WorldWideScience

Sample records for french military strategy

  1. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  2. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  3. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  4. French military plans for Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1984-01-01

    France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the right to do so. It does not separate the two kinds of nuclear materials for economic reasons. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not address the possibility that plutonium pledged to peaceful use might be commingled with plutonium for military use in a civilian facility within a weapons state. The US could work to strengthen the US-Euratom Agreement on the basis of the contamination principle. 11 references

  5. Influence of French Air Power Strategy in the European Union’s Military Operations in Africa (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Patrick Facon, Histoire de l’Armée de l’Air, provides the context of French operations in Africa in the broadest history of the French Air Force. 3 In...during the 2000s, including its 3 Patrick Facon, Histoire de L’armée de L’air (Paris: La...34, 8. 5 Facon, Histoire de L’armée de L’air, 451. 6 Facon, Histoire de L’armée de L’air, 458. The third phase began in 1994 after the Rwanda

  6. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  7. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... The 9/11 attacks set this plan in motion. In the years leading up to and following the 9/11 attacks, global jihadis have written copiously on their military strategy for creating an Islamic state...

  8. [Retrospective study of ALS in French military personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, A; Desjeux, G; Balaire, C; Thevenin-Garron, V

    2010-01-01

    An apparent increased risk for developing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease, is considered to exist in the military population. ALS military and veteran patients were retrospectively recruited in April 2008 by searching medical data (Hippocrate) and repayment data (Erasme) of the French National Military Health Care Fund (Caisse nationale militaire de sécurité sociale, CNMSS) from de January 1991 to December 2007. We report a series of 73 patients, 69 male and four female, average age of 52.5 years (range 27 to 72 years) with a peak of patients in the 50-59 year age class. The branch of military service was Army (n=26 patients), Air force (n=14), Navy (n=10) and State Police Force (n=22). The incidence among male active duty military personnel was stable from 2002 to 2007; it was less than the general population (1.7/100,000 per year in 2007), but higher in the 40-44 and 50-54 year age classes (1.90 and 5.07/100,000 per year in 2007 respectively). Duration of active duty was on average 31 years. The retrospective nature of the data and the incomplete population with loss of retired military personnel without CNMSS affiliation are limitations of our study. Another means of collecting all cases of ALS among French military personnel and veterans would be to conduct a search in the 17 ALS centers in France with analysis by occupational activity for entire career.

  9. Gastrointestinal Illnesses among French Forces Deployed to Djibouti: French Military Health Surveillance, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; de Santi, Vincent Pommier; Darar, Houssein Y.; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L.; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005–2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness. PMID:20889897

  10. Gastrointestinal illnesses among French forces deployed to Djibouti: French military health surveillance, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Darar, Houssein Y; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-10-01

    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005-2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness.

  11. French Military Intervention in Mali: Inevitable, Consensual yet Insufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Bergamaschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note offers an account of France’s military intervention in Mali launched on 11 January 2013. Firstly, it provides an analysis of the events that led up to the dual crisis in the country’s northern and southern regions and to a new wave of armed conflict between government and rebel forces. Then, it is argued that although the French military intervention was framed as inevitable and based on a broad consensus, it will nevertheless be insufficient to address the root sociopolitical causes of Mali´s multidimensional crisis.

  12. French strategy for green finance. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Ducret, Pierre; Berthaud, Cecilia; Evain, Julie; Scolan, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The authors present their report on the French Strategy for Green Finance. Green finance has expanded rapidly since 2015 but much remains to be done to make capital flows consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement. France can continue to play a pioneering role to promote the energy and ecological transition, and to support Paris's role as a financial centre. The task force is putting forward recommendations along four axes for a French strategy to foster green finance

  13. [Blood transfusion in emergency settings: French military health service experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Ausset, S; Peytel, E

    2010-12-01

    Blood transfusion is required in a number of emergency settings and the French military health service (FMHS) has issued specific guidelines for the treatment of war casualties. These guidelines take into account European standards and laws, NATO standards, and also public sentiment regarding transfusion. These guidelines reflect a determination to control the process and to avoid the improvisation frequently associated with wartime transfusion. The evolution in warfare (terrorism and bombing more frequent than gunshot) and the wide use of body armor have deeply changed the clinical presentation of war injuries. These now involve the extremities in 80% of cases, with extensive tissue damage and heavy blood loss. The FMHS recommends that war casualties with hemorrhagic shock be brought quickly to a medical treatment facility (MTF) after first-line treatment applied through buddy aid or by medics. In the MTF, before an early Medevac, a damage control surgery will be performed, with resuscitation using freeze-dried plasma, red blood cells and fresh whole blood. The French military blood bank is responsible for blood product supply, training and medical advice regarding transfusion therapy during wartime, as well as hemovigilance. All transfusion therapy practices are periodically assessed but research on whole blood pathogen reduction is being conducted in order to reduce the residual infectious risk associated with this product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Assessment of malaria screening management in blood donation control in the French Military Blood Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, T; Garcia-Hejl, C; Bouzard, S; Roche, C; Sailliol, A; Martinaud, C

    2014-06-01

    The French Military Blood Institute is responsible for the entire blood supply chain in the French Armed Forces. Considering, the high exposition rate of military to malaria risk, blood donation screening of plasmodium infection must be as efficient as possible. The main aim of our study was to assess our malaria testing strategy based on a single Elisa test compared with a two-step strategy implying immunofluorescence testing as confirmation test. The second goal was to describe characteristic of malaria Elisa positive donors. We conducted a prospective study: every malaria Elisa positive test was implemented by immunofluorescence testing and demographical data were recorded as usual by our medical software. We showed a significant risk of malaria ELISA positive tests among donor born in endemic area and we estimate the number of abusively 3-year rejected donors. However, based on our estimations, the two-step strategy is not relevant since the number of additionally collected blood products will be low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of military contacts on French loanwords in the English language

    OpenAIRE

    MITCHELL PETER J.; AKHTAMBAEV ROMAN P.; IGNATOV A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of French words as loanwords in the English language, as a result of various armed conflicts and military contacts in the previous millennium. Loanwords are an important component of any language and, indeed, the vast majority of languages are heavily influenced by loanwords. War and armed conflicts in general, together with military cooperation, provide ''ideal'' conditions for the emergence of loanwords in foreign languages. The English language experience ...

  16. Ethnic Conflict: Imperatives for US Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lohide, Kurtis D

    1999-01-01

    .... Recent fighting in Bosnia, Central Africa, and Kosovo seems to provide this context. Such outbreaks of internecine fighting present compelling evidence that ethnic warfare will be a major source of conflict in the new millennium. Therefore, if 21st century American military thinkers are to craft a successful strategy, they must address the imperatives of ethnic conflict. This paper discusses the theoretical imperatives, doctrinal imperatives, and force structure imperatives of ethnic warfare.

  17. Strategies for improved French-language health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alain P.; Timony, Patrick E.; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify strategies to improve the quality of health services for Francophone patients. Design A series of semistructured key informant interviews. Setting Northeastern Ontario. Participants A total of 18 physicians were interviewed. Ten physicians were interviewed in French, 7 physicians were women, and 10 physicians were located in urban communities. Methods Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to conduct a series of semistructured key informant interviews with family physicians practising in communities with a large Francophone population. Principles of grounded theory were applied, guided by a framework for patient-professional communication. Results were inductively derived following an iterative data collection–data analysis process and were analyzed using a detailed thematic approach. Main findings Respondents identified several strategies for providing high-quality French-language health services. Some were unique to non–French-speaking physicians (eg, using appropriate interpreter services), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg, using a flexible dialect), and some strategies were common to all physicians serving French populations (eg, hiring bilingual staff or having pamphlets and posters in both French and English). Conclusion Physicians interviewed for this study provided high-quality health care by attributing substantial importance to effective communication. While linguistic patient-to-physician concordance is ideal, it might not always be possible. Thus, conscious efforts to attenuate communication barriers are necessary, and several effective strategies exist. PMID:26505060

  18. Coping strategies of Nigerian Military Service Personnel: A Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The peculiar characteristics of a military career, such as the specific professional military aims or tasks, working environment, strict subordination typical to military structures and formal and informal relationships, influence the type of coping strategies employed by individuals. The authors present the first study ...

  19. [Rift Valley fever: sporadic infection of French military personnel outside currently recognized epidemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J P; Richecoeur, L; Peyrefitte, C; Boutin, J P; Davoust, B; Zeller, H; Bouloy, M; Tolou, H

    2002-01-01

    For three years the arbovirus surveillance unit of the Tropical Medicine Institute of the French Army Medical Corps (French acronym IMTSSA) in Marseille, France has been investigating causes of benign non-malarial febrile syndromes in French military personnel serving outside mainland France. The methodology used in N'Djamena consisted of sending frozen specimens collected concomitant with viremia, to Marseille for culture. During the rainy season of 2001, specimens were collected from a total of 50 febrile soldiers. Cultures allowed isolation and identification of two strains of Rift Valley virus. The risk of contamination exists not only in the field but also in mainland hospital departments treating infected patients. Routine serological diagnosis for Rift Valley fever must be DISCUSSED for all patients in the field or returning from Africa.

  20. Argumentative strategies in French company brochures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1997-01-01

    Afhandlingens overordnede formål er at gøre rede for, hvorledes forskellige persvasionsstrategier kommer sprogligt og retorisk til udtryk i franske præsentationsbrochurer. Den teoretiske ramme for analysen af disse strategier udgøres af argumentationsteorien, hvorunder tages udgangpunkt i to skol...

  1. The making of French nuclear energy policy. Through the relationship between civilian and military use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The French history of nuclear development clearly shows the inseparability of its civilian use from military use. In France, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and Electricite de France (EDF) have played an important role in research and development of nuclear technology since the postwar period. At first, the two organizations had kept great autonomy, but the government reinforced its control on them because France needed nuclear deterrence against the Soviet Union. France began using plutonium in 1952, and the Suez crisis in 1956 showed the need for nuclear force to ensure its independence. After this event, France managed the first nuclear test using plutonium in 1960. As for enriched uranium, they have long had great difficulty in securing it. The uranium enrichment technology became crucial also in civilian use in this period. EDF proposed the pressurized water reactor (PWR), which requires enriched uranium, as the future reactor type because of its economic advantage, but CEA wanted to continue developing the gas-cooled reactor (GCR) because of its independence in nuclear fuel supply. Finally, they chose PWR because a French enrichment facility was built in 1967. From such French history, we can say that the civilian and military use of nuclear technology are inseparable. (author)

  2. The philanthropic string: medical aspects of military strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, D P; Hozid, J L

    2001-04-01

    Since antiquity, medical care has played an important role in both military strategy and conflict resolution. Although this is usually a negative and an unintended event, medical care can be a positive and a rational alternative to present-day weapons of mass destruction. Yet, military and civilian planners have not traditionally accepted, recognized, and used a "philanthropic string." Nevertheless, medical care can be an important factor in resolving international conflict, either in support of military operations or as a separate function. Therefore, it is timely, and pragmatic, to include humanitarian medical care in strategic military planning.

  3. Sodium fires: French strategy - theoretical and experimental developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descombes; Thomann; Malet, J.C.; Rzekiecki, R.

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the needs relating to LMFBR safety analysis and design in terms of prevention, detection and protection, the French strategy concerning sodium fires it presented. It includes theoretical developments supported with relevant experimental program, to allow reliable calculations and predictions for safety and design. The following physical phenomena are detailed: (1) sodium fire (mechanical and thermal effects); (2) sodium-structures interactions; (3) aerosols behavior

  4. Civil-Military Relations and Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimminau, Jon

    2001-01-01

    ... between civilian and military strategy. There are a number of propositions about such differences that lie at the heart of theories of state and group behavior at international and domestic levels...

  5. Biomass markets. Growth strategy and challenges for French actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors

  6. Electronic cigarette: use and perceptions among French military nurses in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Sébastien; Sicard, Sébastien; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Mayet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Paramedical personnel are exposed to tobacco smoking. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be considered as a lower-risk substitute for cigarettes. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use, the motives for use and the perceptions among French military nurses. A cross-sectional survey, using self-administered questionnaires, was conducted in 2013 among 300 students and instructors of the French school of military paramedical personnel. Prevalences of e-cigarette use among smokers and nonsmokers were compared using logistic regressions adjusted on age and gender. The prevalence of smoking was 40% among the 200 responders. E-cigarette current use prevalence was 25% (6% daily users), without significant difference according to gender and age. Tobacco smokers reported significantly more e-cigarette current use (51% vs7%). Motives for e-cigarette use reported by smokers were curiosity (48%), intention to reduce tobacco consumption (43%) or to quit smoking (8%). Among users of both tobacco and e-cigarettes, 48% reported a significant decrease in tobacco consumption following e-cigarette initiation (average decrease of 5-10 cigarettes smoked per day; p <0.001). Both tobacco smokers and nonsmokers (88%) estimated that e-cigarette use was potentially harmful for health, but it was perceived as less harmful than tobacco by 46%. E-cigarette use among military nurses follows the trends observed in the general population in terms of prevalence and motives. E-cigarettes, which are seen as an attractive alternative to cigarettes, may contribute to a reduction in tobacco use among healthcare workers.

  7. Wartime rugby and football: sports elites, French military teams and international meets during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris

    2011-01-01

    The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.

  8. International expansion, market maintenance strategy used by French Winemaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical concepts that define the maintenance strategies for the international market, this paper presents the results of a quantitative research survey conducted among Romanian consumers of wine. What is aimed at is to know their attitudes and opinions referring to wine imports in order to identify a strategy for the entrance on the Romanian market of the French wine producer Louis Latour, which is imposed by the need to maintain sales in the context of demand shrinking on the home market. The conclusion of the quantitative research conducted on a sample of 402 people from all country regions reveals the opportunity of entering the Romanian market by using indirect export as a way of entering the market.

  9. Reading Strategies in French Immersion Science Classes: Preparing Our Students for Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Leonard P.; Cormier, Marianne; Turnbull, Miles

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes strategies and practices that create rich discursive spaces for learning science in French immersion contexts. These strategies and practices are drawn from a variety of scholarly sources; here we adapt them to reading in the French immersion science classroom. The strategies and practices are designed for use in a…

  10. Should Cost: A Strategy for Managing Military Systems Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 38 Should Cost A Strategy for Managing Military Systems’ Money Jennifer A. Miller Miller is a Cost Analyst of the...and analysis O&S: operation and support or operation and sustainment, dependent on the context of phase of acquisition life cycle or money used

  11. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  12. French consensus. Management of patients with hypersomnia: Which strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Arnulf, I; Drouot, X; Lecendreux, M; Dauvilliers, Y

    Central hypersomnias principally involves type 1 narcolepsy (NT1), type 2 narcolepsy (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). Despite great progress made in understanding the physiopathology of NT1 with low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels, current treatment remains symptomatic. The same applies to NT2 and IH, for which the physiopathology is still largely unknown. Controlling excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and disturbed night-time sleep are key therapeutic targets in NT1. For IH and NT2, reducing EDS is the main objective. Based on European and American directives for the treatment of narcolepsy, we propose French recommendations for managing central hypersomnias as well as strategies in the case of drug-resistance. Stimulating treatments target EDS, and Modafinil is the first-line treatment. Other stimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant, and exceptionally dextro-amphetamine can be prescribed. Selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor antidepressants are effective for the management of cataplexy in NT1. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment for several symptoms, including EDS, cataplexy and disturbed night-time sleep. Treatment of central hypersomnia must also take into consideration frequent cardiovascular, metabolic and psychiatric comorbidities, particularly in NT1. New therapies are currently under study with the development of new stimulants and anti-cataplectics. The next few years will see innovative emerging therapies, based on a physiopathological approach, aiming to restore hypocretinergic transmission or to interrupt the autoimmune processes causing the loss of hypocretin neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical management of radio-contaminated wounded by the French military health service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnet, X.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de [Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees, 92 - Clamart (France); Pennacino, A. [Direction Centrale du Service de Sante des Armees, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    The French armed forces health service has set up in France specialized installation only designed and used to take care of radio contaminated patients. These installations can be used for the military and for the civilians, e.g. in case of an accident in a civilian nuclear installation or in case of terrorist attack with a few injured. The main principles of the medical management of a radio contaminated wounded are: - Trauma care is the first priority, - External decontamination has to be treated as fast and reasonably as possible, - Medical treatment for internal contamination is more efficiency that is given earlier (stable iodine, DTPA). Three type of installations have been developed to take charge of contaminated patient or with a suspicion of contamination: - The hasty decontamination post, to take into account the involved victims physically fit, - The advance post for radio-contaminated wounded (P.A.B.R.C.), for the relative emergency whom evacuation can be delayed after medical examination, - The center for the treatment of radio-contaminated wounded(C.T.B.R.C.), in an hospital area, for the absolute emergencies (needing some resuscitation and emergency surgery for saving life, like stopping an hemorrhage). Each military hospital in France has is own C.T.B.R.C. These structures are dedicated to the decontamination, that means that all type of decontamination would be conducted here: skin decontamination, internal decontamination by specific de-contaminant if needed, and decontamination of a contaminated wound by surgical means. This type of surgery might be associated with a precise detection. At his arrival, in a first time, the victim is examined by an emergency physician who is in charge of the structure. Secondly, he makes a triage concerning the medical emergency to identify the type of emergency, life threatening emergency or not. - If the patient is a critical case then the medical treatment takes precedence over contamination - If the patient is

  14. Medical management of radio-contaminated wounded by the French military health service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, X.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Pennacino, A.

    2006-01-01

    The French armed forces health service has set up in France specialized installation only designed and used to take care of radio contaminated patients. These installations can be used for the military and for the civilians, e.g. in case of an accident in a civilian nuclear installation or in case of terrorist attack with a few injured. The main principles of the medical management of a radio contaminated wounded are: - Trauma care is the first priority, - External decontamination has to be treated as fast and reasonably as possible, - Medical treatment for internal contamination is more efficiency that is given earlier (stable iodine, DTPA). Three type of installations have been developed to take charge of contaminated patient or with a suspicion of contamination: - The hasty decontamination post, to take into account the involved victims physically fit, - The advance post for radio-contaminated wounded (P.A.B.R.C.), for the relative emergency whom evacuation can be delayed after medical examination, - The center for the treatment of radio-contaminated wounded(C.T.B.R.C.), in an hospital area, for the absolute emergencies (needing some resuscitation and emergency surgery for saving life, like stopping an hemorrhage). Each military hospital in France has is own C.T.B.R.C. These structures are dedicated to the decontamination, that means that all type of decontamination would be conducted here: skin decontamination, internal decontamination by specific de-contaminant if needed, and decontamination of a contaminated wound by surgical means. This type of surgery might be associated with a precise detection. At his arrival, in a first time, the victim is examined by an emergency physician who is in charge of the structure. Secondly, he makes a triage concerning the medical emergency to identify the type of emergency, life threatening emergency or not. - If the patient is a critical case then the medical treatment takes precedence over contamination - If the patient is

  15. Challenges in war-related thoracic injury faced by French military surgeons in Afghanistan (2009-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lesquen, Henri; Beranger, Fabien; Berbis, Julie; Boddaert, Guillaume; Poichotte, Antoine; Pons, Francois; Avaro, Jean-Philippe

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the challenges faced by French military surgeons in the management of thoracic injury during the latest Afghanistan war. From January 2009 to April 2013, all of the civilian, French and Coalition casualties admitted to French NATO Combat Support Hospital situated on Kabul were prospectively recorded in the French Military Health Service Registry (OPEX(®)). Only penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma patients were retrospectively included. Eighty-nine casualties were included who were mainly civilian (61%) and men (94%) with a mean age of 27.9 years old. Surgeons dealt with polytraumas (78%), severe injuries (mean Injury Severity Score=39.2) and penetrating wounds (96%) due to explosion in 37%, gunshot in 53% and stabbing in 9%. Most of casualties were first observed or drained (n=56). In this non-operative group more than 40% of casualties needed further actions. In the operative group, Damage Control Thoracotomy (n=22) was performed to stop ongoing bleeding and air leakage and Emergency Department Thoracotomy (n=11) for agonal patient. Casualties suffered from hemothorax (60%), pneumothorax (39%), diaphragmatic (37%), lung (35%), heart or great vessels (20%) injuries. The main actions were diaphragmatic sutures (n=25), lung resections (wedge n=6, lobectomy n=4) and haemostasis (intercostal artery ligation n=3, heart injury repairs n=5, great vessels injury repairs n=5). Overall mortality was 11%. The rate of subsequent surgery was 34%. The analysis of the OPEX(®) registry reflects the thoracic surgical challenges of general (visceral) surgeons serving in combat environment during the latest Afghanistan War. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [French military nurses during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julien; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tabbagh, Xavier; Olier, François

    2014-06-01

    In 1914, beingthe heirs of the ambulance soldiers who had been created during the time of the Empire, the military males-nurses were overwhelmed by the armies huge needs in paramedics. Facing both the callings of commandment which demanded the recruitment of soldiers and the necessity--which had been set up as a duty by the health service--to attend the doctors, the military male-nurse gave way, in 1918 to a new comer: the female military nurse.

  17. Research on U.S. Military Women: Recruitment and Retention Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lisa A; Kennedy, Holly P; Sadler, Lois S; Dixon, Jane

    2015-12-01

    To examine literature on recruitment and retention of military women in research studies as an underrepresented, and potentially marginalized, population. A literature search was conducted to examine challenges, identify potential barriers and facilitators, and to inform strategies for recruitment and retention of military women in research studies. This search was supplemented by findings in military-specific databases and discussions with Military Women's Health Research Interest Group subject matter experts. Ten articles addressed research recruitment and retention challenges and strategies in marginalized/underrepresented populations, providing an effective context to inform research recruitment and retention in military settings. Research with military women is often challenged by logistical, cultural, social, ethical, and methodological issues, which may hinder exploration of potentially sensitive issues. Researchers must consider military-specific challenges to conducting research that include lengthy deployments, unpredictable military exercises, and foreign assignments, in accessing research participants. A case example shows strategies used in a military cervical cancer screening study. There are few published articles specific to research recruitment and retention in female military populations. Available resources broadly address recruitment challenges for Veterans, marginalized, hard-to-access, and transient research participants, which may provide guidance and strategies for success when applied to military populations. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. [Self-esteem, strategies of coping and feeling of anger in french patients with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare self-esteem, coping strategies and feeling of anger in French populations with anorexia nervosa. Thirty two adolescents with anorexia nervosa were investigated during their hospitalisation in the Psychiatric Department of the Hospital Sainte-Croix of Metz and of the Hospital of Children of Nancy-Brabois. The control group consisted of 57 French students of the University of Verlaine Paul in Metz. An anonymous questionnaire form concerning family life, the state of health and course of illness, the Self Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith (1984), the Brief COPE by Carver (1997) and the Self Expression Control Scale by Van Elderen et al. (1997) were applied to 89 women. The results showed that there are statistically significant differences between self-esteem, coping strategies and feeling of anger in French anorexics and the French group control. French anorectic adolescents show low social, familial and general self-esteem. They can be described as making less use of acceptance, humour and focus on and venting of emotions as the coping strategies, as usually not reinterpreting the situation positively in order to deal with emotional distress (do not use the coping strategy of positive reinterpretation) and as reducing their efforts to cope with the situation (behavioural disengagement). French anorexics conceptualise their anger against themselves (the interiorisation of anger).

  19. Exploring Anthropology’s Value to Military Strategy Since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    anthropological study of military culture, MA2 : anthropological study for the military, in endeavors such as the Human Terrain System concept, where teams of...Anthropology The AAA has judged MA2 as the least ethical category of military anthropology by means of its code of ethics, CEAUSSIC reports, and...open debates on its blog. The lighting rod system most associated with MA2 is the Human Terrain Team, (HTT) employed under the Human Terrain System

  20. French fuel cycle strategy and partitioning and transmutation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel sources. How we deal with radioactive waste is crucial in this context. The production of nuclear energy in France has been associated, since its inception, with the optimisation of radioactive waste management, including the partitioning and the recycling of recoverable energetic materials. The public's concern regarding long-term waste management led the French government to prepare and pass the Law of December 1991, requesting in particular the study for fifteen years of solutions to minimising even further the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste, via partitioning and transmutation. At the end of these fifteen years of research, it is considered that partitioning techniques which have been validated on real solutions are at disposal. Indeed, aqueous process for separation of minor actinides from the PUREX raffinate has been brought to a point where there is reasonable assurance that industrial deployment can be successful. A key experiment has been the kilogram-scale successful trials in the CEA-Marcoule Atalante facility in 2005 and this result, together with the results obtained in the frame of the successive European projects, constitutes a considerable step forward. For transmutation, CEA has conducted programmes proving the feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for critical reactors and ADS developments. Scenario studies have also allowed assessing the feasibility, at the level of cycle and fuel facilities, and the efficiency of transmutation in terms of the quantitative reduction of the final waste inventory depending of

  1. Civil-Military Relations in the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    occupation from 1941 to 1945. His life was marked by tragedy as his father and wife, both ardent Communists, died in French prisons in Indochina...the latter half of 1949, the Soviets detonated their first atomic weapon and Mao Zedong’s Communist forces triumphed in the Chinese Civil War, leading...Gaulle’s Greatest General. Havertown, PA: Casemate Publishers, 2011. Morgan, Ted. Valley of Death: The Tragedy at Dien Bien Phu that Led America into

  2. the french nuclear bet: political history of the main decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.

    2003-01-01

    The double french nuclear bet was an ultimate political choice of an old nation which did not wanted to renounce its glamour. but the world had changed. Is it always possible to conceive a national energy policy, knowing that the french military nuclear strategy is opposed to the rules of the next International Penal Court? (A.L.B.)

  3. 21ST Century United States Military Strategy for East Asia: Countering an Emerging China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeBlanc, Lee

    2004-01-01

    .... The United States National Security Strategy (NSS) suggests that the U.S. has relied on a U.S. forward military presence in the East Asian region for over 50 years enabling it to achieve its NSS objectives...

  4. Private Military and Security Companies - Counterinsurgency and Nation Building Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    cans, and bought war bonds is long gone. One advantage that the private sector brings to public wars is capacity. Companies like Kellogg and Brown...1 Anne-Marie Buzatu, and Benjamin S . Buckland, “Private Military & Security Companies : Future Challenges in...From  -­‐  To)   September 2012 - April 2013 4.  TITLE  AND  SUBTITLE   Private Military and Security Companies - Counterinsurgency and

  5. The French photovoltaic sector: assessment, perspectives and strategy. September 2015 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidat, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at proposing a strategy to support the development of the photovoltaic sector in France between 2016 and 2020. It is based on a quantitative survey of 1.200 French actors, and on interviews with more than 50 key actors. This study was also an opportunity to model costs, profitability, and jobs all along the value chain of the photovoltaic sector. It also proposes a return on experience from other countries. It analyses and discusses the current evolution of the photovoltaic market and sector in the world and in France. As far as the French market is concerned, it shows that a development without subsidy will be possible from 2020 and on. It reports a contrasted assessment of the French photovoltaic public policy, highlights that this sector is still seeking its position. It describes how the four years to come (2016-2020) are an opportunity to implement a strong-willed public policy for a competitive photovoltaic sector and a stronger French sector. It notably outlines that ZNI (non interconnected areas) are an opportunity for tools of integration to the grid

  6. Active offer of health services in French in Ontario: Analysis of reorganization and management strategies of health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanova, Elina; Bonneville, Luc; Bouchard, Louise

    2018-01-01

    The availability of health services in French is not only weak but also inexistent in some regions in Canada. As a result, estimated 78% of more than a million of Francophones living in a minority situation in Canada experience difficulties accessing health care in French. To promote the delivery of health services in French, publicly funded organizations are encouraged to take measures to ensure that French-language services are clearly visible, available, easily accessible, and equivalent to the quality of services offered in English. This study examines the reorganization and management strategies taken by health care organizations in Ontario that provide health services in French. Review and analysis of designation plans of a sample of health care organizations. Few health care organizations providing services in French have concrete strategies to guarantee availability, visibility, and accessibility of French-language services. Implementation of the active offer of French-language services is likely to be difficult and slow. The Ontario government must strengthen collaboration with health care organizations, Francophone communities, and other key actors participating in the designation process to help health care organizations build capacities for the effective offer of French-language services. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  8. BUILDING HIGH PERFORMANCE STRATEGY OF MILITARY EXPENDITURES: THE UTILITY FUNCTION IN THE MIDDLE OF DEFENCE BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITANA SEDYSHEVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes tasks and methods which can be used in process of discovering the most expedient variants of the perspective and effective strategy development process of the defence spending in the Republic of Estonia.The author offers a part of strategy model named “Financial Perspective” as one of the improvement tools for the system of planning military expenditures and effective utilization of budgetary funds. The Balanced Scorecard application by using the “utility function” will allow the Estonian Defence Forces to overcome important barriers to strategy implementation by interrelation of military planning and budgeting processes. The Balanced Scorecard might be used as a very strong practical application. It will improve the calculations of long-term perspective plans and the development of the military budgetary policy by taking into account the features of national defence expenses.

  9. Final cleanup of buildings within in legacy French research facilities: strategy, tools and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goaller, C.; Doutreluingne, C.; Berton, M.A.; Doucet, O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology followed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to decommission the buildings of former research facilities for demolition or possible reuse. It is a well known fact that the French nuclear safety authority has decided not to define any general release level for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, thus effectively prohibiting radiological measurement-driven decommissioning. The decommissioning procedure therefore requires an intensive in-depth examination of each nuclear plant. This requires a good knowledge of the past history of the plant, and should be initiated as early as possible. The paper first describes the regulatory framework recently unveiled by the French Safety Authority, then, reviews its application to ongoing decommissioning projects. The cornerstone of the strategy is the definition of waste zoning in the buildings to segregate areas producing conventional waste from those generating nuclear waste. After dismantling, suitable measurements are carried out to confirm the conventional state of the remaining walls. This requires low-level measurement methods providing a suitable detection limit within an acceptable measuring time. Although this generally involves particle counting and in-situ low level gamma spectrometry, the paper focuses on y spectrometry. Finally, the lessons learned from ongoing projects are discussed. (authors)

  10. A global epidemiological survey and strategy of treatment of military ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-nian ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular

  11. Norovirus GII.17 Outbreak Linked to an Infected Post-Symptomatic Food Worker in a French Military Unit Located in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marc-Antoine; Corcostégui, Simon-Pierre; De Broucker, Charles-Arnaud; Cabre, Olivier; Watier-Grillot, Stéphanie; Perelle, Sylvie; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pommier de Santi, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    In February 2016, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a French military unit located in Poitiers, France. Attack rate was of 34% (103/300). A case-control study identified association between illness and cake consumption. Stool samples were tested positive for Norovirus GII.17 for one patient and one post-symptomatic food worker (FW). The FW presented vomiting one day before cake preparation. The NoV strain was probably spread through food worker hand contact. Prevention of Norovirus foodborne outbreaks implies new guidelines for FWs management in France and Europe.

  12. Strategy for maintaining cleanliness in the secondary part of Steam Generators of French PWRs fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2006, EDF noticed primary / secondary leakages on Steam Generators (SG) of a French nuclear plant. Further studies have shown that fouling by iron oxides and clogging of the quatrefoils broached holes of the Tubes Support Plates (TSP) are aggravating factors of the risk of cracking by vibration-induced fatigue of the SG's tubes. EDF then initiated a program of chemical cleaning of steam generators to restore and maintain an acceptable state of cleanliness of the secondary part of SG. This paper presents EDF's strategy to achieve this goal. It is organized as follows : first, fouling and clogging phenomenon and associated estimation means are explained. Then the strategy of chemical cleaning and its evolution are presented. The implemented processes as well as process monitoring and plants requalification are also described. Finally, the operations performed, the continuous improvement process conducted in connection with the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and the control of environmental impact are reviewed. This paper was written with the support of AREVA and Westinghouse, the two operators of chemical cleaning in France. (author)

  13. French college students' sports practice and its relations with stress, coping strategies and academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décamps, Greg; Boujut, Emilie; Brisset, Camille

    2012-01-01

    College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students' sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies, and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.

  14. French college students’ sports practice and its relations with stress, coping strategies and academic success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg eDécamps

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students’ sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular or intensive would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.

  15. English Learning Strategies of Various Nations: A Study in Military Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    How successful learners learn English has been one of the primary interest of scientists and researchers in recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to determine what language learning strategies the military personnel from different nations used while learning English. 56 subjects from 14 different nations deployed in three different military…

  16. Assessment of the strategy countermeasures by the French farming working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Reales, N.; Gallay, F.

    2004-01-01

    In France, for several years, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been working on technical solutions for the rehabilitation of rural, urban and industrial areas, contaminated by radioactivity. Then, the complexity of the radioactivity integration' s mechanisms into the environment and into the food chain, but also the important number of concerned actors and the inevitable incompatibilities between their respective expectations of the rehabilitation, make the post accidental management a challenging question for the responsible organisations at local, national and international levels. The involvement of persons in charge of agriculture in a collective reflection on the conditions and means of the post accidental situation's management seemed therefore necessary, in order to allow them to express the farmers point of view. On this basis, IRSN is deeply engaged in actions involving these other stakeholders, in particular in rural environment, in order to collect their appraisal and to obtain data and operational tools for the global evaluation of the countermeasures. The FARMING project, initiated in 2000 by the European Commission, constituted an interesting initiative in this direction. The French group has been constituted around the National Institute for Agronomy of Paris Grignon, which ensures its coordination. Within this framework, this group has notably been involved in the evaluation of a rural countermeasures compendium, at the request of STRATEGY, another European network on the post-accidental situation. With the support of a French farmers national association (FNSEA), the French FARMING group built up a working group composed of technical specialists of agriculture and radiation protection. All these actions facilitated the expression of the specific request for information, coming from the agricultural stakeholders, to the actors of radiation protection, and the design of new projects involving radiation

  17. Model of coping strategies, resilience, psychological well-being, and perceived health among military personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Jung Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Military personnel are confronted with physiological and psychological changes caused by stress and exposure to trauma. Although resilience may be protective against psychopathology, very few studies have explored the relationships between the resilience and coping strategies. The study aims to assess how different coping strategies affect resilience, psychological well-being (PWB, and perceived health among military personnel.Subjects and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC soldiers and nurses in the military medical center were recruited in Taiwan in November 2015. The survey comprised the Brief COPE Scale, Ryff's PWB Scale, and the Resilience Scale for Adults, which examined the relationships among coping strategies, PWB, resilience, and perceived health. Path analysis was applied.Results: We recruited 200 participants (145 male and 177 single aged 24.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 18–46 years. Resilience (coefficient = 0.60, P < 0.001 and PWB (coefficient = 0.33, P < 0.001 were better when using more approach-oriented coping strategies and fewer avoidant coping strategies, whereas the opposite pattern was seen when using avoidant coping (coefficient = −0.31, P < 0.001 for resilience and coefficient = −.20, P < 0.1 for PWB. PWB significantly predicted perceived health (coefficient = 0.45, P < 0.001.Conclusions: Resilience is higher when positive approach-oriented coping strategies are used, which directly affects PWB, and in turn, predicts better-perceived health. Our conceptual model indicates that interventions designed to promote approach-oriented coping strategies may help military personnel develop improved resilience, PWB, and perceived health status.

  18. Germany and the renewal of French nuclear strategy; L'Allemagne et le renouvellement de la strategie nucleaire francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janning, J. [Bertelsmann Stiftung (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Jacques Chirac speech on ''Ile Longue'' provoked a vigorous reaction in Germany, and has been perceived as a dangerous provocation in the context of the ongoing and difficult negotiations with Iran. However, Germany should accept its responsibilities in the field of nuclear armament, for the sake of the interdependence of the countries of Europe. Deterrence still has a fundamental role in international relations, and gives one country the power to influence another by preventing the use of force. In view of the setback of the French President intervention and German unease in security and defence matters, the European dimension must be given a special role in establishing and reinforcing a common strategy, indispensable in today world. (author)

  19. Engaging military parents in a home-based reintegration program: a consideration of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Abigail M; DeVoe, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    For more than a decade, the long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed tremendous and cumulative strain on U.S. military personnel and their families. The high operational tempo, length, and number of deployments-and greater in-theater exposure to threat-have resulted in well-documented psychological health concerns among service members and veterans. In addition, there is increasing and compelling evidence describing the significant deleterious impact of the deployment cycle on family members, including children, in military-connected families. However, rates of engagement and service utilization in prevention and intervention services continue to lag far below apparent need among service members and their families, because of both practical and psychological barriers. The authors describe the dynamic and ultimately successful process of engaging military families with young children in a home-based reintegration program designed to support parenting and strengthen parent-child relationships as service member parents move back into family life. In addition to the integration of existing evidence-based engagement strategies, the authors applied a strengths-based approach to working with military families and worked from a community-based participatory foundation to enhance family engagement and program completion. Implications for engagement of military personnel and their loved ones are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection prevention strategies at a military training center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephanie M; Blaesing, Carl R; Millar, Eugene V; Chukwuma, Uzo; Schlett, Carey D; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Tribble, David R; Ellis, Michael W

    2013-08-01

    Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A multicomponent hygiene-based SSTI prevention strategy was implemented at a military training center. After implementation, we observed 30% and 64% reductions in overall and MRSA-associated SSTI rates, respectively.

  1. Nuclear test - The French nuclear strike force in the 21. century: challenges, ambitions and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author, after having recalled the history of the French nuclear force since the first nuclear test in 1960, and outlined the fact that France has been living under the protection of its own nuclear deterrence force since that date, presents the components of this nuclear strike force with its four nuclear submarines equipped to launch new generation missiles, its fifty fighter bomber aircraft equipped with the ASMP-A missile. He presents and discusses the mission of this nuclear force, discusses the relevancy of the deterrence strategy in the present context, and the significance of such a strategy for a European country like France. He wanders whether this strike force is still affordable for our country, which can be its benefits, whether this arsenal remains useful as it has been designed in the Cold War context. He also discusses the disarmament perspectives in an unsteady international environment where power and arms race logics prevail again

  2. Military Strategy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    period "Echo," "Courier,"’"Telstar," "Relay," "Syncom" and "Ear- ly Bird " type satellites were put into orbit (the last two types in syn- chronous...of the bourgeois system, by striving to hold the masses in spiritual captivity , adopt new "theories" which mask the exploitive nature of capitalism...stored outside of hermetically-sealed storehouses. From this point of view the development of high- nutrition concentrates and preserves Is of special

  3. Evolution of ITER tritium confinement strategy and adaptation to Cadrache site conditions and French regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER Nuclear Buildings include the Tokamak, Tritium and Diagnostic Buildings (Tokamak Complex) and the Hot Cell and Low Level Radioactive Waste Buildings. The Tritium Confinement Strategy of the Nuclear Buildings comprises key features of the Atmosphere and Vent Detritiation Systems (ADS/VDS) and the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems. The designs developed during the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) for these systems need to be adapted to the specific conditions of the Cadarache site and modified to conform with the regulatory requirements applicable to Installations Nucleaires de Base (INB) - Basic Nuclear Installations - in France. The highest priority for such adaptation has been identified as the Tritium Confinement of the Tokamak Complex and the progress in development of a robust, coherent design concept compliant with French practice is described in the paper. The Tokamak Complex HVAC concept for generic conditions was developed for operational cost minimisation under more extreme climatic conditions (primarily temperature) than those valid for Cadarache, and incorporated recirculation of a large fraction of the air flow through the HVAC systems to achieve this objective. Due to the impracticality of precluding the spread of contamination from areas of higher activity to less contaminated areas, this concept has been abandoned in favour of a once-through configuration, which requires a complete redesign, with revised air change rates, module sizes, layout, redundancy provisions and other features. The ADS/VDS concept developed for the generic design of the ITER Tokamak Complex is undergoing a radical revision in which the system architecture, module sizing and basic process are being optimised for the Cadarache conditions. Investigation is being launched into the implementation of a wet stripper concept to replace the molecular sieve (MS) beds incorporated in the generic design, where concerns have been raised over low

  4. [The chief surgeon Claude Louis Sommé (1772-1855) French military physician, surgeon of Antwerp hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, Jean-pierre

    2015-01-01

    Claude Louis Sommé was born in Paris in 1772. After surgical studies between 1790 and 1792, he successfully embraced a military career in the armies of Napoleon at different fronts and in several hospitals. In 1806 he submitted his doctoral thesis at the Special Medical School of Strasburg, Dissertation upon Pain. The same year he presented his dismissal from he imperial armies and became chief-surgeon at the St Elisabeth hospital of Antwerp where he stayed on duty until his death in 1855. Sommé wrote a lot of medical books: surgical, anatomical and physiological. After the battle of Waterloo one third of the injured soldiers were transferred to Antwerp and were attended in his department. He also played an important role as a professor at the Primary Medical School of Antwerp. Sommé also created the botanical garden of Antwerp, close to the hospital.

  5. Steam generator tube support plate degradation in French plants: maintenance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchet, J.-P.; Gillet, N.; Stindel, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the degradations of Steam Generator (SG) Tube Support Plates (TSPs) observed in French plants and the maintenance strategy adopted to continue operating the plant without any decrease of the required safety level. Only drilled carbon steel TSPs of early SGs are affected. Except the particular damage of the TSP8 of FESSENHEIM 2 caused by chemical cleaning procedures implemented in 1992, two main problems were observed almost exclusively on the upper TSP: Ligaments ruptured near the aseismic block located at 215 degrees. This degradation is perfectly detectable by bobbin coil inspection. It occurs very early in the life of the SG as can be seen from the records of previous inspections and no evolution of the signals was observed. This damage can be detected for 51M model SGs on several sites; Wastage of the ligaments resulting in enlargement of flow holes with in some cases complete consumption of a ligament. This damage was only observed for SGs of at GRAVELINES. This damage evolved cycle after cycle. Detailed studies were performed to analyze tubing behavior when a tube is not supported by the upper TSP because of missing ligaments. These studies evaluated the risk of vibratory instability, the behavior of both the TSP and the tubing in case of a seismic event or a LOCA and finally the behavior of the TSP in case of a Steam Line Break. Concerning vibratory instability it was possible to define zones where stability could not be demonstrated. Dampine, cables and sentinel plugs were then used when necessary to eliminate the risk of Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR). For accidental conditions, it could be shown that no unacceptable damage occurs and that the core cooling function of the SG is always maintained if some tubes are plugged. From this analysis, It was possible to define the inspection programs for the different plants taking into account the specific situation of each plant regarding the damages detected. These programs include

  6. The Voice of the Turtle is Heard Programs to Develop Military Writers in the Field of Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    BENEFIT TO THE USER AS MAY ACCRUE. 8 April 1966 "THE VOICE OF THE TURTLE IS HEARD" PROGRAMS TO DEVELOP MILITARY WRITERS IN THE FIELD OF STRATEGY By...U USAWC RESEARCH ELEMENT (Research Paper) L’The Voice of the Turtle is Heard" Programs to Develop Military Writers in the Field of Strategy by Lt Col...extensively their own "original sources" of information. Such information as published is often nebulous , however, and as often fanciful as it is true

  7. Relation between Students' Involvement and Teacher Management Strategies in French "Difficult" Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, Olivier; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2010, French secondary schools with a high proportion of students in academic difficulty benefit from a compensatory education policy called "Ecoles Colleges et Lycees pour l'Ambition, l'Innovation et la Reussite" (ECLAIR). These students tend to behave poorly and frequently disengage from learning tasks, and thus one…

  8. The Bush/Cheney Energy Strategy: Implications for U.S. Foreign and Military Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klare, Michael T. [Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). Peace and World Security Studies

    2003-07-01

    The 'National Energy Policy' (NEP) released by the Bush Administration on May 17, 2001 was supposedly intended to meet growing U.S. energy requirements in the first two decades of the 21st Century while also diminishing U.S. dependence on imported oil. This was to be accomplished, the White House suggested, by increasing production at existing oil fields in the United States and by commencing drilling on the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. So great was the furor over drilling on ANWR that most people never bothered to examine the NEP closely. This is unfortunate, as a close reading of the NEP report reveals a very different picture than that suggested by White House pronouncements: far from promoting energy 'independence', the NEP assumes that the United States will become MORE, not less dependent on imported petroleum in the years ahead and therefore calls on the Federal Government to take whatever steps are necessary to promote enhanced U.S. access to foreign oil. In particular, the NEP calls on the U.S. Government to seek additional petroleum from the Persian Gulf area, Russia, the Caspian Sea basin, Mexico, Venezuela, Angola, and Nigeria. As is implied by the report, the United States must acquire more oil from these countries in order to permit increased oil consumption in the United States at a time of declining domestic production. Even leaving aside the question of whether these countries will be able to boost their production sufficiently to satisfy steadily rising demand in the United States, this strategy poses enormous challenges for the United States because most of these areas are highly unstable and house anti-American governments and forces. It is likely, then, that U.S. efforts to acquire more oil from these countries will entail the increased presence of U.S. military forces in the area and periodic U.S. military intervention. Indeed, the requirement for increased military action in support of U.S. foreign

  9. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  10. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies—BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Background Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients’ demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. Methods This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory—MBI—questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Results Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). Conclusion This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage

  11. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balayssac

    Full Text Available Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in French community pharmacies.This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire, anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress.Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off.This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  12. Are syllabification and resyllabification strategies phonotactically directed in French children with dyslexia? A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïonchi-Pino, Norbert; de Cara, Bruno; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the authors queried whether French-speaking children with dyslexia were sensitive to consonant sonority and position within syllable boundaries to influence a phonological syllable-based segmentation in silent reading. Participants included 15 French-speaking children with dyslexia, compared with 30 chronological age-matched and reading level-matched controls. Children were tested with an audiovisual recognition task. A target pseudoword (TOLPUDE) was simultaneously presented visually and auditorily and then was compared with a printed test pseudoword that either was identical or differed after the coda deletion (TOPUDE) or the onset deletion (TOLUDE). The intervocalic consonant sequences had either a sonorant coda-sonorant onset (TOR.LADE), sonorant coda-obstruent onset (TOL.PUDE), obstruent coda-sonorant onset (DOT.LIRE), or obstruent coda-obstruent onset (BIC.TADE) sonority profile. All children processed identity better than they processed deletion, especially with the optimal sonorant coda-obstruent onset sonority profile. However, children preserved syllabification (coda deletion; TO.PUDE) rather than resyllabification (onset deletion; TO.LUDE) with intervocalic consonant sequence reductions, especially when sonorant codas were deleted but the optimal intersyllable contact was respected. It was surprising to find that although children with dyslexia generally exhibit phonological and acoustic-phonetic impairments (voicing), they showed sensitivity to the optimal sonority profile and a preference for preserved syllabification. The authors proposed a sonority-modulated explanation to account for phonological syllable-based processing. Educational implications are discussed.

  13. Problem-based Learning Strategies for Teaching Military Social Work Practice Behaviors: Review and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Whitworth; Joseph R. Herzog; Diane L. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines and evaluates a military social work course as it has been taught by three social work faculty members at two universities in the southeastern US. The authors highlight why these courses are needed within social work undergraduate and graduate programs. They report how CSWE-identified military practice behaviors are addressed within the course. They also describe how practice-based learning approaches appear to be ideally suited for teaching military social work curricul...

  14. Neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel wall - a comparison of French and German procedures and strategies in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, N.; Jendrich, U.

    2003-01-01

    While the neutrons within the core may take part in the chain reaction, those neutrons emitted from the core are basically lost for the energy production. This 'neutron leakage' represents a loss of fuel efficiency and causes neutron embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall. The latter raises safety concerns, needs to be monitored closely and may necessitate mitigating measures. There are different strategies to deal with these two undesirable effects: The neutron emission may be reduced to some extent all around the core or just at the 'hot spots' of RPV embrittlement by tailored core loading patterns. A higher absorption rate of neutrons may also be achieved by a larger water gap between the core and the RPV. In this paper the inter-relations between the distribution of neutron flux, core geometry, core loading strategy, RPV embrittlement and its surveillance are discussed at first. Then the different strategies followed by the German and French operators are described. Finally the conclusions will highlight the communalities and differences between these strategies as different approaches to the same problem of safety as well as economy. (authors)

  15. [Impact of sugammadex on neuromuscular blocking agents use: a multicentric, pharmaco-epidemiologic study in French university hospitals and military hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny, K; Piriou, V; Dussart, C; Hénaine, R; Aulagner, G; Armoiry, X

    2013-12-01

    Seven Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (NMBA) are commercialized in France. Four of them have an intermediate duration of action. Sugammadex required the use of NMBA slightly employed in clinical practice in France. Its introduction in routine practice could have an impact on NMBA use in clinical practice. This study was then conducted to assess and compare NMBA use before and after the commercialization of sugammadex. A longitudinal, retrospective, observational study was conducted between 2008 and 2011 in French university hospitals and military hospitals. The consumption data for sugammadex and NMBA were collected using a collection grid which was filled by pharmacists or anesthesiologists. Drug use was measured by the number of vials used divided by the annual number of hospitalizations in surgery and obstetrics (HSO). An overall analysis of the annual frequency of NMBA use was firstly performed, then individual data of each hospital were analyzed. Descriptive statistical analysis including mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum was achieved. Thirty-four out of 39 hospitals participated in the study (87%) and analysis was performed on 26 of them (7%). The data of eight institutions were excluded due to missing values or because of the non-admission of sugammadex in their formulary. The NMBA mostly used were non-steroidal NMBA (75% of market share) with an increased use between 2008 and 2011 concerning atracurium (from 41 to 51 vials of 50mg atracurium used per 100 HSO). The overall analysis revealed an increase of the occurrence of rocuronium (between 2008 and 2011: from 1 to 4.8 vials of 50mg rocuronium used per 100 HSO). Individual analyses on each hospital showed a possible effect of sugammadex introduction on NMBA use in nine hospitals. The commercialization of sugammadex seems to have induced a discrete increase of steroidal NMBA but non-steroidal NMBA remain the leading agent in France. A long-term follow-up is deserved. Copyright © 2013 Soci

  16. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  17. Mitigating the risk of musculoskeletal injury: A systematic review of the most effective injury prevention strategies for military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Sophie L; Greeves, Julie P

    2017-11-01

    To update the current injury prevention strategy evidence base for making recommendations to prevent physical training-related musculoskeletal injury. We conducted a systematic review to update the evidence base on injury prevention strategies for military personnel. Literature was systematically searched and extracted from five databases, and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Sixty one articles meeting the inclusion criteria and published during the period 2008-2015 were selected for systematic review. The retrieved articles were broadly categorised into six injury prevention strategies; (1) conditioning, (2) footwear modifications, (3) bracing, (4) physical activity volume, (5) physical fitness, and (6) leadership/supervision/awareness. The majority of retrieved articles (n=37 (of 61) evaluated or systematically reviewed a conditioning intervention of some nature. However, the most well-supported strategies were related to reducing physical activity volume and improving leadership/supervision/awareness of injuries and injury prevention efforts. Several injury prevention strategies effectively reduce musculoskeletal injury rates in both sexes, and many show promise for utility with military personnel. However, further evaluation, ideally with prospective randomised trials, is required to establish the most effective injury prevention strategies, and to understand any sex-specific differences in the response to these strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Foreign Policy, National Security Strategy, and Morality: The Enduring Relevance of the Just War Theory to Military Strategy and Intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathbun, Cheryl J

    1997-01-01

    .... The United States' political tradition, at least since 1945, has encompassed the imperative to not only maintain its power -- political, economic and military -- but also to project its values...

  19. Monitoring strategy for eight amphibian species in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR, estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius, a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19 can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes.

  20. Effectiveness of Pricing Strategies on French Fries and Fruit Purchases among University Students: Results from an On-Campus Restaurant Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; Annemans, Lieven; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a 10 and 20% meal price increase when choosing French fries and a 10 and 20% meal price reduction when choosing fruit for dessert on university students' purchasing behaviour in an on-campus restaurant. The moderating effect of gender was also investigated. Secondly, this study aimed at gaining further insight into reasons why these price manipulations did or did not change students' purchasing behaviour. This two-phased mixed-methods study was conducted in a Belgian on-campus university restaurant with approximately 1200 to 1300 student visitors per day. In a first phase (French fries experiment), data were collected during a control week (no price manipulation) and two separate intervention weeks (10 and 20% meal price increase when students chose French fries). In a second phase (fruit experiment), following the same protocol but carried out a few weeks later, meal prices were reduced by 10 and 20% when students chose fruit for dessert. French fries and fruit sale counts relative to the total number of items sold were used as outcome measure. Short interviews were conducted in convenient subsamples of student customers to assess influences on food choice. Increasing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing French fries was associated with respective 10.9 and 21.8% absolute reductions in French fries purchases, while reducing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing fruit for dessert was associated with absolute increases in fruit purchases of respectively 25.1 and 42.4% (all pprice, food/taste preference, eating habits, health, availability and accessibility, and body satisfaction influenced students' food choices, with taste being the most frequently mentioned factor. Pricing may be a promising strategy to improve university students' eating behaviour. The likelihood of intervention success may increase when combining pricing strategies with offering healthy, tasty and meal matching starchy alternatives to French fries and

  1. A Brief Comparative Study on R and D Collaboration Strategy in US and French nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Tae; Park, Jong Eun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    So far KHNP's R and D strategy has been evaluated as 2.5th generation R and D management and R and D investments are focused to the key technologies such as Korea's own nuclear reactor design(like APR1400) development, engineering gap lists elimination(plants trouble shooting), construction/operation process enhancement, etc. But when we compare our R and D strategy with US and France utilities, we can find a lot of differences and the need of improvement to accelerate overseas export of nuclear power plants(technologies) and to be a world top class nuclear operator. One of prominent difference is R and D collaboration strategy. The definition of R and D collaboration has evolved over the years, but for this paper I use it to mean the process where multiple parts of an organization or stake holder work together toward a set of common goals. And by co-funding or cost sharing, collaborative R and D can reduces financial and technical risk and encourages knowledge exchange, supply chain development and in return, collaborative R and D can produce more advanced, complex, effective, efficient R and D products in relatively short time with relatively less budget. UK's technology strategy board estimated that Each we invest in collaborative R and D typically returns around in GVA(Gross Value Added)

  2. Study of the French wind sector: assessment, prospective, and strategy. Final report + Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Robert; Berrou, Yolene; Blot, Jean-Francois; Bodiguel, Aude; Callonnec, Gael; Cals, Guilain; Eyang Mbeng, Rudy; Fiol, Jack; Galiano, Mila; Gerard, Rolland; Gerson, Raphael; Guenard, Vincent; Guillot, Frederic; Guyet, Samy; Khebchache, Bouzid; Marchal, David; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Puygrenier, Samuel; Roger, Christophe; Furois, Timothee; Lejzerzon, Victoire; Mouhamad, Sakina; Orta, Louis; Glita, Marc; Meteyer, Herve; Plante, Ludovic; Duclos, Paul; Lettry, Marion; Mathieu, Mathilde; Langlois, Pierre-Albert; Lioret, Sonia; Monnier, Matthieu; Robin-Chevallier, Lucas; Bourdier, Pierre; Duffes, Thomas; Nocodie, Serge; Neveux, Guillaume; Paulou, Julien; Vermeulen, Valentin; Hajjar, Ali; Bouchet, Alexandre; Clicquot De Mentque, Juliette; Jan, Etienne; Pinel, Julie; Haeusler, Laurence; Moro-Goubely, Anne-Gaelle; Berthoin, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    This huge document comprises several reports, and first proposes an executive summary which gives a synthetic overview of the present status of wind energy in France and abroad, of an assessment of 15 years of a policy of support to wind energy, of perspectives of development on the medium term, of economic spin-off on the long term, and of the ADEME's role in a national strategy for wind energy. These issues are then addressed in a more detailed way with notably a presentation of complete wind energy costs in France, a synthesis of an international benchmark, a detailed analysis of the support policy (in terms of efficiency, usefulness, costs-benefits), a characterisation of market evolutions, a discussion of constraint evolutions and of development strategies. A synthetic version of this report is then provided. More detailed reports are proposed on the various issues: first, analysis of the chain value, status of the sector in France and international benchmark; secondly, an assessment of the support policy through an assessment, a prospective and strategy, and then a detailed discussion of macro-economic spin-off and of jobs in the sector on the long term in association with wind energy development. A third part proposes a presentation of ADEME's strategy and action plan in favour of wind energy. Finally, a set of appendices contains presentations of survey questionnaires and of survey result processing, presentations of results regarding actors and countries, and presentation of modelling methodologies

  3. Strategies for Allocation of the US Federal Budget: Military and Innovative Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhova Darya A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the conceptual framework and features of priority directions in redistribution of the US federal funds. This subject is very relevant because it discloses a system of financing and allocations of the most powerful state in the world in many aspects. The article describes the structure of government funding of the national military sector and directions of the modernization of the US military-industrial complex. It has been determined that in the global expansion of military actions the USA in no case remain aloof from the given events. Manufacturing the US military products plays a key role in the defense industry not only of the country itself but also the international community as a whole. For Ukraine, with the complications in its military-political situation, the cooperation with the United States and inclusion of the financial assistance to our country in its federal budget are very important. The mentioned directions for allocating the received funds in the amount of $ 300 mln by the Ukrainian government confirm the support by the American state of our military equipment and modernization of the national defense industry

  4. Strategy - The after-Fukushima of the French nuclear sector - Nuclear must be an explicit choice - Siemens, leader of a nuclear-free Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2012-01-01

    A first article comments the consequences of the Fukushima accident for the French nuclear sector: the risk of an extreme accident must be taken into account; this will result in works and investments; the cost of the French nuclear-based electricity will increase; the debate on the dismantling costs will be on again. Despite these problems, the French nuclear industry relies on its development perspectives abroad, notably in China. In an interview, the chairman of Areva discusses his first six months of action, evokes the implementation of the strategic action plan and the consequences of France's financial degradation, evokes the UraMin affair, the consequences of the Fukushima accident on Areva's offer, the costs of works required by the ASN, the perspectives for the EPR reactor, Areva's activities in the renewable energy sector. A last article comments the strategy of the German company Siemens who decided to phase out nuclear, and to focus notably of wind energy

  5. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  6. European strategies benchmark of biogas production and valorization industries and French methanation industry forward-looking statements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume; Thual, Julien; Theobald, Olivier; Bardinal, Marc; Johansson, Hannele; Piccinini, Sergio; Maggioni, Lorenzo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Da Costa Gomez, Claudius; Fricke, Klaus; Collins, David; Dumont, Mathieu; Onno, Jean-Marc; Guerin, Bertrand; Ollivier, Denis; Pessiot, Carine; Charlot, Marie-Laure; Molinie, Lea; Vizy, Pascale; Krembel, David; Lamy, Jean-Michel; Ingremeau, Claire; Lukehurst, Clare

    2015-06-01

    In France, the biogas sector is developing. Currently two incentive programs for this sector have been set up: the Energy Methane Nitrogen Autonomy (EMAA) Plan and the call for projects '1500 biogas plants'. The information gathering about measures applied in the historical countries and in countries whose development is supported nowadays, is necessary for decision making and the development of national support strategy. The first part of this report presents the European state of development of biogas plants (28 countries of the European Union and Switzerland) and lists the actions implemented by each country. It details the situation in five countries: Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. The second part presents 20 detailed measures selected among the 30 measures identified during the benchmark phase. The three scenarios for the French sector until 2030 are composed of a socio-economic context, a package of measures, and a quantified simulation by category and by type of biogas recovery. (authors)

  7. Clausewitz and the Theory of Military Strategy in Europe - Reflections Upon a Paradigm of Military Strategy Within the European Common Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    ... as a core element of the Common Security and Defense Policy of the EU, Based on the interpretation of Clausewitz's theory of war and strategy in Britain, France, and Germany, main commonalities...

  8. Women’s Work: Incorporating Females into the United States Military Strategy to Contain and Degrade Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Wars.” The Washington Post, May 19. Accessed March 5, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/ 05/19/the- armys-all- women ...shift in Boko Haram’s tactics is the incorporation and use of women in their organization to help perpetuate terrorist acts. What is the U.S.’ s current...their organization to help perpetuate terrorist acts. What is the U.S.’ s current military strategy to counter Boko Haram? What role do women have in

  9. Cognitive basis of military strategy: I.Kant and C.von Clausewitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Loboda

    2014-05-01

    C. von Clausewitz follows the I.Kant’s transcendental rationalism building his own system not being based on the practical experience, but on the pure theory, as a result of rationalistic speculations. This approach caused formation of the academic school of military science in Germany, which entailed fatal consequences during World wars in Europe in the XXth century.

  10. Physical Training Strategies for Military Women's Performance Optimization in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    The physiological differences, particularly of upper-body strength and power, between women and men, and the rigors of combat-centric occupational demands would seem to place women at a significant disadvantage, as the U.S. military opens up previously closed combat-arms military occupational specialties (MOSs) to women. This inherent disadvantage can be significantly mitigated by implementing effective and comprehensive physical training (PT) regimens for women targeting those fitness components most critical for those tasks considered most essential for solider warfighting duties (i.e., strength and power). Regrettably, the military historical and legacy overemphasis on aerobic fitness and on "field expediency" as the major criteria for implementing training have limited the extent to which the military has fully operationalized state-of-the-science PT policies. This continued legacy approach could be problematic regarding fully enhancing women's abilities to perform physically demanding combat-centric occupations and could place the successful integration of women into ground combat MOSs at significant risk. Seminal studies from the literature indicate that (a) a minimum of 6 months of periodized combined resistance/endurance training preparedness is recommended for untrained women considering entering combat-arms MOS training; (b) any comprehensive PT program should incorporate and emphasize progressive load carriage training; (c) a greater emphasis on upper body on strength/power development in military women is needed; (d) heavy resistance training in the range of 3-8 repetition maximum sets should be incorporated into training programs to target type II motor units and muscle fibers (those fibers that produce the most force and have the greatest capacity to hypertrophy); (e) low-volume, high-intensity interval training should be considered as a time-efficient training method to improve aerobic fitness while protecting against lower-body musculoskeletal

  11. The U.S. Quest for New Technological Foundations of Military Superiority: Dilemmas of the Third Offset Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Bartenev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades have witnessed a remarkable surge of interest in studying the influence of science and technology on world politics. However, not all channels of such influence have been examined with equal rigor. Whereas numerous researchers have explored meticulously the impact of technologies on warfare, the issues of using military-technological breakthroughs to achieve political goals have been addressed less frequently. This paper seeks to fill this gaping niche by decomposing the Third Offset Strategy (TOS, a recent initiative of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD aimed at ensuring military-technological superiority of the United States in the XXI century, predominantly, by offsetting the new capabilities of the Russian Federation and the Popular Republic of China. The first section unveils a conceptual framing of the TOS, the second section examines a variety of technological priorities, and the final section identifies key uncertainties around implementation of this initiative in the mid-term and long-term perspective. The conclusion postulates that the emergence of the TOS was determined by both an erosion of the U.S. military superiority and budget constraints, and, therefore, its content might change if budget austerity imperatives will stop dominating the DoD strategists' thinking. The launch of the third offset strategy has also important international-political aspects. First, the TOS fits in the context of the U.S. rebalance to the Asia-Pacific. Second, the American allies in Europe might face a threat of a widening technological gap with the United States and a need to boost their spending on defense research and development, which might be unfeasible in the current fiscal environment. Third, the concentration of the United States on countering high-end opponents might lead to a further marginalization of the Middle East. Fourth, the TOS is likely to contain a disinformation component and aim at dragging the peer competitors

  12. Military nuclear activities. Strategic prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Tertrais, Bruno; Rouillard, Gwendal; Widemann, Thierry; Guillaume, Louis-Michel; Steininger, Philippe; Guillemette, Alain; Amabile, Jean-Christophe; Granger-Veyron, Nicolas; Carbonnieres, Hubert de; Roche, Nicolas; Guillou, Herve; Bouvier, Antoine; Pastre, Bertrand; Baconnet, Alexis; Monsonis, Guillem; Brisset, Jean-Vincent; Hemez, Remy; Tchernega, Vladimir; Wedin, Lars; Dumoulin, Andre; Razoux, Pierre; Migault, Philippe; Wilson, Ward; Maillard, Benjamin de; Aichi, Leila; Charvoz, Ivan; Rousset, Valery; Lespinois, Jerome de; Kempf, Olivier; Dufourcq, Jean; Gere, Francois; Mauro, Frederic; Delort Laval, Gabriel; Charaix, Patrick; Norlain, Bernard; Collin, Jean-Marie; Jourdier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    This special dossier aims at providing some key articles about France's deterrence doctrine. It provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges and questions about military nuclear activities and opens up some future prospects about this question. The dossier comprises 37 papers dealing with: 1 - Military nuclear activities: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Deterrence according to French President Francois Hollande: continuation, precision and inflexions (Tertrais, B.); 3 - French deterrence warrantor of our independence in the 21. century (Rouillard, G.); 4 - The deterrence concept prior to the nuclear weapon era (Widemann, T.); 5 - France: the strategic marine force in operation (Guillaume, L.M.); 6 - Relevance of the airborne component in the nuclear deterrence strategy (Steininger, P.); 7 - Deterrence stakes for the Directorate General of Armaments (Guillemette, A.); 8 - The Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier: the deterrence voice from the sea (Wodka-Gallien, P.); 9 - Deterrence: missions of the army's radiation protection department (Amabile, J.C.; Granger-Veyron, N.; Carbonnieres, H. de); 10 - The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French defense strategy (Roche, N.); 11 - DCNS, general contractor in the service of deterrence (Guillou, H.); 12 - The airborne nuclear component for MBDA (Bouvier, A.); 13 - Ballistic missile of the marine nuclear component: industrial stakes (Pastre, B.); 14 - Beyond defense against missiles: a US anti-deterrence strategy (Baconnet, A.); 15 - Deterrence dynamics in South Asia (Monsonis, G.); 16 - Military nuclear activities in East Asia (Brisset, J.V.); 17 - North Korea would own nuclear weapons, so what? (Hemez, R.); 18 - About the risk of nuclear warfare in Europe (Tchernega, V.); 19 - Present day nuclear activities: deterrence and gesticulation (Wedin, L.); 20 - Belgian F-16 replacement: nuclear dimension (Dumoulin, A.); 21 - Israel and nuclear deterrence (Razoux, P.); 22 - Nuclear

  13. Effectiveness of Pricing Strategies on French Fries and Fruit Purchases among University Students: Results from an On-Campus Restaurant Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Deliens

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a 10 and 20% meal price increase when choosing French fries and a 10 and 20% meal price reduction when choosing fruit for dessert on university students' purchasing behaviour in an on-campus restaurant. The moderating effect of gender was also investigated. Secondly, this study aimed at gaining further insight into reasons why these price manipulations did or did not change students' purchasing behaviour.This two-phased mixed-methods study was conducted in a Belgian on-campus university restaurant with approximately 1200 to 1300 student visitors per day. In a first phase (French fries experiment, data were collected during a control week (no price manipulation and two separate intervention weeks (10 and 20% meal price increase when students chose French fries. In a second phase (fruit experiment, following the same protocol but carried out a few weeks later, meal prices were reduced by 10 and 20% when students chose fruit for dessert. French fries and fruit sale counts relative to the total number of items sold were used as outcome measure. Short interviews were conducted in convenient subsamples of student customers to assess influences on food choice.Increasing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing French fries was associated with respective 10.9 and 21.8% absolute reductions in French fries purchases, while reducing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing fruit for dessert was associated with absolute increases in fruit purchases of respectively 25.1 and 42.4% (all p<0.001. No moderating effect of gender was detected. Besides price, food/taste preference, eating habits, health, availability and accessibility, and body satisfaction influenced students' food choices, with taste being the most frequently mentioned factor.Pricing may be a promising strategy to improve university students' eating behaviour. The likelihood of intervention success may increase when combining pricing strategies with offering

  14. Preventing Commercial Colonialism and Retaining Sovereignty Over National Policy and Military Strategy in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    of satellites and sub-orbital space tourism flights, to the almost fictional asteroid mining, hotels on the Moon, and settlements on Mars. In... tourism . However, it is likely that the Chinese military will protect Chinese commercial presence in space either through militarization of dual-use...include sub-orbital space tourism , crew changes for orbital facilities, and residential tourism in orbit around Earth and the Moon. Visions of manned

  15. The PLA and Chinas Rejuvenation: National Security and Military Strategies, Deterrence Concepts, and Combat Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    to envi- ronmental rehabilitation. Policies have been directed to clean the country’s water, air, and soil, all of which remain heavily contaminated ...quality and safety of food and products. However, as with many policies, implementation remains problematic.14 Recent Developments Under Xi...Southeast Asian nations’ military bases, includ- ing those of Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia , and Indonesia. Japan is also men- tioned

  16. Operating in the Gray Zone: An Alternative Paradigm for U.S. Military Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    swift effects with air strikes; but if the aim is to provide security for populations within a certain zone, prolonged effects may be needed...risking detection and swift decimation. Arms sales or transfers of equipment capable of providing Ukrainian combat formations with technological over...Western military doctrines, see Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 38, No. 7, Taylor and Francis, Abingdon, Oxford: UK, December 2015. 11. GAO, Hybrid

  17. Book Review by Daniel Moran of The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons, by Anthony H. Cordesman, and The Iraq War: A Military History, by Williamson Murray and Major General Robert H. Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed: TThe Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons, by Anthony H. Cordesman, and The Iraq War: A Military History, by Williamson Murray and Major General Robert H. Scales The United States and its allies went to war against Iraq in 2003, as Williamson Murray and Robert Scales reasonably propose, “to make an example out of Saddam’s regime, for better or worse” (p. 44). Exactly what the war exemplified, and whether the results are better or worse than might have be...

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies introducing FDG-PET into the mediastinal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer from the French healthcare system perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzahouri, K.; Lejeune, C.; Woronoff-Lemsi, M.-C.; Arveux, P.; Guillemin, F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most cost-effective strategy using PET for mediastinal staging of potentially operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Four decision strategies based on French NSCLC work-up practices for the selection of potential surgical candidates were compared, comprising CT only, PET for negative CT, PET for all with anatomical CT, and CT and PET for all cases. The medical literature was surveyed to obtain values for all variables of interest. Costs were assessed with reimbursements from the French healthcare insurance for the year 1999. Expected cost and life expectancy were calculated for all possible outcomes of each strategy. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing variables on the expected cost and life expectancy. RESULTS: Compared with the CT only strategy, CT and PET for all resulted in a relative reduction of 70% of surgery for persons with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. PET for all with anatomical CT was shown to be a cost-effective alternative to the CT only, with life expectancy increased by 0.10 years and expected cost savings of 61 euros. This strategy was more favourable than PET for negative CT. Overall, sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSION: The introduction of thoracic PET for NSCLC staging is potentially cost-effective in France. Further clinical investigation might help to validate this result

  19. Success Strategies for Linguistically Competent Healthcare: The Magic Bullets and Cautionary Tales of the Active Offer of French-Language Health Services in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanova, Elina; Bouchard, Louise; Bonneville, Luc

    2018-01-01

    An active offer of French-language health services (FLHS) was introduced in several Canadian provinces to help create an environment that will anticipate the needs of Francophones in their community and will stimulate the demand for services in French. For the active offer to be implemented, changes in how health services are organized and managed at both organizational and system levels must be introduced. In this perspective paper, we identify several success strategies and potential pitfalls with regards to the implementation of the active offer of FLHS primarily at the level of healthcare organization. Our recommendations are based on a recent health services research study exploring reorganization and management strategies for the delivery of the active offer of FLHS in Ontario and insights from a focus group with healthcare administrators conducted as part of this research. We propose a ";wrap-around strategy" called organizational health literacy to help reorient organizational culture and improve management and sustainability of the active offer of FLHS. These strategies have relevance for advocates and professionals working to promote an active offer of FLHS, including healthcare administrators, human resource professionals, quality-improvement specialists and others. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.

  20. Severe accident mitigation strategy for the generation II PWRs in France. Some outcomes of the on-going periodic safety review of the French 1300 MWe PWR series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenerino, G.; Rahni, N.; Chevrier, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Guigueno, Y.; Raimond, E.; Bonnet, J.M. [IRSN/PSN-RES/SAG (France)

    2013-07-01

    The 3{sup rd} Periodic Safety Review of the French 1300 MWe PWRs series includes some modifications to increase their robustness in case of a severe accident. Their review is based on both deterministic and probabilistic approaches, keeping in mind that severe accidents frequencies and radiological consequences should be as low as reasonably practicable, severe accidents management strategies should be as safe as possible and the robustness of equipment used for severe accident management should be ensured. Consequently, the IRSN level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (L2 PSA) studies for the 1300 MWe reactors have been used to re-assess the results of the utility's L2 PSA and rank them to identify the containment failure modes contributing the most to the global risk. This ranking helped the review of plant modifications. Regarding strategies for accident management, the EDF management of water in the reactor cavity during a severe accident for the 1300 MWe PWRs is presented as well as the IRSN position on this strategy: this is an example where the optimal severe accident management strategy choice is not so easy to define. Regarding the robustness of equipment used for severe accident management, the interest of a diversification or redundancy of the French emergency filtered containment venting opening is one example among many others. (orig.)

  1. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    operation TURQUOISE, French authorities did not anticipate that some French contingents could inherently and unconsciously bear a destructive message...forces conduct non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO) at Ruhengeri 31 March DAMI PANDA put in place to conduct operational military assistance to...600 700 Technical Military Assistance Mission of Military Cooperation DAMI PANDA Op NOROIT (1 Oct 1990 - 15 Dec 1993) Op CHIMERE (22 Feb

  2. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS): Psychometric Properties of the French Translation and Exploration of Its Relations with Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermann, Francoise; Billieux, Joel; Laroi, Frank; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bondolfi, Guido; Zermatten, Ariane; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was created to specifically capture attention and awareness in daily life (Brown & Ryan, 2003). In this article, we present a French adaptation of the MAAS. In the 1st study, we explored the psychometric…

  3. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  4. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....

  5. Energy transition in France perceived by French people of the San Francisco area. Synthesis of the debate held on the 19 June 2013 at the residence of the French consul general in San Francisco. Which orientations for the French energy mix and which choices in terms of innovation while respecting the country's climatic commitments? Which development strategies for energy transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrin, Anne-Perrine; Zweibaum, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose a synthesis of a debate during which two main themes have been addressed: the issue of the compatibility between the decrease of CO 2 emissions and the reduction of the nuclear share in the French energy mix, and the changes for the USA and perspectives for France with the emergence of start-ups in the energy sector. The authors first address the issue of evolution of the French energy mix and innovation perspectives in relationship with national climate commitments: discussion of criteria allowing an optimal energy mix to be identified, discussion of the fields of innovation in the energy sector. The second part of this synthesis addresses the development strategies for energy transition: example of California in terms of culture, of communication to promote innovation in energy, and discussion of actual measures which could be applied in France

  6. Soil management planning for military installations: Strategy for identifying contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Baskin, D.A.; Downey, D.; Taffinder, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous federal and state regulations mandate the proper handling and disposal and/or treatment of contaminated soils. The Land Disposal Ban and the increasing lack of new or proximal land disposal facilities, coupled with the increasing liability of off-site disposal, have created a need for altering the traditional methods of managing contaminated sods. To delineate soil management decisions, a Soil Management Plan (SMP) was developed which incorporates the substantive requirements of CERCLA/SARA and RCRA into the ongoing base activities (i.e., construction projects, utility repairs and maintenance) and other environmental projects (i.e., underground storage tank removals) that may involve contaminated soils. The decision-making process is developed to guide base personnel in recognizing contamination, following proper sampling and temporary storage procedures, preventing unnecessary human exposure and isolating soils for removal off-site or treatment on-site. The SMP also contains a comprehensive review of soil remediation technologies, such as biological treatment, soil vapor extraction, soil washing, biofiltering, thermal desorption, soil stabilization/solidification, chemical/physical treatment and incineration. Contaminant types expected at the federal military facility are cross-referenced to the appropriate remediation technologies to determine the specific base needs for a soil treatment unit. An example of a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment unit is presented for a base where underground fuel tanks are the principal source of soil contamination

  7. Strategies to Improve Management of Acute Watery Diarrhea during a Military Deployment: A Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Andrew J; Tribble, David R; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-12-01

    To inform policy and decision makers, a cost-effectiveness model was developed to predict the cost-effectiveness of implementing two hypothetical management strategies separately and concurrently on the mitigation of deployment-associated travelers' diarrhea (TD) burden. The first management strategy aimed to increase the likelihood that a deployed service member with TD will seek medical care earlier in the disease course compared with current patterns; the second strategy aimed to optimize provider treatment practices through the implementation of a Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline. Outcome measures selected to compare management strategies were duty days lost averted (DDL-averted) and a cost effectiveness ratio (CER) of cost per DDL-averted (USD/DDL-averted). Increasing health care and by seeking it more often and earlier in the disease course as a stand-alone management strategy produced more DDL (worse) than the base case (up to 8,898 DDL-gained per year) at an increased cost to the Department of Defense (CER $193). Increasing provider use of an optimal evidence-based treatment algorithm through Clinical Practice Guidelines prevented 5,299 DDL per year with overall cost savings (CER -$74). A combination of both strategies produced the greatest gain in DDL-averted (6,887) with a modest cost increase (CER $118). The application of this model demonstrates that changes in TD management during deployment can be implemented to reduce DDL with likely favorable impacts on mission capability and individual health readiness. The hypothetical combination strategy evaluated prevents the most DDL compared with current practice and is associated with a modest cost increase.

  8. Primena koncepta marketinga za poboljšanje online nastupa Vojne akademije / Using marketing strategy to improve the online presentation of the Military Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet, elektronsko poslovanje, cyber marketing, nove tehnologije - svakako su termini novog vremena, koje je neophodno primeniti i u poslovanje vojne organizacije. U radu je analiziran dosadašnji rejting i način rada web prezentacije Vojne akademije. Definisane su i ciljne grupe sajta Vojne akademije i predložena strategija promocije web adrese Vojne akademije. / Internet, e-business, cyber marketing and new technologies are some of the characteristics of modern times which should be applied in military organisation management as well. The rating and organization of the Military Academy web presentation have been analyzed. Target groups have been defined and a strategy to promote the Military Academy web address has been proposed.

  9. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  10. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  11. Why Keep Changing Explaining the Evolution of Singapore’s Military Strategy Since Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    have agreed that the Dolphin strategy, with the 3G SAF as its core, is characterized by the use of “ intelligence , speed, and maneuverability in a...secure investor confidence. Any “loss of confidence in the republic’s stability or security would seriously damage its economic health.”55 The...the Singaporean leadership’s acknowledgement of the need to secure investor confidence and also of the increasing importance of the maritime domain

  12. Armed to farm: Veteran labeled marketing, education and research strategies to soldier success for military veteran farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming opportunities for veterans are a natural fit and capitalize on skills that made them successful in the military. The project is specifically designed to develop comprehensive training and technical assistance programs and enhance market profitability for military veteran farmers. The project...

  13. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in Menière's disease. Guidelines of the French Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Society (SFORL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoux, J; Franco-Vidal, V; Bouccara, D; Parietti-Winkler, C; Uziel, A; Chays, A; Dubernard, X; Couloigner, V; Darrouzet, V; Mom, T

    2017-12-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société française d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie de la face et du cou: SFORL) for diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in Menière's disease. A work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The guidelines were graded according to the literature analysis and recommendations grading guide published by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Evaluation in Health (January 2000). Menière's disease is diagnosed in the presence of the association of four classical clinical items and after eliminating differential diagnoses on MRI. In case of partial presentation, objective audiovestibular tests are recommended. Therapy comprises medical treatment and surgery, either conservative or sacrificing vestibular function. Medical treatment is based on lifestyle improvement, betahistine, diuretics or transtympanic injection of corticosteroids or gentamicin. The main surgical treatments, in order of increasing aggressiveness, are endolymphatic sac surgery, vestibular neurotomy and labyrinthectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical practice guidelines from the French Health High Authority: nutritional support strategy in protein-energy malnutrition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud-Simon, Agathe; Revel-Delhom, Christine; Hébuterne, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    These guidelines were produced at the request of the General Directorate of Health within the scope of the French Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS). They concern the management of malnutrition in elderly persons living at home, in institutional care, or in hospital. They belong to a recent series of studies published by ANAES(1) or HAS. Preceding studies concerned the "Diagnostic assessment of protein-energy malnutrition in hospitalized adults" (ANAES, September 2003) and the work conducted by the Committee for the Assessment of Devices and Health Technologies (CEPP) on "Reimbursement procedures for dietary foods for special medical purposes for nutritional supplementation and home enteral nutrition" (HAS, September 2006). The objective of these guidelines is to develop a tool for identifying and managing elderly subjects who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Coming Home to School: Challenges and Strategies for Effective Teaching with Military Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A. Sportsman, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the unique needs of returning service members at the college or university level that impact the teaching decisions made by instructors. The article also discusses the challenges that service members are individually addressing while acclimating themselves to their new environment of learning. With the reduction in forces occurring after the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, many higher level learning institutions are struggling to adequately meet the needs of returning veterans. In turn, veterans often find that the style of instruction and the general college-level universe are difficult to negotiate. The combination of these factors can often result in veteran students performing below expectation or leaving school without finishing. The article proposes a variety of ways to understand and address these challenges including the use of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL strategies and characteristics.

  17. Air War Beyond the First Island Chain: Implications of China's Military Modernization for U.S. Maritime Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, David

    2006-01-01

    Since China's provocative military exercises across the Taiwan straits in March 1996, the strait remains calm and little has changed diplomatically, but the balance of power in the region is changing...

  18. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Tech: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris

    2002-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  19. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Technology: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris M

    2003-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  20. The Need for a USAF Information Warfare(IW) Strategy for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    .... Two areas having an impact on the answer to this question but not normally examined together are information warfare and the broad area of military operations short of large scale conventional combat...

  1. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  2. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  3. Best management strategies for sustainable giant clam fishery in French Polynesia islands: answers from a spatial modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available The giant clam Tridacna maxima has been largely overexploited in many tropical regions over the past decades, and was therefore listed in appendix II of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES in 1985. In French Polynesia, several atolls and islands harbor the world's highest stocks of giant clams in very shallow and accessible areas, which are therefore highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. The local fishery authority (i.e., Direction des Resources Marines or "DRM" implemented several management schemes in 2002 to control and regulate fishing pressure. However, for further decisions DRM was missing a sensitivity analysis on the effectiveness of the possible management actions. Here, we report on the use of a deterministic Viable Population Analysis (VPA and spatially-explicit age-based population model that simulated the 30-year trajectory of a Tridacna maxima stock under different management approaches. Specifically, given various scenarios of intra-island larval dispersal, we tested which of No-take-Areas (NTAs, rotational closures, size limits, quotas, and restocking schemes would lead to the highest future stocks in Tubuai and Raivavae, two exploited islands of the Austral archipelago. For both islands, stock abundances were estimated in 2004/2010 and 2005/2010 respectively, and natural mortalities were assessed previously only in Tubuai. When compared to field data, the model successfully predicted the 2010 stocks for Tubuai, but proved to be less reliable for Raivavae, where natural mortality rates may well be different from those on Tubuai. For Tubuai, the spatial model suggested that reducing fishing effort (through fixed quotas and banning fishing below the 12 cm size limit (as currently implemented were the most effective management actions to sustain T. maxima populations into the future. Implementing NTAs was of poor effectiveness. NTAs increased giant clam stock inside the protected area, but also

  4. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  5. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  6. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  7. Military and Strategy (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    2017-01-01

    Den danske regering lod to hensyn vejlede sin tøvende anvendelse af de væbnede styrker. For det første skulle anvendelsen være acceptabel for Tyskland. For det andet skulle en reaktion på neutralitetskrænkelser aldrig kunne lede til en ødelæggende forsvarskrig. De to hensyn var ikke nødvendigvis ...

  8. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China and the United States have had a difficult relation over the past 10 years. First of all, the rise of China as a military and economic superpower on the world´s stage is seen under suspicion and discontent by the American political, military and even economic authorities. The United States government does not fully believe China´s intention of pacific rise and has perceived the Chinese government more as a strategic rival than a partner. On the economic field the Americans manufacturing companies complain of China´s distorted economic policies that keep its currency undervalued and subsidise its own companies at the expense of foreign enterprises. On the political side, the American Congress has repeatedly accused the Chinese government of systematically violating its people´s fundamental Human Rights and has pointed out the Chinese governments´ attempts to stop democratic manifestations in the country. As for the military, the U.S. Pentagon publishes each year an updated document on the Chinese military capabilities, rising concerns about China´s fast-growing military modernisation.All these accusations have been replied by the Chinese counterparts of Commerce, Military and Political agencies, whose general answer is to point out the American’s lack of knowledge about China’s development. Whenever the Pentagon makes a statement about China’s military capabilities; the Chinese Military Speaker replies that his country has no intention to compete militarily with the United States army. Whenever the U.S. Secretary of State argues that China does not respect Human Rights; the Chinese government question the American interference in other countries’ internal affairs. Whenever the American industrialists complain about China’s economic subsidies; the Chinese government remind them about the United States’ tendency of subsidising its own economic sectors, such as the agriculture. China and the United States disagree upon

  9. Net Zero Fort Carson: Integrating Energy, Water, and Waste Strategies to Lower the Environmental Impact of a Military Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military bases resemble small cities and face similar sustainability challenges. As pilot studies in the U.S. Army Net Zero program, 17 locations are moving to 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases target net z...

  10. Théodule Ribot's ambiguous positivism: philosophical and epistemological strategies in the founding of French scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillin, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Théodule Ribot (1839-1916) is regarded by many historians of psychology as the "father" of the discipline in France. Ribot contributed to the development of a "new psychology" independent from philosophy, relying on the methods of the natural sciences. However, such an epistemological transition encountered fierce opposition from both the champions of the old-fashioned metaphysical psychology and the representatives of the "scientific spirit." This article focuses on the objections raised by the latter, and especially philosophers of science, against the possibility of a scientific psychology. For instance, according to Auguste Comte, psychology does not satisfy certain basic methodological requirements. To overcome these objections, Ribot, in his La Psychologie Anglaise Contemporaine (1870/1914), devised an epistemological strategy that amounted to invoking criticisms of Comte's views made by other representatives of the positivist school, such as John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  12. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  13. Civil Discourse or Civil War? The Influence of Civil-Military Relations on Iraq and Afghanistan War Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    asserted that only a full-scale counterinsurgency strategy—requiring tens of thousands more troops— would succeed in Afghanistan. Prima facie , such...acknowledge each other‟s role as established in the Constitution; specifically, that while commanders are obligated to offer their best...six years of Donald Rumsfeld‟s intimidation and abuse have encouraged in the officer corps a conviction that military leaders ought to—are obliged to

  14. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  15. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  16. Future perspectives of French dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval M.

    1996-01-01

    If the French deterrence must disappear in aid of an European deterrence, it will be necessary to take in account the development of nuclear weapon in Asia and then our deterrence system should maintain its credibility by getting the appropriate length. If policy problems are as important for civil nuclear than for military nuclear, it will be necessary to show concern about them because the Asian economy is in full development and Asia is not so frightened by nuclear power than Europe. (N.C.)

  17. How Can the U.S. Military Avoid Another 9/15?: An Analysis of the Inability of U.S. Military Leaders to Provide an Adequate Strategy for Responding to the 9/11 Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    bombing campaign 6-Apr-72 23-Oct-72 I 195 Operation Pocket Money Military aerial mining of Haiphong harbor 9-May-72 23-Oct-72 I 196 Operation...197 Operation Endsweep Military counter-mine measure to remove mines dropped during Operation Pocket Money North Vietnam 27-Jan-72 27-Jul-73 I 198

  18. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  19. Military Force and Culture Change: Systems, Narratives, and the Social Transmission of Behavior in Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casebeer, William D

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, this thesis explores the narrative and storytelling dimensions of culture, offering a theory of story that can be used to drive innovative counter-terrorism strategies and structure...

  20. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouazé, André

    2002-01-01

    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  1. Poisoned reign: French nuclear colonialism in the Pacific. Revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Bengt; Danielsson, Marie-Therese.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1966, France has used Moruroa, a small atoll in the Pacific, as the testing site for its nuclear bombs - despite opposition from both the Polynesian people and nations throughout the world. Levels of radioactive fallout and sea contamination, and the extent of damage to Moruroa itself have remained a closely-guarded military secret. This book traces the history of French nuclear involvement in the Pacific and shows how the tests have been used to strengthen colonial rule in French Polynesia

  2. Colonial Connections: A Review of Redrawing French Empire in Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Tannahill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of France's colonial past and wars in Algeria and Indochina are still very relevant in modern, multicultural France. 'Redrawing French Empire In Comics '(2013 examines how this colonial history is depicted in the francophone comic or 'bande dessinée', by authors with links to both the colonised population and the French colonisers and military forces, and how their depictions of events reinforces or diminishes barriers between those on both sides.

  3. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  4. Planning Beyond Tactics: Towards a Military Application of the Philosophy of Design in the Formulation of Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    more importantly are, therefore, a priori).63 61 Positivism : The school of philosophy that claims that the only authentic knowledge is that which... quantitative substance to the emerging qualitative ideas. Tactics without Strategy as the Noise Before Defeat. Design is a verb and producing a...interventions, in order to enable the desired potentials that lead to the desired system state. Positivism . The school of philosophy that claims that

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among French Armed Forces Members in Afghanistan: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Frédéric; Marimoutou, Catherine; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Clervoy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century, the management of war-related psychological trauma shifted from neurology to psychiatry. After September 11, 2001, the French forces participated in a multinational force deployed in Afghanistan to fight against terrorism. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) became a priority. We report the daily work of the psychiatrists involved in this mission and the organization developed to psychologically support wounded military personnel. The doctrine of early intervention psychiatrization and the technique of collective debriefing are the key points of this procedure. The psychiatrist is also responsible for the healthcare community, particularly vulnerable when confronted with severe ballistic injuries. One aim of this organization is also to screen PTSD in soldiers returning from Afghanistan. The military general practitioner is a pivotal point of this procedure built to detect PTSD, anxiety, depressive reaction and behavioral problems. The French health service has developed a genuine care strategy aimed at identifying patients, accompanying them in the formalities for recognition and compensation, and offering them treatment locally by arranging clinical psychology consultations near their home. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  7. Military Classics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history. Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art...Beginning with the reign of King Henry VIII, Barnett’s work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume...native clans led by Shaka , to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent

  8. French nuclear industry exportations: companies and organisations, achievements and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, V.; Pailler, S.; Miniere, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Journes, F.; Ouali, F.; Brochard, D.; Choho, T.; Lagarde, D.; Anglaret, P.; Kottman, G.; Mockly, D.; Ouzounian, G.; Cordier, P.Y.; Prenez, J.C.; Arpino, J.M.; Jaouen, C.; Jolly, B.

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers a series of short articles in which the following players: French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Electricity of France (EdF), French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), AREVA, ALSTOM, the Association of French Nuclear Industry Exporters (AIFEN), the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and the French Society of Nuclear Energy (SFEN) present their competencies in their respective fields and their strategies and commercial offers for exports. 2 articles are dedicated to the achievements of the French nuclear industry in China and another details the cooperation between SFEN and its foreign counterparts. Another article briefly presents the EPR and ATMEA reactors. (A.C.)

  9. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  10. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  11. The evolution of military technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Gina

    2018-01-01

    War has at some point touched every nation. Beginning with ancient history and following through to the present, this book addresses the question of why war exists, and explains the shapes in which it occurs. It will lead young readers on a journey through time by tracing weapons from the earliest stones and clubs to modern technological military warfare. Along with the evolution of weaponry through the ages, it also goes into the development of protective gear, transportation, communication, and military strategies.

  12. Evaluation of Varietal Resistance as a Management Strategy for Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) Trybom and Frankliniella Occidentals Peragande) on French Bean (Phaseolus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambua, E.M

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of 9 French bean varieties was undertaken during the period of November 2001 to April 2002 to evaluate the resistance of these varieties to thrips (Megaluthrothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design with four replicates in each phase. It was evident from the study that there are significant differences in resistance to thrips by these varieties. Monel variety was found to be the most susceptible and Impala the least. Frankliniella was more abundant than Megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M. sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1:5 and 1:7 during 1 s t and 2 n d planting respectively

  13. The struggle of the veterans of the French nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The question debated in this article concerns the demand of compensation and recognition of the impact on their health of nuclear tests. The military personnel that worked during nuclear tests in French Polynesia and the Sahara sites, but also the inhabitants of the atolls of Moruroa and Fangataufa equally in French Polynesia. An observatory of the veterans health has been created in order to improve the medical management of military personnel and former military personnel. An association 'Moruroa e tatou' contains the Polynesian former workers of the Nuclear tests of the Pacific and the association A.V.E.N. contains the veterans of nuclear tests. numerous examples are detailed. The question is tackled too for the consequences on health of the British nuclear tests, in Australia, Christmas Islands, and New Zealand. (N.C.)

  14. [Reimbursement of opiate substitution drugs to militaries in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Argouges, F; Desjeux, G; Marsan, P; Thevenin-Garron, V

    2012-09-01

    The use of psychoactive drugs by militaries is not compatible with the analytical skills and self-control required by their jobs. Military physicians take this problem into consideration by organising systematic drugs screening in the French forces. However, for technical reasons, opiates are not concerned by this screening with the agreement of the people concerned. The estimated number of militaries who use an opiate substitute may be an approach of heroin consumption in the French forces. This study describes buprenorphine and methadone reimbursements made during 2007 by the national military healthcare centre to French militaries. Each French soldier is affiliated to a special health insurance. The national military healthcare centre has in its information system, all the data concerning drug reimbursement made to French military personnel. This is a retrospective study of buprenorphine and methadone reimbursements made during 2007 by the military healthcare centre, to militaries from the three sectors of the French forces, and from the gendarmerie and joint forces. Only one reimbursement of one of these two drugs during this period allowed the patient to be included in our study. Daily drug dose and treatment steadiness profile have been calculated according to the criteria of the French monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction. The criteria of the National guidelines against frauds have been used to identify misuse of these drugs. Doctors' shopping behaviour has also been studied. Finally, the nature of the prescriber and the consumption of other drugs in combination with opiate substitute have been analysed. One hundred and eighty-one military consumers of opiate substitute drugs (167 men and 14 women) participated. This sample included people from the three sectors of the French forces as well as from the gendarmerie and from the joint forces. The average age of the consumers was 26.6 years (20-42 years). The average length of service was 6.1 years

  15. The Impact of Customer Orientation on the Business Strategies: the Customisation Case of Nestlé on French and Chinese Dairy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mignon, Ingrid; He, Hui

    2005-01-01

    Background: As Porter’s diamond (1990) suggested, the business environment highly influences firms’ strategies. Today, most of the companies have to decide their strategy depending from a worldwide business environment. Yet, strategy researches and the growing importance of marketing for business success also show that customer dimension must be taken into consideration. On some markets and in certain industries, the offer is much higher than the demand and then, companies need to attract cus...

  16. United States Military Assistance Programs C-130B's to Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Policy, Decision Making & Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroer, D. J

    1997-01-01

    This case study will examine decision making in U.S. Military Assistance Programs in the form of C-l3OB transfers to the Sub-Saharan countries of Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa from 1994 to present...

  17. An Analysis of Alternatives for Reducing Outpatient Military Health Care Costs for Active Duty Members and their Families: Implementing a Recommended Savings Strategy Using Defense Acquisition Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaime, Richardo; Rupert, Joshua W

    2007-01-01

    .... In efforts to reduce or contain the costs of the military health care system, this project will propose two cost savings alternatives for providing outpatient care to active duty personnel and their dependents...

  18. The demand for military spending in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  19. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  20. A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Hiring Expectancies – Expectancy (VIE) Theory ( Vroom , 1996) states individuals choose among a set of employment alternatives on the basis of the...A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment Presented at NATO Technical Course HFM 180 – Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in...the Military Fariya Syed October, 2009 Based on A Proposed Model Of Military Recruitment (Schreurs & Syed, 2007) Report Documentation Page

  1. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  2. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  3. Military necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, N.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that international humanitarian law (IHL) “accounts for” military necessity, but its meaning and normative consequences have remained obscure. This thesis develops a theory that offers a coherent explanation of the process through which IHL generates its rules. To

  4. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  5. Epidemiological and entomological studies of a malaria outbreak among French armed forces deployed at illegal gold mining sites reveal new aspects of the disease's transmission in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Girod, Romain; Mura, Marie; Dia, Aissata; Briolant, Sébastien; Djossou, Félix; Dusfour, Isabelle; Mendibil, Alexandre; Simon, Fabrice; Deparis, Xavier; Pagès, Frédéric

    2016-01-22

    In December 2010, a Plasmodium vivax malaria outbreak occurred among French forces involved in a mission to control illegal gold mining in French Guiana. The findings of epidemiological and entomological investigations conducted after this outbreak are presented here. Data related to malaria cases reported to the French armed forces epidemiological surveillance system were collected during the epidemic period from December 2010 to April 2011. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify presumed contamination sites. Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled at the identified sites using Mosquito Magnet and CDC light traps. Specimens were identified morphologically and confirmed using molecular methods (sequencing of ITS2 gene and/or barcoding). Anopheles infections with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax were tested by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR. Seventy-two P. vivax malaria cases were reported (three were mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections), leading to a global attack rate of 26.5% (72/272). Lack of compliance with vector control measures and doxycycline chemoprophylaxis was reported by patients. Two illegal gold mining sites located in remote areas in the primary forest were identified as places of contamination. In all, 595 Anopheles females were caught and 528 specimens were formally identified: 305 Anopheles darlingi, 145 Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., 63 Anopheles marajoara and 15 Anopheles triannulatus s.l. Three An. darlingi were infected by P. falciparum (infection rate: 1.1%) and four An. marajoara by P. vivax (infection rate: 6.4%). The main drivers of the outbreak were the lack of adherence by military personnel to malaria prevention measures and the high level of malaria transmission at illegal gold mining sites. Anopheles marajoara was clearly implicated in malaria transmission for the first time in French Guiana. The high infection rates observed confirm that illegal gold mining sites must be considered as high level

  6. Military nuclear activities. The simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpuech, A.

    2000-01-01

    The durability of the French nuclear weapon dissuasion has to integrate two kind of problems: the geopolitical situation with the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) and the aging of weapons. The replacement of decayed weapons requires a complete safety and reliability validation of the new weapons which is performed using simulation. This paper gives a brief presentation of the simulation program and of the technical means developed by the military division of the French atomic energy commission (CEA-DAM): the Airix X-ray radiography installation and the 'megajoule' laser facility. (J.S.)

  7. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  8. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... Global jihadis have spent more than 40 years refining their philosophy, gaining experience, building their organization, and developing plans to re-establish what they see as the only true Islamic state on earth...

  9. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  10. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  11. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  12. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  13. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  14. MILITARY MEDALS: AMERICAN STRATEGIC CULTURE and AIR POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    pilots; the Empire used their preexisting medals to honor aviators. The highest-ranking military medal was the Pour le Mérite. The first pilot to earn...the Pour le Mérite, (a French term meaning, “for merit”), was Max Immelmann for his eight aerial kills. Germany made the awarding of the medal...1984. Robles, Philip K. United States Military Medals and Ribbons. Tokyo: Japan, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1971. Rosen , Stephen Peter. Winning

  15. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  16. The Role of Corporate Defense Services in International Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baroody, J. R

    2000-01-01

    National military strategy involves evaluating all elements of power, analyzing their capabilities and limitations, and incorporating these tools into a course of military action to secure political goals...

  17. Journey in the Historiography of the "French Method of Physical Education": A Matter of Nationalism, Imperialism and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Thierry; Saint-Martin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The three volumes of the "French Method of Physical Education" were published by the military school of Joinville-Le-Pont between 1925 and 1927 and became one of the most successful reference materials in France for sport and physical education among school, military and civilian institutions. Several authors studied these manuals, but…

  18. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  19. Return to Clark Air Force Base: Establishing Permanent Military Bases in the Philippines as part of the United States Grand Strategy in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Castro, Renato Cruz De, “The US-Philippine Alliance: An Evolving Hedge Against An Emerging China Challenge,” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol 31...Rise, RAND, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008 Mogato, Manuel , “The US-Philippine Military Agreement That Was Supposed To Counter China Is Facing Another

  20. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  1. Loyalty for Sale? Military Spending and Coups d'Etat

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, G.

    2012-01-01

    Coups d'etat continue to be common around the world, often leading to changes in leaders and institutions. We examine the relationship between military spending and coups and find that (i) successful coups increase military spending by more than failed attempts, and (ii) coups are more likely when military spending as a share of GDP is relatively low. Our identification strategy exploits the conditional independence between a coup's outcome and the change in military spending that follows it....

  2. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  3. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  4. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  5. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  6. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  7. The position of the French coal industry on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de charbonnages de France sur la strategie de lutte contre l`acidification de la commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejean, M. [CDF Energie, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Charbonnages de France group (French coal industry) presents several objections to the projected European Commission program concerning the reduction of air pollution emission and acidification: reaching so rapidly the projected reduction level means a drastic improvement to the large burning plants, regardless of the low operating duration of the coal plants in France, which are used for electric power production only at peak or semi-base periods or in industries (principally food industry) with low energy duration requirements, and regardless of the important emission reductions already achieved in France. The coal industry proposes to simply apply the present IPPC directive; already, turning to circulating fluidized bed units has allowed important SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission reductions. The evolution of sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions in France between 1990 and 1995 is detailed

  8. In-hospital outcomes and long-term mortality according to sex and management strategy in acute myocardial infarction. Insights from the French ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) 2005 Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donataccio, Maria Pia; Puymirat, Etienne; Parapid, Biljana; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Weber, Simon; Ferrari, Emile; Vilarem, Didier; Charpentier, Sandrine; Manzo-Silberman, Stéphane; Ferrières, Jean; Danchin, Nicolas; Simon, Tabassome

    2015-12-15

    The early mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has dramatically decreased in the recent past. Whether the previously reported sex disparities in use of invasive strategies (IS) persist and translate into differences in outcomes deserves to be examined. We used the data from a nationwide French prospective multicentre registry from 3,670 AMI patients (1155 women (31.5%), 2515 men (68.5%)) recruited in 223 centres in 2005 and followed-up for 5 years. We examined in-hospital outcomes and 5-year mortality in patients categorized according to sex and use of IS (i.e. coronary angiography during the hospitalisation with a view to revascularisation). IS was less frequently used in women than in men (adjusted OR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.52-0.85), regardless of the type of AMI, age group or risk category, while use of recommended medications was similar at 48 hours and discharge. In-hospital mortality did not differ according to sex, whatever the age group and use of an IS. At 5 years, overall and post-discharge mortality were similar in men and women. However, IS was associated with lower 5-year mortality in women (HR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.86) as in men (HR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.38-0.60) and there was no sex-strategy interaction. Invasive strategy remains less frequently used in women than in men, yet is associated with improved five-year survival irrespective of sex. Whether reducing the sex gap in its use would translate into a higher survival in women remains an open question. NCT 00673036. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    military service, specifically, and (2) develop research-based communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense Manpower...military, their recommendations to youth regarding post-high school options, and research-based message strategies that would resonate with each market ...of Defense’s recruitment advertising and market research programs. • The Research Methodology section provides details on the design of the

  10. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  11. The Eagle’s Nest in the Horn of Africa: US Military Strategic Deployment in Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Djibouti is the only country in the world in which US, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese military forces are stationed simultaneously; China will soon have a presence there as well. The US military deployment in Djibouti has shifted from a soft military presence to an arrangement of significant strategic import, and from a small outpost to a large garrison in the past two decades. The internal dynamics of the US deployment are geopolitical, as the US presence facilitates the carrying out of its strategies regarding antiterrorism, anti-proliferation, the protection of energy investments, and anti-piracy. The external dynamics of the US deployment are geo-economic: the government of Djibouti, as the host nation, reaps economic windfalls from the US presence in this strategically located country. Given that the United States has failed since 2008 to persuade any country on the continent to host AFRICOM, the base in Djibouti is likely to remain the only one in East Africa. Djibouti may be part of a pattern whereby some small African nations, such as São Tomé and Príncipe, collect revenue through the provision of military bases to big powers.

  12. 'Tone at the top': Fighting military corruption in Latin America | Klaus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military ...

  13. Can NATO Practice Grand Strategy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force.......In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force....

  14. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  15. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  16. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  17. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  18. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  19. French population's exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report deals with the exposure of the French population to ionizing radiation. The exposures taken into account are related to cosmic and telluric radiations, to radon, to ingestion of natural radionuclides, to medical imaging and to industrial and military sources. Additionally to the mean effective dose, considered as the macroscopic indicator of the population exposure, the variations of the effective dose for each source of exposure are also presented. Then, the variation of the total effective dose is presented. (authors)

  20. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morale among French colonial troops on the Western Front during World War I: 1914–1918. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  1. The new European Energy Union - Toward a consistent EU energy and climate policy? A report for the French Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    In his opening statement in the European Parliament in July 2014, the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker highlighted 10 key priorities for his mandate. One of these consists in 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. Does this imply that this Energy Union will mark the beginning of a new approach toward European energy policy, or is it merely a re-framing of the debate? We argue in this paper that the new Energy Union will need a radically new approach to European energy and climate policy. A sound European energy and climate policy should be based on a set of well-defined objectives, and rely on well-articulated instruments to deliver in the most efficient way on these objectives. The current European energy and climate policy framework has major flaws on both fronts. The paper does not aim to provide a comprehensive list of the issues at stake with European energy and climate policy, which would be a daunting task, and builds on previous work conducted for the for the Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective (CGSP) in 2013.5 Instead, we focus on some key areas with the objective to make a series of concrete proposals for reform. This paper takes a practitioners' perspective, recognizing that a 'first best' economic approach is often not practical, and therefore putting forward policy recommendations which recognize the policy and institutional constraints that characterize European policy making. We start by discussing issues with the European Commission (EC) energy and climate policy objectives, and then suggest some potential reforms to the regulatory framework to deliver on these objectives. We successively cover in session 2 and 3 the policy levers for decarbonization and for security of supply, before discussing the necessary changes to the power market framework. We conclude by discussing how the financing and governance challenges associated

  2. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  3. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  4. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  5. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  6. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  7. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  8. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  9. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  10. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  11. A US Air Force Strategy for Africa (Drew Paper, Number 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    of the French empire. In 1935 the French war minister “insisted that sparse French military resources— mechanized weaponry, field artillery...elsewhere might receive them.”3 The common argument against such broad-ranging consideration of consequences is that it engen - ders “analysis

  12. History: development of civil and military nuclear - the French case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2016-01-01

    4 countries: USA, USSR, Great-Britain and France have been pioneers for the development of nuclear energy and the article shows that for the 3 first countries the saga of the atom began with the development of the atomic bomb while for France the works for both the achievement of the bomb and the production of electricity from nuclear energy began at the same period in mid fifties. (A.C.)

  13. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  14. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  15. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  16. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  17. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  18. Atom and France. The origins of the French techno-science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belot, Robert

    2015-01-01

    France is the most 'nuclearized' country in the world, while French people is nowadays less or more strongly suspicious about nuclear energy and its consequences. This book, written by an historian and a geo-politics University teacher, presents the story of the French technical and industrial revival in the early postwar period, with the intense effort on nuclear energy that was pushed by Charles de Gaulle's vision with the help of the French Communist party: creation of the CEA (Centre d'etudes atomiques) in 1945, less than two months after the Hiroshima bombing; the predominance of the rational and scientific doctrine of progress ploughing its roots in the French 18. century (the Age of Enlightenment); the social and political issues and effects of the Cold War on the military as well as civil French nuclear program, etc

  19. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  20. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  1. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  2. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  3. TRICARE, Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  4. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  5. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  6. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  7. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  8. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  9. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  10. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  11. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  12. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  13. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  14. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  15. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  16. Value of syndromic surveillance within the Armed Forces for early warning during a dengue fever outbreak in French Guiana in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Henry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dengue fever outbreak occured in French Guiana in 2006. The objectives were to study the value of a syndromic surveillance system set up within the armed forces, compared to the traditional clinical surveillance system during this outbreak, to highlight issues involved in comparing military and civilian surveillance systems and to discuss the interest of syndromic surveillance for public health response. Methods Military syndromic surveillance allows the surveillance of suspected dengue fever cases among the 3,000 armed forces personnel. Within the same population, clinical surveillance uses several definition criteria for dengue fever cases, depending on the epidemiological situation. Civilian laboratory surveillance allows the surveillance of biologically confirmed cases, within the 200,000 inhabitants. Results It was shown that syndromic surveillance detected the dengue fever outbreak several weeks before clinical surveillance, allowing quick and effective enhancement of vector control within the armed forces. Syndromic surveillance was also found to have detected the outbreak before civilian laboratory surveillance. Conclusion Military syndromic surveillance allowed an early warning for this outbreak to be issued, enabling a quicker public health response by the armed forces. Civilian surveillance system has since introduced syndromic surveillance as part of its surveillance strategy. This should enable quicker public health responses in the future.

  17. Berber buildings destroyed during the French colonial period in Tlemcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1836, the French colonialists entered in Tlemcen and began to destroy and reshape the city following the European model. No study of this historical period has demonstrated the detail of the demolitions made by the French military genius. We then asked about the type and number of buildings demolished during that time. To answer these questions, we adopted two approaches. The first approach is historical, which is based on the reading of ancient documents that address the urban development of the city. The second approach is comparative where we will compare the first Tlemcen map of 1836 with the 22 other cards, the last of which dates back to 1961. It then turns out that the French military at the time has destroyed 654 buildings, including 13 city gates, 38 fragments of ramparts, 20 palaces, 12 mosques, 1 fondouk, 8 madrasahs and 562 houses. The area of Tlemcen in 1836 was 64 ha and in 1962 it was reduced to 48 ha. This reduction of 25 % of the area of his urban fabric is a terrible loss for this historic city.

  18. The Revolution in Military Affairs: Allied Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    entangling web of Gaullism. Notably, the government was unable to shift from legacy military systems to new ones. In his reformulation of French defense...libert~ (Paris: Editions Eska, 1997). 4. See, for example, Anne-Sophie Mercier and B~atrice J~r6me, Les 700 jours de Jospin: Histoire d’une prise...as the public announcement put it, "Le 16 janvier 1998, ~ I’issue du Comit6 interminist~riel pour la soci~t6 de I’information, qui a r6uni

  19. [History of malaria control in the French armed forces: from Algeria to the Macedonian front during the first World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliani, R; Meynard, J-B; Milleliri, J-M; Verret, C; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    The French joint military health corps has long experience in malaria control. Many military physicians played an essential role in the 19th century: Maillot revolutionized malaria treatment by using quinine during the conquest of Algeria, and Laveran discovered the causal parasite (the genus Plasmodium) there. This experience continued under the direction of Laveran and the Sergent brothers on the eastern front in Greek Macedonia during World War I. The vast coordinated control plan established on this front from 1917 delivered the French infantrymen from malaria and led to victory over the Bulgarian forces, which capitulated in September 1918.

  20. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  1. Military Climate Resilience Planning and Contemporary Urban Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Knowledge Management Information Technology Laboratory (ERDC-ITL) ERDC/CERL MP-17-4 1 1 Introduction: Climate Change Adaptation and Military... fundamental transformation in thinking from emphasizing equilib- rium, homogeneity, and determinism to non-equilibrium, heterogeneity, and stochasticity, with...oriented culture of the military, overt statements of uncertainty are important in applying risk management strategies that pri- oritize limited

  2. Exploring military performance motivation from an African Ubuntu perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a Positive Psychology lens to explore the perceptions of elite military candidates about motivational strategies that assisted them to cope with the challenges of specialized military selection. Results from our...

  3. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  4. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  5. The French gas industry in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, Meline

    2015-01-01

    After a first article which briefly outlines the importance of the gas world market (in a context of increase of energy demand and of necessity of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions), and indicates the important roles played by French companies who intervene on the whole supply chain (Total, GDF Suez, EDF) or as engineering companies Technip, Gaztransport Technigaz or GTT (the last one is specialized in marine engineering and intervenes in the LNG sector), an interview of the State Secretary in charge of Foreign Trade is proposed. It addresses the presence and intervention of French companies as natural gas tends to become the first fuel in the energy mix for OECD countries, the present and future role of the French gas industry and the importance for France of this international profile, the French policy to support the development of this industry, how the French gas industry may intervene in international diplomatic relationships, and how France and its industry have contributed to an access for all to energy at the international level. The next article describes the development of GDF Suez activities in Latin America (in Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Argentina, Costa Rica and Peru). The activities of the EDF group in the gas sector are then presented: development of infrastructures (notably the methane harbour of Dunkerque). In an interview, the manager of the LNG market strategy for Total presents and comments the LNG's role in Total's strategy, the perspectives of the LNG market and the influence of a low oil price, the Total's position with respect to shale gas exploitation, the planned developments and investments for the LNG sector, the use of LNG in the transport sector, the impact of the Yamat LNG project in the Arctic region. Then, an interview of the GTT chairman is proposed; it addresses the fact that Total sold its shares to a Singapore investment company, the activities and clients, the issue of international regulations, and the objectives of this

  6. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  8. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  9. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  10. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  11. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  12. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  13. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  14. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  15. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  16. Enforcement or incentives ? : promoting safety belt use among military personnel in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among

  17. The Future Roles of U.S. Military Power and Their Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William

    1997-01-01

    .... military policy and strategy (inter alia, future national defense strategy, the force structure necessary to implement that strategy, the affects of technology on force structure, and the anticipated roles and missions...

  18. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  19. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  20. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  1. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  2. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  3. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  4. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  5. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  6. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1960-1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-17

    V.N. Territorial System of Military Structuring. (Territorial’naya Sistema Voyennogo Stroitel’stva) From organizational activities of the Party in...Iz Opyta Politicheskoy Raboty v Sovetskoy Armii) In English. In French. Moscow, Progress, 1965. 111p. 7700 24k. 65-04858 S1437. Companion of the...Territoria].’naya Sistema Tulegen Toktarov S2076 Voyennogo ... S0513 Tulyaki - Geroi Sovetskogo Soyuza - Tikhookeanskiy Flot S2722 S1148 Tiry i Stre

  7. The Long Game: A Strategic Analysis of Military Drawdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    government acts continually to define the dynamic relationship between the military and the population. Napoleon desired to, “make the French army the...nations. The UN and allied nations began to address the European food shortages, endemic diseases, widespread unemployment, a virtually non-existent...existent glorious past and promising a brighter future, Putin applied a proven formula for success. 78 The Russian annexation of Crimea went to a vote

  8. Simulation and the future of military medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Robert A; Moses, Gerald R; Magee, Harvey

    2002-04-01

    The U.S. military currently faces serious difficulties in training medical personnel in peacetime for the tasks of war. The military beneficiary population comprises fit young service men and women, their dependents, and retirees. Their peacetime care, although vital, does little to prepare military medical personnel for war. Medical commanders have instituted an array of training programs to compensate for this shortfall, but there remains a large gap between operational medical needs and training opportunities in peacetime. The military has begun to examine whether simulation can fill this gap. An array of commercial, off-the-shelf technologies are already being used with varying degrees of success, and major initiatives are under way in both academia and industry, supported by the military, to develop virtual reality products for combat medical training. Even as the military exploits emerging technology and begins to articulate a simulation strategy, there is a growing interest in civilian medicine in the potential for simulation to affect patient safety--how medical simulation might mitigate the injuries and deaths caused by medical errors--and how it might also improve the quality of medical education and training.

  9. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  10. Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, Public Law 106-65, provides that the Secretary of Defense shall submit a report on the current and future military strategy of the People's Republic of China...

  11. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  12. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 20K Loading... ...

  13. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  14. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 19K ...

  15. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 20K ...

  16. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 19K Loading... ...

  17. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  18. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  19. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  20. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  1. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  2. Stress, Sleep and Depressive Symptoms in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flammability of kerosene in civil and military aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochet, I.; Gillard, P. [Universite d' Orleans, Lab. Energetique Explosions Structures, Bourges cedex, 18 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The investigation of the ignition conditions of kerosene vapors in the air contained in an aircraft fuel tank contributes to the definition of onboard safety requirements. Civil and military kerosene are characterized by specification. The specification of civil aviation kerosene is based upon usage requirements and property limits, while military kerosene is primarily controlled by specific chemical composition. Characterization of the flammability properties is a first step for the establishment of aircraft safety conditions. Flash point, vapor pressure, gas chromatography analysis, and flammability properties of the kerosene used by the French Military aviation (F-34 and F-35 kerosene) are compared with the flammability properties of civil kerosene. The empirical law established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1998, expressing the ignition energy in terms of fuel, temperature, flash point and altitude is modified and expressed in terms of fuel temperature, flash point and pressure. (Author)

  4. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    education. Accurate, timely information is required to adapt DoD’s advertising strategies to its target markets . This poll is the most recent in a...and military service, specifically, and (2) develop research-based communications strategies and recommendations for each market . The Defense...section contains a historical perspective on the Department of Defense’s recruitment advertising and market research programs. • The Research

  5. Aspergillus antibody detection: diagnostic strategy and technical considerations from the Société Française de Mycologie Médicale (French Society for Medical Mycology) expert committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, F; Hennequin, C; Gangneux, J P

    2017-04-01

    Until now, there has been no consensus on the best method for the detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies, a key diagnostic tool for chronic aspergilloses. To better appreciate the usage of and confidence in these techniques, the Société Française de Mycologie Médicale (French Society for Medical Mycology; SFMM) performed a two-step survey of French experts. First, we administered an initial survey to French labs performing Aspergillus serology to depict usage of the different techniques available for Aspergillus serology. Second, an opinion poll was conducted of 40 experts via an online questionnaire. Each item was rated from 1 to 9 according to the level of agreement. The initial survey revealed that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (81%) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) (67%) were the most commonly used techniques for screening and confirmation, respectively. The distinction between screening and confirmation techniques was confirmed by the experts (median = 7) with a 44.2% variation coefficient. Only ELISA for screening and IEP and Western blot (WB) for confirmation were clearly considered valuable methods (median ≥8 with variation coefficients less than 30%). The use of a confirmation technique was recommended in the case of a positive result in a compatible clinical context (cystic fibrosis, for example) or during the patient's follow-up. In the case of discordant results between the screening and confirmation techniques, the experts recommended greater confidence in the results obtained with the confirmation technique. All experts emphasized the need to standardize Aspergillus serology techniques and to better define the place of each of them in the diagnosis of aspergillosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Optical correction and quality of vision of the French soldiers stationed in the Republic of Djibouti in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, Rodolphe; Ollivier, Lénaïck

    2011-03-01

    To ensure vision readiness on the battlefield, the French military has been providing its soldiers with eyewear since World War I. A military refractive surgery program was initiated in 2008. A prospective questionnaire-based investigation on optical correction and quality of vision among active duty members with visual deficiencies stationed in Djibouti, Africa, was conducted in 2009. It revealed that 59.3% of the soldiers were wearing spectacles, 21.2% were wearing contact lenses--despite official recommendations--and 8.5% had undergone refractive surgery. Satisfaction rates were high with refractive surgery and contact lenses; 33.6% of eyeglass wearers were planning to have surgery. Eye dryness and night vision disturbances were the most reported symptoms following surgery. Military optical devices were under-prescribed before deployment. This suggests that additional and more effective studies on the use of military optical devices should be performed and policy supporting refractive surgery in military populations should be strengthened.

  7. All-cause mortality and radar exposure among french navy personnel: a 30 years cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabouis, V.; Arvers, P.; Debouzy, J.C.; Perrin, A.; Hours, M.

    2006-01-01

    To improve operational performance in a modern navy force, radiofrequency (RF) and microwaves emitting devices are widely used. It has been suggested that exposure to electromagnetic fields could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. The all-cause mortality of 39488 militaries of the French navy forces was studied over the period 1975-2001 with a cohort epidemiological study. They served from 1975 until 1995. In a first step, the mortality of radar exposed militaries was compared to a control group formed by militaries who served during the same period in the same environment but without radar exposure. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. The age standardized mortality ratio in the radar navy personnel was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.54-0.90). In professional militaries, no difference in mortality ratio was found according to duration of estimated exposure. During a 30 years period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in the French navy personnel who were close to radar equipments

  8. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  9. Families in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family that loses the active presence of a parent through separation faces significant challenges and stress. During the parent's ... children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and stress involved when a parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military ...

  10. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  11. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  12. Pushing the Limits of Military Coercion Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2011-01-01

    by coercion theorists is that coercion is hard and that miscalculation, misperception, or practical problems can defeat even a perfectly executed strategy. What they ignore is that the problem also stems from the limits of coercion theory, which has left us with an unnecessarily poor understanding of how...... military coercion works and how the practical problems involved could be addressed. Our understanding of military coercion would be increased markedly if only coercion theorists would make a greater efforts to do three things, namely (1) provide clear operational definitions of key concepts and variables...

  13. Determinants of compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis among French soldiers during missions in inter-tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradines Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known. Methods The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. "Correct compliance" was defined as "no missed doses" of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model. Results The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6%to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028, a medical history of clinical malaria (p Conclusions The identification of circumstances and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.

  14. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  15. An Analysis of the Military Family Housing Construction Contractor Supplier Base at MCB Camp Pendleton and a Report on How an Understanding of These Trends May Improve the Acquisition Strategy for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannon, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ...? The study surveyed potential Public Private Venture (PPV) developers and current housing construction contractors' attitudes towards the Navy's recent trend in the design, construction, and maintenance of Marine Corps military family housing...

  16. Access issues associated with U.S. military presence in Thailand and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Dilag, Bayani C.

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited In pursuit of the objectives of the U.S. National Security Strategy and the National Military Strategy, the U.S. Armed Forces require access to military and logistics facilities overseas to be able to support and sustain its combat power projection. Access to these places translates into capabilities. An American military forward presence in time of peace as well as during a regional crisis lends credibility to U.S. diplomacy. Moreover...

  17. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  18. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  19. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  20. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  1. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  2. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  3. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  4. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  5. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  6. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  7. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  8. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  9. The struggle of the veterans of the French nuclear tests; La lutte des veterans des essais nucleaires francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The question debated in this article concerns the demand of compensation and recognition of the impact on their health of nuclear tests. The military personnel that worked during nuclear tests in French Polynesia and the Sahara sites, but also the inhabitants of the atolls of Moruroa and Fangataufa equally in French Polynesia. An observatory of the veterans health has been created in order to improve the medical management of military personnel and former military personnel. An association 'Moruroa e tatou' contains the Polynesian former workers of the Nuclear tests of the Pacific and the association A.V.E.N. contains the veterans of nuclear tests. numerous examples are detailed. The question is tackled too for the consequences on health of the British nuclear tests, in Australia, Christmas Islands, and New Zealand. (N.C.)

  10. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  11. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  12. Air-drop blood supply in the French Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaudin, Olivier; Baillon, A; Varin, N; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Civadier, C; Clavier, B; Sailliol, A

    2018-02-12

    Haemorrhagic shock remains the leading cause of preventable death in overseas and austere settings. Transfusion of blood components is critical in the management of this kind of injury. For French naval and ground military units, this supply often takes too long considering the short shelf-life of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) and the limited duration of transport in cooling containers (five to six days). Air-drop supply could be an alternative to overcome these difficulties on the condition that air-drop does not cause damage to blood units. After a period of study and technical development of packaging, four air-drops at medium and high altitudes were performed with an aircraft of the French Air Force. After this, one air-drop was carried out at medium altitude with 10 RBCs and 10 French lyophilised plasma (FLYP). A second air-drop was performed with a soldier carrying one FLYP unit at 12 000 feet. For these air-drops real blood products were used, and quality control testing and temperature monitoring were performed. The temperatures inside the containers were within the normal ranges. Visual inspection indicated that transfusion packaging and dumped products did not undergo deterioration. The quality control data on RBCs and FLYP, including haemostasis, suggested no difference before and after air-drop. The operational implementation of the air-drop of blood products seems to be one of the solutions for the supply of blood products in military austere settings or far forward on battlefield, allowing safe and early transfusion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. MILITARY LEADERSHIP VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.

  14. Armed Conflict in the Chechen Republic in the French Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N. Malishevskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The active phase of the military operations of the armed conflict in Chechnya was completed in 2001. At that time, historians, analysts and journalists created a wide range of theoretical works concerning the conflict. A number of common features on the use of basic resources are discussed in these publications. The degree of accessibility of the sources which focus on the description of the conflict and its socio-political assessment is of great importance for researchers and their objectives. The author analyzes the European (French historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, considers publications and specialized monographs by French authors on the given subject. The author reveals the ideas about the consequences of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, articulated in the works of the European researchers. For the first time within the study of the Western historiography of the war in Chechnya the author analyzes these consequences for both the Russian and Chechen sides. Being one of the most influential historical traditions, French historiography dedicated to the armed conflict in Chechnya is in the stage of development and is characterized by a number of qualitative changes and conceptual approaches.

  15. The Diplomacy of the Jaguar: French Airpower in Postcolonial African Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    turned back. Lorell, Airpower in Peripheral Conflict, 46. 32. Ibid., 48. 33. Ibid., 49. 34. Martel, Histoire Militaire de la France, 563. 35. Lorell...Airpower in Peripheral Conflict, 50. 36. Martel, Histoire Militaire de la France, 563. 37. Chipman, French Military Policy and African Security, 9. 38...Pro- longed Wars: A Post-Nuclear Challenge. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, March 2005. 39 Martel, André, ed. Histoire Militaire de la France

  16. From soldier to marshal: the origin of the ranks of the French army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyadsky V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article discusses one of the fragments of the lexical system of the French language – the origin of terms denoting military ranks in the armed forces of France. The etymological analysis is carried out in close connection with the concrete historical situation which gave rise to the need of such language units. The author outlines the practical basis of the comparative study of the ways of lexical designation of ranks in the major European languages, including Russian.

  17. GENERAL MILITARY HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND SPECIAL FORCES HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. A COMPARATIVE OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Emil PATRICHI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The switch from conscript’s army to an all volunteer force military brought new challenges for the military organization. This is more obvious in the human resource domain than in any other area. In the competition to recruit and retain quality personnel, the military organizations should strategically align the human resource management to the overall strategy. The challenges are greater for the Special Forces because the need for a rigorous selection process to recruit from within the military. The rift already in place between the conventional military and the Special Forces need to be overcome to transform the strain relationship into a positive sum game..

  18. Multimodal Strategies of Theorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... with well-known rhetorical strategies and develop a process model of theorization....

  19. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  20. Forecasting military expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Böhmelt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.

  1. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  2. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... Loading... Loading... Rating is available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right ...

  3. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... is Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) [for posttraumatic stress disorder]? - Duration: 2:01. Veterans Health Administration 27,844 ...

  4. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... 5:31 Get Fit for Life (8) Strength/Balance Training - Duration: 32:02. Veterans Health Administration 2, ...

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... 5:31 Get Fit for Life (8) Strength/Balance Training - Duration: 32:02. Veterans Health Administration 2, ...

  6. The Military Cooperation Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renzi, Jr, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...

  7. The French nuclear policy. A model for security policy in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Between the end of the second world war and the collapse of the Berlin wall, the French diplomacy was based on the nuclear policy in a solid and coherent way. This nuclear policy was an 'incarnation' of the national security conception, allowing France to recover its political, military and economical rank on the international scene. The most important characteristic of the French nuclear policy concerns the commercialization of the nuclear energy which aims to ensuring the national security through the building up of a financial, technological and political 'reserve'. In front of the domination of the USA and USSR during the cold war era, NE Asia had a similar geostrategic configuration as Western Europe. It concerns in particular the massive application of nuclear energy for both military and industrial purposes. The bases of the security policy in this region refers to the real use of the nuclear weapon by the USA against Japan in 1945. The French nuclear policy may be considered as a model for the building of the security policy of NE Asia, in particular through the commercialization of the nuclear technology between the countries in concern. This nuclear approach would allow the countries of these region to change their present day national defense policy into an economical and military cooperation. (J.S.)

  8. [Epidemiologic surveillance of dengue fever in the French army from 1996 to 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, J B; Ollivier-Gay, L; Deparis, X; Durand, J P; Michel, R; Pages, F; Matton, T; Boutin, J P; Tolou, H; Merouze, F; Baudon, D

    2001-01-01

    Dengue fever is a widespread disease that can occur outside tropical areas. Several thousand French military personnel are exposed to this infectious risk each year and exposure is expected to rise with the creation of a professional army and the increasing number of foreign missions. As a result, dengue fever has become a major priority for the Armed Services Health Corps (ASHC). A system of epidemiological surveillance based on the active participation of all military physicians has been designed by the ASHC to collect and analyze all data relevant to cases of dengue fever involving French military personnel stationed overseas or at home. The purpose of this study is to present data compiled for the period from 1996 to 1999. Analysis of these data demonstrated that the incidence of dengue fever peaked in 1997 due to epidemic outbreaks occurring in French Polynesia and Martinique. In response to these outbreaks control measures were adapted especially in regard to vector control. This study shows that the system of surveillance implemented by the ASHC is an effective but still perfectible tool.

  9. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  10. The Professional Military Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    would require of us. (In fact, it could ultimately end up requiring us to do harm.) This is a case of cultural relativism in its least plausible...recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships

  11. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  12. The Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sara E

    2007-01-01

    .... Global jihadis have spent more than 40 years refining their philosophy, gaining experience, building their organization, and developing plans to reestablish what they see as the only true Islamic state on earth...

  13. Extremist Religious Ideologies and Military Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    on bogus tips anonymously supplied by the IRA disinformation operations. Unfortunately, the Royal Ulster Constabulary’s intelligence-gathering...2005. 43John Pike, Federation of American Scientist, Intelligence Resource Services, Serb Volunteer Guard [ SDG / SSJ] “Arkan’s Tigers;” 1 February...learn more about the religion of Islam and the various fundamentalist sects within Islam. This knowledge should be disseminated throughout the chain

  14. National Military Strategy: Army Reserve Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    that resulted in a national unemployment rate of 4.5 % (until this period economic unemployment was generally calculated at 7.0 %).14F15 Though this...vehicles they have in stock today, but also start talking to General Motors about getting some other franchises and allocations for sportier model

  15. Extremist Religious Ideologies and Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William

    2006-01-01

    .... They are extreme because they conduct or sponsor violent acts and because they seek to undermine the legitimacy of a nation's government while instilling fear in the hearts and minds of the population...

  16. Linking Acquisition Decisionmaking With National Military Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    oil ; to defend vital US interests in the Pacific; and to respond to...milestone. The discussion of these issues is documented in a System Concept Paper ( SCP ) which includes a description of the selected alternative to...Wishbone Terrace Cabin John, MD. 20818 LtGen. George Sylvester, USAF (Ret.) 1 126 Takoma Lane Palm Beach Shores, FL. 33404 3 General William Y. Smith, USAF (Ret.) 6541 Brooks Place Falls Church, VA. 22044 3 I - I I I I I I DL,-I

  17. The Educator Market: Military Recruiting Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Anita

    2002-01-01

    .... Eight strategic imperatives, with objectives and tactics, were provided as a blueprint for prioritizing work with educators, The strategic imperatives highlight the importance of continued efforts...

  18. A Campaign of Ropes. An Analysis of the Duke of Wellington's Practice of Military Art During the Peninsular War, 1808 to 1814

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendrick, J

    1998-01-01

    ... advantage in a theater of war. As military theory recognizes two general types of military art, classical strategy and operational art, the research question was constructed to determine if Wellington practiced pure classic...

  19. French Influence on Portuguese Architects in the Age of Enlightenment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayo, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    This investigation shows the European influence on the work of Portuguese architects of the Enlightenment period. Based on previous studies we focus our attention on the design of “Praça do Comércio” square and on a hypothesis, that it was based on the French Royal Square. We demonstrate that the design of Lisbon from the second half of the eighteenth-century was influenced by the theories and best practices of the time. We also confirm that the architect Eugénio dos Santos e Carvalho, a member of the reconstruction team for the Baixa, had in his personal library several reference books of French architectural practice that certainly influenced his architecture. The plans for the main square of Lisbon’s lower city, “Praça do Comércio”, can be compared to the “Place de Nos Conquêtes”, predecessor of the “Place Vêndome”, in its design, architecture and dimensions. This research analysed the cartography and iconography of Lisbon’s reconstruction. In particular, the drawings of “Praça do Comércio” and “Place de nos Conquêtes” were exhaustively studied. The comparative study of the elements for both squares lead to the conclusion that the Portuguese square presents many aspects of the French Age of Enlightenment, and in particular those featured in the “Place de nos Conquêtes”. This paper concludes that the Portuguese urban design and architectural projects of the 18th century are the result of previous knowledge where it was always possible to articulate the vernacular with academic design, and where many different influences left their mark on the culture of the period. The plans for the lower part of Lisbon display a mixture of references that relate to architectural and urban planning traditions of the Portuguese military engineering and contemporary French urban planning.

  20. Bridging the Civil Military Gap Capitalizing on Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    solutions. Researchers identifying the sources of the gap discussed above, have also suggested some methods for reducing the gap . While some are policy...Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April 2002 PAGES: 42 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Researchers have identified a "civil-military gap ," an observable...would indicate a desire by the civilian populous to draw closer to the military, creating an opportunity to close or at least narrow this gap . The media

  1. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  2. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  3. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  4. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  5. Women in interventional cardiology: The French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.

  7. Strategies for improving students' motivation in the learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for improving students' motivation in the learning of French as a foreign language. ... learning should be made fun. The paper recommends that French teachers should give themselves to reading, writing and interaction with colleagues in French and in addition use varieties of methods and materials in teaching.

  8. Pain management and opioid risk mitigation in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe Potter, Jennifer; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Marino, Elise N; Ramos, Rosemarie G; Turner, Barbara J

    2014-05-01

    Opioid analgesics misuse is a significant military health concern recognized as a priority issue by military leadership. Opioids are among those most commonly prescribed medications in the military for pain management. The military has implemented opioid risk mitigation strategies, including the Sole Provider Program and the Controlled Drug Management Analysis and Reporting Tool, which are used to identify and monitor for risk and misuse. However, there are substantial opportunities to build on these existing systems to better ensure safer opioid prescribing and monitor for misuse. Opioid risk mitigation strategies implemented by the civilian sector include establishing clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing and prescription monitoring programs. These strategies may help to inform opioid risk mitigation in the military health system. Reducing the risk of opioid misuse and improving quality of care for our Warfighters is necessary. This must be done through evidence-based approaches with an investment in research to improve patient care and prevent opioid misuse as well as its sequelae. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Military Forces in Urban Antiterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    by French culture architecturally, in city design, in cuisine , and in institutions. Except for the Casbah, Algiers was a French city. The Casbah, by...part of Syria. From the time the two countries were "created" (carved from the Ottoman territories in the Arab world) by the French after World War I...the French , in particular, who have long been interested in Lebanon and who served as the mandatory power for the country from 1920 until 1943, have

  10. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  11. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  12. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  13. Military Culture. A Paradigm Shift?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunivin, Karen

    1997-01-01

    In this study, Lt Col Karen O. Dunivin, USAF, examines social change in American military culture and explores the current struggle between the military's traditional and exclusionary combat, masculine-warrior (CMW...

  14. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  15. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  16. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  17. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  18. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  19. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  20. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  1. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  2. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  3. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  4. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  5. Enlisting in the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors. In light of a number of limitations, replication studies are needed to determine the robustness of these findings and whether they are generalizable to other samples and populations.

  6. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references

  7. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  8. Information is Power, Using Information is Powerful: Components of a National Information Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parks, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    .... The current National Security Strategy addresses diplomatic, economic, and military power, but does not provide any substantial effort to instill an information campaign into the overall national strategy...

  9. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  10. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  11. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  12. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  13. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  14. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  15. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  16. Syria’s Military Capabilities and Options for Military Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities...... and options in order to provide a factual background for the ongoing discussion on possible military intervention in the Syrian conflict and Denmark’s possible participation in such an intervention. The paper is primarily based on the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic...

  17. Successes and failures of sixty years of vector control in French Guiana: what is the next step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Chaney, Sarah C; Guidez, Amandine; Habchi-Hanriot, Nausicaa; Talaga, Stanislas; Wang, Lanjiao; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2018-03-12

    Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide. This publication highlights successes and failures in vector control and identifies the constraints and expectations for vector control in this French overseas territory in the Americas.

  18. Successes and failures of sixty years of vector control in French Guiana: what is the next step?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanouk Epelboin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide. This publication highlights successes and failures in vector control and identifies the constraints and expectations for vector control in this French overseas territory in the Americas.

  19. Military Personnel Who Seek Health and Mental Health Services Outside the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Cruz, Mario; Shuey, Bryant; Smithers, Daniel; Muncy, Laura; Noble, Marylou

    2018-05-01

    (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49, 0.99, p = 0.05). Significant predictors were not found for major depression, alcohol use disorder, or suicidal ideation. Clients' narrative themes included fear of reprisal for seeking services, mistrust of command, insufficient and unresponsive services, cost as a barrier to care, deception in recruitment, voluntary enlistment remorse, guilt about actual or potential killing of combatants or non-combatant civilians, preexisting mental health disorders, family and household challenges that contributed to distress, and military sexual trauma. Our work clarified substantial unmet needs for services among active duty military personnel, the limitations of programs based in the military sector, and the potential value of civilian sector services that are not linked to military goals. We and our institutional review board opted against using a control group that would create ethical problems stemming from the denial of needed services. For future research, an evaluative strategy that can assess the impact of civilian services and that reconciles ethical concerns with study design remains a challenge. Due to inherent contradictions in the roles of military professionals, especially the double agency that makes professionals responsible to both clients and the military command, the policy alternative of providing services for military personnel in the civilian sector warrants serious consideration, as do preventive strategies such as non-military alternatives to conflict resolution.

  20. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs, defence and military forces about the bill authorizing the approval of the additional protocol to the construction agreement between the French government and the International organization of fusion energy for the joint implementation of the ITER project, and relative to the role of the labour inspection on the ITER international organization site and dealing with occupational health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    This additional protocol to the construction agreement between the French Government and the ITER Organization aims at allowing the French labour inspection services to control the good respect of the French occupational health and safety regulation at the project site (Cadarache, Bouches du Rhone) and to play its role of adviser to the persons responsible for the organization. The report briefly recalls the ITER project and its organization, and then presents the actual situation and the objective of the additional protocol. (J.S.)

  1. Changing the Food Environment: The French Experience12

    OpenAIRE

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been bann...

  2. “Gallia and Gaul, French and Welsh” (MWW, 3.1.89: Transposing Shakespeare’s ‘Favourite’ Foreign Accents into French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Mylène

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Merry Wives of Windsor has long been compared to a great babel of languages. The play contains a smattering of Spanish, Italian and Dutch and even a whole scene dedicated to the mistranslation of Latin. A large part of the play’s humour also heavily relies on the foreign accents of two characters: the French Doctor Caius and the Welsh parson Sir Hugh Evans. If Christopher Luscombe’s 2008/2010 production of The Merry Wives at Shakespeare’s Globe theatre in London bears testimony to the success of cross-language and accent-based comedy as a source of laughter on today’s English stage, it seems rather implausible, at first sight, that French translations, adaptations and stagings of these accents and linguistic idiosyncrasies should be greeted with the same degree of hilarity. Indeed, how should the Welsh and French accents, both representing real stumbling blocks for French-speaking translators of the play, be transposed into French? What translation strategies can the latter devise? And to what extent can some of those strategies be said to be politically correct? Focusing on Shakespeare’s ‘favorite’ (predominant accents and the significance and impact of such linguistic comedy, I shall examine the question of their problematic translation through the analysis and comparison of a number of translations and stagings of The Merry Wives of Windsor into French.

  3. The Search for Suitable Strategy: Threat-Based and Capabilities-Based Strategies in a Complex World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    the 1973 Arab-Israeli War show that the true path to suitable strategy is a measure of forethought and theoretical planning exercises to shape habits ...is a measure of forethought and theoretical planning exercises to shape habits of thought and identify risks or shortcomings inherent in a chosen...political direction to the military instrument of power , while military strategy links military means to those 22 Oxford Dictionaries, s.v. “Strategy

  4. The Transgender Military Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dietert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.

  5. THE MILITARY GLIDER REVISITED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    briefest life span of any major military equipment type - spanning not ... that country. The disadvantages of this to PLAN ... increasingly hamper the employment of heli- .... time, both attack and medium helicopters could .... balance out his armoured superiority and to im- ... derable flexibility to our operations and enhance.

  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma ... MST. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/msthom... Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  7. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  8. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual ...

  9. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  10. Military radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Defence and the military in particular have a very strong commitment to radiation protection of personnel in war and peace. MOD endeavours to do better all the time because it is essential that the armed forces have the confidence to fulfil their role and this is best achieved by providing them with the best possible protection irrespective of the hazard. (author)

  11. The Military Instructor's Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Peter; Grønlund, Thomas

    The Military Instructor's handbook was written for the basic professional training of instructors in the danish defence. The book describes the work of instructors and their areas of responsibility, and it offers guidance and direction on how to plan, conduct and evaluate learning activities...

  12. Slowing Military Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    existential fear of one’s superpower rival. Nor was the Cold War the only arms race in history: naval rivalry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries...Military Review, July-August 2006; Norman Solomon, “The Bogus Blurring of Terrorism and Insurgency in Iraq,” The Humanist , Vol. 66, No. 2, March-April

  13. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... MST. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/msthom... Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  14. Assessment of the impacts of the french nuclear program on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of the French nuclear program on atmosphere pollution is based on a macroeconomic long term model MELODY particularly detailed for the energy sector. The French energy strategy, characterized by its nuclear program, is compared with an alternative coal strategy based on coal-fired power plants. The coal strategy would have entailed different economic performances, a different energy balance, and, consequently, a different quality of air. For instance, by 1990, carbon emissions would have been 60% higher with the coal strategy; actually, they are 27% lower today than their 1973 level. The French nuclear program resulted both in a carbon emission reduction similar to the Toronto Conference target, and in a significant improvement of economic performances. 4 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 tab

  15. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  16. The Image of Russia in French Travel Literature of the XIXth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M. Aroutiounova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the literature of travel of French authors of the XIXth century. Authers put the aim to create the general investigation dedicated to this therm, bringing in the quality of the source base as a quite famous works of the French travelers and writers, and little-known to a wide circle of readers. XIX century is a time of expanding cultural, humanitarian, diplomatic contacts between Russia and France, which resulted in an increase in the number of foreigners who traveled to Russia, and, consequently, of the works explaining all the features of the trip, impressions, fears, etc. During this period, the Europeans started to visit not only Moscow and Saint Petersburg, but also Siberia, the Far East, the geography of travelling considerably expanded, and new works of foreigners about Russia appeared. Still, as in the previous epoch, the French authors writed about traditions and mores, the state and social structure, religious peculiarities, the culture of Russia. In general, the travel literature on Russia is significantly enriched, indicating the increasing interest of the Russian state.It is not only about informative motives, but also need to learn the realities of the Russian state, the mood in society, the level of military capabilities etc.Notes of a travelling foreigners were thus provided very valuable information about the state of affairs in Russia, it was important for European readers and, of course, diplomats, military and the rulers of other states. Of course, the French authors reproduced pictures seen in Russia through the prism of their own experience, political affiliation, certain stereotypes and myths about the Russian state and people, developed in a previous era. However, despite a certain subjectivity in the estimates and judgments, the works of French authors are a very valuable source in the framework of imagological research, studying the image of «their» and «alien» in the view of

  17. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  18. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  19. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  20. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  1. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  2. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  3. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  4. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  5. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  6. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  7. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  8. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  9. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  10. Atlas of peaceful and military nuclear activities (from origins to proliferation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliand, G.; Jan, M.

    1993-01-01

    This atlas collects worldwide geopolitical data and maps concerning peaceful and military activities. It is made of six parts: (1) origins (history); (2) strategies; (3) nuclear fuel cycle; (4) peaceful activities; (5) military activities; (6) proliferation. (D.L.). figs., maps

  11. Military Social Work as an Exemplar in Teaching Social Work Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, James G.; Carlson, Joan; Evans, Pinkie

    2015-01-01

    This article is for social work educators unfamiliar with military social work and receptive to a number of exemplars to enhance teaching strategies within their courses. Because examples of military social work are directly tied to the Council on Social Work Education competencies, this article offers a number of suggested teaching strategies…

  12. Emotional Reactions and Moral Judgment: the Effects of Morally Challenging Interactions in Military Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Miriam; Schut, M; Verweij, D.E.M.; Vermetten, H.G.J.M.; Giebels, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the association between different types of morally challenging interactions during military deployment and response strategies (e.g., moral justification), as well as the mediating role of moral emotions. Interviews with Dutch servicemen who participated in military operations

  13. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  14. Imperialism, colonial identity, and race in Algeria, 1830-1870. The role of the French Medical Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcin, P M

    1999-12-01

    During the military administration of Algeria, which lasted for forty years, the foundation of the French colony was laid. Indispensable to the military in Algeria was its sizable medical corps. While the ostensible reason for its presence was to maintain the soldiers' health and thus the army's efficiency, it role extended beyond this primary objective. Starting from the intellectual and political influences that shaped the training in France of the members of the medical corps, this essay examines the ways in which they contributed to the creation of a French colonial space in Algeria. It traces how their involvement in the intellectual, cultural, and political life of the colony enabled them both to further their own ambitions and to influence wider developments. It explores how colonial physicians and surgeons, deemed to be among the most efficient agents of the civilizing mission owing to their humane contacts with the indigenous population, in fact contributed to that population's categorization and marginalization.

  15. A search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: proof of concept and evaluation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-12-01

    PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese.

  16. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  17. Strategy-to-Task Resource Management: Application of Hierarchies in Defense Resource Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaspar, Tamas

    1999-01-01

    .... The Strategy-to-Task method provides a framework for solving this deficiency by establishing a hierarchy, starting from national objectives, through military objectives and missions to military tasks...

  18. Shrinking the Civil-Military Divide: A Military Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    behavior and rights, the values of the military are different and unique. Senior military officers highlight the importance of understanding the...Examples include on-base housing, shopping , schools, children’s sports leagues, and community and social events such as concerts, comedy shows, and movies... mall , a sporting event, or the movies provides a simple, 16 Skelton, “The Civil-Military Gap

  19. Unconventional Military Advising Mission Conducted by Conventional US Military Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar, Remi M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how and why many contemporary US mainstream military advisors—as compared to Special Forces advisors—often work from a position of disadvantage when conducting unconventional advising missions. Post-9/11 deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan have caused the US military to adapt to myriad complexities, including a renewed need for the widespread execution of the unconventional military advising mission by the Special Forces and conventional units. Although Special Forces ty...

  20. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    funded autism study – it covers autism spectrum disorders . He was not aware that DOD had this subject in their portfolio. He will be working with Dr...serotonin transporter gene and family history of depression? Journal of Affective Disorders , 77, 273-275. 8. Joiner, T., Sheldon, K., Williams, G...the military, impact unit morale, and take a large emotional toll on the involved friends, family , and commanders. As noted before with continued

  1. Military Psychology for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available are unaware of the causes and symptoms of PTSD, and that awareness training at junior leadership levels could provide commanders with critical skills and insight to identify, manage, coordinate and facilitate such incidents before the situation gets... and group level is discussed in the context of contributing toward the end state of combat readiness. The critical contribution of leadership (p. 263), personal relationships both within the military and personal life as well as the construct of hardiness...

  2. Military Personnel Law Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Recreation Centers (AFRCs) and the Army Recreation Machine Program (ARMP), NAF Major Construction program, and NAF employee benefit programs... Bingo . • Bowling Centers (over 12 lanes). • Food, Beverage, and Entertainment Operations. • Golf Courses. • Military Clubs. • Others...nds. ach service has specific policies. (2) Funds must be used for the collective benefit of all unit members for off-duty recreational purposes

  3. Nanotechnology in Military Development

    OpenAIRE

    Andrus Pedai; Igor Astrov

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the new cyber, according to several major leaders in this field. Just as cyber is entrenched across global society now, nano is poised to be major capabilities enabler of the next decades. Expert members from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (in U.S.) representing government and science disciplines say nano has great significance for the military and the general public. It is predicted that after next 15 years nanotechnology will replace information technology as the m...

  4. Movies and the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    by the hundreds. The most popular subjects were his tor ical dramas, comedies , simplistic versions of the classics, and sentimental domestic and...Germans and the making of a world "safe for democracy." All the war films, even the slapstick comedies , presented a simple view of the conflict-the...an exciting and romantic background for a love story or a musical. The value of military preparedness was implied strongly in these films which

  5. Converting Resources from Military to Non-military Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Brauer; John Tepper Marlin

    1992-01-01

    As a proportion of gross national product, U.S. military spending has declined steadily since the mid-1980s. The end of the Cold War has given rise to calls for even more cuts in military spending. In early 1992, President George Bush proposed to reduce military spending by 3 percent per year, in real dollars, for the next five years. The Democratic leadership in the House of Representatives countered with a plan calling for substantially deeper cuts. Any substantial changes in military expen...

  6. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  7. [Civilian-military coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  8. Military radiobiology: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.I.; Conklin, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Acute medical consequences affecting military personnel fall into two major classes: early events affecting performance and later more lethal events associated with single and combined injuries. If cells survive the radiation insult, they have the capability for repair. But the patient must survive fluid loss, infection, and bleeding defects until this can occur. Although no one can ever eliminate the incomprehensible destruction of human life associated with the use of nuclear weapons, significant medical advances can be achieved that will increase the performance and recovery of persons exposed to these weapons. Furthermore, these medical advances will go far toward improving the life and functioning of persons undergoing radiotherapy, trauma, accidental exposures, or a variety of other clinical situations. In the near future, the military battlefield will move into another dimension - space. Once outside the geomagnetic shield of the earth, military prsonnel will be exposed to a formidable array of new radiations. Among the new radiations will be high solar energy, solar particles and flares, and heavy nuclei from galactic cosmic arrays. Associated stresses will be microgravity, vibration, and isolation. To protect man in these new environments will truly challenge our ingenuity. This book looks at various medical consequences we face as a result of nuclear energy

  9. The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in the French Armed Forces: epidemiological surveillance and operational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Mayet, Aurélie; Bédubourg, Gabriel; Duron, Sandrine; Michel, Rémy; Deparis, Xavier; Rapp, Christophe; Godart, Patrick; Migliani, René; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a newly implemented daily surveillance system to the management of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic by the military decision-makers at different levels in the French Department of Defence. The study sample included all medical advisors in the Ministry of Defence and the French Armed Forces Staff and also the members of the specific committee dedicated to flu pandemic control. The variables studied were mental representation of epidemiology, relevance, usefulness, and real-time use of surveillance data using quantitative questionnaires and qualitative face-to-face semistructured interviews. Among the risk managers of the flu pandemic in the Armed Forces, 84% responded. The data generated by epidemiological surveillance were considered relevant and useful, and were reported as effectively used. On the basis of the information produced, concrete actions were planned and implemented in the French Armed Forces. In a pandemic situation involving low mortality, the daily monitoring of the disease did not target public health issues, but it was mainly used to assess the availability of the Armed Forces in real time. For the military staff, epidemiological surveillance represents an essential information tool for the conduct of operations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  11. Foreign direct investments into French real estate

    OpenAIRE

    BRIZARD, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to draw the global trend of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in the French real estate market since 2008 and to understand foreign investors’ behavior and the incentives which urge them to invest in French property market. This study relies on the numerous yearly reports released by consulting and real estate companies and gives an overview of FDI since 2008. From a legal point of view, the French property market is extremely organized. Acquiring, holding and sel...

  12. Pedagogy and second language learning: Lessons learned from Intensive French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Netten

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through research and classroom observation undertaken while conceptualizing and implementing the Intensive French program in Canada, many new insights were gained into the development of communication skills in a classroom situation. Five lessons learned about the development of spontaneous oral communication are presented in this article: the ineffectiveness of core French in primary school; the minimum number of intensive hours necessary to develop spontaneous oral communication; the need to develop implicit competence rather than explicit knowledge; the distinction between accuracy as knowledge and accuracy as skill; and the importance of teaching strategies focusing on language use. These lessons have implications for our understanding of how oral competence in an L2 develops and for the improvement of communicative language pedagogy.

  13. The Diffusion of Military Dictatorships

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Caruso; Ilaria Petrarca; Roberto Ricciuti

    2012-01-01

    We show the existence of a diffusion process of military dictatorships in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1972 through 2007, using panel data probit estimation and a Markov chain transition model. This process is shortly-lived, since we observe an overall trend that reduces the number of military regimes. We also find that Manufacturing share of GDP, Primary share of GDP positively affect the probability of military dictatorship, and Openness to trade, whereas the British colonial origin are negative...

  14. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  15. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    to military, and to make them able to operate effectively in multicultural dimensions. This cultural impact forced the military doctrine to adapt...degree the research findings and conclusions. The bibliography reviewed for this thesis is available at the Combined Arms Research Library . Unfortunately...in terms of increased ability of understanding and operating in a different cultural or multicultural setting, led the military decision makers to

  16. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Alternative Governance: A Tool for Military Laboratory Reform (Defense Horizons, Number 34, November 2003)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coffey, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    .... This strategy depended on a strong research and development (R&D) effort in both the public and private sectors, and the community of military laboratories in the Department of Defense played an essential role in the overall effort...

  18. Legitimate Use of Military Force Against State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erickson, Richard

    1989-01-01

    ... is part of a larger strategy that seeks to maximize the risk of punishment for terrorists and their sponsors and supporters while minimizing their potential rewards, In this context military action...

  19. Long-Term Military Contingency Operations: Identifying the Factors Affecting Budgeting in Annual or Supplemental Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Amanda B

    2006-01-01

    .... The results show that planning, timing, accountability, visibility, politics and policy, stakeholder influence, military objectives, and fear of change are the most important factors. These findings can help stakeholders shape funding strategy.

  20. Moral Courage or Heresy: The Benefits and Pitfalls of Military Leaders Speaking Out

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matt, Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    Thesis: Military leaders who allow their experience and loyalty to their oath guide their actions when speaking out in the proper forums for or against policies, strategies, or ideals can positively affect...

  1. Civil-Military Relations and Gen. Maxwell Taylor: Getting It Right and Getting It Wrong

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tart, Randal

    1997-01-01

    ... are paid. In the first situation, Taylor got his civil-military relations right, even though he fought a losing battle with President Eisenhower over Ike's dangerous defense strategy of 'massive retaliation...

  2. Sexual Victimization and the Military Environment: Contributing Factors, Vocational, Pyschological, and Medical Sequelae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadler, Anne

    1996-01-01

    ... (such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder). Such information could lead to the development of specific prevention strategies and thereby directly improve service women's safety, health, and military effectiveness...

  3. Using a Competitive Approach to Improve Military Simulation Artificial Intelligence Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoykov, Sevdalin

    2008-01-01

    ...) design can lead to improvement of the AI solutions used in military simulations. To demonstrate the potential of the competitive approach, ORTS, a real-time strategy game engine, and its competition setup are used...

  4. Radio cobalt in French rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrechts, A.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopes 58 and 60 of cobalt present in liquid wastes from nuclear plants or from fuel reprocessing plant of Marcoule are fixed in the different compartments of French rivers. The activity levels of radio-cobalt vary according to the sampled compartments nature (bryophyta > immersed plants > sediment > fish). Elsewhere, laboratory experimentations show that the contamination of fish occurs essentially from the water way rather than from food. Cobalt is mainly fixed by kidneys; muscles is no more than 30 % of the total fish activity. (author)

  5. French programme for HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported that in the frameworks of the French HTR research program, stopped in 1979 the HTR coated particle fuel, fuel rod and prismatic fuel element design have been successfully developed and irradiation tested in France and specific examination methods for irradiated fuel particles, rods and graphite blocks have been developed. Currently CEA is involved in fission product transport experiments sponsored by the US Department of Energy and performed in the COMEDIE loop. Finally the CEA follows progress and developments in HTR fuel research and development throughout the world. 1 tab

  6. French regulations and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the organization and the role of safety authorities in France in matter of waste management. They precise the French policy in waste storage and treatment: basic objectives, optimization of waste management. The safety requirements are based upon the barrier principle. Safety requirements about waste conditioning and waste disposal are mentioned. In addition to the safety analysis and studies described above, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute assists the ministerial authorities in the drafting of ''basic safety rules (RFS)'', laying down safety objectives. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 deal with safety aspects in spent fuel storage and in transportation of radioactive materials [fr

  7. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. The Hidden Lincoln in French Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln has never served as a model for French politicians. He was indeed compared to Carnot, the organizer of the French Revolutionary wars. But when Clemenceau led France in WWI, when De Gaulle stood for France’s independence in WWII, nobody thought of comparing them to Lincoln. This essay analyzes French public opinion during the American Civil War with a focus on Lincoln, based on a study of the few French books published between 1860 and 1865 on the US, diaries, a sample of conservative and republican daily papers, weekly reviews and illustrated newspapers.

  9. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Colloquial French: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to French as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in French in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial French is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range

  10. Crisis in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, F.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the economics of the French nuclear power industry. It considers the dominant position of nuclear power in the French energy system, stresses the scale and causes of the current (1990) economic crisis and dispels the popular misconceptions on the cost efficiency of the French programme. The evidence is based on widely available French documents and articles. The report begins by looking at the background of nuclear power in France then discusses the problem of overcapacity, the technical problems and fall in load factors, generating costs and electricity prices and finally, strategic issues are considered. (UK)

  11. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Military experience and levels of stress and coping in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tara A; Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2013-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study Officers were categorized into three groups: non-military (n = 334), non-combat military (n = 84), and military with combat (n = 34). Age, sex and education adjusted levels of psychological stress and coping measures were compared across the three groups using ANCOVA. P-values were derived from post-hoc comparisons. Non-military police officers had significantly higher stress levels for physically and psychological threatening events compared to non-combat officers (p = 0.019). Non-military officers also reported experiencing significantly more organizational stressors and physically and psychologically threatening events in the past year than combat and non-combat officers (p military officers (p = 0.010, p = 0.005, respectively). In summary, police officers without military experience reported experiencing more organizational and life-threatening events than officers who served in the military. Yet combat officers were less likely to utilize positive coping than non-combat and non-military officers. These findings demonstrate the potential positive influence of military experience on police stress. Further research is needed as military veterans return to police work.

  13. Mainstreaming Military Compensation: Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacDonald, David

    1998-01-01

    Changes to the military retirement system in the 1980's and attention by law makers, military leadership, and service members to pay comparability between the private sector and the military indicate...

  14. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  15. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  16. Military involvement in post-conflict transformation in African peace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict transformation is a difficult task, since renewed violence frequently flares up after peace treaties have been signed. Failure to end conflict often results from misinterpretations of the roots or an inability of the conflict to create suitable exit strategies for military forces. Reintegration of soldiers and non-state armed ...

  17. Summary of Military Manpower Market Research Studies: A Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    significant implications for recruiting and advertising managers on programs offered, marketing and advertising strategies, advertising messages, and the...operation was adopted. Over the past 10 years, military recruiting has become a leader in marketing and advertising ’ research. Although the aii-ection

  18. THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY IN TRANSITION: PART 2 – FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerhard Louw;Abel Esterhuyse

    preferred strategic management model of the South African National .... This means that any two organisations, distinct in terms of strategic .... analysis of its realised strategy by applying only four tests: those of ..... to defend South Africa against external military aggression” – a contingency that ..... Harvard Business Review.

  19. The Statesman and Commander: Civil-Military Dialogue in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Nations. We will not buy an armistice by turning over human beings for slaughter or slavery .”117In agreement, the JCS further argued that caving in on the...Gordon Craig, “Delbruck: The Military Historian,” in Makers of Modern Strategy, ed. Perter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 341...The Command and General Staff School Press, 1936. Craig, Gordon. “Delbruck: The Military Historian.” In Makers of Modern Strategy. Edited by Peter

  20. Energy security of French armies. The oil support in the context of transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Ever since its inception on the eve of World War One, the concept of securing fuel supply has consistently proven its vitality to military operations. In France, this mission is handled by the Service des Essences des Armees (SEA) since 1945. By controlling the chain of fuel supply, the SEA has been able to serve as a key organization in supporting French armed forces integration within NATO as well as their operations overseas. However, the SEA is now facing new challenges due to both external hazards (both structural and contextual) and internal vulnerabilities which combine into a systemic 'energy risk' that needs to be addressed. In order to do so in the near future, French armed forces will have to fully embrace the challenges of energy transition, so as to turn internationally recognized concepts such as 'Green Defense' into operational reality. (author)

  1. French high level wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.J.; Sombret, C.G.

    1980-06-01

    The first French spent fuel reprocessing plant went on stream in 1956 at Marcoule. Since then, all French irradiated fuels and some foreign spent fuels have been reprocessed either in this plant or in a subsequent plant built at La Hague. Marcoule is primarily devoted to metallic fuels, and La Hague to oxide fuels. The fission products solutions generated by reprocessing are acid liquids. They are stored on site in double walled stainless steel tanks fitted with a cooling device to deal with thermal release due to radioactive decay. Although these liquids are retrievable and can be transfered from one tank to another, and in spite of the fact that no disturbance such as overheating or leakage has ever occurred, a decision was made to solidify these solutions in order to make interim storage and, later on, ultimate disposal, safer and easier to control. Glass was chosen, because it is a flexible medium to deal with and it answers the quality requirements of ultimate disposal as well as the manufacturing constraints, such as equipment corrosion, volatilization during fabrication, and suitability to casting into canisters

  2. Murder in French criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Military Science, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense, Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  4. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Don J

    2009-01-01

    .... Known as Tricare, this system of military and private health care offers benefits to active duty personnel and other beneficiaries, including dependents of active duty personnel, military retirees...

  5. Typhus, yellow fever and Medicine in Mexico during the French intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo-Ramírez, Monserrat; Zavaleta-Castro, Jesús; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2018-01-01

    French intervention in Mexico (1861-1867) is particularly full of episodes of patriotic heroism in terms of military, politic and, even, religious affairs, however this history is also rich in episodes related to diseases and the evolution of Mexican scientific medicine practice, epidemics such as typhus (nowadays knows as rickettsiosis), yellow fever, or cholera. Principally, this context outlined the Mexican history and influenced the course of the nation. The epidemics served as fertile land for the development of medicine science leading by prominent physicians, particularly by doctor Miguel Francisco Jiménez. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  6. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  7. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  9. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  10. The absent father of Sino-French cinema: Contemporary Taiwanese cinema and 1950s French auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, ME

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. In contemporary Sino-French cinema, father characters who are dead, long lost or geographically distant leave gaping holes in the lives of the offspring left behind. The absent fathers in Sino-French films by Taiwanese auteurs Cheng Yu-chieh, Hou Hsiao-hsien and Tsai Ming-liang serve as metaphors for French auteurs. French New Wave films constitute the majority of the intertexts; however, early 1950s French cinema and even late nineteenth-century painting reflect th...

  11. Military Families: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CTC_depression_family_sheet.pdf U.S. Army War College. Basics from the Barracks: Military Etiquette and Protocol ; A Spouse’s Quick Reference to Its Unique Customs...http://youtu.be/zfTknLkDPTY U.S. Army War College. Military Family Program. Customs & Courtesies/ Protocol . Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College

  12. Military Contractors - Too Much Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Nathan E

    2008-01-01

    .... There is undoubtedly a need for military contractors and there are numerous positive arguments in their favor. However, the negative arguments have not been highlighted enough recently and the scales are now out of balance. The intent of this research paper is to encourage the U.S. military to rebalance the scales and curb the over-reliance on contractors.

  13. The Death of Military Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness

  14. Psychological Safety During Military Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan

    Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,

  15. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  16. Teaching in Overseas Military Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Reveals strengths and weaknesses encountered by a psychology teacher involved in the overseas graduate counseling program for Ball State University. Problems included lack of proper teaching and counseling facilities, long teaching hours, and civilian teachers' ignorance of military protocol. Advantages included helping military personnel obtain a…

  17. The Effectiveness of Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    against the heart of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in 1941. Italy’s uneven naval buildup, stressing submarines and unemployed battleships, posed a particular...military, not to speak of a society which has yet to recover from its psychic wounds. How to arrange our American military institutions so that they

  18. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  19. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 257 ... be regarded, according to Gouws (2007: 314), as externally motivated products. .... Fair attention is given to different style or normative levels, i.e. .... differs enough from standard French to be regarded as a new emerging lan- ..... Tous les leaders des par-.

  20. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  1. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  2. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  3. French for Specific Purposes: The Hawaiian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouis, Mustapha

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of and the reaction to a course in Business French at the University of Hawaii. Its success, coupled with its recognition by state and academic officials, brought about the initiation of similar courses in other languages and the development of French for travel industry management majors. (SED)

  4. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  5. The French Language in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  6. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. Health Information in French (français)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

  8. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  9. Changing the food environment: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-07-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been banned. Since 2007, companies in France's food industry have had the option of signing the national government's "Charte d'engagement volontaire de progrès nutritionnel" (charter of commitments to nutritional improvements) which aims to benefit all consumers. A standard reference document, developed by public authorities as the basis for decisions made by a committee of experts in the food industry, aims to validate the voluntary commitments made by companies to improve the nutrient content of the foods they produce. There is strict follow-up. A Food Quality Observatory was created in 2009 to monitor the nutrient quality of the food supply in France. Various results show the positive impact of these actions.

  10. Pragmatics of Emotions in Modern French Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Степановна Борисова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its communicative specifics studying of modern printed discourse of advertising basing on the theory of emotivity is of special interest to the scientists. The manifestation and expression of emotions in the context of advertising communication is an intention of the author of the advertisement message to cause a specific emotional reaction from the recipient (target audience, to influence her/him in a sought way. The aim of this article is to elicit forms of verbal explications of emotional dominants, actualized in modern french advertising discourse and to determine their roles in the realization of its pragmatic orientation. Basing on methodology of linguistics of emotion, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and methods of pragmatic, discursive, comparative, cross-cultural analysis we have allocated emotional/ emotive representations pragmatic orientation of which correlates with the extent of emotional openness or restraint of the participants of the discourse of advertising, touches upon the field of social norms of emotional behavior and is determined by national cultural specifics. Particular attention is given to appellative models/strategies, relevant to this specific type of discourse. The peculiarities of emotional argumentation are analyzed in comparison with rational ones on the basis of modern printed advertising texts.

  11. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  12. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Stars War in French Gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergaud, Olivier; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the careers from a sample of more than 1,000 top French chefs over more than twenty years and link it to the success or reputation of the restaurants where they have worked. This allows us to test what are the determinants of success but also to investigate the dynamics...... of performance and reputation, stressing the importance of the quality of apprenticeships, mentoring and entrepreneurship spirit. We find that the prestige of the restaurant where individuals work is on average declining along the career, and that the quality of apprenticeship is strongly related to the future...... success as chef. We also find that prices of restaurants with higher reputation are more sensitive to bad signals....

  14. Disputing Rossellini: Three French perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Harvey-Davitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his burgeoning body of film theoretical work the French philosopher Jacques Rancière repeatedly turns to some canonical films by Neorealist pioneer Roberto Rossellini. Not simply retreading tired motifs of Neorealism, Rancière’s comments offer some profound new insights, revolutionising prior perspectives on Rossellini. In this article I shall put Rancière’s perspective into dialogue with two of the most significant of these perspectives: André Bazin’s and Gilles Deleuze’s. In doing so I shall claim that Rancière’s approach departs radically from the canonised, standardised Neorealist conception of Rossellini. Instead, I wish to claim that he describes a modernist artist primarily concerned with aesthetic clashes. In doing so I shall contemplate how the meaning of these films has evolved since the era of their contemporary reception, demonstrating the congruence and disparity between these three disparate approaches.

  15. Assessment and perspective of the French wind sector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, Jerome; Ranchin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    This report first proposes an inventory of public and private research laboratories already involved in the field of wind energy, an inventory of their expertise, and an inventory of education and training programs in this field. The next part proposes a comparative study of research and education in the field of wind energy among European countries: presentation of French industrial actors, overview of the world wind energy industry, overview of the situation in some countries (Germany, Denmark, Spain and United States), overview of research in these countries and in France, overview of European education and comparison with France. The authors then report an identification of industrial R and D needs with a description of the French sector (industrial actors, public bodies and professional association, R and D laboratories), an analysis of the main development modalities (site selection, environmental study, town planning document, public survey, construction permit, connection to the grid), an analysis of main obstacles (connection, intermittency, environment as a source of conflicts and stakes, opponents), a brief evocation of tariffs, and an analysis of technology (current research themes, analysis of existing R and D European strategies). The last part reports an identification of strengths of the French research, and states some restructuring proposals

  16. Impact of French advertising campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads

  17. Particular intervention plan of Cherbourg's military harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the military harbour of Cherbourg (Manche, France) which hosts several nuclear facilities devoted to the construction and dismantling of nuclear submarines (without weapons)

  18. Orchestrating French Music Conservatories: European Political Interventions and Local Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raevskikh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the omnipresent State in the past, French music education leans increasingly towards a more liberal and competitive model. In the current context of a decentralized economy and European integration, music conservatories are called upon to contribute to regional and municipal development and enhance European student mobility. How do conservatories react to the restructuring of the competitive field? How do they affect European territorial cohesion? Are they managing adaptive or hybrid strategies with new conceptions of music education? Alternatively, do they gradually move away from the marketplace and become an obsolete and difficult heritage to maintain? To answer these questions, it is necessary to analyze the current balance of power among the different elements of the French multi-level system of conservatories, including communal, inter-communal, departmental, regional, national and European institutions. By combining different sources of spatial and statistical data, this paper contributes to constructing a comparative institutional geography of French multi-level territorial divisions. Extraction and treatment of the small data with SPSS statistical software allowed us to build a number of small-scale datasets that were merged to broader geographical databases from the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE. The geographical units that structure the INSEE databases (the zip and district codes, codes of regions, departments, GPS coordinates made possible the location of each conservatory within municipal, departmental, regional and national spaces. A cartographic approach to studying music conservatories allows the identification of problems that deserve further detailed qualitative and statistical study in the future.

  19. On Military Innovation: Toward an Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    What is military innovation? How should we think about Chinese military innovation? By developing an analytical framework that captures both the components of military innovation (technology, doctrine, and organization) and the continuum of change, we can better assess the nature, extent, and importance of contemporary Chinese military innovation.

  20. Patient Satisfaction in Military Dental Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-07

    the variance in regards to overall satisfaction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dentistry, Patient Satisfaction, Military, Consumer Satisfaction, Dental... patient satisfaction in military dental treatment facilities. Dental health is extremely important for the military as dental assets are not always... customer satisfaction is an important component of military dental care. Quarterly patient satisfaction reports are generated for each dental treatment