purposes ...

  12. Unforgettable French Memory Tricks to Help You Learn and Remember French Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Rice-Jones, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Unforgettable French uses memory tricks to teach and reinforce major points of rench grammar from the basics up to high school level, to learners of all ages. It may be used: by anyone who wishes to gain confidence in speaking French, as a evision aid, to consolidate the learner's grasp of grammatical points, to complement whatever French scheme you are using, and by French teachers at all levels, from elementary school through to adult. These tried-and-tested memory tricks help to explain "tri

  13. Approaching French Language Literature in Canadian Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Charlie

    2005-01-01

    This book forms a self-study pack and teaching guide to help English speakers start using computers and the web to support their studies of French Canadian Literature, song, film and multimedia. Readers will need access to the Internet so that they can experience ‘Electronic Encounters’ with Canadian media in French and English. The approach is underpinned with ideas drawn from the analysis of travel writing.

  14. Activating teaching methods in french language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kulhánková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is activating teaching methods in french language teaching. This thesis outlines the issues acitvating teaching methods in the concept of other teaching methods. There is a definition of teaching method, classification of teaching methods and characteristics of each activating method. In the practical part of this work are given concrete forms of activating teaching methods appropriate for teaching of french language.

  15. French strategy for green finance. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Ducret, Pierre; Berthaud, Cecilia; Evain, Julie; Scolan, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The authors present their report on the French Strategy for Green Finance. Green finance has expanded rapidly since 2015 but much remains to be done to make capital flows consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement. France can continue to play a pioneering role to promote the energy and ecological transition, and to support Paris's role as a financial centre. The task force is putting forward recommendations along four axes for a French strategy to foster green finance

  16. French effort in field NDT nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, R.

    1983-12-01

    For the in-service inspection of nuclear generating stations, the French Atomic Commission has built up a program first to increase the defect detection probability, secondly to increase the reliability and recently to improve the characterization of defects. Focused Ultrasound and multiple frequency eddy current techniques, developped by French Atomic Energy Commission are well known. In this paper we will present the latest developments made in relation with defect characterization

  17. French in the XX Century: Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya I. Skorobogatova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the disclosure of changes that occurred in the French language in the XX century. The task of the authors is to present the main features characteristic of the French language of the 20th century, taking into account external history and to give their perspective assessment. World wars, the development of communication tools and the creation of new technologies, the strengthening of cultural and economic ties between France and other countries of the world had a significant impact on the evolution of the French language. Important results of the development of the French language in the period under review include: fixing a new phoneme [ŋ] in the consonantial system of the French language; enrichment of the lexical system at the expense of internal resources and at the expense of other languages; strengthening the dynamics of the development of the non-literary part of the language; increase in the number of syntactic Anglicisms. In general, the authors of the article attempted to give a detailed answer to the question: if there was the impoverishment of the French language in the twentieth century.

  18. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouazé, André

    2002-01-01

    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  19. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  20. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  1. Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio; Yokomizo, Osamu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor facility capable of suppressing the amount of steams generated by the mutual effect of a failed reactor core and coolants upon occurrence of an imaginal accident, and not requiring spacial countermeasures for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel. Namely, a means for supplying cooling water at a temperature not lower by 30degC than the saturated temperature corresponding to the inner pressure of the containing vessel upon occurrence of an accident is disposed to a lower dry well below the pressure vessel. As a result, upon occurrence of such an accident that the reactor core should be melted and flown downward of the pressure vessel, when cooling water at a temperature not lower than the saturated temperature, for example, cooling water at 100degC or higher is supplied to the lower dry well, abrupt generation of steams by the mutual effect of the failed reactor core and cooling water is scarcely caused compared with a case of supplying cooling water at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature by 30degC or more. Accordingly, the amount of steams to be generated can be suppressed, and special countermeasure is no more necessary for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  3. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  4. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sekine, Katsuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the thickness of a reactor container and reduce the height and the height and plate thickness of a roof slab without using mechanical vibration stoppers. Constitution: Earthquake proofness is improved by filling fluids such as liquid metal between a reactor container and a secondary container and connecting the outer surface of the reactor container with the inner surface of the secondary container by means of bellows. That is, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, horizontal loads can be supported by the secondary container without providing mechanical vibration stoppers to the reactor container and the wall thickness can be reduced thereby enabling to simplify thermal insulation structure for the reduction of thermal stresses. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, verical loads can be transmitted to the secondary container thereby enabling to reduce the wall thickness in the same manner as for the horizontal load. By the effect of transferring the point of action of the container load applied to the roof slab to the outer circumferential portion, the intended purpose can be attained and, in addition, the radiation dose rate at the upper surface of the roof slab can be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  6. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  7. The IRSN's opinion on safety and radiation protection of the French electronuclear fleet in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report proposes an overview of significant events which occurred in 2013 in the French nuclear power plants: safety re-examination process, evolution of safety significant events, aspects related to the containment of radioactive substances (fuel rod cladding, enclosure tightness test), evolution of organisational arrangements during reactor stoppage. The second and main part proposes a presentation of the currently operated French electronuclear reactor fleet, a global assessment of safety and radiation protection, a report of events, incidents and anomalies (and more notably: the pollution of the air compressed production and distribution systems of a Cruas reactor, the issue of resistance to earthquakes of some hardware, and fuel assembly deformations in Nogent 2), and an overview of significant evolutions (control of containment enclosures of 1300 and 1450 MWe reactors, the taking of aggressions into account for the third decennial inspection of 1300 MWe reactors, thermal fatigue in mixing areas, safety and radiation protection management during reactor stoppage, corrosion of the zircaloy 4 cladding of fuel assemblies)

  8. New about research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorenkov, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The multi-purpose research reactor MAPLE (Canada) and concept of new reactor MAPLE-CNF as will substitute the known Canadian research reactor NRU are described. New reactor will be used as contributor for investigations into materials, neutron beams and further developments for the CANDU type reactor. The Budapest research reactor (BRR) and its application after the last reconstruction are considered also [ru

  9. French military plans for Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1984-01-01

    France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the right to do so. It does not separate the two kinds of nuclear materials for economic reasons. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not address the possibility that plutonium pledged to peaceful use might be commingled with plutonium for military use in a civilian facility within a weapons state. The US could work to strengthen the US-Euratom Agreement on the basis of the contamination principle. 11 references

  10. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  11. Complementary safety assessments - Report by the French Nuclear Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    As an immediate consequence of the Fukushima accident, the French Authority of Nuclear Safety (ASN) launched a campaign of on-site inspections and asked operators (mainly EDF, AREVA and CEA) to make complementary assessments of the safety of the nuclear facilities they manage. The approach defined by ASN for the complementary safety assessments (CSA) is to study the behaviour of nuclear facilities in severe accidents situations caused by an off-site natural hazard according to accident scenarios exceeding the current baseline safety requirements. This approach can be broken into 2 phases: first conformity to current design and secondly an approach to the beyond design-basis scenarios built around the principle of defence in depth. 38 inspections were performed on issues linked to the causes of the Fukushima crisis. It appears that some sites have to reinforce the robustness of the heat sink. The CSA confirmed that the processes put into place at EDF to detect non-conformities were satisfactory. The complementary safety assessments demonstrated that the current seismic margins on the EDF nuclear reactors are satisfactory. With regard to flooding, the complementary safety assessments show that the complete reassessment carried out following the flooding of the Le Blayais nuclear power plant in 1999 offers the installations a high level of protection against the risk of flooding. Concerning the loss of electrical power supplies and the loss of cooling systems, the analysis of EDF's CSA reports showed that certain heat sink and electrical power supply loss scenarios can, if nothing is done, lead to core melt in just a few hours in the most unfavourable circumstances. As for nuclear facilities that are not power or experimental reactors, some difficulties have appeared to implement the CSA approach that was initially devised for reactors. Generally speaking, ASN considers that the safety of nuclear facilities must be made more robust to improbable risks which are not

  12. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  13. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  14. Optimum use of CDOT French and Hamburg data (French and Hamburg tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been collecting data from the Hamburg Rutter and the : French Rutter for over 20 years. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter. This r...

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Yamauchi, Koki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the channel stability and the reactor core stability in a spontaneous circulation state of coolants. Constitution: A reactor core stabilizing device comprising a differential pressure automatic ON-OFF valve is disposed between each of a plurality of jet pumps arranged on a pump deck. The stabilizing device comprises a piston exerted with a pressure on the lower side of the pump deck by way of a pipeway and a valve for flowing coolants through the bypass opening disposed to the pump deck by the opening and closure of the valve ON-OFF. In a case where the jet pumps are stopped, since the differential pressure between the upper and the lower sides of the pump deck is removed, the valve lowers gravitationally into an opened state, whereby the coolants flow through the bypass opening to increase the spontaneous circulation amount thereby improve the stability. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)