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Sample records for french german italian

  1. Meaning in life and perceived quality of life in Switzerland: results of a representative survey in the German, French and Italian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mathieu; Braunschweig, Giliane; Fegg, Martin Johannes; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2015-09-29

    The concept of meaning in life (MIL) has become a central one in recent years, particularly in psycho-oncology and palliative care. The Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMILE) has been developed to allow individuals to choose the life areas that they consider to be important for their own MIL. This approach relates to the "World Health Organisation" definition of quality of life (QOL) as an individual's perception of his own position. The aims of this study were (i) to assess MIL in a representative sample of the Swiss population according to the three linguistic regions and (ii) to evaluate whether MIL constitutes a significant determinant of the perceived QOL. A telephone survey of the Swiss population, performed by a professional survey company, was conducted between November and December 2013. The interview included the SMILE, perceived QOL (0-10) and health status (1-5), and various sociodemographic variables. In the SMILE, an index of weighting (IOW, 20-100), an index of satisfaction (IOS, 0-100), and a total SMILE index (IOWS, 0-100) are calculated from the areas mentioned by the participants as providing MIL. Among the 6671 telephonic contacts realized, 1015 (15%) participants completed the survey: 405 French, 400 German and 210 Italian participants. "Family" (80.2%), "occupation/work" (51%), and "social relations" (43.3%) were the most cited MIL-relevant categories. Italian participants listed "health" more frequently than German and French participants (50.4% vs 31.5% and 24.8% respectively, χ(2) = 12.229, p = .002). Age, gender, education, employment, and marital status significantly influenced either the MIL scores or the MIL-relevant categories. Linear regression analyses indicate that 24.3% of the QOL variance (p = .000) is explained by health status (B = .609, IC = .490-.728, p = .000), MIL (B = .034, IC = .028-.041, p = .000) and socioeconomic status (F = 11.01, p = .000). The major finding of our

  2. ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS OF THE VERBS “TO BE”, “TO HAVE” AND “TO TAKE” AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN GERMAN, FRENCH AND ITALIAN LANGUAGES: LINGUISTIC–CULTURAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nikolaevna Panamaryova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out conceptual characteristics of English, German, French, Italian languages world image. The subject of this paper is English collocations with the verbs “to be”, “to have” and “to take” and their equivalents in German, French and Italian languages. The task of this paper is to compare English collocations of the verbs “to be”, “to have” and “to take” and their equivalents in German, French and Italian languages in linguistic–cultural aspect. In Russian language studies such word groups are called “synlexis”. This term was coined by G. I. Klimovskaya, the professor ofTomskStateUniversity. The main method of the research is a comparative study of linguistic units. The conclusions made in the research are essential in the further study of European linguistic world image and can be used in textbooks on Cultural Linguistics.The practical result of the research can be a cross-cultural collocation dictionary of some languages. Such a dictionary is important for linguists, translators and people studying foreign languages.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-32

  3. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  4. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  5. Fifth French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 2-yearly French-German Conferences on Optimization review the state-of-the-art and the trends in the field. The proceedings of the Fifth Conference include papers on projective methods in linear programming (special session at the conference), nonsmooth optimization, two-level optimization, multiobjective optimization, partial inverse method, variational convergence, Newton type algorithms and flows and on practical applications of optimization. A. Ioffe and J.-Ph. Vial have contributed survey papers on, respectively second order optimality conditions and projective methods in linear programming.

  6. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  7. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export…

  8. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: Overview of the French-German initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Dept. International Programmes, Berlin (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dept. International Relations, 92 - Clamart (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    - Purpose: The main purpose of the French-German Initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. - Coordination: GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit), supported in programme 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire) are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary. German Support by Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW) e.V.; French Support by Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), Electricite de France (EdF). - Programmes: Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million Euro within the frame work of the French- German Initiative: Programme 1: SARCOPHAGUS: Safety of the Chernobyl 'Sarcophagus', Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY: Study of the radioecological consequences of the accident,Programme 3: HEALTH: Study of health effects. - Background: At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real co-ordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the

  9. Status of French breeder development and German-French cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors in France is at present characterized by the successful operation of the 250 MW reactor, Phenix, and the speedy progress made in construction of the 1200 MW Superphenix plant. The technical concept of Superphenix is a logical extension of the Phenix concept, i.e., the pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor. While the only change in the primary system has been an increase in capacity, the main modification over Phenix is the change from small modular steam generators to four large units. The development of the work to date does not cast any doubt upon the envisaged date of first criticality in the second half of 1982. The basis of German-French cooperation is a joint declaration by the then Ministers for Research of the two countries on February 13, 1976 in which the Ministers had expressed themselves in favor of close cooperation between both countries in the development of safe, reliable and economic fast breeder reactors. On this basis, the two governments, the research centers and the industrial partners in the two countries, including the previous partners in Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, agreed on the general principles of this cooperation. Meanwhile, the cooperation formalized in 1977 has been activated. Both in research and development and among planning and building industries the exchange of know-how and cooperation is in full swing. The joint company, SERENA, is the pool for the know-how introduced by the partners and the sole representative of the partners in the scheme. (orig.) 891 UA [de

  10. Hieronymi Fracastorii: the Italian scientist who described the "French disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesapane, Filippo; Marcelli, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "French disease" by the people of the time and by Fracastoro himself.

  11. Hieronymi Fracastorii: the Italian scientist who described the "French disease"*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesapane, Filippo; Marcelli, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "French disease" by the people of the time and by Fracastoro himself. PMID:26560214

  12. Dictionary of high-energy physics English, German, French, Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains nearly 4500 entries from branches of high-energy physics including cosmic radiation, elementary particles, elementary particle detection and measurement, field theories, and particle accelerators. Each English entry is numbered and followed by corresponding terms in the other languages. Alphabetical indexes of the German, French, and Russian terms are included

  13. Scandinavian Mass Communication Research: Publications in English, French and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Documentation Center for Mass Communication Research, Aarhus (Denmark).

    This update to the bibliographies from Nordicom edited in 1975 and 1976 lists publications on mass communications research from Denmark, Finland, and Norway, that have appeared in one or more of the three languages--English, French, or German. Materials are listed for each country separately, arranged by author (or title if there is no author),…

  14. The French-German common safety approach for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Chevet, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    A common safety approach has been defined for future electronuclear plants in the framework of the French-German European Pressurised water Reactor (EPR) project. Improvements in the domain of containment are required in future reactors conception to prevent any risk of core fusion under high and low pressure. Another objective is to reduce significantly the radioactive releases due to other accidents in order to reduce spatial and temporal environmental and human protection procedures. Protection against external aggressions (plane fall, explosions, earthquakes,..), prevention of pipe rupture in the primary circuits, limitation of hydrogen production in the case of water-zirconium complete reaction, cooling of the reactor in the case of core fusion, and radiologic consequences of accidents are the main points discussed by the French-German safety authorities to define the common safety standards of the EPR project. (J.S.)

  15. PSA data base, comparison of the German and French approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuser, A.; Tirira, J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) of nuclear power plants strongly depend on the reliability data used. This report describes coarsely the general process to generate reliability data for components and resumes the differences between the German and French approaches. As has been shown in former studies which compared international PSA data, PSA data are closely related to the model definitions of the PSA. Therefore single PSA data cannot be compared directly without regard e.g. to the corresponding fault trees. These findings are confirmed by this study. The comparison of German and French methods shows a lot of differences concerning various details of the data generation process. Some differences between single reliability data should be eliminated when taking into account the complete fault tree analysis. But there are some other differences which have a direct impact on the obtained results of a PSA. In view of the all differences between both approaches concerning the definition of data and the data collection process, it is not possible to compare directly German and French PSA data. However, the database differences give no indication on the influence on the PSA results. Therefore, it is a need to perform a common IPSN/GRS assessment on how the different databases impact the PSA results. (orig.)

  16. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl (FGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Chernobylsk (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million EURO within the framework of the French-German initiative: - Programme 1 - SARCOPHAGUS, referring to the safety of the Chernobyl 'SARCOPHAGUS'; - Programme 2 - RADIOECOLOGY, concerning the study of the radioecological consequences of the accident; - Programme 3 - HEALTH regarding the study of health effects. At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real coordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the ecological and medical consequences of the accident. The main purpose of the French-German initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. GRS supported in program 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary.

  17. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create cooperations between both policy mechanisms

  18. Against the grain : French and German preference formation on agricultural trade during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    In Against the Grain, Gerry Alons presents her research on French and German preference formation on agricultural trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s. In this process, the French and German governments were confronted with contradictory domestic and international pressure. While the farm

  19. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  20. Joint German/French S4-Analytical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miemczyk, H.

    1979-03-01

    A joint German/French program was initiated to investigate in detail the behaviour of artificially defected fuel pins in a sodium loop of the SILOE reactor at Grenoble/France. Three irradiation experiments have been conducted in SILOE on representative SNR-type fuel pins (mixed oxide, low density, stainless steel cladding, external diameter 6 mm). The first experiment, S2, had been an unirradiated pin with a large interstitial defect (machined slit of 30x1 mm). The two following pins, S4 and S3, have been pre-irradiated in RAPSODIE (365 efpd, 10.6 % burnup). The main results of the S4-experiment are described and evaluated in the present report. They concern the following important aspects: sodium-uranate/plutonate formation and its kinetics, fuel loss, fission product release and fuel behaviour

  1. 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Korytowski, Adam; Maurer, Helmut; Szymkat, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This book contains extended, in-depth presentations of the plenary talks from the 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization, held in Kraków, Poland in 2013. Each chapter in this book exhibits a comprehensive look at new theoretical and/or application-oriented results in mathematical modeling, optimization, and optimal control. Students and researchers involved in image processing, partial differential inclusions, shape optimization, or optimal control theory and its applications to medical and rehabilitation technology, will find this book valuable. The first chapter by Martin Burger provides an overview of recent developments related to Bregman distances, which is an important tool in inverse problems and image processing. The chapter by Piotr Kalita studies the operator version of a first order in time partial differential inclusion and its time discretization. In the chapter by Günter Leugering, Jan Sokołowski and Antoni Żochowski, nonsmooth shape optimization problems for variational inequa...

  2. French and German Wind Market Perspectives. Senvion User Group 2014, Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures about the French and German Wind energy Market: electricity production and Wind Power Capacity in France and Germany, the Goals for Renewable energies and the Goals for Wind Power and Job Perspectives in the French and German energy Transitions, the Political Framework and its Impacts on Wind Onshore Market and on the energy Transition in general, the French and German Models of Wind Power Financing, the commercial Models for Renewable energy Installations in Germany in 2013, the renewable energy sources (ReS) Financial Model and the Distribution of Costs, and the future challenges and difficulties of RES and Onshore Wind Power Development

  3. Psychometric properties of the 7-item game addiction scale among french and German speaking adults

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Rothen, Stephane; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Background The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is a used to screen for addictive game use. Both cross cross-linguistic validation and validation in French and German is needed in adult samples. The objective of the study is to assess the factorial structure of the French and German versions of the GAS among adults. Methods Two samples of men from French (N?=?3318) and German (N?=?2665) language areas of Switzerland were assessed with the GAS, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Brief ...

  4. No grammatical gender effect on affective ratings: evidence from Italian and German languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Roivainen, Eka

    2018-06-06

    In this study, we tested the linguistic relativity hypothesis by studying the effect of grammatical gender (feminine vs. masculine) on affective judgments of conceptual representation in Italian and German. In particular, we examined the within- and cross-language grammatical gender effect and its interaction with participants' demographic characteristics (such as, the raters' age and sex) on semantic differential scales (affective ratings of valence, arousal and dominance) in Italian and German speakers. We selected the stimuli and the relative affective measures from Italian and German adaptations of the ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words). Bayesian and frequentist analyses yielded evidence for the absence of within- and cross-languages effects of grammatical gender and sex- and age-dependent interactions. These results suggest that grammatical gender does not affect judgments of affective features of semantic representation in Italian and German speakers, since an overt coding of word grammar is not required. Although further research is recommended to refine the impact of the grammatical gender on properties of semantic representation, these results have implications for any strong view of the linguistic relativity hypothesis.

  5. Pragmalinguistic characteristics of Biblical idiomatic expressions in Russian, Spanish, Italian, French, and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Владимировна Реунова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a cross-cultural analysis of idiomatic expressions of biblical origin in five languages: Russian, Spanish, Italian, French and English. Biblical idioms are regarded as important phenomena which strongly influence different speech acts. The article discusses the most important structural and stylistic characteristics of these idioms and identifies and compares their substantive differences.

  6. French and Italian National Unions of Students Confronted with International Policymaking on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Similarities between French and Italian political culture of student representation include a conflictual culture in a weak national system of intermediation of interests, and a mimetic relationship with national conflictual party politics. New international topics, such as the Bologna Process or the growing commodification of education, have…

  7. 4th French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zowe, Jochem; Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste; Lemarechal, Claude

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of 23 papers presented at the 4th French-German Conference on Optimization, hold at Irsee, April 21 - 26, 1986. The conference was aUended by ninety scientists: about one third from France, from Germany and from third countries each. They all contributed to a highly interesting and stimulating meeting. The scientifique program consisted of four survey lectures of a more tutorical character and of 61 contributed papers covering almost all areas of optimization. In addition two informal evening sessions and a plenary discussion on further developments of optimization theory were organized. One of the main aims of the organizers was to indicate and to stress the increasing importance of optimization methods for almost all areas of science and for a fast growing number of industry branches. We hope that the conference approached this goal in a certain degree and managed to continue fruitful discussions between -theory­ and -applications-. Equally important to the official contri...

  8. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl Sarcophagus waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzch, G.G.; Lhomme, V.; Seleznev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen years after the accident of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP the Sarcophagus still remains one of the most dangerous nuclear facilities in the world. The ruin of the destroyed unit 4 and its surrounding Sarcophagus together are termed object Shelter, which still comprises about 96 % of the spent nuclear fuel. The big amount of irradiated nuclear fuel and radioactive waste may cause potential radiological hazards. Thus, a comprehensive and detailed description of all parameters having influence on the safety state of the Sarcophagus was needed. At the Vienna Chernobyl Conference in April 1996 Germany and France declared to support the international co-operation of institutions of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia in view of a solution of the Chernobyl related issues. The first project identified within the French-German Initiative (FGI) was dedicated to the safety state of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus. This FGI project has been funded by the governments and by the electricity utilities of Germany and France, respectively, with 2 million Euro. The main aim of the project was to collect, analyse and verify all safety relevant data and to integrate these data in a comprehensive data base. The major fields of investigation were building constructions, systems and equipment, radiological situation, nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and environmental impact. In this paper in a first step the spent nuclear fuel and the correlating radiological hazards will be described briefly. In the following sections the FGI Sarcophagus project along with some results and practical applications to estimate the radiological risks as well as to support maintenance, waste management and stabilization measures will be presented

  9. Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, Francois

    2010-01-01

    The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

  10. Scientific productivity and academic promotion: a study on French and Italian physicists

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Lissoni; Jacques Mairesse; Fabio Montobbio; Michele Pezzoni

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004--2005. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation accounts for the individual scientist's probability of promotion to her present rank, and a productivity regression estimates the effects of age,...

  11. Rock Art Glossary: A Multilingual Dictionary, Expanded Second Edition (First Edition 2001. Edited by Robert G. Bednarik, Ahmed Achrati, Tang Huisheng, Alfred Muzzolini, George Dimitriadis, Dario Seglie, Fernando Coimbra, Yakov A. Sher and Mario Consens. Australian Rock Art Research Association, Inc., Melbourne, 2010; 274 Pages, in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, with Translation Tables. Price $A 38.00, ISBN 978-0-646-53471-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first dictionary compiled specifically for rock art research. It follows the publication of an English rock art glossary in the journal Rock Art Research in November 2000. To be adopted by the International Federation of Rock Art Organisations (IFRAO, it has been translated by some of the world’s foremost scholars in the field into Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Russian. In a discipline that has hitherto been without an agreed terminology, even communication within a single language has been difficult. The proliferation of idiosyncratic terminologies of often academically isolated researchers, many of which have been used by only one scholar, has not only retarded progress and the transference of knowledge, it has led to countless misunderstandings and even personal feuds. The purpose of this dictionary is to create a single terminological standard as well as a cross-lingual uniformity of usage. It focuses particularly on scientific aspects, technical applications and epistemological rigour. It does not set out to create a terminological straitjacket for the discipline, but a common standard of reference, particularly in areas that have in the past been susceptible to greatly differing interpretations. This dictionary comprises sections in ten languages, each listing the same terms alphabetically. It also contains a table interlinking all of these languages, listing all terms explained. This translation table is organised alphabetically according to the English terms. The volume is indispensable for scientific translators, rock art scholars, archaeologists and others concerned with aspects of pre-Historic rock art, and is also intended for the guidance of students and authors working in this field.

  12. [Comparison of hand surgery in the German and Italian DRG systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, O; Dolderer, J; Stahl, S; Atzei, A; Haerle, M; Schaller, H E

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are a patient classification system grouping related types of patients treated to the resources they consumed. In this analysis we compared the Italian and the German DRG systems regarding hand surgery with an emphasis on reimbursement of clinical cases. The 15 most common hand surgical diagnoses and their corresponding operative treatment in our clinic in 2009 were processed using a DRG grouper. The underlying data were transferred to the Italian system. Thus, the length of stay and the reimbursement of both countries could be obtained and compared. The latter was adjusted and corrected by the purchasing power of each country. The mean of the upper threshold of length of stay was 10 days in the German as well as the Italian system whereas the median was 2 times higher in Italy (6 vs. 12 days). Fifteen out of 19 cases showed higher reimbursement in Germany. The case mix index (CMI) of 0.917 in Germany represents a mean payment of 2,676 € per case. In Italy the hypothetical CMI of 0.635 resulted in a mean reimbursement of 1,853 € per case. The biggest difference in remuneration could be found for replantation of multiple fingers. For this service the German health-care system pays 12,320 € more than the Italian. Total proceeds of the top 15 diagnoses applying the number of cases treated in our clinic revealed 1.7 million € in the German and 1.2 million € in the Italian DRG system. Considering the purchasing power utilizing consumer prize parities, the difference of reimbursement between the countries decreased to 300,000 €. There is no mean length of stay per DRG in Italy, only the upper threshold of length of stay is determined. In most cases the latter is higher in Italy compared to Germany. The consumption of resources for finger replantation is not adequately represented in the Italian DRG system compared to finger amputation. Reimbursement of inpatient care is influenced by multiple factors not being subject

  13. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 1: SARCOPHAGUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Lhomme, V.; Seleznev, A.

    2006-01-01

    . Data Base Configuration: The data base consists of primary information, e.g. numbers, tables and graphs of technical parameters as well as auxiliary information, e.g. short text comments, pictures, videos and animations. All technical data are linked to a bibliography of primary sources of information, e.g. official reports etc. Data Base: The data base is designed under Access. A Geographic Information System (GIS) using ArcGIS serves as a navigation system to retrieve all information from the data base using two and three dimensional cross sections of the Sarcophagus. The data collected and processed within the framework of the French-German-Initiative are an excellent basis for the specialist application at the Chernobyl Centre as well as for an extended use in connection with the stabilization of the Sarcophagus and the erection of the New Safe Confinement in the frame of the 'Shelter Implementation' (SIP) performed under the auspices of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In addition, the database can be used for obtaining information needed for project descriptions, safety analysis reports, etc. The Ukrainian safety authority SNRCU (State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine) and its technical safety organisation, the State Scientific- Technical Centre Nuclear Radiation Safety (SSTC NRS), and other organizations have also announced interest in using the data base. (authors)

  14. The alimentary imaginary in German, Spanish and French: how meat is experienced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain FARGE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Imaginaries are built on social representations as well as on linguistic structures. The analysis of lexical representations of German, Spanish and French about alimentation, especially meat, may allow a better insight in the imaginary linked with the latter. The analysis, although, shows that, in Spanish, meat stands symbolically for strength and that this strength has to be evacuated from the meat in German. In French, meanwhile, the division between feminine and masculine principles situates foremost the alimentation in culture and rather far from nature.

  15. Psychometric properties of the 7-item game addiction scale among french and German speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Rothen, Stephane; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is a used to screen for addictive game use. Both cross cross-linguistic validation and validation in French and German is needed in adult samples. The objective of the study is to assess the factorial structure of the French and German versions of the GAS among adults. Two samples of men from French (N = 3318) and German (N = 2665) language areas of Switzerland were assessed with the GAS, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ-50-cc). They were also assessed for cannabis and alcohol use. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (Cronbach α = 0.85). A one-factor solution was found in both samples. Small and positive associations were found between GAS scores and the MDI, as well as the Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility subscales of the ZKPQ-50-cc. A small negative association was found with the ZKPQ-50-cc Sociability subscale. The GAS, in its French and German versions, is appropriate for the assessment of game addiction among adults.

  16. The French Phonological Corpus with Equivalents in English, German and Turkish, as Part of a New Multilingual Dictionary Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present to the reader a specific sampling from the French phonological terminology collected from relevant literature with their equivalents in English, German and Turkish. There has been so far many linguistic studies and publications in the French sound system both by French and foreign scholars in form of books,…

  17. A French description of German psychology laboratories in 1893 by Victor Henri, a collaborator of Binet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Barnes, Marissa E; Murray, David J

    2015-05-01

    There is a rich tradition of writings about the foundation of psychology laboratories, particularly in the United States but also in France. Various documents exist concerning former German laboratories in American and French literature. But the most interesting French paper was certainly written by a young psychologist named Victor Henri (1872-1940) who was a close collaborator of Alfred Binet (1857-1911) in the 1890s. Visiting various psychology laboratories, he wrote, in 1893, a clear description of the laboratories of Wundt, G. E. Müller, Martius and Ebbinghaus. An English translation is given of Henri's paper and the historical importance of his contribution is here expounded by contrasting the German and French psychologies of the time.

  18. Exploring origin of food as a source of meanings for Finnish consumers: A qualitative comparison of meanings in Swedish, German and French food

    OpenAIRE

    Luomala, Harri

    2004-01-01

    The findings show that Finnish consumers attach partly overlapping partly distinct cognitive, affective, and normative meanings to Swedish, German, and French food. Swedish and French foods are perceived healthier than German food. Finnish consumers also think that Swedish and French food is of high quality, safe and pure while in the case of German food consumers were more doubtful.

  19. Free relative clauses: a new teaching approach for Italian learners of Latin and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertollo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we would like to present a new teaching proposal for free relative clauses, with a comparative perspective. The proposal is addressed to Italian learners of Latin and German with an advanced knowledge of the morpho-syntax of the three languages and tries to combine the theories proposed within the Generative Grammar framework with the needs which emerge from school teaching experiences. In the path we will develop, the students will be led to get familiar with this construction, first in the native language and then in German and Latin. Students will be stimulated to analyze the syntactic constraints, which are different in the three languages, so as to develop a new grammatical awareness and be in a position to correctly handle complex syntactic structures such as free relative clauses. This will be helpful to adequately cope with this specific construction, but it will also improve the overall skills.

  20. Is the perception of dysphonia severity language-dependent? A comparison of French and Italian voice assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Alain; Cantarella, Giovanna; Weisz, Frédérique; Robert, Danièle; Woisard, Virginie; Fussi, Franco; Giovanni, Antoine; Baracca, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    In this cross-language study, six Italian and six French voice experts evaluated perceptually the speech of 27 Italian and 40 French patients with dysphonia to determine if there were differences based on native language. French and Italian voice specialists agreed substantially in their evaluations of the overall grade of dysphonia and moderately concerning roughness and breathiness. No statistically significant effects were found related to the language of the speakers with the exception of breathiness, a finding that was interpreted as being due to different voice pathologies in the patient groups. It was concluded that the perception of the overall grade of dysphonia and breathiness is not language-dependent, whereas the significant difference in the perception of roughness may be related to a perception/adaption process.

  1. Trying to understand French-German electric power exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The author aims at understanding the differences of electric balance between France and Germany depending on whether statistics produced by RTE or statistics produced by the ENSTO-E are considered, as both bodies measure electricity exchanges between both countries. It appears that electricity entering France from Germany is in fact transiting to other countries, whereas France exports about 10 TWh each year. This analysis is important when these imports from Germany are often used as arguments by opponents to the substitution of CO 2 emitting energy sources by electricity to artificially increase the low carbon content of the French electricity, notably by putting electric heating into question again

  2. Latin/Italian/French Comparison as to the Concept of Person and its Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffi Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available he comparison of three situations in Latin, Italian and French highlights a common operational process. i distribute the conceptions of space, person, gender, number and inter-subjectivity on the operative time of a radical space tensor which is divided into two successive stages of interiority and exteriority. Thus each first step in the process is a design that fuses interiority, feminine, internal plural, and symbiosis. The space location connected with the dialogical process, involving a symbiotic relationship between the speaker and the listener, corresponds from a historic point of view, when undergoing transitions from Latin to Italian, to a mark used during the first step. When no mark is used during the first stage, the process continues with a conception of the external space as in French. The implicit possession is representative of a system where the person has a extended personal sphere, typical of a symbiotic relationship to the environment and representative of language systems where the first step is existent. In this way, the purpose of the article is to demonstrate that a conception based on interiority has affinities with flexion, the one based on exteriority with the deflection. Therefore, the space criterion is a founder of the psychological and linguistic structures.

  3. A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF PHRASEMES WITH COLOR ELEMENTS IN CROATIAN, ITALIAN AND GERMAN PHRASEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Opašić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selected examples of phrasemes with color elements in the Croatian, Italian and German language. Colors have a role in everyday life and, in that respect - language, where their visual and symbolic role is evident. Therefore, the paper first explains the origins and symbolism of red, blue, green, yellow and pink, and then contrastive analysis is conducted. While doing so, correspondences and differences in the phrases of Croatian, Italian and German language are analyzed. It also explains the amount of symbolism in a particular color presented in the phraseme background, i.e. how it motivated its meaning.

  4. Comparison of French and German NPP water chemistry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, U.; Odar, S.; Stutzmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    PWRs in the western hemisphere obey basically the same rules concerning design, choice of material and operational mode. In spite of these basic similarities, the manufacturers of PWRs in different countries developed different solutions in respect to single components in the steam/water cycle. Looking specifically at France and Germany, the difference in the tubing material of the steam generators (Inconel 600/690 chosen by Framatome and Incoloy 800 chosen by the former Siemens KWU) led to specific differences in the respective chemistry programs and in some respect to different 'philosophies' in operating the water/steam cycle. Compared to this, basic differences in operating the reactor coolant system cannot be observed. Nevertheless specific solutions as zinc injection and the use of enriched B-10 are applied in German PWRs. The application of such measures arises from a specific dose rate situation in older PWRs (zinc injection) or from economic reasons mainly (B-10). (authors)

  5. Comparison of French and German NPP water chemistry programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, U. [VGB Powertech (Germany); Odar, S. [Framatome ANP GmbH (Germany); Stutzmann, A. [EDF/GDL (France)

    2002-07-01

    PWRs in the western hemisphere obey basically the same rules concerning design, choice of material and operational mode. In spite of these basic similarities, the manufacturers of PWRs in different countries developed different solutions in respect to single components in the steam/water cycle. Looking specifically at France and Germany, the difference in the tubing material of the steam generators (Inconel 600/690 chosen by Framatome and Incoloy 800 chosen by the former Siemens KWU) led to specific differences in the respective chemistry programs and in some respect to different 'philosophies' in operating the water/steam cycle. Compared to this, basic differences in operating the reactor coolant system cannot be observed. Nevertheless specific solutions as zinc injection and the use of enriched B-10 are applied in German PWRs. The application of such measures arises from a specific dose rate situation in older PWRs (zinc injection) or from economic reasons mainly (B-10). (authors)

  6. Insurance dictionary. German-English-French-Greek. Versicherungswoerterbuch. Deutsch-Englisch-Franzoesisch-Griechisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lutz, H L [ed.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms.

  7. Enacting cultural boundaries in French and German diphtheria serum research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Ulrike

    2008-06-01

    The experimental development of a therapeutic serum against diphtheria between 1891 and 1894 was characterized by a scientific competition that pitted Emil Behring from the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin against Emile Roux and Elie Metschnikoff from the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In general, their competition can be regarded as an extension of the fundamental differences that separated the research schools of Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur. However, to characterize the competition for a diphtheria-serum as "national rivalry" fails to account adequately for the mutual adoption of experimental practices by the Berlin and Parisian protagonists, whose contributions to the development of a therapeutic serum were intertwined in complex ways. Nor can it be characterized as "cooperation," given their fierce public disputes over scientific concepts and the fact that these disputes also shaped the peculiarities of the experimental procedures in Berlin and Paris. A close analysis reveals a complex picture of the dynamic interaction between the conceptual and experimental activities of Behring, Roux, and Metschnikoff- interaction that defined as well as bridged the "French" and "Prussian" experimental systems of diphtheria-serum research.

  8. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  9. Energy transition: a new opportunity for the French-German cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    As France and Germany are both defining new energy policies, but in different ways (Germany has focused on a reform of the law on renewable energies, and France aims at a reduction of the nuclear share from 75 to 50 per cent by 2025), the author examines whether the French strategy is realistic and how it can be explained from a political point of view, how energy transition can be successfully implemented, and to what extent it may influence the German policy within the framework of present discussions on the EU energy-climate package and of bilateral cooperation. The author first outlines the powerful role of nuclear energy in the history of French energy policy, proposes a brief overview of the evolution of debates in France on energy policy from the beginning of the 2000's, indicates and discusses the main objectives of the present bill project on energy transition, and proposes a comparison of French and German objectives regarding energy transition by 2020, 2030 and 2050. He evokes some practical aspects (discussion about Fessenheim plant shutting down, issues of energy prices). He comments the planned implementation of a new economic model based on a green growth, discusses the issue of energy transition in the electricity sector and in the transport sector, and the relationship between energy transition and decentralisation. Perspectives are briefly discussed regarding the credibility of the French policy and the commitment of both countries in energy transition

  10. D'Alembert's paradox, 1900-1914: Levi-Civita and his Italian and French followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzioli, Rossana

    2017-07-01

    Before the First World War, Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) was already a well-known mathematician in Italy and abroad, in particular in France. Professor at the University of Padua since 1898, he had published important contributions to tensor calculus, theory of relativity, differential geometry, hydrodynamics, and the three-body problem. In 1918, when he moved to the University of Rome, he created an international school of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on d'Alembert's paradox to which Levi-Civita and some of his Italian and French followers contributed remarkable solutions. This case-study is used to illustrate Levi-Civita's approach to hydrodynamics and its influence in Italy and France, especially in the period 1910-1914.

  11. Diet and Other Lifestyle Factors Associated with Prostate Cancer Differ Between the German and Italian Region of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2017-12-08

    In Switzerland, prostate cancer mortality is higher in the German than in the Italian-speaking region. We aimed at exploring the association of living in one of the two regions with lifestyle factors presumably lowering the risk of prostate cancer. We pooled data from the Swiss Health Survey, conducted every 5 years 1992 - 2012. Information on diet (meat, fish, dairy, fruits and vegetables), alcohol, smoking, physical activity and body mass index were dichotomized into "risky" and "risk-reducing" lifestyle behaviour with respect to prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the German and Italian region of Switzerland and each single lifestyle factor. Living in the Italian region was associated with "risk-reducing" diet, i.e. with a higher prevalence of low dairy products and meat consumption and high fish consumption (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 - 1.48; OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.94 - 3.72; OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.71 - 2.12, respectively). However, men in the Italian region were less likely to have low alcohol consumption and regular physical activity than men in the German region (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.36 - 0.52 and OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.69 - 0.86, respectively). Prostate cancer risk-reducing dietary behaviour (i.e., less dairy products, less meat and more fish) was more common in the Italian region, whereas other risk-reducing lifestyle behaviours were more common in the German region.

  12. Cooperation between the French and German safety authorities: a process of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Hennenhoefer, G.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable efforts are devoted in several countries worldwide for the designing of a new generation of electro-nuclear reactors with noticeable safety improvements with respect to the existing units. The EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project is the first example of a joint survey and collaboration effort between two countries, France and Germany, both characterized by a strong nuclear industry and competence. Franco-German relations have considerably expanded in recent years, enabling the French and German electricians, manufacturers (EDF, Siemens, Framatome..), and safety authorities (DSIN, IPSN, BMU, GRS..) to adopt common positions and decisions on fundamental topics about technical aspects of safety. This kind of collaboration and alignment was obviously only possible because two conditions were fulfilled: the discussion concerned future reactors and not those already built for which safety rules and provisions are not easily modified; and a common industrial project existed and had consequently to comply with jointly defined safety objectives. These two conditions are still fulfilled, so it should be possible for the work between French and German safety authorities to continue successfully, even in the next more delicate stage, involving definition of common positions on more detailed technical provisions. Finally, it is unthinkable that this important work undertaken by France and Germany could be carried out without frequent consultation of the safety authorities of other nuclear countries, notably in Europe. (J.S.). 1 fig

  13. Patients' need for information provision and perceived participation in decision making in doctor-patient consultation: Micro-cultural differences between French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerini, Anne-Linda; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    To explore micro-cultural differences in patients' need for information provision, perceived participation in decision making, and related concepts during the doctor-patient consultation between French- and Italian-speaking patients in Switzerland. In 2012, 153 French- and 120 Italian-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) were surveyed on their need for information provision, perceived participation in decision making, cLBP knowledge, psychological empowerment, and trust in their doctor. T-tests and regression analyses with interaction terms were performed. Results show that French- and Italian-speaking patients significantly differed in their participation in decision making, with French-speaking patients reporting higher involvement. Need for information provision was related to empowerment among French- and to trust among Italian-speaking patients. For participation in decision making, trust was the only related concept among French-, and cLBP knowledge among Italian-speaking patients. Significant interaction terms indicate a moderation of micro-cultural background. Findings point towards differences in the relationships between individual patient characteristics (i.e. knowledge, empowerment) and relational doctor-patient characteristics (i.e. trust) and patients' need for information provision and participation in decision making between French- and Italian-speaking patients in Switzerland. Doctors should be aware of these differences when dealing with patients of different micro-cultural backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainable Civil-Society Engagement: Potentials of a Transnational Civil Society in French-German, Polish-German, and Czech-German Border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Boehnke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on representative survey data, the present study examines potentials for the sustainable development of a transnational civil society in French-German, Polish-German, and Czech-German border regions. The theoretical framework is a social capital approach in the tradition of Putnam. Transnational engagement is seen as a key element for the development of a border-crossing civil society. For the analysis, existing forms of social capital were classified according to their bridging and bonding functions and the potentials of local and transnational activities are described. Furthermore, using multilevel analysis, the predictive power of different variables like individual dispositions and specific contexts of the regions on cross-border activities are examined. Descriptively, the expected lower level of local civil-society engagement, in general, and also with regard to the transnational activities was found for post-socialist border regions. It is shown that, first and foremost, existing experience in civil-society engagement in the local context is a high-impact predictor for both transnational activities and an interest in such activities. Other variables like feelings of a historical burden or the economic situation of the region are less important.

  15. Dictionary of radiological engineering. [English, French, and German]. Fachwoerterbuch der radiologischen Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuder, G F; Ullrich, H M

    1980-01-01

    In the present book an attempt has been made to record the current terminology in the field of radiological technology - for the present in the three languages English, German and French. It is hoped that this will contribute to a world-wide understanding amongst all those practising radiology. This is meant to include in a equal way radiologists in hospitals and private practice as well as those engaged in planning, developing, manufacturing or distributing radiological units. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MR.

  16. Dictionary of high-energy physics in English, German, French and Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary contains approximately 5,000 entries in each of the four languages covered (English, German, French and Russian). This dictionary provides a comprehensive collection of terms used in high-energy physics. The terms were compiled from specialized literature, including the most recent reports from research institutes and proceedings of conferences. The dictionary uses the approved lexicographical system of the other dictionaries. To each entry is added the special field from which the term derives and further information that may help in understanding the correct meaning of the term. The alphanumeric arrangement allows the user to translate from any of the four languages into any of the other languages included

  17. Dictionary of nuclear engineering. English-German-French-Russian. Kerntechnik. Englisch-Deutsch-Franzoesisch-Russisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains nearly 30,000 entries from all branches of nuclear engineering excluding biological aspects, health physics, and isotope applications in medicine and agriculture. The terminology used in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA has been completely taken into account. Each English entry is numbered and is followed by corresponding terms in the other languages. Alphabetical indexes of the German, French, and Russian terms are included. At the end of the volume, there is a section devoted to the transliteration of place-names between the English names and their Cyrillic equivalents, and vice versa.

  18. Painting the National Portrait: Retrospective Exhibitions of French and Italian Art in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kangaslahti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the museum, exhibitions, by virtue of their temporary nature, allow art to be mobilised in response to more immediate demands and, in the case of the travelling exhibition, export historical narratives of the nation abroad. This essays examines four exhibitions of French and Italian art which took place in the decade before the Second World War: two in London, the “Exhibition of Italian Art” in 1930 and the “Exhibition of French Art” in 1932; and two in Paris, “L’Art italien de Cimabue à Tiepolo” in 1935 and the “Chefs d’oeuvre de l’art français” in 1937. In comparing the shows – their organisation, contents, display and critical reception – my intention is to unpick the various political, art historical, even economic interests which sought to marshal art in these years. If the different faces these retrospectives presented were neither faithful nor scholarly refl ections, in each case the evocation of a distant past was a mirror that refl ected the divergent needs of the present. Contrariamente ai musei, la natura temporanea delle esposizioni permette all’arte di essere spostata in risposta a domande più immediate e, nel caso di esposizioni itineranti, di esportare narrative storiche della nazione all’estero. Questo saggio esamina quattro esibizioni d’arte francese e italiana che si sono tenute nel decennio che ha preceduto la Seconda Guerra Mondiale: due a Londra, “L’esposizione d’arte Italiana” del 1930 e “L’esposizione d’arte francese” del 1932; due a Parigi, “L’arte italiana da Cimabue a Tiepolo” del 1935 e “Capolavori dell’arte francese” del 1937. Dal confronto delle suddette – la loro organizzazione, i contenuti, l’esposizione e la critica – la mia intenzione è di discernere i fattori politici, artistici, ed anche economici che hanno spinto ha promuovere l’arte in questi anni. Se le varie sfaccettature che queste retrospettive hanno presentato non

  19. Management of rectal cancers in relation to treatment guidelines: a population-based study comparing Italian and French patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Faivre, Jean; Sant, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated rectal cancer management at the population level. We compared how rectal cancers diagnosed in Italy (2003-2005) and France (2005) were managed, and evaluated the extent to which management adhered to European guidelines. Samples of 3938 Italian and 2287 French colorectal cancer patients were randomly extracted from 8 and 12 cancer registries respectively. Rectal cancer patients (860 Italian, 559 French) were analysed. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) of being treated with curative intent, receiving sphincter-saving surgery, and receiving preoperative radiotherapy. Similar proportions of Italian and French patients were treated with curative intent (70% vs. 67%; OR=0.92 [0.73-1.16]); the respective proportions receiving sphincter-saving surgery were 21% and 33% (OR=1.15 [0.86-1.53]). In about 50% of those treated with curative intent, ≥ 12 lymph nodes were harvested in both countries. The proportion receiving postoperative radiotherapy was higher in Italy than in France (25% vs. 11%, pguidelines. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlent, O. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michel, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  1. MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Ehret

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The MEthane Remote sensing Lidar missioN (MERLIN aims at demonstrating the spaceborne active measurement of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas, based on an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA nadir-viewing LIght Detecting and Ranging (Lidar instrument. MERLIN is a joint French and German space mission, with a launch currently scheduled for the timeframe 2021/22. The German Space Agency (DLR is responsible for the payload, while the platform (MYRIADE Evolutions product line is developed by the French Space Agency (CNES. The main scientific objective of MERLIN is the delivery of weighted atmospheric columns of methane dry-air mole fractions for all latitudes throughout the year with systematic errors small enough (<3.7 ppb to significantly improve our knowledge of methane sources from global to regional scales, with emphasis on poorly accessible regions in the tropics and at high latitudes. This paper presents the MERLIN objectives, describes the methodology and the main characteristics of the payload and of the platform, and proposes a first assessment of the error budget and its translation into expected uncertainty reduction of methane surface emissions.

  2. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlent, O.

    2001-01-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  3. A Cross-linguistic Perspective on Questions in German and French Adult Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bonnesen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to try and understand and explain the morphological and syntactic aspects of adult second language acquisition (SLA. Two prominent hypotheses that have been put forward concerning late L2 speakers' knowledge of inflectional morphology and of related functional categories and their feature values are the Impaired Representation Hypothesis (IRH and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH.The cross-linguistic comparison of the acquisition of questions in German and French provided in this study offers a new perspective to differences and similarities between first language acquisition (FLA and adult SLA. Comparing a Germanic and a Romance L2, differing not only in their overall linguistic properties (such as i. e. OV/VO, V2, clitics, but explicitly in the formation and regularities of questions, we present striking similarities in adult SLA, and irrespective of the first and the second languages and of instructed versus non-instructed learning. The investigation of the adult SLA of morphological and structural aspects of questions in French and German strengthens the assumption that the acquisition of morphology and syntax is connected in French and German FLA but is disentangled in adult SLA. Our data reveal variability of question syntax, and with the syntactic position of the verb in particular. Instead of discovering the correct position of the verb at a certain stage of acquisition which can be accounted for by parameter setting in FLA, the adult learners gradually approach the target word order but still exhibit a great deal of variation after several years of exposure to the L2.The findings provided here contradict the predictions of the MSIH (Prévost/White 2000; Ionin/Wexler 2002; among others, for not only morphological features, but syntactic finiteness of finiteness are problematic in adult SLA, and that the Impairment Representation Hypothesis (IRH (Beck 1998; Eubank 1993/1994; among others

  4. A French-German Energy Transition Alliance in Europe. The Case of the Power and Transport Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescia, Dimitri; Buck, Matthias; Berghmans, Nicolas; Meyer, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Both France and Germany have ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and are pursuing broad, long-term strategies to deeply decarbonize their economies by 2050. (France aims to reduce GHG emissions by 75% and Germany by 80 to 95% relative to their 1990 levels.) This strong political commitment to fighting climate change is deeply rooted in values and beliefs of German and French citizens and enjoys broad public support in both countries. The French Transition Energetique and the German Energiewende form the backbones of their respective decarbonization strategies. Both envisage step-by-step changes in the energy system, encompassing the power, transport and heating and cooling sectors

  5. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  6. Near field earthquake sources scenarios and related tsunamis on the French-Italian Riviera (Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Christophe; Ioualalen, Mansour; Scotti, Oona

    2014-05-01

    suggest that the wave impact is mostly local considering the relatively moderate size of the rupture planes compared to large subduction earthquake induced tsunamis. The studied scenarios show that for such events specific localities along the French-Italian Riviera (San Remo, Cipressa, Imperia, Diano Marina, Nice) may experience very significant MWH (in the range of 3 to 10 m depending of the co-seismic slip and magnitude) related to the shallow focal depth tested for such scenarios. We may reasonably conclude that the tsunami threat is relatively significant and uniform along the Italian side of the Riviera (from Ventimiglia to Imperia) while it is more localized along the French side from Ventimiglia to Antibes with however higher local level of inundation, e.g., Nice city center, in case of a complete rupture of the Ligurian thrust faults system.

  7. Recent achievement within the French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, G.; Rollinger, F.; Frisch, W.; Simon, M.

    1999-12-01

    The development of the common French-German safety approach was accomplished on three working levels: the technical safety organisations GRS and IPSN provided the technical basis, the advisory groups GPR and RSK developed common recommendations, and the authorities BMU and DSIN adopted and issued the recommendations. The general safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and some technical principles for future PWRs. Based on this general approach, more detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994 on key issues. The following period from 1995 on was characterised by a further refinement of the recommendations and the treatment of some new subjects such as digital I and C, man-machine-interface and core design. (authors)

  8. Report on the use of the French-German interconnection in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    For years, most of the European electricity interconnections were managed using administrative mechanisms (priority lists or pro-rata), and a priority of access was granted to long-term contracts between incumbent operators. With the liberalisation process, cross-border power flows tended to increase, and congestions occurred more frequently, calling for efficient congestion management methods. Therefore, cross-border capacity auctions were implemented and the past pro-rata procedure used for Germany to France exports was replaced by the introduction of a one-sided explicit auction for the day-ahead capacities by RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH and EnBW Transportnetze AG. In addition the capacities have been auctioned quarterly and monthly since 1 July 2005. Then, the Federal Network Agency and the Commission de Regulation de l'energie (CRE) set the priority for further developing the auctions in 2006 by having a coordinated congestion management mechanism for both directions. A common road-map for the congestion management methods at the French-German border was published on 3 November 2005. In addition to the implementation of explicit auctions, this road-map included the establishment of a secondary market, a further coordination of the intra-day exchanges, the development of a coordinated model for calculating the transmission capacity and the investigation of further coordination possibilities. The two German TSOs operating the inter-connectors to France and the French TSO RTE therefore developed common capacity auction rules. The road-map also announced that an annual report would be published by the regulatory authorities to give feed-back to market participants on how explicit auctions methods operate. As a result the TSOs have provided monthly extensive data on the auctions to the regulatory authorities since January 2006. These data forms the basis of the analyses presented in this report. The important work carried out by regulators and TSOs within the

  9. French-German Office for energy transition (OFATE). Activity report. Exercise 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    This report first contains a presentation of the association, of its governance, of its steering committee, and of its members. It indicates topics and programmes of events (conferences, side-events, seminars) organised by the OFATE in the field of wind energy, solar energy, bio-energies, systems and markets (links to web sites of these events are provided). It gives a list of its own various publications, newsletters and translations on different topics (wind energy, solar energy, bio-energies, systems and markets, efficiency and flexibility). It proposes an analysis and a typology of the various requests made by members, representatives of administrations, and journalists. It evokes the activity of the association in collaboration with ministries, briefly evokes the development of the association web site, gives a list of interventions aimed at promoting the French-German exchange in the field of energy transition, and a list of partners. A brief road-map for 2014-2016 is finally indicated

  10. Pavlov's Reflex before Pavlov: Early Accounts from the English, French and German Classic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    The concept of classical conditioning (CC), strongly connected with the name and work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), has become the foundation of the modern science of learning and, in particular, of the influential theories of Watson and Skinner and the entire school of behaviourism. In this paper, we give a number of forgotten accounts of CC in the English, French, and German classic literature that pre-date Pavlov's reports by decades or even centuries. These instances are taken from works of the 16th, 18th, and 19th centuries - authored by some of the finest writers of England (Sterne, Locke), France (Rabelais), and Germany (Jean Paul) - and indicate that the psychological mechanisms now described as CC were known long before Pavlov and his successors elaborated on them in a systematic way. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Dictionary of high-energy physics English, German, French, Russian. Technik-Woerterbuch Hochenergiephysik - Englisch, Deutsch, Franzoesisch, Russisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains nearly 4500 entries from branches of high-energy physics including cosmic radiation, elementary particles, elementary particle detection and measurement, field theories, and particle accelerators. Each English entry is numbered and followed by corresponding terms in the other languages. Alphabetical indexes of the German, French, and Russian terms are included.

  12. A Cultural Comparison of Conflict-Solution Styles Displayed in the Japanese, French, and German School Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomo, Rieko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ways how to solve the conflicts between parents and children by statistical analyses displayed in Japanese, French, and German school texts published in 2000. The results were as follows: (1) Japanese parents and children acting in those texts have much more compromising tendency to avoid conflicts than…

  13. Mathematics textbooks and their use in English, French and German classrooms : a way to understand teaching and learning cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepin, B.; Haggarty, L.

    2001-01-01

    After a through review of the relevant literature in terms of textbook analysis and mathematics teachers' user of textbooks in school contexts, this paper reports on selected and early findings from a study of mathematics textbooks and their use in English, French and German mathematics classrooms

  14. [Adaptation of a peer pressure scale in French and German: the Peer Pressure Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, S; Studer, J; Daeppen, J-B; Gmel, G

    2013-06-01

    Peer pressure is regarded as an important determinant of substance use, sexual behavior and juvenile delinquency. However, few peer pressure scales are validated, especially in French or German. Little is known about the factor structure of such scales or the kind of scale needed: some scales takes into account both peer pressure to do and peer pressure not to do, while others consider only peer pressure to do. The aim of the present study was to adapt French and German versions of the Peer Pressure Inventory, which is one of the most widely used scales in this field. We considered its factor structure and concurrent validity. Five thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven young Swiss men filled in a questionnaire on peer pressure, substance use, and other variables (conformity, involvement) in a cohort study. We identified a four-factor structure, with the three factors of the initial Peer Pressure Inventory (involvement, conformity, misconduct) and adding a new one (relationship with girls). A non-valued scale (from no peer pressure to peer pressure to do only) showed stronger psychometric qualities than a valued scale (from peer pressure not to do to peer pressure to do). Concurrent validity was also good. Each behavior or attitude was significantly associated with peer pressure. Peer pressure seems to be a multidimensional concept. In this study, peer pressure to do showed the strongest influence on participants. Indeed, peer pressure not to do did not add anything useful. Only peer pressure to do affected young Swiss men's behaviors and attitudes and was reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle; Acker, Alain; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association. (orig.)

  16. The European pressurized water reactor. The French-German advanced PWR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, M.P.; Seidelberger, H.; Broecker, B.; Serviere, G.

    1995-01-01

    In order to derive full benefit from the Franco-German experience and to maintain a continuous development process, the EPR is of an evolutionary design. It is also an innovative product, intended to combine competitiveness, improved operability and enhanced safety. With a large electrical output, in the range of 1400-1500 MW, the EPR has an excellent cost-size ratio and is fully adapted to the scarcity of sites. It is also suitable for the development of scale-down products based on the same technology. The progress in safety that can be achieved with the EPR can be used to further enhance the already very high level of safety of the current French and German nuclear plants: (1) by an improvement of the preventive level of the defence-in-depth concept, and (2) by the implementation of additional features, mainly for the containment, to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Economically, the generation cost objective of the EPR will be at least as good as that of the French N4 reactor series. Improvements in safety may imply some additional investment costs, compared with those of the current plants, but the EPR is designed to achieve reductions of the other components of the generation costs, i.e. the fuel cycle costs and the operation and maintenance costs. The paper also describes some major design features of of the EPR: the safety systems, the containment and confinement functions, the arrangement of buildings, protection against external attacks, the man-machine interface, and instrumentation and control. 5 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Acker, Alain [AREVA NC, Paris (France); Kreuzer, Michaela [Federal Office for Radiation Protection and Health, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association. (orig.)

  18. A multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration: Adaptation and validation into Italian and German languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadello, Fabio; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Wieser, Heike; Cavada, Luisa; Lochner, Lukas; Naletto, Carla; Fink, Verena; Reeves, Scott

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a study that aimed to validate a translation of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration (IPC). We used survey data gathered over a three month period as part of a mixed methods study that explored the nature of IPC in Northern Italy. Following a translation from English into Italian and German the survey was distributed online to over 5,000 health professionals (dieticians, nurses, occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists, speech therapists and psychologists) based in one regional health trust. In total, 2,238 different health professions completed the survey. Based on the original scale, three principal components were extracted and confirmed as relevant factors for IPC (communication, accommodation and isolation). A confirmatory analysis (3-factor model) was applied to the data of physicians and nurses by language group. In conclusion, the validation of the German and Italian IPC scale has provided an instrument of acceptable reliability and validity for the assessment of IPC involving physicians and nurses.

  19. The reception of Roman law in the Romano-Germanic legal family rights: the case of French law

    OpenAIRE

    André Olavo Leite

    2017-01-01

    The Romano-Germanic family of legal systems, also known as the family of civil law, comprehends the group of legal systems that traditionally trace their roots up to the Roman law and the Justinian codifications, and that identify themselves as heirs of several of its characteristics. This paper analyses the example of French law, in order to draw on the permanence of Roman law in the contemporary legal systems of the Romano-Germanic family of rights and to show that its reception in those le...

  20. Report on the use of the French-German interconnection in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For years, most of the European electricity interconnections were managed using administrative mechanisms (priority lists or pro-rata), and a priority of access was granted to long-term contracts between incumbent operators. With the liberalization process, cross-border power flows tended to increase, and congestions occurred more frequently, calling for efficient congestion management methods. Furthermore, the European Regulation 1228/2003 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity came into force. Among other issues, it stipulated that 'network congestion problems shall be addressed with non-discriminatory market based solutions which give efficient economic signals to the market participants and transmission system operators involved'. In other words, cross-border capacity auctions had to be implemented. Due to repeated critical situations in December 2004 the past pro-rata procedure used for Germany to France exports was replaced as from 5 April 2005 by the introduction of a one-sided explicit auction for the day-ahead capacities by RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH and EnBW Transportnetze AG. In addition the capacities have been auctioned quarterly and monthly since 1 July 2005. During the summer of 2005, the Federal Network Agency and the Commission de Regulation de l'energie (CRE) set the priority for further developing the auctions in 2006 by having a coordinated congestion management mechanism for both directions. The general principles of the auction design were publicly consulted by the regulators together with further questions on cross-border exchanges in the autumn of 2005. The market participants' statements were assessed by the regulatory authorities and considered through the development of a common Road-map for the congestion management methods at the French-German border, published on 3 November 2005. In addition to the implementation of explicit auctions, this road-map included the

  1. Report on the use of the French-German interconnection in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    For years, most of the European electricity interconnections were managed using administrative mechanisms (priority lists or pro-rata), and a priority of access was granted to long-term contracts between incumbent operators. With the liberalization process, cross-border power flows tended to increase, and congestions occurred more frequently, calling for efficient congestion management methods. Furthermore, the European Regulation 1228/2003 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity came into force. Among other issues, it stipulated that 'network congestion problems shall be addressed with non-discriminatory market based solutions which give efficient economic signals to the market participants and transmission system operators involved'. In other words, cross-border capacity auctions had to be implemented. Due to repeated critical situations in December 2004 the past pro-rata procedure used for Germany to France exports was replaced as from 5 April 2005 by the introduction of a one-sided explicit auction for the day-ahead capacities by RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH and EnBW Transportnetze AG. In addition the capacities have been auctioned quarterly and monthly since 1 July 2005. During the summer of 2005, the Federal Network Agency and the Commission de Regulation de l'energie (CRE) set the priority for further developing the auctions in 2006 by having a coordinated congestion management mechanism for both directions. The general principles of the auction design were publicly consulted by the regulators together with further questions on cross-border exchanges in the autumn of 2005. The market participants' statements were assessed by the regulatory authorities and considered through the development of a common Road-map for the congestion management methods at the French-German border, published on 3 November 2005. In addition to the implementation of explicit auctions, this road-map included the establishment of a secondary

  2. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  3. The French, German, and Spanish sound of eating fresh fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Ana M; Arce-Lopera, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    A set of onomatopoeic expressions for eating fruits and vegetables is compared across subjects whose native language is Spanish, French, or German. Subjects chose the onomatopoeia that best represented the sound of eating a fruit or vegetable (celery, banana, strawberry, passion fruit, mango, apple, orange, and tomato). Results show there are onomatopoeias that have a higher frequency of response in one language compared to the others. Thus, it is possible to assume that depending on the language there is a better way to express haptic and auditory information associated to fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, and considering the three languages, results show there are three categories of responses based on the relative strength of the material (strong and medium strength, and soft). Thus, there is some consistency in the onomatopoeias that represent the sound of eating a fruit or a vegetable. To conclude, results differ by language, but they are consistent within a category of sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  5. European Piano Schools : Russian , German and French classical piano interpretation and technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to characterize representative performances by famous pianists in order to determine main influential trends in performance, derived specifically from traditional piano practices referred to as National Piano Schools. Previous research (Lourenço, 2005, 2007 has shown strong musical correlation of particular characteristics, namely the aesthetic, the technical, the historic and the repertoire. The concept of piano interpretation school is a useful concept for analyzing the universe of piano performance. Piano pedagogy literature of each European National Piano School has been analyzed together with an empirical audio analysis of recordings through a check-list survey. Overall the main National Piano Schools consist of three essential branches: the Russian school; the German school; the French school. The identification of National Piano Schools provides a powerful framework of study and an awareness of Europe's elusive music heritage and it main influences. Furthermore, as pianists use their whole body to enhance their communication of the music's spiritual, emotional and dramatic essence, this study also aims to contribute into research on performance practice.

  6. Cross-language categorization of French and German vowels by naïve American listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika S.; Law, Franzo F.

    2009-01-01

    American English (AE) speakers’ perceptual assimilation of 14 North German (NG) and 9 Parisian French (PF) vowels was examined in two studies using citation-form disyllables (study 1) and sentences with vowels surrounded by labial and alveolar consonants in multisyllabic nonsense words (study 2). Listeners categorized multiple tokens of each NG and PF vowel as most similar to selected AE vowels and rated their category “goodness” on a nine-point Likert scale. Front, rounded vowels were assimilated primarily to back AE vowels, despite their acoustic similarity to front AE vowels. In study 1, they were considered poorer exemplars of AE vowels than were NG and PF back, rounded vowels; in study 2, front and back, rounded vowels were perceived as similar to each other. Assimilation of some front, unrounded and back, rounded NG and PF vowels varied with language, speaking style, and consonantal context. Differences in perceived similarity often could not be predicted from context-specific cross-language spectral similarities. Results suggest that listeners can access context-specific, phonetic details when listening to citation-form materials, but assimilate non-native vowels on the basis of context-independent phonological equivalence categories when processing continuous speech. Results are interpreted within the Automatic Selective Perception model of speech perception. PMID:19739759

  7. Cross-language categorization of French and German vowels by naive American listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika S; Law, Franzo F

    2009-09-01

    American English (AE) speakers' perceptual assimilation of 14 North German (NG) and 9 Parisian French (PF) vowels was examined in two studies using citation-form disyllables (study 1) and sentences with vowels surrounded by labial and alveolar consonants in multisyllabic nonsense words (study 2). Listeners categorized multiple tokens of each NG and PF vowel as most similar to selected AE vowels and rated their category "goodness" on a nine-point Likert scale. Front, rounded vowels were assimilated primarily to back AE vowels, despite their acoustic similarity to front AE vowels. In study 1, they were considered poorer exemplars of AE vowels than were NG and PF back, rounded vowels; in study 2, front and back, rounded vowels were perceived as similar to each other. Assimilation of some front, unrounded and back, rounded NG and PF vowels varied with language, speaking style, and consonantal context. Differences in perceived similarity often could not be predicted from context-specific cross-language spectral similarities. Results suggest that listeners can access context-specific, phonetic details when listening to citation-form materials, but assimilate non-native vowels on the basis of context-independent phonological equivalence categories when processing continuous speech. Results are interpreted within the Automatic Selective Perception model of speech perception.

  8. Observation of wind field over heterogeneous terrain by the French-German airborne Doppler lidar WIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, A.; Werner, C.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.; Drobinski, P.; Cousin, F.

    2003-04-01

    In summer 2001, the French-German airborne Doppler lidar WIND participated to field campaign ESCOMPTE. ESCOMPTE was carried out in the region of Marseille along the Mediterranean coast of France. It was dedicated to the observation of heavy pollution events in this industrialized, densely populated region of nearly 4 million inhabitants. The aim was to gather a data base as comprehensive as possible on several pollution events and use them to check the ability of several regional forecast models to predict such events. The specific mission devoted to WIND was the characterization at mesoscale of the wind field and the topography of the planetary boundary layer. Both are complex around Marseille due the heterogeneity of the surface with a transition sea/land to the south, the fore-Alps to the North, the Rhône valley to the North-West etc... Seven, 3-hr flights were carried out and gave excellent results. In 2002, first comparisons were made with mesoscale models. They will be shown during the presentation. They are good examples of the usefulness of airborne Doppler lidar for validating and improving atmospheric model simulations.

  9. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 1 safety state of the sarcophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, G.; Roloff, R.; Roloff, R.; Artmann, A. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagenund Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) (Germany); Lhomme, V. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Berberich, G. [Erftstadt-Gymnich (Germany); Selesnew, A

    2005-07-01

    The data collected and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative are an excellent basis for the intended specialist application at the Chernobyl Centre as well as for an extended use in connection with the restoration of the Sarcophagus as part of the 'Shelter Implementation Plan' performed under the auspices of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The major goals of the S.I.P. are the stabilisation of the existing Sarcophagus and the erection of a New Safe Confinement (N.S.C.) around the already existing Sarcophagus, the degasifier wing and the turbine building.This N.S.C. is to safely confine the radioactive materials for at least 100 years and is to allow their retrieval from inside if need be as well as the dismantling of the old structure.In addition, the database can be used for obtaining information needed for project descriptions, safety analysis reports, etc. The Ukrainian safety authority S.N.R.C.U. (State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine) and its technical safety organisation, the State Scientific-Technical Center (S.S.T.C.), have also signaled their interest in using the database.Further information on the F.G.I. and on the 'Radioecology and Health Programmes' can be found at: www.fgi1-chernobyl.de.vu; www.grs.de, www.irsn.fr; www.fgi.icc.gov.ua. (N.C.)

  10. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  11. Harmonization of French and German calculation procedures for atmospheric dispersion following accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Romeo, E.; Nester, K.

    1992-01-01

    In case of an accident in a nuclear power plant near the French-German border different schemes for dispersion calculations in both countries will currently be applied. An intercomparison of these schemes initiated from the German-French Commission for the safety of nuclear installations (DFK) revealed in some meteorological situations large differences in the resulting concentrations for radionuclides. An ad hoc working group was installed by the DFK with the mandate to analyse the reasons for the different model results and also to consider new theoretical concepts. The working group has agreed to apply a Gaussian puff model for emergency response calculations. The results of the model based on turbulence parameterization via similarity approach or spectral theory - have been compared with tracer experiments for different emission heights and atmospheric stability regimes. As a reference the old modelling approaches have been included in the study. The simulations with the similarity approach and the spectral theory show a slightly better agreement to the measured concentration data than the schemes used in the past. Instead of diffusion categories both new approaches allow a continuous characterization of the atmospheric dispersion conditions. Because the spectral approach incorporates the sampling time of the meteorological data as an adjustable parameter thereby offering the possibility to adjust the dispersion model to different emission scenarios this turbulence parameterization scheme will be foreseen as the basis for a joint French-German puff model

  12. Conference on territorial planning of wind energy - engine or hindrance of climate policy? A French-German comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, Jacques; Von Nicolai, Helmuth; Thomas, Isabelle; Lueer, Michael; Eric Virvaux

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the 2009 edition of the European Wind Energy Conference, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side event on the territorial planning of wind energy. During this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on: the importance given to climate policy with respect to other territorial planning goals, like nature protection; the involvement of project managers and citizens; the conciliation between 'regional development scheme' and wind energy development areas; and the regional implementation of government objectives. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Territorial planning of wind energy (Jacques Lengyel); 2 - The German planning systems for the definition of wind energy development areas (Helmuth von Nicolai); 3 - The wind energy regional scheme in Brittany - Accompanying the deployment of 1000 MW by 2010 (Isabelle Thomas); 4 - Definition of wind energy development areas in the framework of the German regional planning - Advantages and drawbacks for the wind energy industry (Michael Lueer); 5 - Implementation of the regional schemes for the development of renewable energies: the Renewable Energies Syndicate (SER)/France Wind Energy (FEE) proposals for the wind energy aspect (Eric Virvaux)

  13. An example o French - Italian cooperation in the area of energy: ENEL in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremieux, M.

    2010-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization also allows to renew European industrial cooperation. As a symbol of such cooperation, Enel, the first both Italian and Spanish operator, develops an integrated position in France where industrial cooperation with Electricite de France in the EPR project goes with a business activity competing with the historical operator. Such industrial cooperation allows Enel to benefit by experience in all available technologies and is of crucial importance in light of the Italian government's choice to develop nuclear energy in Italy. Those industrial agreements, beneficial both for consumers and for the European development, cannot develop unless a number of economic properties are complied with. (author)

  14. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 3 study of the health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.; Pott-Born, R.; Gagniere, B.; Mansoux, H.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Valenty, M.; Calmont, I.; Brun-Yaba, Ch.; Verger, P.; Franc, B.; Robert-Gnansia, E.; Briend, A.

    2006-03-01

    The results of the French-German Initiative Health Effects project, conducted over a period of four years, were presented to the international authorities at a congress held in October 2004 in Kiev and are summarised below. Thyroid cancer increase in children and young adults seems clearly related to exposure at young ages in 1986. For the other cancers sites, the observed results do not add any decisive elements that would make it possible to quantify the impact of post-Chernobyl irradiation: the trend observed in time is similar in both exposed and non-exposed areas in most situations. These observations do not exclude the fact that an increase of leukaemia may exist for those exposed as children; it may be too low to be detectable in a statistically significant way. Similarly, the higher rate of congenital malformations observed during recent years cannot be attributed to radiation, because the same trend over time is observed both in contaminated and non-contaminated areas in Belarus. Reliable and up-to-date knowledge has been collected in a H.E.D.A.C. database, it should facilitate communication concerning the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The main results published at national or international level, will be made available to the public and the international scientific community via modern distribution methods and will contribute to the development of a necessary cohesion between international research programmes and work carried out locally. Contact the web site: www.fgi.icc.gov.ua For detailed information, final reports are available: contact with mentioned investigators is proposed (see authors of final reports) or contact scientific coordinator M. Tirmarche at I.R.S.N. (France) D. Bazyka at R.C.R.M., Kiev in charge of the database and communication of scientific results at Chernobyl Center

  15. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V. [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN), Dir. of Environment and Intervention (DEI) - CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

  16. FEM-calculation of different creep-tests with French and German RPV-steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willschuetz, H.-G.; Altstadt, E.; Weiss, F.-P.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    For calculations of Lower Head Failure experiments like FOREVER it is necessary to model creep and plasticity processes. Therefore a Finite Element Model is developed using a numerical approach which avoids the use of a single creep law employing constants derived from the data for a limited stress and temperature range. Instead of this a numerical creep data base (CDB) is developed where the creep strain rate is evaluated in dependence on the current total strain, temperature and equivalent stress. A main task for this approach is the generation and validation of the CDB. For an evaluation of the failure times a damage model according to an approach of Lemaitre is applied. The validation of the numerical model is performed by the simulation of and comparison with experiments. This is done in 3 levels: starting with the simulation of single uniaxial creep tests, which is considered as a 1D-problem. In the next level so called 'tube-failure-experiments' are modeled: the RUPTHER-14 and the 'MPA-Meppen'- experiment. These experiments are considered as 2D-problems. Finally the numerical model is applied to scaled 3D experiments, where the lower head of a PWR is represented in its hemispherical shape, like in the FOREVER experiments. An interesting question to be solved in this frame is the comparability of the French 16MND5 and the German 20MnMoNi55 RPV-steels, which are chemically nearly identical. If these 2 steels show a similar behavior, it should be allowed to transfer experimental and numerical data from one to the other. (author)

  17. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 3 study of the health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.; Pott-Born, R. [Munich Univ., Radiobiological Institute (Germany); Gagniere, B. [CIRE Ouest, 35 - Rennes (France); Mansoux, H.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Valenty, M.; Calmont, I.; Brun-Yaba, Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Verger, P. [ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Franc, B. [Hopital Ambroise-Pare, 92 - Boulogne (France); Robert-Gnansia, E. [European Instituteof Genomutations, 69 - Lyon (France); Briend, A. [Scientific and Technical Institute of Nutrition and Alimentation/CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    The results of the French-German Initiative Health Effects project, conducted over a period of four years, were presented to the international authorities at a congress held in October 2004 in Kiev and are summarised below. Thyroid cancer increase in children and young adults seems clearly related to exposure at young ages in 1986. For the other cancers sites, the observed results do not add any decisive elements that would make it possible to quantify the impact of post-Chernobyl irradiation: the trend observed in time is similar in both exposed and non-exposed areas in most situations. These observations do not exclude the fact that an increase of leukaemia may exist for those exposed as children; it may be too low to be detectable in a statistically significant way. Similarly, the higher rate of congenital malformations observed during recent years cannot be attributed to radiation, because the same trend over time is observed both in contaminated and non-contaminated areas in Belarus. Reliable and up-to-date knowledge has been collected in a H.E.D.A.C. database, it should facilitate communication concerning the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The main results published at national or international level, will be made available to the public and the international scientific community via modern distribution methods and will contribute to the development of a necessary cohesion between international research programmes and work carried out locally. Contact the web site: www.fgi.icc.gov.ua For detailed information, final reports are available: contact with mentioned investigators is proposed (see authors of final reports) or contact scientific coordinator M. Tirmarche at I.R.S.N. (France) D. Bazyka at R.C.R.M., Kiev in charge of the database and communication of scientific results at Chernobyl Center.

  18. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V.

    2004-01-01

    The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

  19. Information report by the Commission for European Affairs on the French-German energy cooperation - Nr 534

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    As the French-German energy cooperation has been, until now, focused on the transition towards renewable energies, this report studies this issue of energy transition by distinguishing the purely technical dimension and the macro-economic aspect. The author first identifies the various reasons of the difficulties met by energy transition (they are essentially based on the intermittency). In order to be efficient, the cooperation must therefore comprise a portion dealing with the economic management of the energy system in order to protect markets from abnormal disturbances. As far as the technical dimension is concerned, the author discusses the multitude of still immature techniques to deal with intermittency and hazard, or with energy savings or recovery. He also addresses the technical diptych constituted by storage and grid (energy storage and smart grids are two different but related techniques). In the second part, the author addresses the economic dimension. He highlights the unsustainable cost of a transition made at a forced march, and discusses the relationship between price regulation, market management, and transition rate. Here, he outlines that nuclear energy remains indispensable to transition. Appendices present the main recent steps of the French-German energy cooperation, a comparison of the energy mix of these both countries, the German energy policy, and a discussion of a targeted energy mix

  20. INIS: multilingual thesaurus. Arabic-Chinese-English-French-German-Russian-Spanish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This CD is based on the Joint Thesaurus Part I and II of the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series No. 1 (Rev. 2), October 2006. The translations of the terminology from the English version of the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Russian and Spanish were performed by specialists from the INIS centres of the Syrian Arab Republic, China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation and Spain, respectively.The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA in Vienna was responsible for coordinating the translations and transferring the machine readable terminology files to the IAEA computer in Vienna, as well as merging and performing numerous tests to ensure correctness and completeness. In addition, the INIS Secretariat was responsible for developing the software necessary for maintaining, updating and printing the multilingual files. The INIS Multilingual Thesaurus is a major tool for describing nuclear information and knowledge in a structured form, which assists in multilingual and semantic searches. The Multilingual Dictionary is intended as a tool to assist indexers, retrievers and other users of the INIS system whose mother tongue is not English. It supports the preparation of input to the system and utilization of its output products. In addition, it also intends to serve those workers in the nuclear field who are not directly connected with INIS, as well as translators, interpreters, authors and others working in the areas of languages, semantics or terminological reference. The domain of knowledge covered by the Joint Thesaurus includes physics (in particular, plasma physics, atomic and molecular physics, and especially nuclear and high-energy physics), chemistry, materials science, earth sciences, radiation biology, radioisotope effects and kinetics, applied life sciences, radiology and nuclear medicine, isotope and radiation source technology, radiation protection, radiation applications, engineering, instrumentation, fossil fuels, synthetic fuels, renewable

  1. The climate end energy policy of the German Federal Government. Contribution to the French-German dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausch, Camilla; Duwe, Matthias; Goerlach, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    The German energy turnaround is at the heart of its climate and energy policy, but also determines Germany's attitude in international negotiations. Apart from the necessary revision of the Renewable Energy Act, the new coalition that took power in December 2013 will probably continue the previous climate and energy policy. The main changes are of a structural nature, and relate to a new distribution of competences between the Economy and Environment Ministries, which are, furthermore, for the first time headed by members of the same political party. At the EU level, Berlin could recover, thanks to a unified approach, its ability to influence climate and energy policies, and thus facilitate an agreement on the 2030 climate and energy package. Besides, for its own interests, Germany needs Europe to have high ambitions in so far as its national goals would be less difficult and costly to attain if they form part of an overall European approach. The personal engagement of the chancellor would certainly be an important variable in the negotiations, since Germany will chair the G7 in 2015. Similarly, in view of France hosting the United Nations climate summit (COP 21) in Paris in the same year, enhanced Franco-German cooperation would be in the interest of both countries and generate a strong political dynamic. (authors)

  2. The Importance of Educational Marble Games in Teaching German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: By considering the innovations in the field of communication, the inter-relationship between cultures, and the developments in the world, the Ministry of Education has started to take measures for students to learn languages such as German, French, Russian, Spanish, Japanese, Italian, Arabic, etc., in educational institutions in…

  3. Medical radiology terminology. French - English - German. Woerterbuch der physikalisch-technischen Begriffe der medizinischen Radiologie. Franzoesisch - Englisch - Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Standardization achievements in the field of radiology induced the IEC to compile the terminology used in its safety and application standards and present it in publication 788 (1984 issue), entitled 'Medical radiology terminology'. The objective pursued is to foster the use of standard terminology in the radiology standards. The value of publication 788 lies in the fact that it presents definitions of terms used in the French and English versions of IEC standards in the field of radiology, and thus facilitates adequate translation of these terms into other languages. In the glossary in hand, German-language definitions have been adopted from the DIN standards in cases where the French or English versions of definitions are identical with the German wording or meaning. The numbers of DIN standards or sections are then given without brackets, ahead of the text of the definition. In cases where correspondance of the various texts is not so good, or reference should be made to a term in a DIN standard, the numbers are given in brackets.

  4. Generic results and conclusions of re-evaluating the flooding protection in French and German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattei, J.M.; Vial, E.; Rebour, V.

    2001-01-01

    Although the event which occurred at the Blayais site on December 27, 1999 did not lead to a dangerous situation for the local population or the environment, it clearly demonstrated the possible occurrence of modes of degradation of the safety level affecting all the units at a site. As a result, a number of projects were established by the French and German operators that were designed to extract useful lessons concerning the flooding risks at the Blayais site, as well as to upgrade all sites equipped with pressurized water reactors, both in France and Germany. This report presents, on the basis of the circumstances observed at the Blayais site during the course of the flood event of December 27, 1999 (which was the subject of a presentation by IPSN at the Eurosafe 2000 Conference), an evaluation of the initiatives aimed at improving the safety of both the French and the German units from an external flooding risk perspective. The safety approaches used in both countries have not been compared. (authors)

  5. Generic results and conclusions of re-evaluating the flooding protection in French and German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattei, J.M.; Vial, E.; Rebour, V. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Liemersdorf, H.; Tuerschmann, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Although the event which occurred at the Blayais site on December 27, 1999 did not lead to a dangerous situation for the local population or the environment, it clearly demonstrated the possible occurrence of modes of degradation of the safety level affecting all the units at a site. As a result, a number of projects were established by the French and German operators that were designed to extract useful lessons concerning the flooding risks at the Blayais site, as well as to upgrade all sites equipped with pressurized water reactors, both in France and Germany. This report presents, on the basis of the circumstances observed at the Blayais site during the course of the flood event of December 27, 1999 (which was the subject of a presentation by IPSN at the Eurosafe 2000 Conference), an evaluation of the initiatives aimed at improving the safety of both the French and the German units from an external flooding risk perspective. The safety approaches used in both countries have not been compared. (authors)

  6. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident: REDAC, the radioecological database of the French-German Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Intelligence Systems GEO, Chernobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Wastes and Radioecology (Ukraine)

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this work is to built a database for integrating the results of Project 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative. This database incorporates: an ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfers, by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. A specific methodology was applied, namely, the original 'Project Solutions Framework' which implies an information system developed as a soft integrated portal and a geo-information system (all spatial data geo-coded). The structure of database contains five packages of elements: Publications, all classical information, original data; Products, storage of open publications of the Project; Processes, management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services, information and software objects, help; Basics, information on system and organizational development. A table presents the REDAC content, implying the following sub-projects: Ecological portrait; Contamination; Wastes; Soil-plant transfers; Transfers to animals; Transfers by runoff; Transfers in aquatic ecosystem; Urban transfers, countermeasures; Countermeasures. The table identifies the nature of data and their number for each of the sub-project. As soft integration a cartography system is given. This comprises: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server) with the cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. An example of map extraction for SP1 'initial contamination' is given. An additional soft integration is based on portlets and DDB. Portlets are mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts. Digital Dashboards (DDB) mean Portlets plus web parts. DDB sites mean collections of DDB, adjustable by users. The

  7. The making of corporate identities through a plural corporate language. A comparative study on French and Italian Food companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margherita Mattioda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the linguistic and cultural dimensions which emerge from international companies working in those economic and social contexts, which are, at present, more cash-like and uncertain. The multilingual communication adopted by such companies is the result of their position on the market and of their own identity and culture. It also reveals an ongoing process of negotiation between several elements: a language identity source, which highlights the origins, history, geographic, social and cultural affiliation (national, regional, and professional, a target otherness, which may be more or less defined (by country or in relation to a universal extent and which is increasingly multicultural, and a ‘source otherness’, which arises from considering “soi-même comme un autre” to communicate extensively. The present study will shed light on some communicative choices at both language and culture levels in the corporate sites of some Italian and French food companies (Lavazza, Ferrero, Barilla, Lactalis, Fleury-Michon, Bonduelle, Bomgrain. The aim is to identify specific (“connotative” items that in some way denote cultural permeability, a layer between convention and “hybridization”.

  8. The Impact of Intermittent Renewable Production and Market Coupling on the Convergence of French and German Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Le Pen, Yannick; Phan, Sebastien; Boureau, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    constitutes such an event. However, also wind production is highly auto-correlated and tends to have a significant impact during a limited number of hours during the year. When the production of variable renewables with low variable costs is high, German exports tend to saturate interconnections thus causing price convergence to cease and French-German electricity prices to diverge. The primary objective of this article is to assess the impact of electricity production from variable renewables on the differential of French and German day-ahead electricity prices on the basis of five years of hourly price data in the EPEX Spot day-ahead market as well as hourly data of nuclear, wind and solar production. In addition, this article explores also the continuing impact of market coupling by confronting this empirical assessment of the Franco-German day-ahead market in the presence of the existing market coupling with a counter-factual scenario that assesses the evolution of the spread between French and German electricity prices with the observed levels of renewable production but under the assumption of the absence of market-coupling. By determining the difference in consumer surplus between the observed and the counter-factual scenario we measure in fact the benefit of market coupling and are able to show that market coupling mechanism mitigated the negative impact of the massive build-up on renewable capacity in Germany on price spreads and consumer surplus since 2011. This article thus assesses both the impact of both, electricity production by variable renewable energies and of market coupling on price spreads, consumer surplus and welfare. The structure of the article is as follow. Section 2 provides some general background and a review of the literature. Section 3 presents a number of descriptive statistics about the evolution of the French-German price spread before and after market coupling. Section 4 presents the available data and introduces the ELIX concept. Section 5

  9. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  10. Seven Medieval Miniatures: Wisława Szymborska's Miniatura średniowieczna translated into Spanish, Portuguese, French, English and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Studzińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes seven translations of the poem 'Miniatura średniowieczna' written by the Polish poet and Nobel Prize laureate Wisława Szymborska. The translations are into five languages: Spanish (2, Portuguese, French, English (2 and German. The poem can be construed as an ekphrasis of the illuminated manuscripts of the Late Gothic. The 'Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry' are cited as a possible source of inspiration. The poem’s stylistics reflect – or rather deconstruct – the philosophical and aesthetic values of the Late Middle Ages. In translation, the main points to consider are the creative use of superlatives and diminutives, as well as that of idioms, which the poet transforms, drawing attention to their cognitive origins. The different morpho-syntactic properties of the target languages offer varied possibilities of rendering the key elements. However, the aptitude of the translator is of even greater importance.

  11. Institutionalisation without internalisation. The cultural dimension of French-German conflicts on European Central Bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, F.A.W.J. van; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  12. Institutionalisation without Internalisation. The Cultural Dimension of French-German Conflicts on European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, F.A.W.J.; Jong, Eelke, De

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  13. Publication of the second amendment to the German-French Convention on the construction and operation of a very high flux reactor and to its complementary agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Full text in German, English, and French of the amendment to the London Convention of December 9, 1981 between the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning the operating cost and the use of the high flux reactor in Grenoble at the Max-von-Laue Institute. (HP) [de

  14. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Orientation and Achievements in L2 of Arab Learners of English, French and German: A Study from Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreishan, Lana J.; Al-Dhaimat, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore Jordanian undergraduate students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and instrumental and integrative orientations toward learning English, French, and German as foreign languages. The paper also reflects on how subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations relate to orientations and examines possible…

  15. Cultural globalization and arts journalism: The international orientation of arts and culture coverage in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. newspapers, 1955 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne); G. Kuipers (Giselinde); M.N.M. Verboord (Marc)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article charts key developments and cross-national variations in the coverage of foreign culture (i.e., classical and popular music, dance, film, literature, theater, television, and visual arts) in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. elite newspapers between 1955 and 2005. Such

  16. An English-French-German-Spanish Word Frequency Dictionary: A Correlation of the First Six Thousand Words in Four Single-Language Frequency Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Helen S., Comp.

    This semantic frequency list for English, French, German, and Spanish correlates 6,474 concepts represented by individual words in an order of diminishing occurrence. Designed as a research tool, the work is segmented into seven comparative "Thousand Concepts" lists with 115 sectional subdivisions, each of which begins with the key English word…

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, Internal Consistency and Validation of the Spinal Function Sort (SFS) for French- and German-Speaking Patients with Back Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borloz, S.; Trippolini, M. A.; Ballabeni, P.; Luthi, F.; Deriaz, O.

    Introduction Functional subjective evaluation through questionnaire is fundamental, but not often realized in patients with back complaints, lacking validated tools. The Spinal Function Sort (SFS) was only validated in English. We aimed to translate, adapt and validate the French (SFS-F) and German

  18. Cultural globalization and arts journalism: the international orientation of arts and culture coverage in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. newspapers, 1955 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Kuipers, G.; Verboord, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article charts key developments and cross-national variations in the coverage of foreign culture (i.e., classical and popular music, dance, film, literature, theater, television, and visual arts) in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. elite newspapers between 1955 and 2005. Such coverage signals

  19. Force Majeure and Unforeseen Change of Circumstances. The Case of Embargoes and Currency Fluctuations (Russian, German and French Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Kokorin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and political instability has become a characteristic of many societies around the globe. Recent examples revealing the volatility of the current state of affairs include the trade restrictions imposed by the Russian Federation in August 2014, and currency fluctuations experienced by many countries, including Russia and potentially Greece. In this situation, one may wonder whether contract law has a solution to offer to the parties affected. Traditionally dominated by the pacta sunt servanda principle, jurisdictions made their own choices. This paper analyses approaches adopted by Russian, German and French law in response to situations of force majeure (trade embargoesand unforeseen change of circumstances (currency fluctuations. In search for an explanation of each given approach, we reviewed historical arguments, as history played a crucial role in the formation of German and French responses, though in a completely different way. Whereas Germany, heavily affected by the cataclysms of the World Wars, was eager to adopt a lenient view on the possibility of the judicial revision of contracts, France never gave up its suspicion of court interventions. As legal preferences are often connected with cultural factors, we looked at distinct cultural traits of the societies at issue, by using the Hofstede index. We realized that there could be compelling cultural reasons why France and Germany are situated at opposite poles, while Russia is somewhere in the middle. Lastly, we took into account considerations derived from law and economics, arguing that narrowly construed court intervention might be economically justified in cases of impossibility and impracticability, as ultimately decreasing transaction and risk-appraisal costs.

  20. Does ‘local’ matter in restaurant choice? Results of a discrete choice experiment targeting German and Italian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Contini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer preferences about locally grown foods have been studied principally as they concern meals consumed in the home, while knowledge about consumptions outside the home is still fragmented. Studying the relationship between local foods and out of the home consumptions instead proves particularly interesting, considering the growth of eating out habits. In this scenario, our paper intends to verify whether using products of local origin in restaurants can represent an element capable of influencing consumer preferences positively. The analysis was developed by means of a choice experiment between alternatives that differ in certification of origin, process certification, price and the main characteristics of the restaurant. The survey was conducted on a representative sample of Italian (500 and German (500 consumers. Applying Latent Class Modelling has enabled us to segment the market and profile the segments. Profiling was performed considering the socio-demographic characteristics, the choice motivations not expressly inserted in the choice experiment and the Schwartz value system. The results show not only a marked heterogeneity of preferences but also a consistent consumer segment willing to pay a relevant premium price for meals made from a prevalence of products certified as being of local origin. This segment, labelled ‘locavores’, appears across both countries, despite differing gastronomic traditions. Locavores are mainly young people who prioritise self-enhancement, stimulation and conservation in the sense of respect for traditions and being members of their communities. The ‘Discussions and conclusions’ section handles the principal implications from the viewpoint of the decisions of restaurant owners, as well as from that of farmers.

  1. Under new auspices: transition process and cooperation models in the French-German energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diechtl, Franca; Fischer, Severin

    2015-06-01

    Cooperation on energy matters has been a matter of priority in Franco-German consultations for some time. Not only is close coordination advisable due to the geographic proximity of Europe's two largest national energy markets. Their growing degree of economic (and energy) integration makes it necessary. The significance of energy policy for industrial policy on both sides of the Rhine is unmistakable. While policy approaches in the two countries' energy sectors have differed in the past and in some ways continue to do so, this has not diminished the topic's relevance or lessened the importance of cross-border cooperation. What is new is that both states are now pursuing the same goal: energy transformation (known as Energiewende, or 'transition energetique', depending on which side of the Rhine you are on). There are therefore plenty of good reasons to strive for closer cooperation on matters of energy policy and, in doing so, help bridge some of the gaps in the sputtering Franco-German relationship. (authors)

  2. [The impact of exposure to images of ideally thin models on body dissatisfaction in young French and Italian women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R; Chabrol, H

    2009-06-01

    The thin-ideal of feminine beauty has a strong impact on body image and plays a central part in eating disorders. This ideal is widely promoted by the media images that flood western societies. Although the harmful effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images have been repeatedly demonstrated experimentally in English-speaking western countries, no such studies exist in southern Europe. There is evidence to suggest that the use of average-size models could reduce these negative effects. This study investigates body image amongst French and Italian students following exposure to media images of thin or average-size models, with a neutral or supportive slogan. The data were gathered in three locations: the psychology departments of the Universities of Padua, Italy, and Toulouse, France, and lastly high schools in the Toulouse area. A total of 299 girls took part in the study; their average age was 19.9 years old (S.D.=2.54) In order to investigate the effects of media images, we created three fake advertisements, allegedly promoting body-cream. The first advertisement displayed an ideally-thin model accompanied by a neutral slogan. In the second, the model was average-size with the same neutral slogan. The last advertisement also contained the average-size model, but with a supportive slogan designed to convey acceptance of deviations from the social norms of thinness. The participants first graded themselves on a VAS of body dissatisfaction (0 to 10). On the basis of this score, we created a first group containing girls reporting body dissatisfaction (VAS>or=5), the second with those reporting no body dissatisfaction (VASnegative effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images among students with body dissatisfaction. The use of average-size models in the media and advertising might help reduce these effects. No improvement was obtained via the use of a supportive slogan. These results highlight the importance of media literacy campaigns in the prevention of eating

  3. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition. 2014-2017 results, 2017-2019 prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfin, Anne; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Mouchard, Claire; Coquio, Rozenn; Kynast, Helmi

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the 'Transition energetique' process in France and of the 'Energiewende' process in Germany has resulted in the signature of a number of cooperation agreements between the two States. Since both these energy transition processes are largely based on decentralising energy supplies, close local authority cooperation looks promising. The TANDEM project is jointly led by two local authority networks, Energy Cities and Klima-Buendnis, with co-funding from ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency) and UBA (German Federal Environment Agency). The TANDEM project provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to share information and cooperate on climate protection issues in order to: provide improved mutual understanding of the situation, challenges and framework of climate and energy policies; encourage exchanges on the obstacles and leverages impeding or fostering the attainment of ambitious energy and climate objectives and encourage knowledge transfer; boost close cooperation between local authorities from both countries, involving local stakeholders and citizens; implement the first stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and lay solid foundations for long-term cooperation; relay local authorities' claims and concerns at both national and European levels, aimed at providing them with greater latitude and freedom of action. Approaches specific to each country have been developed to promote energy transition at the local level. A comparative analysis of existing practices, tools and experiences involving research work and interviews will be conducted and made available to the participating authorities as well as to national organisations. This analysis will be used by national organisations to develop and enhance their action and by local authorities to improve mutual understanding during their discussions. Cooperation projects aimed at implementing energy

  4. From O Paiz do Carnaval to Il Paese del Carnevale And Le Pays du Carnaval: the paratexts of the italian and French Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bagno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 makes us remember the 90 years of the “Ata de Incineração” (Burning Act which destroyed more than 1600 books of Jorge Amado, and among them 214 copies of O Paiz do Carnval, a novel whose first translation, which was made into the Italian language, according to the desire of Amado himself, appeared only in 1984, with a “note” by Luciana Stegagno Picchio. Presupposing that, before the publication of the first edition of the novel (1931, the Italian lexicographer Panzini had already rejected, for Italy, the old English nicknames carnival land and land of carnival; this article wants to highlight which interpretations were vehicled, both by the paratext of the Italian translation and by the one of the French translation (1990, written by Alice Raillard. A translator who, however, took advantage of her famous interview Conversando com Jorge Amado, 1990 (Talking with Jorge Amado, which would open new paths to international criticism

  5. Three points of a triangle: Italian, Latin and German oratorios and sepolcros in the early 18th century central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-188 ISSN 1212-0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Italian oratorio * 18th century * Bohemian Lands Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. EWeA Offshore 2013 - Side event: 'Offshore wind energy - Potentialities and industrial opportunities in France and in Germany. French-German cross perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genachte, Anne-Benedicte; Kavafyan, Philippe; Wagner, Andreas; Bour, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    At the EWEA Offshore 2013 exhibition, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side-conference on Offshore wind energy and its Potentialities and industrial opportunities in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 50 participants exchanged views on the conditions for the development of a durable offshore wind energy industry both in France and in Germany. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Supporting industrial development of offshore wind in Europe (Anne-Benedicte Genachte); 2 - Offshore wind energy: the Bremerhaven experience. An asset for the deployment of a complete industrial field in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 3 - Status, Prospects and Challenges for Offshore Wind energy in Germany - incl. Legal Framework and Presentation of cost reduction study results (Andreas Wagner); 4 - Offshore grid connection in Germany - Challenges and recommendations (Gregoire Bour)

  7. Neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel wall - a comparison of French and German procedures and strategies in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, N.; Jendrich, U.

    2003-01-01

    While the neutrons within the core may take part in the chain reaction, those neutrons emitted from the core are basically lost for the energy production. This 'neutron leakage' represents a loss of fuel efficiency and causes neutron embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall. The latter raises safety concerns, needs to be monitored closely and may necessitate mitigating measures. There are different strategies to deal with these two undesirable effects: The neutron emission may be reduced to some extent all around the core or just at the 'hot spots' of RPV embrittlement by tailored core loading patterns. A higher absorption rate of neutrons may also be achieved by a larger water gap between the core and the RPV. In this paper the inter-relations between the distribution of neutron flux, core geometry, core loading strategy, RPV embrittlement and its surveillance are discussed at first. Then the different strategies followed by the German and French operators are described. Finally the conclusions will highlight the communalities and differences between these strategies as different approaches to the same problem of safety as well as economy. (authors)

  8. Good neighborhood in a crisis? Germans and French in search of a common energy policy (1973 - 1980); Stoerfall fuer die gute Nachbarschaft? Deutsche und Franzosen auf der Suche nach einer gemeinsamen Energiepolitik (1973-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauer, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    The oil crisis of autumn 1973 was a turning point of the seventies. Citizens of industrialized countries were brought to realize their dependence on Arab imported oil the hard way. Using the example of German-French relations, the author investigates if there were instances of cooperation in energy policy, and in what concrete manner. Using historical primary energy sources, she starts by investigating the actions and political strategies of the German and French governments and also describes the search for multilateral solutions. Examples are presented to show how civil society is affected. This first systematic analysis of German-French relations shows that energy policy had great importance for the bilateral relation even though results of German-French cooperation were few and far between.

  9. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  10. Intersolar 2012 - side event: photovoltaic energy at the origin of a transformation of our energy system, French-German crossed-views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, Jan-Benjamin; Jirous, Filip; Daval, Xavier; Chrometzka, Thomas; Pages, Nicolas; Muders, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the Intersolar Europe 2012 exhibition, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on photovoltaic energy and the transformation of the French-German energy systems. During this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the increasing integration of renewable energies to power grids, and on the necessity to develop new energy management and business models for projects financing. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - System integration of PV in Germany and France: Comparing results of the ReS Integration Study (Jan-Benjamin Spitzley, Filip Jirous); 2 - The role of solar PV in France: current status and development opportunities (Xavier Daval); 3 - The European project PV GRID and the relevance of PV in the European power system (Thomas Chrometzka); 4 - Business Models beyond the EEG Act. When feed-in tariffs are no longer sufficient: what project financing models for solar power plants in France and Germany? (Herbert Muders)

  11. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V.

    2006-01-01

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic integration = merging of all DB in an

  12. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Environment and Emergency Operations Div. - Dept. for the Study of Radionuclide Behaviour in Ecosystems, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic

  13. Dictionary of navigation. German-English-French-Spanish-Italian. Schiffahrts-Woerterbuch. Deutsch-englisch-franzoesisch-spanisch-italienisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, W [ed.

    1987-01-01

    This 5-language dictionary contains about 60,000 terms on the subjects: Loading, stowing, unloading; activities on board and in the harbour; marine engineering and harbour facilities; insurance and health; engine room commands, rudder commands, anchor commands, boat commands and rope commands; ship's papers - also in Portugese, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Dutch; more than 1300 international abbreviations.

  14. French Reed Bed as a Solution to Minimize the Operational and Maintenance Costs of Wastewater Treatment from a Small Settlement: An Italian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacleto Rizzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available French Reed Bed (FRB is a particular constructed wetland (CW solution which receives raw wastewater. Data from the full-scale FRB wastewater treatment plant of Castelluccio di Norcia (center of Italy were collected to show the FRB capability to minimize the operational and management (O&M costs. The system was designed to treat wastewater variable from 200 person equivalent (PE in off-season up to 1000 PE. Data from 2014 up to 2016 showed high removal efficiency in line with French experiences with FRBs. An interview was conducted with the Water Utility to estimate the operational and maintenance (O&M costs faced by the WWTP, which allowed us to detail the O&M costs for energy consumption, water quality samples, and personnel for inspection. Other O&M expenditure items were estimated on the basis of parametric costs from the executive design. The FRB O&M costs in euro for 500–1000 PE (6–11 € PE−1 year−1 resulted from 5 to 13 lower in comparison to those reported for classical activated sludge systems in an Italian context (45–90 € year−1. The low O&M costs are mainly due to the limited energy consumed and to the minimized costs of sludge management.

  15. German and French experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture author presents experience in-service inspection programme of primary circuit components at home and abroad, implementation into WWER (world methodology and equipment) as well as system qualification. Objectives European network for inspection qualification (ENIQ) are presented

  16. Simulation of creep tests with French or German RPV-steel and investigation of a RPV-support against failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willschuetz, H.-G.; Altstadt, E.; Sehgal, B.R.; Weiss, F.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Investigating the hypothetical core melt down scenario for a light water reactor (LWR) a possible failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its failure time has to be considered for a determination of the loadings on the containment. For pre- and post-test calculations of Lower Head Failure experiments like OLHF or FOREVER it is necessary to model creep and plasticity processes. Therefore a Finite Element Model is developed at the FZR using a numerical approach which avoids the use of a single creep law employing constants derived from the data for a limited stress and temperature range. Instead of this a numerical creep data base (CDB) is developed in which the creep strain rate is evaluated in dependence on the current total strain, temperature and equivalent stress. A main task for this approach is the generation and validation of the CDB. Additionally the implementation of all relevant temperature dependent material properties is performed. For the consideration of the tertiary creep stage and for the evaluation of the failure times a damage model according to an approach of Lemaitre is applied. The validation of the numerical model is performed by the simulation of and comparison with experiments. This is done in three levels: starting with the simulation of single uniaxial creep tests, which is considered as a 1D-problem. In the next level so called 'tube-failure-experiments' are modeled: the RUPTHER-14 and the 'MPA-Meppen'-experiment. These experiments are considered as 2D-problems. Finally the numerical model is applied to scaled 3D-experiments, where the lower head of a PWR is represented in its hemispherical shape, like in the FOREVER-experiments. An interesting question to be solved in this frame is the comparability of the French 16MND5 and the German 20MnMoNi5-5 RPV-steels, which are chemically nearly identical. Since these two steels show a similar behavior, it should be allowed to a limited extend to transfer experimental and numerical

  17. French and German students at CERN in the framework of 50th anniversary of the franco-german Treaty - Microcosm garden BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.

  18. Eight Hundred Years of Modern Language Learning and Teaching in the German-Speaking Countries of Central Europe: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of FLT in the German-speaking regions of Europe from medieval times to the present day, within a framework of language politics, communicative needs and educational ideologies. The languages addressed are French, Italian, Spanish, English, Russian and Turkish. Basic social and professional data of the various groups of…

  19. Proceedings of the French-German symposium on Hydrogen-energy, an industrial model for the energy transition in France and in Germany: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Hotellier, Gaelle; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-06-01

    This French-German conference on hydrogen energy was jointly organised by the French embassy in Berlin and the French-German office for renewable energies. The conference brought together about 200 scientific experts, industrialists and politicians from both countries. The conference approached first the regulatory aspects of hydrogen energy in both countries. Then, several R and D presentations were given by representatives of industrial groups, small companies and research organisations about some technological aspects of PEM fuel cells, solid storage, and materials for H 2 production. Next, some applications of hydrogen energy were discussed in particular in transportation systems. Finally, the last part of the conference was devoted to the challenges and perspectives of hydrogen energy, together with its social acceptability. This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given by the participants: 1 - Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of Energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - PEM-Electrolysis - a technological bridge for a more flexible energy system (Gaelle Hotellie); 4 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 5 - Hydrogen storage possibilities - the solid storage example (Pascal Mauberger); 6 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 7 - Scientific development and industrial strategy, experience feedback from the Myrte platform and perspectives in the framework of the energy transition (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 8 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider); 9 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany. A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger; 10 - H2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable

  20. Women victims of intentional homicide in Italy: New insights comparing Italian trends to German and U.S. trends, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Zen, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    National statistics on female homicide could be a useful tool to evaluate the phenomenon and plan adequate strategies to prevent and reduce this crime. The aim of the study is to contribute to the analysis of intentional female homicides in Italy by comparing Italian trends to German and United States trends from 2008 to 2014. This is a population study based on data deriving primarily from national and European statistical institutes, from the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting and from the National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed in relation to trends and age by Chi-square test, Student's t-test and linear regression. Results show that female homicides, unlike male homicides, remained stable in the three countries. Regression analysis showed a higher risk for female homicide in all age groups in the U.S. Middle-aged women result at higher risk, and the majority of murdered women are killed by people they know. These results confirm previous findings and suggest the need to focus also in Italy on preventive strategies to reduce those precipitating factors linked to violence and present in the course of a relationship or within the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, internal consistency and validation of the Spinal Function Sort (SFS) for French- and German-speaking patients with back complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borloz, S; Trippolini, M A; Ballabeni, P; Luthi, F; Deriaz, O

    2012-09-01

    Functional subjective evaluation through questionnaire is fundamental, but not often realized in patients with back complaints, lacking validated tools. The Spinal Function Sort (SFS) was only validated in English. We aimed to translate, adapt and validate the French (SFS-F) and German (SFS-G) versions of the SFS. Three hundred and forty-four patients, experiencing various back complaints, were recruited in a French (n = 87) and a German-speaking (n = 257) center. Construct validity was estimated via correlations with SF-36 physical and mental scales, pain intensity and hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS). Scale homogeneities were assessed by Cronbach's α. Test-retest reliability was assessed on 65 additional patients using intraclass correlation (IC). For the French and German translations, respectively, α were 0.98 and 0.98; IC 0.98 (95% CI: [0.97; 1.00]) and 0.94 (0.90; 0.98). Correlations with physical functioning were 0.63 (0.48; 0.74) and 0.67 (0.59; 0.73); with physical summary 0.60 (0.44; 0.72) and 0.52 (0.43; 0.61); with pain -0.33 (-0.51; -0.13) and -0.51 (-0.60; -0.42); with mental health -0.08 (-0.29; 0.14) and 0.25 (0.13; 0.36); with mental summary 0.01 (-0.21; 0.23) and 0.28 (0.16; 0.39); with depression -0.26 (-0.45; -0.05) and -0.42 (-0.52; -0.32); with anxiety -0.17 (-0.37; -0.04) and -0.45 (-0.54; -0.35). Reliability was excellent for both languages. Convergent validity was good with SF-36 physical scales, moderate with VAS pain. Divergent validity was low with SF-36 mental scales in both translated versions and with HADS for the SFS-F (moderate in SFS-G). Both versions seem to be valid and reliable for evaluating perceived functional capacity in patients with back complaints.

  2. The issue of delivery room infections in the Italian law. A brief comparative study with English and French jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaami, Simona; Montanari Vergallo, Gianluca; Napoletano, Simona; Signore, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Delivery room infections are frequent, and many of them could be avoided through higher standards of care. The authors examine this issue by comparing it to English and French reality. Unlike England, in Italy and France the relationship established between health facility, physician and patient is outlined in a contract. In England, the judges' decisions converge toward a better and higher protection of the patient-the actor-and facilitate the probative task. In case of infections, including those occurring in the delivery room, three issues are evaluated: the hospital's negligent conduct, damages if any and causal nexus. Therefore, the hospital must demonstrate to have taken the appropriate asepsis measures according to current scientific knowledge concerning not only treatment, but also diagnosis, previous activities, surgery and post-surgery. In order to avoid a negative sentence, both physicians and hospital have to demonstrate their correct behavior and that the infection was caused by an unforeseeable event. The authors examine the most significant rulings by the Courts and the Supreme Court. They show that hospitals can avoid being accused of negligence and recklessness only if they can demonstrate to have implemented all the preventive measures provided for in the guidelines or protocols.

  3. Validation of French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire among young Swiss males, and its relationship with substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Henchoz, Yves; Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    This study main purpose was the validation of both French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire. The sample group comprised 5065 Swiss men from the "Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors." Multigroup Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well, which substantiates the generalizability of Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire factor structure, regardless of the language. The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire demonstrated excellent homogeneity (α = 95) and split-half reliability (r = .96). The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire was sensitive to community size and participants' financial situation, confirming that it also measures real social conditions. Finally, weak but frequent correlations between Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire and alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis dependence were measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend C Stoel

    Full Text Available Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers.

  5. Toxicological study for assessing the risk of consuming irradiated fatty food. A French-German transfrontier study in the lower Rhine region. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Delincee, H.; Burnouf, D.; Hartwig, A.; Miesch, M.; Raul, F.; Werner, D.

    2002-01-01

    Food irradiation is considered as a highly effective processing technology to improve and maintain food safety. Indeed this process applied on food products dramatically reduces the populations of pathogens, which are annually responsible for millions of food-borne illnesses worldwide. The World Health Organization and many state agencies around the world have endorsed food irradiation as a major contributor to public health preservation. Irradiation of fat-containing food generates a family of molecules, namely 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACB), that result from the radiation-induced breakage of triglycerides. These components present the same number of carbons (n) as their fatty acids precursors, and an alkyl chain of (n-4) carbons, branched in ring position 2. Until now, these molecules have been found exclusively in irradiated fat-containing food, and are thus considered as unique markers for food irradiation. Since the 2-ACB are radiation-specific components and not inherent to food, an assessment of their potential health hazard is advisable. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the toxicological properties, if any, of these 2-ACB. Within the framework of INTERREG II, an EU Interregio program, a French-German research collaborative group was constituted and obtained a significant number of results. (orig.)

  6. Wood densitometry in 17th and 18th century Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins, compared to classical Cremonese and modern violins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel, Berend C; Borman, Terry M; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers.

  7. Adaptation en français et en allemand d'une échelle de pression des pairs pour jeunes adultes : le Peer Pressure Inventory [Adaptation of a peer pressure scale in French and German: the Peer Pressure Inventory].

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S.; Studer, J.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peer pressure is regarded as an important determinant of substance use, sexual behavior and juvenile delinquency. However, few peer pressure scales are validated, especially in French or German. Little is known about the factor structure of such scales or the kind of scale needed: some scales takes into account both peer pressure to do and peer pressure not to do, while others consider only peer pressure to do. The aim of the present study was to adapt French and German versions o...

  8. The European pressurized water reactor. Result of the French-German cooperation of experienced NPP suppliers and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 Framatome and Siemens, the two most experienced European nuclear power plant suppliers, decided to join the efforts for the development of a new reactor type for the next generation in their equally owned subsidiary nuclear power international (NPI). In 1992 Electricite de France and the major German utilities operating nuclear power plants merged their own development programs with that of nuclear power international and initiated the European pressurized water reactor (EPR) project. In order to reach the two major targets of the project, the licensability in both countries, France and Germany, and the competitiveness of nuclear energy with other alternative energy sources, the design basis which had differently developed in the two countries needed to be harmonized. In parallel, the licensing authorities of both countries extended their existing cooperation in the field of a safety survey of existing nuclear power plants to the definition of safety criteria for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Through this cooperation the licensability of EPR in France and Germany will be assured. Continuously performed cost analysis show in addition that also the second target of the project, the competitiveness with alternative primary energy sources, can be achieved. Thanks to the fruitful cooperation between all parties involved, satisfactory results have been achieved not by a simple superposition of existing design features but through a careful evaluation and combination of the best available alternatives. At the end of 1997 the basic design results were compiled in a final report. Subsequently an optimization phase was launched that further improves the competitiveness of the power generation costs. (orig.)

  9. The Italian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2004-01-01

    The first meeting of the French gas association (AFG) of the year 2004 was devoted to the Italian gas market. Two experts of this market were invited: A. Ferrari, general director of the Italian gas and electricity regulation authority, and D. Dispenza, vice-general director of Eni Division Gas and Power. This conference was the occasion to compare the French and Italian gas industries. France and Italy have a border in common and also a series of common structural characteristics: the dependence with respect to foreign supplies, the position of the public company, the sensitiveness with respect to the security of supplies, to the role of storage and to the public utility. The French and Italian decisions are inter-dependent. The liberalization taking place with an unpredictable rate, it is necessary for the gas industry to anticipate its effects. When the political, legal and regulatory decisions are enforced, the initiative comes back to the hands of the industry. In this context, the trend of the transfrontier industries becomes particularly important for the regulatory authority. (J.S.)

  10. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological choices on the German energy turn: which lessons for the French energy transition? Volume I: report of the public hearing of the 25 September 2014. Nr 2440, Nr 176

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Deaut, Jean-Yves; Sido, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This Parliamentary report first contains Power Point presentations proposed by different contributors (representatives of the German energy company, RWE, a French researcher, the chairwoman of the French-German Office for renewable energies, a representative of a German think tank, a French expert, a representative of ADEME, a representative of EON France, and two French researchers) on the objectives, difficulties and associated reform of the German energy turn, on the evolution of models of support to renewable energies in Germany, on the main challenges and evolution on the long term for the German energy turn (in terms of costs, de-carbonation, and European dimension), on the various challenges faced by this change in energy policy for Germany, on the French objectives in terms of renewable energy production and consumptions in the framework of energy transition with respect to the German experience, on a good idea to preserve and a bad idea to discard from the German experience, on the agenda and steering of nuclear station lifetime. After these contributions, the content of two round tables is reported. The first one addressed the objectives, difficulties and reforms associated with the German energy policy change, and the second one the lessons learned for the French energy transition. Interveners are representatives or members of public bodies, energy companies, research institutions, think tanks. They notably discuss the fast development of wind and photovoltaic energies, the regulatory evolution of the support system to renewable energies, challenges on a medium term for a low carbon electric system, the sustainability of the new energy system

  11. German-French PWR cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, F.; Vignon, D.

    1990-01-01

    In April 1989, the two leading European nuclear power plant vendors, Framatome and Siemens, signed an agreement on cooperation covering the joint development and worldwide marketing of pressurized water reactors. For this purpose a joint subsidiary, Nuclear Power International (NPI) was founded, in which equal interests are held by Framatome and Siemens. The firm has its headquarters in Paris and another sales office in Erlangen. Its main activities are the coordination of the development of a joint advanced pressurized water reactor technology and the marketing of pressurized water reactors. Until the joint technology under development has reached commercial maturity, the lines so far developed by the parent companies will continue to be distributed. (orig.) [de

  12. Generation of a high temperature material data base and its application to creep tests with French or German RPV-steel. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willschuetz, H.G.; Altstadt, E.

    2002-08-01

    Considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario for a light water reactor (LWR) a possible failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its failure time has to be investigated for a determination of the loadings on the containment. Numerous experiments have been performed accompanied with material properties evaluation, theoretical, and numerical work /REM 1993/, /THF 1997/, /CHU 1999/. For pre- and post-test calculations of Lower Head Failure experiments like OLHF or FOREVER it is necessary to model creep and plasticity processes. Therefore a Finite Element Model is developed at the FZR using a numerical approach which avoids the use of a single creep law employing constants derived from the data for a limited stress and temperature range. Instead of this a numerical creep data base (CDB) is developed where the creep strain rate is evaluated in dependence on the current total strain, temperature and equivalent stress. A main task for this approach is the generation and validation of the CDB. Additionally the implementation of all relevant temperature dependent material properties has been performed. For an evaluation of the failure times a damage model according to an approach of Lemaitre is applied. The validation of the numerical model is performed by the simulation of and comparison with experiments. This is done in 3 levels: starting with the simulation of single uniaxial creep tests, which is considered as a 1D-problem. In the next level so called ''tube-failure-experiments'' are modeled: the RUPTHER-14 and the ''MPA-Meppen''-experiment. These experiments are considered as 2D-problems. Finally the numerical model is applied to scaled 3D-experiments, where the lower head of a PWR is represented in its hemispherical shape, like in the FOREVER-experiments. This report deals with the 1D- and 2D-simulations. An interesting question to be solved in this frame is the comparability of the French 16MND5 and the German 20MnMoNi55 RPV-steels, which are

  13. Dictionary of agriculture. German - English - French - Spanish - Italian - Russian. 5. rev. and enlarged ed. Woerterbuch der Landwirtschaft. Deutsch - English - Franzoesisch - Spanisch - Italienisch - Russisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensch, G; Haberkamp de Anton, G

    1987-01-01

    The fifth edition of the 'Dictionary of Agriculture' has, like its predecessors, been set out in the proven and systematic way, namely according to linguistic subject matter. An alphabetical index in six languages and an additional index of Latin names and terms in current use means that the dictionary can be used as a technical dictionary as well as a systematic guide to terminology. Each term has been consecutively numbered throughout the systematic part of the dictionary. Since these numbers recur in every index, entries are both easy to find and easy to read. A natural selection had constantly to be made from the wealth of possible terms. Wherever possible, however, terms that are characteristic of a particular region have also been taken into account. The same is true of linguistic differences, e.g. between American and British English and between European and American Spanish as well as of regional peculiarities in language use in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France and Belgium. Where popular plant names in addition to the scientific ones could not be ascertained - as was the case for Spanish, in particular - only the Latin names are listed, in accordance with general practice in Spanish specialist literature.

  14. Healthy migrants but unhealthy offspring? A retrospective cohort study among Italians in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Silvan; Bopp, Matthias

    2012-12-22

    In many countries, migrants from Italy form a substantial, well-defined group with distinct lifestyle and dietary habits. There is, however, hardly any information about all-cause mortality patterns among Italian migrants and their offspring. In this paper, we compare Italian migrants, their offspring and Swiss nationals. We compared age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (adjusted for education, marital status, language region and period) for Swiss and Italian nationals registered in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC), living in the German- or French-speaking part of Switzerland and falling into the age range 40-89 during the observation period 1990-2008. Overall, 3,175,288 native Swiss (48% male) and 224,372 individuals with an Italian migration background (57% male) accumulated 698,779 deaths and 44,836,189 person-years. Individuals with Italian background were categorized by nationality, country of birth and language. First-generation Italians had lower mortality risks than native Swiss (reference group), but second-generation Italians demonstrated higher mortality risks. Among first-generation Italians, predominantly Italian-speaking men and women had hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.88-0.91) and 0.90 (0.87-0.92), respectively, while men and women having adopted the regional language had HRs of 0.93 (0.88-0.98) and 0.96 (0.88-1.04), respectively. Among second-generation Italians, the respective HRs were 1.16 (1.03-1.31), 1.06 (0.89-1.26), 1.10 (1.05-1.16) and 0.97 (0.89-1.05). The mortality advantage of first-generation Italians decreased with age. The mortality risks of first- and second-generation Italians vary substantially. The healthy migrant effect and health disadvantage among second-generation Italians show characteristic age/sex patterns. Future investigation of health behavior and cause-specific mortality is needed to better understand different mortality risks. Such insights will facilitate adequate prevention and

  15. Healthy migrants but unhealthy offspring? A retrospective cohort study among Italians in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnutzer Silvan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, migrants from Italy form a substantial, well-defined group with distinct lifestyle and dietary habits. There is, however, hardly any information about all-cause mortality patterns among Italian migrants and their offspring. In this paper, we compare Italian migrants, their offspring and Swiss nationals. Methods We compared age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (adjusted for education, marital status, language region and period for Swiss and Italian nationals registered in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC, living in the German- or French-speaking part of Switzerland and falling into the age range 40–89 during the observation period 1990–2008. Overall, 3,175,288 native Swiss (48% male and 224,372 individuals with an Italian migration background (57% male accumulated 698,779 deaths and 44,836,189 person-years. Individuals with Italian background were categorized by nationality, country of birth and language. Results First-generation Italians had lower mortality risks than native Swiss (reference group, but second-generation Italians demonstrated higher mortality risks. Among first-generation Italians, predominantly Italian-speaking men and women had hazard ratios (HRs of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.88-0.91 and 0.90 (0.87-0.92, respectively, while men and women having adopted the regional language had HRs of 0.93 (0.88-0.98 and 0.96 (0.88-1.04, respectively. Among second-generation Italians, the respective HRs were 1.16 (1.03-1.31, 1.06 (0.89-1.26, 1.10 (1.05-1.16 and 0.97 (0.89-1.05. The mortality advantage of first-generation Italians decreased with age. Conclusions The mortality risks of first- and second-generation Italians vary substantially. The healthy migrant effect and health disadvantage among second-generation Italians show characteristic age/sex patterns. Future investigation of health behavior and cause-specific mortality is needed to better understand different mortality risks

  16. Verb Movement and the Licensing of NP-positions in the Germanic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    1990-01-01

    In this dissertation, I want to discuss a certain set of interrelated phenomena in Danish and other Germanic languages. What   I am interested in is the position of the finite verb, the factors that determine this verb-position, and the consequences that the choice of position has for other...... into which other positions NPs may occupy, and how they depend on certain verb movements either taking place in the same sentence, or at least being possible in the language in question. The thesis is organised as follows: In chapter 1, I briefly introduce the theoretical background for my study, and discuss...... a number of definitions central to the following chapters. In chapter 2, I discuss the two kinds of movement of the finite verb found in the Germanic languages: Verb Second (V2) and V-to-I movement, and their distrib­ution across the Germanic languages. (French (and to some extent Italian) is sometimes...

  17. USP e UFRJ: a influência das concepções alemã e francesa em suas fundações USP and UFRJ: the influence of the German and French conceptions upon their foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Costa de Paula

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende demonstrar a influência das concepções alemã e francesa do século XIX sobre a Universidade de São Paulo (USP e a Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (URJ, no momento das suas respectivas fundações e em suas primeiras décadas de funcionamento, na primeira metade do século XX. Para tal, relacionamos as características da concepção alemã com a concepção da USP, no que se refere à idéia de universidade e à organização institucional da mesma. Fizemos um percurso semelhante para demonstrar a influência do modelo francês napoleônico sobre a URJ. Nas considerações finais, sugerimos a hegemonia da concepção norte-americana sobre os casos brasileiros investigados, a partir, sobretudo, da década de 1960, substituindo progressivamente as influências alemã e francesa.The present study investigates the influence of the XIXth century German and French thought on the establishment of the universities of São Paulo (USP and Rio de Janeiro (URJ, in Brazil. This research also shows how this influence remains during the first decades of the XXth century lasting until the 50's. In order to do that we related specific traits of the German conception with the USP conception and emphasized the definition od university and its organization. The same methodology was applied to analyse the napoleonic model´s influence upon the university of Rio de Janeiro. Finally we verify the growing and dominant influence of the North-American model in the cases above mentionned, mainly after the 60's. As a result we concluded that the North-American model gradually replaced the French and German models.

  18. language teacher recruitment in the French

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We first present the broad lines of the French system of language teacher recruitment in ... Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Spanish, Turkish and .... knowledge and learning ability), the higher the Department's.

  19. I have a dream... for electricity production in France. Wind and photovoltaic: history of an evil scam. Climate and energy: the French-German Council of Ministers said... (on the 19 February 2014 at the Elysee Palace)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-03-01

    In a first article, the author expresses a dream in which France could produce energy with nuclear and hydraulic energy while putting aside wind turbines and photovoltaic panels which he considers as wrongly seducing chimeras. He also supports the project of construction of two EPRs per year during 30 years (from 2017 to 2047), and relies on the development of new fast breeder reactors. In a second article, he denounces the promotion of renewable energies which is, according to him, a scam. He notably refers to actual costs and supposed job creations. The third article comments and criticizes the content of the statement made by the French-German Council of Ministers on the Climate-Energy issue with the aim of a better coordination of energy transition processes. He more particularly discusses issues related to public policies, to industrial and technological cooperation

  20. Lessons learned from exchanges between the french and german safety authorities. Comparison of the safety levels achieved for reactors built in these two countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droulers, Y.

    1988-12-01

    It is important to emphasize, right at the beginning, the exceptional extent of the assessment work performed over several years on the nuclear power plants in each country (exchange of confidential documents, communication of incidents during the plant building stage, specialist visits to the site, joint reports by the Franco-German Commission on all important safety problems). The D.F.K. (Franco-German Commission) has been the official framework for these exchanges since 1976 (the exchanges relating to FESSENHEIM and its ''twin'' plant NECKARWESTHEIM 1 began as far back as 1973 and were pursued, when construction of CATTENOM began, by a comparison with PHILIPPSBURG). Apart from its annual plenary session, it presently comprises 6 standing working groups dealing respectively with general safety problems (including primary system technology problems and exchanges on incidents discussed by two subcommittees), emergency plans, radiation protection problems, radioactive waste, fuel cycle installations, fast breeder reactors. It is also worth noting the regular meetings held by the standing groups of experts (GPR and RSK), which have enabled periodical assessment of the extent to which the approaches of the two countries to the main safety problems are tending to converge (severe accidents, operating feedback, containment, followup on the TMI and CHERNOBYL accidents, etc) and the exchanges between the IPSN and the GRS on the corresponding research programs

  1. Alpine detector fails to confirm Italian sighting of dark matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2002-01-01

    French researchers working on the Edelweiss detector under the Alps, have been unable to detect a single particle of dark matter with the characteristics claimed to have been found by an Italian team two years ago (1 page).

  2. The actors of energy transition financing in France and in Germany. Situation: August 2014 - memorandum by the French-German Office for renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Audrey

    2014-08-01

    This report first presents and describes the main public financing tools used at the national level in France (purchase tariffs, investment program, tax credits) and in Germany (the Renewable Energy Law or EEG, the EKF or Energy and Climate fund). Then, it gives a comparative overview of the commitment of local communities (regions in France, Lander in Germany), notably based on legal entities (SEM, SCIC, PPP, and so on in France, Kommunalunternehmen and local energy companies in Germany). It focuses on public financial institutions: Caisse des Depots and the Public Investment Bank in France, the German investment bank or KfW, an agricultural bank, and local banks in Germany, and European actors and tools such as European public banks, the Marguerite Fund, the Horizon 2020 program for research. It discusses the evolution of private actors in France and in Germany: traditional actors in private financing (private banks, private equity), and companies committed in development, manufacturing, exploitation, providing or consultancy activities, and also many new eco-citizen actors

  3. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  4. Cross-border reproductive care among French patients: experiences in Greece, Spain and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozée Gomez, Virginie; de La Rochebrochard, Elise

    2013-11-01

    What are the characteristics, motivation and experience of French patients seeking cross-border reproductive care (CBRC)? French patients seeking CBRC are same-sex couples, single women who are not eligible for assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) in France and heterosexual couples seeking oocyte donation due to extremely limited access to this technique in France, while their choice of Greece as a destination is influenced by financial issues. CBRC is a new, increasing, complex and poorly understood phenomenon. A few studies have investigated UK, German or Italian CBRC patients, but none have specifically investigated French patients although France is one of the top four countries of origin of CBRC patients in Europe. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010-2012 in three ART centres in Greece, Belgium and Spain in order to investigate French patients treated in these centres. Recruitment was prospective in Greece and Belgium and retrospective in Spain. The overall response rate was 68%, with 128 French patients participating. French patients filled in a questionnaire. Information was collected on their socio-economic characteristics and their search for ART treatment in France and in other countries. In the Belgian centre, 89% of French patients used sperm donation whereas oocyte donation was used by 100% of patients in the Greek centre and 74% of patients in the Spanish centre. The majority (94%) of French patients using sperm donation in Belgium were not legally eligible for access to ART in France as they were same-sex couples or single women, and the main criterion of choice of centre was its geographical proximity (71%). Most of the French patients using oocyte donation in Greece and Spain fulfilled criteria for fully reimbursed oocyte donation treatment in France as they were heterosexual couples (99%) with the woman aged ART centres and these too may not be representative. CBRC among French patients had been thought to reflect mainly law

  5. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  6. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian "scientific" psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology.

  7. Environmental political targets of the EU: German-French contributions for the achievement of the EU goals. Proceedings; Umweltpolitische Ziele der EU: Deutsch-franzoesische Beitraege zur Zielerreichung. Concepts franco-allemands pour atteindre les objectifs environnementaux de l'UE. Tagungsband. Actes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cail, Sylvain; Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf; Percebois, Jacques (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    The first German-French workshop on energy economy and sustainability on January 29 and 30, 2009 at Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) comprised the following lectures: (1) Systematic evaluation of the sustainability in energy projects (Volker Stelzer); (2) Comparative value of various mechanisms of promoting renewable energy sources (Jacques Percebois, Olivier Rousse); (3) Communities as actors in climate protection (Lioba Markl, Nurten Avci); (4) The chain of value of photovoltaic systems containing crystalline silicon (Christin Oeser); (5) The wind power industry as an example of the German-French cooperation for the achievement of environmental political targets of the EU (Katharina Braig, Markus Jenne); (6) A short history of the future of biomass and biofuels in relation to white biotechnologies (Gerard Goma, Carole Molina-Jouve); (7) Generation and feeding of methane from biomass (Frank Graf); (8) Energy evaluation of the thickening of the biomass by rapid pyrolysis (Guillain Mauviel et al.); (9) Future role of renewable energies in European electricity supply (Dominik Moest et al.); (10) A systematic evaluation of the potentials for reducing CO{sub 2} as an element of company management (Sarah Schwarz); (11) A system dynamics model of the German electricity market (Tobias Jaeger).

  8. Acoustics dictionary quadrilingual English, German, French, Dutch

    CERN Document Server

    Reichardt, Walter

    1983-01-01

    Interest in acoustics continues to increase. Although this branch of science was concerned primarily with the promotion of qualitative and quantitative sound transmission until a few decades ago, emphasis is currently placed also on the limitation of sound nuisance and, by extension, the setting of boundaries for permissible sound levels in places \\vhere people are found. This last aspect in particular is exercising more and more influence on the design of buildings and machines, and in town and country planning. In addition, sound vibrations, because of their physical characteristics, are being used increasingly in disparate disciplines such as navigation, medical investigation and non­ destructive materials research. The flood of publications resulting from this increased interest in acoustics has led to a growing number of people being confronted with terminology which had until quite re­ cently only been used by a relatively small group of specialists and had remained largely unknown as a result. This f...

  9. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  10. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  11. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  12. Ensuring an Italian Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ann H.

    1978-01-01

    Factors contributing to the renaissance of Italian and the goals of students who study the language are discussed. Alternatives to rote learning in the classroom and ways to generate interest in Italian in the community are suggested. (SW)

  13. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  14. Terminology for refrigerating machinery in 5 languages with definitions. CECOMAF terminology English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. Terminologie fuer kaeltetechnische Erzeugnisse in 5 Sprachen mit Definitionen. CECOMAF Terminologie English, Francais, Deutsch, Italiano, Espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The dictionary covers the following topics: Directions for user, alphabetical list, subject index, main groups: Refrigerating systems and plants, compressors, heat exchangers and apparatus, control and safety devices, equipment for refrigerated storage and transport, refrigerators and refrigerated cabinets, special cooling and freezing equipment, miscellaneous; definitions for the above mentioned main groups, and corrections.

  15. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  16. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  17. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  18. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  19. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  20. Images of Italian Mathematics in France from Risorgimento to Fascism

    CERN Document Server

    Jouve, Guillaume; Mazliak, Laurent; Tazzioli, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The contributions in this proceedings volume offer a new perspective on the mathematical ties between France and Italy, and reveal how mathematical developments in these two countries affected one another. The focus is above all on the Peninsula’s influence on French mathematicians, counterbalancing the historically predominant perception that French mathematics was a model for Italian mathematicians. In the process, the book details a subtle network of relations between the two countries, where mathematical exchanges fit into the changing and evolving framework of Italian political and academic structures. It reconsiders the issue of nationalities in all of its complexity, an aspect often neglected in research on the history of mathematics. The works in this volume are selected contributions from a conference held in Lille and Lens (France) in November 2013 on Images of Italian Mathematics in France from Risorgimento to Fascism. The authors include respected historians of mathematics, philosophers of scien...

  1. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  2. Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Luc

    2002-01-01

    Discusses various language border theories for the Belgian-Northern French area, and summarizes the results of 40 years of research into the development of the Romance-Germanic language border at large. Suggests that a late Roman Latin-Germanic opposition has functioned as a direct predisposition for the early medieval Romance-Germanic language…

  3. Italian version of the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA): a useful instrument to detect cognitive impairments in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Riccardo; Bertella, Laura; Scarpina, Federica; Mauro, Alessandro; Portolani, Elisa; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently characterized by cognitive and affective dysfunctions. The "Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment" (PANDA) is a screening tool designed for the early detection of mild cognitive impairment as well as dementia in PD. The PANDA is already validated in German and in French. The aim of the present work was to provide normative data for the Italian-speaking population, Swiss regions included; moreover, the effectiveness of the PANDA compared to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was tested. One-hundred and eleven PD patients with and without cognitive impairment and one-hundred and three matched healthy subjects participated at this study; all patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. A PANDA total score of 13 appeared to be the most fitting cut-off with a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 82.2%; with the MMSE, the same value of sensitivity but with a specificity of 72,4% was reached only by adopting a cut-off of 28. Moreover, a PANDA range of 13-17 appeared to be suggestive for possible cognitive disturbance. The present work provides evidence for the effectiveness of the PANDA in evaluating cognitive deficits also in PD Italian-speaking patients, even when their pathological degree is still initial or very mild.

  4. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  5. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  6. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  7. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  8. Disarming Hatred: History Education, National Memories, and Franco-German Reconciliation from World War I to the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Mona; Harjes, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    On May 4, 2006, French and German cultural ministers announced the publication of "Histoire/Geschichte", the world's first secondary school history textbook produced jointly by two countries. Authored by a team of French and German historians and published simultaneously in both languages, the book's release drew considerable public…

  9. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  10. Bilinguisme et problematique des langues ethniques. Enquete sur le comportement linguistique des jeunes montrealais d'origine italienne (Bilingualism and the Problem of Ethnic Languages. A Study of the Linguistic Behavior of Young Montrealers of Italian Descent). Publication B-149.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Bruno

    A study is reported of the language behavior of trilingual 9-to-12-year-old native Italian speakers in Montreal, some of whom were studying Italian on Saturdays and some of whom were not. The study focused on their available vocabulary in the three languages (Italian, French, and English) and on their language productivity during their various…

  11. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  12. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  13. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  14. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  15. Linguistic interference occurring in students of Italian philology as a challenge for a lecturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish students of Italian philology in Poznań study two Romance languages: Italian and French, which on one hand facilitates the process of learning, as many rules of grammar and words are similar in both languages. On the other hand, though, the closeness of two linguistic systems is the source of the interference phenomenon even if none of the languages is a mother tongue. As students of philology are expected to speak perfectly the foreign language studied, all mistakes need to be eliminated. In the present paper we concentrate on mistakes made in Italian due to the interference of French. After a short theoretical introduction on interference we give some examples of errors to illustrate the phenomenon and to show the areas in which errors are particularly numerous. In the third part of the paper we suggest some solutions which are based on observations and conclusions resulting from the professional experience as a lecturer in Italian.

  16. Translation Norms in Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad Translations into English, German, French, Portuguese, and Russian Normas de traducción en las versiones inglesa, alemana, francesa, portuguesa y rusa de Cien años de soledad de Gabriel García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have attempted to review the general translation norms that were applied in the translations of Cien años de soledad into English, German, French, Portuguese, and Russian. First I have discussed the concept of norms from a socio-cultural perspective in order to propose a definition of translation norms that could be used as a guiding concept in the analysis of the different translated texts. The discussion takes place within the framework of modern empirical Translation Studies that is based on the actual textual comparison of original and translations. Finally, some conclusions are drawn accordinglyEn este artículo propongo revisar las normas generales de traducción que se emplearon en las traducciones inglesa, alemana, francesa, portuguesa y rusa de Cien años de soledad. En primer lugar, discuto la noción de normas desde un enfoque socio-cultural con el fin de proponer una definición de normas de traducción que pueda servir de concepto central en el análisis de las diversas traducciones. La discusión se lleva a cabo en el marco de los Estudios de la Traducción Modernos, con carácter empírico, que se basan en la comparación textual del original y las traducciones. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones respectivas

  17. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  18. Sodium components cleaning status in the Italian fast reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, B [CNEN-RIT/MAT - Laboratorio Sviluppo Processi - C.S.N. Cassacia, Rome (Italy); Labanti, V [CNEN-DRV, Bologna (Italy); Mennucci, M [NIRA, Genoa (Italy)

    1978-08-01

    As a consequence of the Italian Fast Reactor Development, mainly aimed to the PEC project and to the participation in the French Superphenix project, it is of increasing importance to set up a reliable method for specific reactor components and related test loops. The first problem was the cleaning of the PEC fuelling machine. In order to perform the routine maintenance of the machine an alcohol cleaning method based on the use of 2-butoxyethanol-NN dimethylformamide mixture has been proposed.

  19. Italian and Italian American Identity: A Visual Approach | Krase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay is a brief exploration of the related concepts of Italian Ethnicity and Italian Ethnic Identity via a Visual Sociological study of two geographically different venues — Italian American neighbourhoods in the United States and neighbourhoods in Rome, Italy. By studying the Vernacular Landscape (Jackson, 1984) via ...

  20. The Italian LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    As happened in other European countries, the Italian LPG consumption market narrowed in 1997 for climatic reasons. Still, with some 3,5 million tones it is the first LPG market in Europe thanks to automotive LPG which represents some 1,2 million tones, for 1,4 million tones for the bulk and 760, 000 tonnes for bottled products. Another characteristic of the Italian market: demand is slightly lowering in the North while increasing in the South and in the large islands. (author)

  1. Apologizing in Italian and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Maxine

    1994-01-01

    Compared apology exchanges in Italy and the United States by having 10 Italian university students view American situation comedy television programs and rewrite particular conflict and apology exchanges in an Italian context. The status and role of the programs' participants affected the Italian students' choice of apology strategies more so than…

  2. Italian in the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  3. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  4. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  5. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  6. morale among french colonial troops on the western front during

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    can be illustrated by the order for hivernage of the Creole troops of the West Indies.9. In 1915 the ... Ottoman Empire had entered the war and the Germans were using this to ..... The French Foreign Legion: A complete history of the legendary ...

  7. Current Developments in the French Engineering Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The French engineering education system has been established in quite a different way from others in Europe, such as the German and British systems, for instance. Due to both the whole state system and the private initiatives during the industrial revolution, the engineering education system today is composed of a large number (nearly 200) of…

  8. The use of PSA in the French regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesiez, H.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation gives a description of fundamental documents (since 1977-1978) through which have been set up in France probabilistic objectives, and PSAs, including shutdown states, performed for 900-1300 MWe PWR-type nuclear power plants. PSA developments and use, including fire PSA, level 2 and PSA for the future French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) are also discussed

  9. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  10. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  11. Electricity : Italian style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    2007-01-01

    Italy's electricity system was described. Italy relies on outside sources for between 10 and 15 per cent of its electricity supply. Most Italians use gas, wood stoves and fossil fuels, and are conservative about lighting. Electricity costs more in Italy than in any other European country. Italy made the decision to decommission its nuclear power stations after Chernobyl. In 2005, Italy's largest utility group signed a memorandum of understanding ensuring that they would contract energy from France's nuclear reactors. Italy is now financing and managing projects in Russia and eastern Europe, and has strengthened its ties in Spain and the Netherlands. Although Italy is intent on producing its own power, the perceptions of health hazards from electricity towers cause citizens to strongly protest new installations. It was concluded that rising energy prices may force Italians to reconsider the use of alternative energy sources. 3 figs

  12. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  13. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  14. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  15. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  16. Prospects of the French offshore wind power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-12-01

    This market study about the French offshore wind power industry presents: 1 - the bases of the offshore wind power market: wind turbine operation principle, foundations and scale change; 2 - business model of offshore wind power projects: logistical, technical and financial challenges, cost structure and profitability of projects (investment, power generation costs, incentive mechanisms), project development time; 3 - European and French regulatory framework: the energy/climate package, the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' commitments for the development of renewable energies; 4 - start up of the French offshore wind power market: the onshore wind power market looking for growth relaying, the lateness of the offshore market, outlines of the call for bids and of the first phase launching (schedule, selected sites and candidates), market development stakes and opportunities; 5 - offshore wind power overview in Europe - lessons for the French market prospects: status of the European market (installed power/country, projects in progress), European leaders of the market (analysis of the British, Danish and German markets successful takeoff), specificities of the French market (are all favourable conditions present?); 6 - takeoff of the French market - what opportunities on the overall value chain?: front-end of the industry (manufacturers and component suppliers: industry structure, competition, R and D, subcontractors in France), back-end of the industry (developers/operators: sector analysis, ambitions, alliances, competences), specific French know-how in offshore installation and connection of wind turbines (reconversion of harbour areas, re-positioning of shipbuilding industry). (J.S.)

  17. The Italian decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  18. Italian bioclimatic architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, E

    1987-04-01

    This paper deals with the results of solar space heating research developed within the Finalized Energy Project of the National Research Council of Italy. Energy and cost/benefit parameters were compared for a certain number of Italian buildings incorporating solar architecture. The technical and economic analysis was performed on 31 buildings, of which 24 are residential, and 7 are schools, with different solar devices (direct gain, Trombe walls, sunspaces, hybrid systems). The buildings were constructed between 1976 and 1982. The results emphasize that simple technologies with lower costs and good design usually have a higher performance/cost ratio.

  19. The Chernobyl sarcophagus project of the German-French initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Lhomme, V.; Seleznev, A.; Seredynin, E.

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of the Shelter project is the collection, analysis and selection as well as verification of all existing safety relevant data of the Shelter and the creation of an appropriate database. The data will be useful for different applications, e.g. for performing stabilisation measures in the framework of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) or for the corresponding licensing procedure of the national authority of Ukraine

  20. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  1. PLASMA-2005: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas combined with the 3. German-Polish Conference on Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion and Applications and the 5. French-Polish Seminar on Thermal Plasma in Space and Laboratory. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K.

    2005-01-01

    The International Conferences 'PLASMA' have been organized in Poland every two years since 1993. The German-Polish Conferences on Plasma Diagnostics were started in 2002, and the French-Polish Seminars on Thermal Plasmas were initiated in 1997. To reduce a number of topical conferences and to improve an exchange of information among different plasma research groups it was agreed to organize for the first time the triple conference at the Opole University, Poland, on September 6-9, 2005. The chairman of the International Scientific Committee (ISC) was Professor Marek J. Sadowski from IPJ in Swierk, and the co-chairmen were Professor Thomas Klinger of the IPP-Greifswald and Professor Michel Dudeck of the CNRS-Orleans. The chairman of LOC was Professor Jozef Musielok of the Opole University. This conference was designed for interested scientists, engineers and students from all the countries, but particularly for these from the Central and Eastern Europe (see http://draco.uni.opole.pl/plasma2005). The scientific programme of the conference embraced almost all directions of plasma research and technology, i.e.: 1. Elementary processes and general theory of plasma; 2. Plasmas in tokamaks, stellerators and related experiments; 3. plasmas in Z-pinch and PF discharges; 4. Plasmas produced by intense laser beams; 5. Plasmas of micro-wave and glow discharges; 6. Plasmas in spark- and arc-discharges; 7. Plasmas in space; 8. Diagnostics and experimental facilities; 9. Applications of quasi-stationary and pulsed plasmas. Participants of the conference were 127 plasma experts (including 23 invited speakers) from 13 different countries, as well as several honorary guests from local authorities and the most important plasma research centers in Poland. Most numerous groups came from Poland (58 persons), Germany (15 persons), France (14 persons), Czech Republic (11 persons), Russia (7 persons), and Ukraine (6 persons). The participants came also from Belarus, Hungary, Iran, Japan

  2. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  3. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  4. Germans don’t make Jokes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    This paper presents early results of a study on the uses of humour by members of the European Parliament. The paper is based on semi-structured interviews done with French, German and Romanian MEPS. The interviews reveal how humour is used by MEPS as well the constraints the interviewees perceive...... develop political strategies which are adapted to the particularities of the political and institutional game at play in an atypical parliament like the EP. On the other hand, they reveal cultural and language borders between MEPs who may have a harder time than expected evolving in a multicultural...

  5. The French liquid metal fast breeder reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The strong French LMFBR development and the corresponding success obtained up to now show that there is no technical insuperable barrier to fast breeder construction. This satisfactory evolution is in fact the conjunction of a strong incentive due to the lack of other resources, a firm and permanent stand of the government, and an obstinate effort of all the teams involved in the LMFBR field. The changeover to industrial level should be helped by the simplicity of the French organization for fast breeder. Finally, the development of LMFBR on a larger scale is helped by international agreements through which the present French know-how can be put at the disposal of other partners, and the general knowledge can be improved by setting common R and D programmes. A quite successful example of such agreements is given by the German-French agreement, and we hope that new partners will join us soon. (orig.) [de

  6. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  7. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  8. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  9. The First Published History of Universal Architectural Models. Jean-Nicholas-Louis Durand’s Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes (Paris 1800, and the Extended Italian Edition of Giuseppe Antonelli (Venice 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fontana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes”, published in Paris in 1799-1800 by Jean- Nicholas-Louis Durand, at the height of the positivistic climate engendered by the contemporary culture of encyclopedism, plays an important role in architectural historiography. The volume allowed architectural students and architectural enthusiasts alike the first opportunity to study a vast range of architectural design models of all periods and places organised into typological categories, illustrated in highly didactic and homogenous drawings. The immediate success of the “Recueil” was guaranteed by the simultaneous publication (in 1800 of an explanatory text to accompany the illustrative material, written by Jacques Guillaume Legrand in accordance with Durand. More than thirty years later, the Venetian editor Giuseppe Antonelli proposed a re-launch of the “Recueil” intended to meet the contemporaneous historical and critical context of modern Europe, publishing a bilingual Italian-French edition of highly commercially ambitious scope. The Venetian “Raccolta”, which appeared in 1833, united Legrand’s text with Durand’s illustrations, - and importantly included almost double the illustrations- with the addition of antique buildings, and also included modern architectural models, alongside contemporary Italian, French and German architectural design projects. This contribution intends to set Antonelli’s ambitious undertaking into the contemporaneous critical and vivacious academic cultural climate of the Venice of the 1830’s, and also includes a thorough examination of the additional illustrations that were added by the Venetian publisher to the original French canon.

  10. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  11. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  12. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  13. [Sample German LAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  14. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  15. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  16. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  17. The acquisition of grammatical gender in L2 German by learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this paper investigated the adult L2 acquisition of grammatical gender in German by first language (L1) speakers of Afrikaans, English and Italian, respectively. The aim of the study was to determine how similarities and differences between the L1 and L2 in terms of grammatical gender affect the ...

  18. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  19. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  20. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  1. Neoliberty & co. The Architectural Review against 1950s Italian historicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBuilding upon the Neoliberty polemics (second half of the 1950s, this article offers a revision of the debate on the historicity of architecture that opposed distinguished Italian and British intellectual circles. While the Italian contribution has been extensively analyzed, the existing literature has not dwelt on the reasons why the British refused any operative recovery of history; a gap this article intends to fi ll. From a methodological point of view, given the media nature of the debate, our analysis has been mainly textual, and has focused on the two journals that channelled the exchanges: the Milanese Casabella and the London based Architectural Review. The article is equally of interest as it explores an early episode which already announced two of the paths the architecture of the following decades would follow: postmodern historicism and high-tech.The reasons for the misunderstanding were of diverse nature. First, the different urban cultures present in one country and the other would explain the diverging esteem for the paradoxically Cosmopolitan provincialism of Milan and Turin, admirer of XIXth century bourgeois urbanity. Moreover, Reyner Banham from the English magazine was determined to promote contemporary architecture that would follow the postulates of his beloved Futurism: rejection of tradition and technological assimilation. However, a calm reading of his writings reveals that his antihistoricist stance was not as extreme as is usually believed.The role played by J. M. Richards, editor of Architectural Review, is more problematic. Though he shared many concerns with his Italian counterparts, he did not appease the virulence of the campaign his journal headed. Finally, Nikolaus Pevsner's historiographical project differed from the one the Italians fostered, regarding interpretative keys and methods. The Italian research followed the steps of Benedetto Croce, a position hardly attuned to the Anglo-German historian

  2. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  3. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccali, T; Mazzoni, E; Donvito, G; Diacono, D; Marzulli, G; Pompili, A; Ricca, G Della; Argiro, S; Gregori, D; Grandi, C; Bonacorsi, D; Lista, L; Fabozzi, F; Barone, L M; Santocchia, A; Riahi, H; Tricomi, A; Sgaravatto, M; Maron, G

    2014-01-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  4. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  5. [The assimilation of Italians and their descendants in Argentine society (1880-1925)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, M C

    1996-09-01

    "The impact of massive immigration in the post-1870 period produced major changes in... Argentine society. Integration of immigrant groups (Italians, Spaniards, the French and others) was nevertheless fiercely opposed by local elites. The essay is firstly concerned with size and development of immigration flows; secondly it deals with the characteristics of local reaction against the immigrants; thirdly it reveals how, in spite of the latter, the Italians' integration did take place in the Argentine middle classes. Finally, a particular case-study is presented, in connection with integration of immigrants and their descendants in the national army." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  6. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  7. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...

  8. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  9. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  10. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  11. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  12. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  13. The interpretation of the Battle of Leipzig (October 16–19, 1813 in the German patriotic sermon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.

  14. Franco-German relationships in the energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Meritet, S.; Notz, K.

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the respective energy situation in Germany and in France, as well as the place of nuclear energy and the comparison of electric power flows, prices, power transmission and distribution in both countries, this document presents the role and priorities of the French Presidency of the European Commission in 2008 (Energy and Sustainable Development) and the actions and policies developed against climate change. The French and German positions concerning gas supply coming from Russia are discussed, together with the possibility of creation of a bi-national power and gas market with the reciprocal introduction of new actors in these markets. Finally, the role of the Franco-German couple in the organization of a European energy space is examined

  15. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  16. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  17. Franco-German nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.; Huettl, A.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the number one power source in the European Union. However, the first generation units would be replaced from the year 2010 onwards. In this prospect, Siemens and Framatome have drawn together in designing and commercializing a common product initially destined for the export market which has become the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project. The two companies have floated with equal participation the NPI (Nuclear Power International) sub-company to manage this project. The French and German utilities participate to the financing of the project, at present at the basic stage, and the safety authorities of both countries have carried out a joint evaluation of EPR safety. With a 1500 Mwe capacity, EPR will be equipped with advanced safety systems more performing than the existing systems. Conceivers want to maintain the economic competitiveness of EPR with respect to coal power plants. EPR will take over the oldest power plants by producing a safer and cheaper energy to provide for the needs of the developed countries and then of the developing countries with no risk for the environment. An enormous effort of communication must be carried out to reduce the public anxiety and to calm down the nuclear debate and show up its merits, in particular in Europe, where its contribution is vital. (J.S.)

  18. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  19. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  20. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  1. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  2. The Journal “Geopolitica” and Formation of the Italian Geopolitical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Al’bertovich Shepelev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the origins, methodological features and the process of institutionalization of Italian geopolitical school, place and role of the journal “Geopolitica” in this process. The article analyzes the characteristics of Italian geopolitical perception of the world and its geostrategic priorities, formulated by the representatives of the Italian geopolitical schools in the period of its formation in 20-40-ies of the XX century (the Mediterranean - Mare nostrum, Euroafrica. The source of the formation of the Italian geopolitical school was the intellectual influence of irredentism un the age of the Risorgimento. The process of its formation was correlated with the formation of the modern national school of geographical science, in which was dominated the perception of geography as “utilitarian science” and developed the direction of “dynamic political geography”. Its specifical features was the “antideterminism” and “geographic humanism”, the recognition that the environment does not have absolute power over society, but political will is a determining factor in anthropogeographical area. The institutionalization of Italian political school promoted the creation of several research centres in the 20-30-ies and publishing from January 1939 to December 1942 magazine “Geopolitica”. The draft edition of this magazine received support from the minister of national education Giuseppe Bottai, it was headed by Professor Giorgio Roletto and his disciple, Ernesto Massi. Italian geopolitics maintained close ties with their German colleagues, but they were theoretically justified differences between “Latin” and “German” geopolitical worldviews. Unlike the German geopolitics, the concept of “living space” was used primarily in the economic sense, but it was not used in a racial-demographic sense. Italian geopolitics acted against the world order enshrined in the Treaty of Versailles, because it was protected

  3. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  4. Italian musicians in Greece during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Ekaterini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.

  5. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  6. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  7. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierantoni, F

    1979-07-01

    Year 1978 in Italy was marked by a standstill in the nuclear energy field. The decisions previously made for the installation of eight 1000 MWe LWR-type reactors could not be acted upon because of the opposition of local authorities and lack of Government power. The construction site at Montalto di Castro (two BWR reactors) was ope ned with difficulty, whereas the decision to install a plant in Mo use equipped with two PWR reactor was postponed. The new presidents of ENEL and CNEN were appointed in January this year and the appointments of the new Boards of Directors are underway. With regard to CNEN, many political bodies are in agreement on an institutional change which would widen field of activity to include new energy sources, solar energy in particular. This will open a big problem: if CNEN will be no more a 'nuclear body, it could be necessary to transfer all the activities connected to the Regulatory Commission to another separate body to be instituted. In this context, the fast reactor programme has continued to develop under the directives of CIPE, and has concentrated its effort on the following three objectives: the PEC-Reactor, the Creys-Malville Power Plant and research and development, and industrial promotion. These objectives are being pursued with the participation of CNEN, ENEL and Italian industry. CNEN has the role of committing and operating the PEC reactor; it is also charged to perform part of the R and D Italian-French programme and to promote industrial development. ENEL participates in the NERSA Company, owner of the Creys-Malville Plant. Italian industry, with its activities of architect-engineering, designing and manufacturing will participate in the construction of the PEC and of the Italian part (33%) of the Creys-Malville Plant. During the last months of 1978 a consortium (COREY) was set up by CNEN and NIRA which has the purpose of integrating and ensuring the smooth running of Italian efforts in the field of long-term research and

  8. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.

    1979-01-01

    Year 1978 in Italy was marked by a standstill in the nuclear energy field. The decisions previously made for the installation of eight 1000 MWe LWR-type reactors could not be acted upon because of the opposition of local authorities and lack of Government power. The construction site at Montalto di Castro (two BWR reactors) was ope ned with difficulty, whereas the decision to install a plant in Mo use equipped with two PWR reactor was postponed. The new presidents of ENEL and CNEN were appointed in January this year and the appointments of the new Boards of Directors are underway. With regard to CNEN, many political bodies are in agreement on an institutional change which would widen field of activity to include new energy sources, solar energy in particular. This will open a big problem: if CNEN will be no more a 'nuclear body, it could be necessary to transfer all the activities connected to the Regulatory Commission to another separate body to be instituted. In this context, the fast reactor programme has continued to develop under the directives of CIPE, and has concentrated its effort on the following three objectives: the PEC-Reactor, the Creys-Malville Power Plant and research and development, and industrial promotion. These objectives are being pursued with the participation of CNEN, ENEL and Italian industry. CNEN has the role of committing and operating the PEC reactor; it is also charged to perform part of the R and D Italian-French programme and to promote industrial development. ENEL participates in the NERSA Company, owner of the Creys-Malville Plant. Italian industry, with its activities of architect-engineering, designing and manufacturing will participate in the construction of the PEC and of the Italian part (33%) of the Creys-Malville Plant. During the last months of 1978 a consortium (COREY) was set up by CNEN and NIRA which has the purpose of integrating and ensuring the smooth running of Italian efforts in the field of long-term research and

  9. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  10. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  11. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  12. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  13. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  14. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  15. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  16. German Idealism Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...

  17. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  18. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  19. THE PLIGHT OF GERMAN MISSIONS IN MANDATE CAMEROON: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Michael Kpughe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The First World War and its resultant Mandate and Trusteeship systems greatly affected the German mission enterprise in Cameroon. Apart from causing the forceful ousting of German missionaries from Cameroon, the British and the French whom the League of Nations and United Nations successively chose as administering powers within the Mandate and Trusteeship frameworks adopted hostile policies towards German missions. From the beginning of the war to the post-Second World War era, the foundation of German missions was seriously threatened. This paper critically examines the treatment of German missions in both British and French Cameroons during the Mandate and Trusteeship periods, focusing especially on the opposing attitudes of both administering powers towards the missions in their spheres of influence. The paper establishes that the administering powers’ treatment of German missions, which was underpinned by imperial and nationalist exigencies, roiled the attainment of the triple missionization agenda of planting self-supporting, self-governing and self-evangelizing churches. It thus argues that the First World War triggered the mistreatment of German missions, with some missions forced to terminate their activities while others were allowed to continue their mission work under difficult conditions.

  20. ITALIAN AND ITALIAN AMERICAN IDENTITY: A VISUAL APPROACH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is flexible without overall plan and contains spaces .... of Symbolic Capital, defined by Bourdieu as “The collection of luxury goods attesting to the taste and distinction of the owner” (1977: 188), ... Since “the most successful ideological effects are those which have no words ..... a market dominated by non-Italian proprietors.

  1. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  2. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  3. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.

  4. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  5. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  6. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  7. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  8. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  9. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  10. Legal protection in French environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromont, M.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a comparison of the French and the Federal German legal provisions providing for preliminary legal protection in connection with proceedings where protection of the environment is involved. The author also discusses proceedings in contentious administrative matters in connection with the licensing of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the protection of the laws in subject matters concerning airborne pollution control and environmental protection in general. One of the most outstanding different features is the fact that in legal proceedings on administrative matters in France, protection of the existing legal system is the main issue rather than the protection of individual rights, as is the case in the Fed. Republic of Germany. (HP) [de

  11. A glance on the German energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    As Germany has decided to phase out nuclear by 2022 while aiming at ambitious objectives in terms of energy savings and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, this report first highlights the interest of such an energy transition. It discusses the immediate consequences of the shutting down of the first eight reactors. It gives an overview of the German energy mix and discusses the objectives and challenges of the energy policy, and how this policy is implemented (by restructuring the electric grid, by building flame-based thermal power stations, by searching for a solution for electricity mass storage, by creating the conditions of an efficient energy saving policy). It discusses the consequences of this policy for the European and French energy policy

  12. Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The ambivalence of the German option, 1933-1945

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbruch, Götz

    2009-01-01

    to take root in Arab societies as well. In the first publication to reconstruct Lebanese and Syrian encounters with Nazism in the context of an evolving local political culture and to base its analysis on a comprehensive review of Arab, French and German sources, Götz Nordbruch examines the reactions...

  13. Education and Italian Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  14. Lymphogranuloma venereum: the Italian experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusini, M.; Boneschi, V.; Arancio, L.; Ramoni, S.; Venegoni, L.; Gaiani, F.; de Vries, H.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been described in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the western world, particularly in western Europe. The first Italian case was reported by the authors in 2006, and up to March 2008 there have been 13 symptomatic cases, all in MSM. Ten cases had

  15. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  16. Marking over 50 years of Franco-German understanding

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.   Beneath the Microcosm Garden bubble chamber, Robert Jacob describes the BEBC project to secondary school students from the Pays de Gex and their German exchange partners. On 22 January 1963, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and French President Charles de Gaulle signed the Elysée Treaty. This treaty of friendship cemented the partnership between the two countries, which had torn each other apart over the course of several devastating wars. Fifty years on, secondary school students from the Pays de Gex and their German exchange partners have been learning about Franco-German friendship. How was the partnership between the two countries built? Who were its architects? These questions brought them to C...

  17. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  18. Apariția statului modern italian și problema „întârzierii istorice” (The establishing of the Italian Modern State and the problem of ”the historical delay”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana CRISTEA DRĂGULIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Italian State is an early creation. With a history of millennia, the people living in the Italian peninsula have managed to establish a modern state in mid-nineteenth century, compared with other European states (the French state, the English state etc.. This historical process have been known as „Risorgimento”. During this brief study I will present the problems which the state's founding fathers have experienced in the administrative centralization process in relation with the "ideal modern state pattern".

  19. "Frequent frames" in German child-directed speech: a limited cue to grammatical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumper, Barbara; Bannard, Colin; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Mintz (2003) found that in English child-directed speech, frequently occurring frames formed by linking the preceding (A) and succeeding (B) word (A_x_B) could accurately predict the syntactic category of the intervening word (x). This has been successfully extended to French (Chemla, Mintz, Bernal, & Christophe, 2009). In this paper, we show that, as for Dutch (Erkelens, 2009), frequent frames in German do not enable such accurate lexical categorization. This can be explained by the characteristics of German including a less restricted word order compared to English or French and the frequent use of some forms as both determiner and pronoun in colloquial German. Finally, we explore the relationship between the accuracy of frames and their potential utility and find that even some of those frames showing high token-based accuracy are of limited value because they are in fact set phrases with little or no variability in the slot position. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. The red atom: the help to USSR of German scientists between 1945-1961

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andurand, R.

    2010-01-01

    In previous chapters has been exposed the saga of German scientists who worked for the Soviets from 1945 to 1965 and helped them to fill in record time the late that they had on Americans. However, without the help of German scientists, Russian scientists who were of an exceptional level would have succeeded anyway, but they would take the same time as the others for the same result. This article tells the uranium extraction by Belgians and the French organisation of uranium enrichment. The difficulties encountered by the French in relation with uranium hexafluoride enlighten the difficulties encountered by Russians and Germans on uranium enrichment that finally lead them to the uranium enrichment optimization. (N.C.)

  1. Evolution of the German energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The author first recalls the main events and decisions regarding the German policy from 1998 to 2011, and notably the decisions related to nuclear energy. He gives the main data of the German energy system (production capacity, production of the different primary sources) and indicates the main characteristics and assumptions of the 2011 turnaround (decision of shutting down 17 nuclear plants by 2022, objectives in terms of renewable energy production and share, of electricity consumption, and of greenhouse gas emission). The author then presents how the law on renewable energies (EEG) operates, indicates energy prices in Germany for individuals and industries and CO 2 emissions per electric sector, and compares them with the French ones. He outlines the need of construction of new energy transport lines, and identifies and comments other implications of the intermittent character of renewable energies in terms of electricity market organisation, of construction of combustion-based thermal plants, and of flexibility requirements. He discusses successes and difficulties of this evolution of energy policy, and the implication of this new policy for the European Union and for border countries

  2. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  3. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  4. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  5. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  6. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  7. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  8. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  9. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  10. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  11. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  12. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  13. The Italian Dementia National Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Di Fiandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1 promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2 create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3 implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4 improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  14. To the Vandals They Are Stone: A Profane Pre-History of the German Temple of Art, 1794-1830

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the story of how German writers, scholars, bureaucrats and custodians of art at all levels witnessed and participated in the French despoliations of European art collections over the course of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and how in the aftermath of these events they developed new ideas about the place and purpose of art in modern cultural and political life at the beginning of the nineteenth century. In this period German scholars were forming new theories about the autonom...

  15. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed [it

  16. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave-Bondi, G.; Merli, S.; Rogo, M.; Sgarbazzini, M.; Clemente, G.F.; Mancini, L.; Santori, G.; Tardella, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  17. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  18. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  19. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  20. “Gallia and Gaul, French and Welsh” (MWW, 3.1.89: Transposing Shakespeare’s ‘Favourite’ Foreign Accents into French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Mylène

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Merry Wives of Windsor has long been compared to a great babel of languages. The play contains a smattering of Spanish, Italian and Dutch and even a whole scene dedicated to the mistranslation of Latin. A large part of the play’s humour also heavily relies on the foreign accents of two characters: the French Doctor Caius and the Welsh parson Sir Hugh Evans. If Christopher Luscombe’s 2008/2010 production of The Merry Wives at Shakespeare’s Globe theatre in London bears testimony to the success of cross-language and accent-based comedy as a source of laughter on today’s English stage, it seems rather implausible, at first sight, that French translations, adaptations and stagings of these accents and linguistic idiosyncrasies should be greeted with the same degree of hilarity. Indeed, how should the Welsh and French accents, both representing real stumbling blocks for French-speaking translators of the play, be transposed into French? What translation strategies can the latter devise? And to what extent can some of those strategies be said to be politically correct? Focusing on Shakespeare’s ‘favorite’ (predominant accents and the significance and impact of such linguistic comedy, I shall examine the question of their problematic translation through the analysis and comparison of a number of translations and stagings of The Merry Wives of Windsor into French.

  1. Eat healthy? Attitudes of the German population towards industrially produced cardioprotective food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, F U C E; Luck-Sikorski, C; Krüger, M; Wiacek, C; Braun, P G; Engeli, S; Riedel-Heller, S G

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is likely to increase in incidence. Foods with cardioprotective functions, e.g. specific functional food, could reduce CVD risk factors and hence CVD incidence. Little is known about industrially modified foods with cardioprotective functions. In a large German sample (n = 1007), attitudes of consumers in Germany towards industrially produced cardioprotective food were assessed using Cluster analyses. Consumers were contacted via telephone and interviewed using questionnaires. Overall, about 25% knew about industrially produced food with cardioprotective function. Our analysis revealed a small but determined group of consumers who think very skeptical about cardioprotective products, but we also identified a favorable group. These two groups only differed in age, with the skeptical group being ten years older. The rising number of industrially modified products with potential cardioprotective benefit is met by skepticism and a lack of knowledge by German costumers. If large scale studies show health benefits of these products, these will need to be better communicated to German customers in order to address possible doubts or concerns and to encourage healthy eating habits in consumer eating behavior. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inauguration of the Moscow-based office of GRS/IPSN-RISKAUDIT by the Federal German Minister of the Environment, Mr. Klaus Toepfer, and the Minister of Industry, Mr. Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The German and the French Government as well as the EC are taking particular interest in cooperative activities with the Russian Federation in the field of reactor safety enhancement and protection of the environment. The existing cooperation is expected to be intensified by the establishment of a common office in Moscow. The organisation, tasks and financing scheme of the RISKAUDIT office are explained in the languages German, Russian and French. (HP) [de

  3. Marco Polo’s 'Devisement dou monde' and Franco-Italian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Andreose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript BNF fr. 1116 (F is the best surviving witness of the Devisement dou monde both for the quality of its reading and because it offers the closest version to the original form of the text. The book was written by Marco Polo, who had travelled for 24 years in Asia in the last quarter of the thirteenth century, and Rustichello da Pisa, an Arthurian romance writer, while both were prisoners in Genoa in 1298. The language in which the work was first written – an Old French heavily sprinkled with morphological as well as lexical Italianisms – is considered as a representative example of «Franco-Italian». The great heterogeneity of the texts usually included within this category, however, might provide an incorrect impression as regards both the original linguistic form of the Devisement and the audience to whom it was originally addressed. The language of the MS BNF fr. 1116 does not display strong similarities to the hybrid language used in Northern Italy for chivalric literature, which is traditionally called «Franco-Italian» or «Franco-Venetan». Some linguistic correspondences enable us to connect the MS BNF fr. 1116 with the group of Old French manuscripts copied by Pisan scribes while incarcerated in Genoa prison, following the battle of Meloria (1284. The fragment of the Devisement recently discovered by C. Concina appears to be very similar to F. Both graphic and phonetic evidences suggest that this witness, too, has to be localised to Tuscany.

  4. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  5. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  6. Testing and Demonstrating Speaker Verification Technology in Iraqi-Arabic as Part of the Iraqi Enrollment Via Voice Authentication Project (IEVAP) in Support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Australian/New Zealand English, Canadian French, Cantonese , European French, German, Italian, Japanese, Jordanian Arabic, Mandarin, Portuguese...Environment Within the congruence model, the environment “includes people, other organizations, social and economic forces, and legal constraints” [28

  7. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in french

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Brodski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in french, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  8. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  10. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  11. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  12. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  14. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  15. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  16. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  17. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  18. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  19. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  20. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  1. Between Bouillaud and Broca: An unknown Italian debate on cerebral localization of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Stefano; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Cubelli, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    From 1825 onward, Bouillaud began gathering clinical evidence to support the hypothesis that speech is located in the cerebral frontal lobes. His aim was to provide empirical proof to Gall's theory of a specific substratum of speech in the anterior region of the brain. A well-known discussion ensued inside the French school among supporters and detractors that went far beyond Broca's first report in 1861. Unknown is that Bouillaud's investigations on localization of articulated language also gave rise to a discussion in Italy in the same period. In particular, speech localization formed a central topic in the mid-19th century in Northern Italy mainly thanks to four physicians, Michelangelo Asson, Mosè Rizzi, Gaetano Strambio and Filippo Lussana, who reported on language-impaired patients and approached these cases in the light of Bouillaud's claims. Similarly to the French debate, the Italian medical community also included attacks and advocacies of the hypothesis of a precise localization of articulated language in the frontal lobes. However, they were mainly interested in investigating the anatomo-clinical relationships rather than in supporting Gall's organology. This Italian debate appears to be the first to have developed in the mid-19th century outside that of the French community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Side event from the Coordination office at Warsaw: Latest developments on the French Wind Power Market: New rules, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; Elfassi, Paul; Froeding, Veronique; Petit, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    At the occasion of the 2010 edition of the European Wind energy Conference (EWEC 2010), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Side event on the latest developments of the French Wind Power Market. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The new regulatory framework under the 'Grenelle' laws: Wind energy planning. French National Action Plan: the wind energy challenge (Fabrice Cassin); 2 - The upcoming enforcement of the dangerous installations rules (ICPe) to wind power plants (Veronique Froeding); 3 - New tax system for wind energy projects and local acceptance (Jean-Francois Petit)

  3. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  4. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  5. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  6. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  7. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  8. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  9. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  10. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  11. Händel- Italian Cantatas

    OpenAIRE

    Larjamo, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    Työni tarkoituksena oli esitellä kaksi Händelin hyvin erilaista ja harvoin esitettyä kantaatti hänen Italian-ajaltaan, sekä tulkita erilaisia affekteja, joita kantaateista löytyi. Valitsemani kantaatit olivat: Tra le fiamme, sekä Dietro l’ormi fugaci (Armida abbandonata). Tutkimuksessa selvitin säveltäjän elämää kantaattien sävellysvuosina ja perehdyin asioihin, jotka mielestäni ovat vaikuttaneet teosten syntyyn, sekä asioihin, jotka auttoivat minua tulkitsemaan hänen musiikkiaan paremmin. ...

  12. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  13. Status report on Italian activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoni, R.

    1999-01-01

    The main features of the Italian energy supply situation is shown. Primary energy demand increased by 2.7% while the total final consumption was mainly attributed to industry, transport, household and services. Nuclear activities of ENEL were related mostly to nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. processing and disposal of nuclear waste from phased out nuclear power plants. The following nine research programs were foreseen: proton source; low and medium energy accelerator section; high energy accelerator section; neutron production for material characterization; general safety criteria and classification; neutronics and transmutation efficiency; thermal-hydraulic analysis; beam window technology; materials technology

  14. Why pitch sensitivity matters: Event-related potential evidence of metric and syntactic violation detection among Spanish late learners of German.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eSchmidt-Kassow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP data in monolingual German speakers have shown that sentential metric expectancy violations elicit a biphasic ERP pattern consisting of an anterior negativity and a posterior positivity (P600. This pattern is comparable to that elicited by syntactic violations. However, proficient French late learners of German do not detect violations of metric expectancy in German. They also show qualitatively and quantitatively different ERP responses to metric and syntactic violations. We followed up the questions whether (1 latter evidence results from a potential pitch cue insensitivity in speech segmentation in French speakers, or (2 if the result is founded in rhythmic language differences. Therefore, we tested Spanish late learners of German, as Spanish, contrary to French, uses pitch as a segmentation cue even though the basic segmentation unit is the same in French and Spanish (i.e., the syllable. We report ERP responses showing that Spanish L2 learners are sensitive to syntactic as well as metric violations in German sentences independent of attention to task in a P600 response. Overall, the behavioral performance resembles that of German native speakers. The current data suggest that Spanish L2 learners are able to extract metric units (trochee in their L2 (German even though their basic segmentation unit in Spanish is the syllable. In addition Spanish in contrast to French L2 learners of German are sensitive to syntactic violations indicating a tight link between syntactic and metric competence. This finding emphasizes the relevant role of metric cues not only in L2 prosodic but also in syntactic processing.

  15. German atomic low meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2005-01-01

    The conference report on the German atomic law meeting 2004 contains 14 contributions on the German atomic legislation within four parts: Damage precaution in the operational phase; Legal general requirements for the final disposal - considerations ''de lege lata'' and ''de lege ferenda''. Financing of the site searching by a statutory company (''Verbandsmodell''). Atomic supervision authority - federal executive administration or federal self administration?

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  17. European energy policy and Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, A.; Verdelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Italian industry is very sensitive to the rising costs of energy. The European energy policy, if intended as an additional constraint, could deteriorate the situation. It could be, however, a good opportunity for the Italian industry to become more independent from fossil fuels, through an innovatory project at country level [it

  18. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  19. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  20. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Italian experience in gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, N.U.

    1991-01-01

    After tracing the historical highlights representing the development of the Fauser (Montecatini) technology based gasification processes for the production of ammonia and methanol, this paper outlines the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the Montecatini (Italy) process plant for heavy liquid hydrocarbons gasification by means of partial auto-thermal combustion with oxygen. The outline makes evident the technical-economical validity of the Montecatini design solutions which include energy recovery (even the heat dispersed through the gasifier walls is recovered and utilized to produce low pressure steam to preheat the fuel oil); reduced oxygen consumption by the high temperature preheating of all reagents; the ecologically compatible elimination of gas black; as well as, desulfurization with materials recovery. The plant process descriptions come complete with flowsheets. While demonstrating that the Italian developed technology is historically well rooted, the Author stresses that the current design versions of Montecatini gasification plants are up to date with innovative solutions, especially, with regard to pollution abatement, and cites the need for a more concerted marketing effort on the part of local industry to help improve the competitiveness of the Italian made product

  2. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  3. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  4. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  5. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  6. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  7. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context (1973-2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  8. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context 1973-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  9. Genetic characterization of Italian field strains of Schmallenberg virus based on N and NSs genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Francesca; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Polci, Andrea; Iapaolo, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Monaco, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Following its first identification in Germany in 2011, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has rapidly spread to many other European countries. Despite the wide dissemination, the molecular characterization of the circulating strains is limited to German, Belgian, Dutch, and Swiss viruses. To fill this gap, partial genetic characterization of 15 Italian field strains was performed, based on S segment genes. Samples were collected in 2012 in two different regions where outbreaks occurred during distinct epidemic seasons. The comparative sequence analysis demonstrated a high molecular stability of the circulating viruses; nevertheless, we identified several variants of the N and NSs proteins not described in other SBV isolates circulating in Europe.

  10. Forbidden love. A French position on the future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite

    2013-01-01

    The French electricity supply system is based on nuclear energy, with three quarters of total electricity production originating from nuclear power plants. The sector has grown continuously over a period of 60 years. For a long time the realms of politics and science were in consensus about the use of nuclear energy for civil purposes, but now the French nuclear dogma is increasingly being called into question as a result of the disaster in Fukushima, the German decision to phase out nuclear energy and European energy policy in general. How will France shape its future energy policy given these altered framework conditions?

  11. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    understandings of integration and Germanness, this paper highlights the neglected aspect of the ascendance of Integrationspolitik since the turn of the century: namely how it superseded previous regime of completely bifurcated migration policy for "foreigners" on the one hand, and so-called "settlers" of German......, seen ever more as residing within its state territory rather than some diffuse cultural-linguistic space. Moving our understanding of Germanness beyond the "ethnic nationhood model" (Faist 2008), I argue thus that, in conjunction with the new citizenship law, the emergence of Integrationspolitik...

  12. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto...

  13. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  14. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  15. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  16. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  17. Cogeneration in Italian agricultural industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfitto, E.; Jacoboni, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the technical, environmental and economical feasibility of an industrial cogeneration system which incorporates combined gas-steam cycles and a biomass/agricultural waste sludge fired fluidized bed combustion system. It cites the suitability of the use of fluidized bed combustion for the combustion of biomass and agricultural waste sludges - high combustion efficiency, uniform and relatively low combustion temperatures (850 C) within the combustion chamber to reduce scaling, reduced nitrogen oxide and micro-pollutant emissions, the possibility to control exhaust gas acidity through the injection of calcium carbonates, the possibility of the contemporaneous feeding of different fuels. Reference is made to test results obtained with an ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) pilot plant fired by vineyard wastes. Attention is given to an analysis of the fuel's physical-chemical characteristics and the resulting flue gas chemical composition and ash characteristics. Comparisons are made with legal release limits

  18. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  19. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  20. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  1. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  2. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  3. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  4. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  5. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  6. Gender - an Issue for German Welfare Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last months and years the English expression 'gender' has become a well-known word all over Germany, often with the annex 'mainstreaming'. Gender mainstreaming was initiated as a political strategy by the Women's World Conference in Beijing in 1995 and adopted by the European Union in 1997 (COM(9676 final. It basically means that all actions and initiatives planned have to be tested as to their effects on women and men and should not be taken if they disadvantage either one. But gender is also a category in the discussion about democratic features. Gender democracy means that males and females should be represented equally in the public, political, cultural, social and economic sphere of a society. On this background, this paper traces the gender issue in the field of organizations in the social sector of Germany, in particular the 'welfare organizations'. In this article, 'welfare organizations' is used as a translation of the German word 'Wohlfahrtsverbände'. The reason for this choice is the endeavor to indicate their difference from for instance English 'charitable associations' or French 'associations sociale et sanitaire', because social organizations in the EU-member states differ considerably in regard to their history, function, self-image , financing, political power etc.. The terms 'social non-governmental organizations' (NGOs or 'social nonprofit organizations' (NPOs are used synonymously.

  7. Materialism, Subjectivity and the Outcome of French Philosophy: Interview with Adrian Johnston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Neill Burns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Johnston is well known for his work at the intersection of Lacanian psychoanalysis, German idealism, contemporary French philosophy and most recently cognitive neuroscience. In the context of the current issue, Johnston represents the most complete development of a contemporary theory of Transcendental Materialism. In the following interview we explore both the implications of Johnston’s previous work, as well as the directions his most recent projects are taking.

  8. Posture verbs in French-speaking CLIL and non-CLIL learners of Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Spinhayer, Camille; Josse, Amélie; Eurosla 26 Conference

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has confirmed that CLIL learners clearly outperform non-CLIL learners (Dalton-Puffer 2011). Although lexicon has often received pride of place in CLIL research, it is striking that studies have rarely been pushed beyond the word level. This paper therefore investigates the acquisition of Dutch posture verb constructions (PVs) in French-speaking (non-)CLIL learners. As in other Germanic languages, Dutch frequently uses compulso...

  9. Some Italian and Catholic Sources on Jazira (1920-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Galletti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During World War I the Allies supported the centrifugal thrusts of the ethnic and religious groups hostile to the Ottoman Empire. But the promises of a great unified Arab State, of a Kurdish State, of an Armenian State and of an Assyrian State were patently irreconciliable. The division of the Ottoman Kurdistan removed the protection of autochthonous communities (Armenians, Assyro-Chaldeans, Kurds and Yezidis so that they became the internal problem of Iraq, Syria and Turkey. These peoples have  consequently become transnational. Dispersed through various Middle Eastern States, they have been forced to create different policies, and to pursue different objectives. The passage from multinational identity has had dramatic consequences for each of these people, whereas the Arab and Turkish States pursued a nationalistic policy aimed at creating a new identity for the whole population. The available documentation in the archives of the Ministry of Italian Foreign Affairs enables a broader and deeper understanding of the tensions and problems, with special reference to Iraq. Nonetheless, these diplomatic observateurs are interesting because they create the atmosphere of this historical period. Italian politics seemed to agree to the rigid application of the Lausanne Treaty and the maintaining of the status quo. Fascism follows a pro-Arab strategy which leaves no room for developing a strategy toward the Middle Eastern communities. A section is devoted to the Syrian Jazira that, being at the Turkish and Iraqi border, represented an important observation post to follow the Kurdish and Assyro-Chaldean problems in those years. The refugees coming from the two countries sheltered in the region because of the politics of tending to integrate them. These politics were pursued by the French mandatary power.

  10. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  11. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  12. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  13. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  14. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  15. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  16. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  17. Validation of the Italian version of the Laval questionnaire: health-related quality of life in subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Rosano, Aldo; Di Lazzaro, Luca; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Lubrano, Carla; Migliaccio, Silvia; Carbonelli, Mariagrazia; Pinto, Alessandro; Lenzi, Andrea

    2017-05-15

    Obesity is associated to increased risk of metabolic comorbidity as well as increased mortality. Notably, obesity is also associated to the impairment of the psychological status and of quality of life. Only three questionnaires are available in the Italian language evaluating the health-related quality of life in subjects with obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the Laval Questionnaire. The original French version was translated into Italian and back-translated by a French native speaker. 273 subjects with obesity (Body Mass Index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled; the Italian version of the Laval Questionnaire and the O.R.Well-97 questionnaire were administered in order to assess health- related quality of life. The Laval questionnaire consists of 44 items distributed in 6 domains (symptoms, activity/mobility, personal hygiene/clothing, emotions, social interaction, sexual life). Disability and overall psychopathology levels were assessed through the TSD-OC test (SIO test for obesity correlated disabilities) and the SCL-90 (Symptom Checklist-90) questionnaire, respectively. To verify the validity of the Italian version, the analysis of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were performed. The observed proportion of agreement concordance of results was 50.2% with Cohen's K = 0.336 (CI 95%: 0.267-0.404), indicating a fair agreement between the two tests. Test-retest correlation was statistically significant (ρ = 0.82; p  0.70). The analysis of construct validity showed a statistically significant association in terms of both total score (ρ = -0.66) and scores at each single domain (p obesity.

  18. Radiation protection on EPR: comparative approach of the French and Finnish regulatory reviewing process and optimization at the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arial, E.; Couasnon, O.; Latil-querrec, N.; Evrard, J.M.; Herviou, K.; Riihiluoma, V.; Beneteau, Y.; Foret, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Taking the opportunity to evaluate the preliminary safety report of the French EPR reactor built in Flamanville, the IRSN proposes to assess the history of EPR, from the decision to implement studies in the 90's to the French and German cooperation, and finally to the construction of a unit in Finland and in France, and to make a synthesis of the assessment of radiation protection arrangements. This assessment presents the dose targets (calculated reference doses) planned by the nuclear operators in the design phase as well as the global radiation protection optimization process and a comparison of French and Finnish analyses. In France, for example, EDF performed a detailed optimization analysis of selected tasks known to have a major contribution to the annual average collective dose (thermal insulation, logistics, valve maintenance, opening/closing of the vessel, preparation and checks of steam generators, on-site spent fuel management, and waste management). The optimization process is based (in France) on an iterative method. A comparison between the EPR collective dose target and doses received in other pressurized water reactors that are close to the EPR design (Konvoi of German design, French existing units, etc.) is also presented. This synthesis was carried out by the IRSN, the expert body of the French nuclear safety authority, in association with Electricite de France (EDF), the French operator, and the authority for nuclear safety in Finland (STUK). It summarizes more than 15 years of studies and partnership, focusing on radiation protection, in the design phase of the EPR. (authors)

  19. Severe Accidents: French Regulatory Practice for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of a continuous and iterative process, the French Safety Authority asks the utility EDF to implement equipment and procedure modifications on the operating reactors, in order to cope with the most likely Severe Accident sequences. As a result of Probabilistic Safety Assessments published in 1990, important equipment and procedure modifications are being implemented on the French PWRs to improve the safety in shutdown states. The implementation of another set of modifications against some reactivity accident sequences is also in progress. More recently, the Safety Authority expressed specific Severe Accident requirements in terms of instrumentation, equipment qualification, high pressure core melt accidents and hydrogen risk prevention. In that respect, EDF was asked to implement hydrogen recombiners on its reactors. On the other hand, the French Safety authority is involved with its German counterpart in the assessment process of the European Pressurized Water Reactor Project. In consistency with the common recommendations of the Safety Authorities involved, Severe Accident provisions for this reactor are being taken into account at the design stage

  20. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on the bill project adopted by the Senate after initiation of an accelerated procedure, authorizing the approval of the 5. amendment to the Convention of the 19 Jan 1967, modified by the 6 July 1971 amendment between the Govt of the French Republic and the Govt of the German Federal Republic on the construction and exploitation of a very high flow reactor and subsequently modified by the convention of the 19 July 1974 between the above-mentioned Govts and the Govt of the UK of Great-Britain and Northern Ireland related to adhesion of this last Govt to the convention by the amendment of the 27 July 1976, the second amendment of the 9 Dec 1981, the third amendment of the 25 Mar 1993, and the fourth amendment of the 4 Dec 2002 between the 3 above-mentioned Govts. Nr 2588, Nr 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumel, Philippe; Cambon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers two reports, one published by the French National Assembly and one published by the French Senate. The first part of the first report presents the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL), an international research centre of excellence located in Grenoble. It outlines the position of this centre as a world leader at the scientific and technical level in some specific fields (development of the neutron probe, improved capacities of the Millennium program, very wide fields of research and application), recalls that this initially French-German cooperation is now very much extended (large scientific partnership, description of the Institute governance, presentation of staff and budget), and highlights the role of this large research infrastructure for the Rhone-Alpes region and for France. The second part discusses the issues which the Commission has been asked to approve: the approval of the fifth amendment of the 1 July 2013 (extension of the convention's application, compliance with the 2006 bill related to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes), and the implicit ratification of previous issues related to the ILL. The Commission's discussion is reported. Hearing, and previous conventions and amendments are reported in appendix. The second report, published by the Senate, addresses the same issues: presentation of the ILL activities, organisation and governance, issues of the fifth amendment, and general framework of the law on waste management (law content, presentation of the different waste categories)

  1. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  2. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  3. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  4. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  5. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  6. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self‐reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods: An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back i...

  7. Social media marketing in Italian luxury fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Artha Sejati; Hernández García, Ángel; Lamberti, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Industries nowadays have been comfortable with the incorporation of social media to their marketing strategy. Italy has been known as a major center of the European fashion industry, a sector that is also following the social media marketing trends. This paper provides empirical findings on Italian luxury fashion brands? social media marketing activities. We present and analyze two case studies of Italian luxury fashion brands: Gucci and The Bridge (Il Ponte Pelletteria). Gucci is one of worl...

  8. Linguistic, geographic and genetic isolation: a collaborative study of Italian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Bachis, Valeria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Bertoncini, Stefania; Biondi, Gianfranco; Boattini, Alessio; Boschi, Ilaria; Brisighelli, Francesca; Caló, Carla Maria; Carta, Marilisa; Coia, Valentina; Corrias, Laura; Crivellaro, Federica; De Fanti, Sara; Dominici, Valentina; Ferri, Gianmarco; Francalacci, Paolo; Franceschi, Zelda Alice; Luiselli, Donata; Morelli, Laura; Paoli, Giorgio; Rickards, Olga; Robledo, Renato; Sanna, Daria; Sanna, Emanuele; Sarno, Stefania; Sineo, Luca; Taglioli, Luca; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tofanelli, Sergio; Vona, Giuseppe; Pettener, Davide; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    of Italian populations in the European context. The human genetic diversity of our country was found to be greater than observed throughout the continent at short (0-200 km) and intermediate (700-800km) distances, and accounted for most of the highest values of genetic distances observed at all geographic ranges. Interestingly, an important contribution to this pattern comes from the "linguistic islands"( e.g. German speaking groups of Sappada and Luserna from the Eastern Italian Alps), further proof of the importance of considering social and cultural factors when studying human genetic variation.

  9. The Italian Way to Carsharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing (CS is increasing its role worldwide as an alternative transport mode, often more sustainable than private transport with self-owned vehicles. We first focus on the main characteristics of those services and on the impacts they generated, starting from the analysis of  the literature on this topic. CS initiatives are growing everywhere, however numbers are still minor and impacts are still far from a level that can deliver significant aggregate benefits. This paper studies the existing Italian carsharing experiences, trying to understand its strengths, that have allowed its development, but also possible limits and weaknesses. The presence of a national coordination structure (Iniziativa Carsharing - ICS, unique in Europe and created to boost local initiatives providing standardisation and interoperability, surely helped the development of the system. Some initiatives have been successful in terms of membership (in particular Milan, Venice and Turin, but others have been discontinued. Italian users’ characteristics are similar to the ones of users abroad: the majority of users are well educated male, living in small households having one or no cars and using public transport every day. At present, Italian drivers generally still show a scarce propensity to share their cars, considered more as “goods” than as “services”. A case study in Milan, the first and most successful initiative in Italy, shows a significant increase in CS membership after the implementation of a city charging scheme (“Ecopass” at first, then “Area C”. Moving shared cars from garages to “on the street parking” has proved successful too. The usage of the service has changed in time: users have increased (+151% more than runs (+137% – 2006 to 2009, while average length and duration of each run have decreased (-30% and -43% respectively, 2006 to 2010. Milan’s initiative also put s into practice many incentives for users that likely

  10. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  11. CDP++.Italian: modelling sublexical and supralexical inconsistency in a shallow orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Most models of reading aloud have been constructed to explain data in relatively complex orthographies like English and French. Here, we created an Italian version of the Connectionist Dual Process Model of Reading Aloud (CDP++) to examine the extent to which the model could predict data in a language which has relatively simple orthography-phonology relationships but is relatively complex at a suprasegmental (word stress) level. We show that the model exhibits good quantitative performance and accounts for key phenomena observed in naming studies, including some apparently contradictory findings. These effects include stress regularity and stress consistency, both of which have been especially important in studies of word recognition and reading aloud in Italian. Overall, the results of the model compare favourably to an alternative connectionist model that can learn non-linear spelling-to-sound mappings. This suggests that CDP++ is currently the leading computational model of reading aloud in Italian, and that its simple linear learning mechanism adequately captures the statistical regularities of the spelling-to-sound mapping both at the segmental and supra-segmental levels.

  12. CDP++.Italian: modelling sublexical and supralexical inconsistency in a shallow orthography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Perry

    Full Text Available Most models of reading aloud have been constructed to explain data in relatively complex orthographies like English and French. Here, we created an Italian version of the Connectionist Dual Process Model of Reading Aloud (CDP++ to examine the extent to which the model could predict data in a language which has relatively simple orthography-phonology relationships but is relatively complex at a suprasegmental (word stress level. We show that the model exhibits good quantitative performance and accounts for key phenomena observed in naming studies, including some apparently contradictory findings. These effects include stress regularity and stress consistency, both of which have been especially important in studies of word recognition and reading aloud in Italian. Overall, the results of the model compare favourably to an alternative connectionist model that can learn non-linear spelling-to-sound mappings. This suggests that CDP++ is currently the leading computational model of reading aloud in Italian, and that its simple linear learning mechanism adequately captures the statistical regularities of the spelling-to-sound mapping both at the segmental and supra-segmental levels.

  13. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  14. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  15. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  16. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  17. Exploring American and Italian consumer preferences for Californian and Italian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Noble, Ann Curtis; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-06-01

    To increase the market share of Californian wines in other countries, wine preferences need to be explored in potential markets. This work studied the preferences of American and Italian consumers for red wines produced in California and Italy, focusing on wines made from the same varieties in each location. Descriptive analysis and consumer preference tests were performed. Americans scored each of the Californian wines significantly higher in preference than the Italian wines. In contrast, the Italian consumer preference scores for many Italian and Californian wines overlapped. By external preference mapping of the American consumer segments, the ideal flavour of one cluster was closest to the Californian Zinfandel, Merlot and Syrah, which had the 'most balanced' flavour profiles. Another cluster of Italians also preferred the Californian wines. In addition, one Italian cluster was driven by a dislike of the leather, band-aid and medicinal aromas of the Italian Merlot and Refosco. The results provided information that can contribute to wine marketing research necessary for successfully exporting Californian red wines to Italy and vice versa. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  19. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  20. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    and give direction to the very idea of political modernity, bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy, and freedom. The specific argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy and political thought to articulate a trajectory that moved away from......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  1. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  2. PHRASEOLOGY IN PARČIĆ'S CROATIAN – ITALIAN DICTIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pavletić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and classifies the types of phraseological groups in Parčić's Croatian – Italian Dictionary comparing them with Italian equivalents and the contemporary Croatian phraseology.

  3. exiles/nomads: journeys through language and gender in italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    how Italian women's (and men's) pulp fiction is written through gender specific ... by Santacroce's heroines to travel beyond the Italian boundaries, is not limited to the ..... The character's perception of his physical environment as silent and.

  4. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  5. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  6. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  7. A search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: proof of concept and evaluation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-12-01

    PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese.

  8. A Suggested Curriculum Outline for German in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a four-year program of German study aiming to give students a basic ability in spoken and written German, knowledge of German culture, and preparation for advanced German study. Study topics and textbooks are included. (CHK)

  9. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  10. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  11. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  12. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  13. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  14. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  15. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  16. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  17. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  18. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  19. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  20. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  1. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  2. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  3. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  4. Forbidden love. A French position on the future of nuclear energy; Verbotene Liebe. Eine franzoesische Position zur Zukunft der Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales (Ifri), Paris (France). Centre Energie

    2013-03-15

    The French electricity supply system is based on nuclear energy, with three quarters of total electricity production originating from nuclear power plants. The sector has grown continuously over a period of 60 years. For a long time the realms of politics and science were in consensus about the use of nuclear energy for civil purposes, but now the French nuclear dogma is increasingly being called into question as a result of the disaster in Fukushima, the German decision to phase out nuclear energy and European energy policy in general. How will France shape its future energy policy given these altered framework conditions?.

  5. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  6. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  7. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    its business unit Thyssen Krupp Marine Systems, is a German defense contractor. (2) Tognom AG Tognum AG owned the MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH before... Friedrichshafen provided engines for many ships of the German Navy and for German battle tanks, such as the Leopard I and Leopard II. MTU refers to the

  8. [German influences on Romanian medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răcilă, R G; Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V

    2008-01-01

    The medical terminology plays a key part both in the study of medicine as well as in its practice. Moreover, understanding the medical terms is important not only for the doctor but also for the patients who want to learn more about their condition. For these reasons we believe that the study of medical terminology is one of great interest. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the German linguistic and medical influences on the evolution of the Romanian medical terminology. Since the Romanian-German cultural contacts date back to the 12th century we had reasons to believe that the number of German medical words in Romanian would be significant. To our surprise, the Romanian language has very few German words and even less medical terms of German origin. However, when we searched the list of diseases coined after famous medical personalities, we found out that 26 % of them bore the names of German doctors and scientists. Taken together this proves that the German medical school played an important role on the evolution of Romanian medicine despite the fact that the Romanian vocabulary was slightly influenced by the German language. We explain this fact on the structural differences between the Romanian and German languages, which make it hard for German loans to be integrated in the Romanian lexis. In conclusion we state that the German influence on the Romanian medical terminology is weak despite the important contribution of the German medical school to the development of medical education and healthcare in Romania. Key

  9. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  10. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  11. Silent Film in the German Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David

    In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

  12. La editorial Ricordi y su aportación a la publicidad italiana de principios del siglo XX / The publisher Ricordi and his contribution to the Italian advertising early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Francia Ferrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de estudio de la presente investigación es el nacimiento de las campañas publicitarias gráficas orquestadas por la fructífera colaboración entre empresarios, editores e ilustradores entre los siglos XIX y XX en Italia. El estudio se centra en la Casa Editorial Ricordi porque fue la creadora e impulsora del moderno cartel artístico y publicitario italiano, con un vasta producción de ejemplares, hoy considerados obras maestras del género. La etapa de oro del cartel italiano coincide, no por casualidad, con el predominio técnico y artístico de esta empresa en Italia que nada tenía que envidiar a sus competidoras francesas (como la prestigiosa Imprimerie Chaix parisina, tan querida por Jules Chéret, alemanas o inglesas. El período analizado (1890-1914 es el de mayor actividad y esplendor artístico en las artes gráficas. Son los años de los primeros pasos en el campo de la publicidad. Como en todos los comienzos, abundan las ideas, la energía, la ingenuidad y las ganas de experimentar. Es un tiempo lleno de cambios: la transformación económica, social e industrial que vivió Europa en un lapso tan corto de  tiempo es probablemente la mayor de su historia.The purpose of this research is the birth of graphic advertising campaigns orchestrated by the fruitful collaboration between employers, publishers and illustrators between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Italy. The study focuses on the Ricordi publishing house because it was the creator and driving force of the modern Italian poster art and advertising with a vast production of copies, today considered masterpieces of the genre. The golden age of Italian poster coincides, not coincidentally, with the technical and artistic dominance of this company in Italy that had nothing to envy their French competitors (including the prestigious Paris Imprimerie Chaix, so beloved by Jules Cheret, German or England. The period analyzed (1890-1914 is the most active and

  13. Culinary culture and globalization: an analysis of British and German Michelin-starred restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christel

    2011-12-01

    The high-end restaurant segment in Britain and Germany has long been shaped by the cultural hegemony of French haute cuisine, perpetuated by multiple processes, including the influence of the Michelin or Red Guide. Traditionally, this hegemony has been expressed in the prevalence of French expatriate chefs, culinary techniques and style and even restaurant culture. This paper investigates whether processes of globalization have weakened or even undermined this French cultural dominance in fine-dining restaurants and their culinary culture. To this end, the study identifies the various forms taken by globalization processes in this industry segment and then assesses their impact on the dominance of the French paradigm of culinary culture. The investigation focuses on British and German Michelin-starred restaurants, underlining both commonalities and divergences in the process of interaction between French, global and local influences. The study employs a qualitative method, using a number of case studies to discern cross-industry patterns. All chefs with two or three stars in the two countries, i.e. 45 chefs, were selected for the analysis of their cuisine. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  14. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  15. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  16. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  17. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  18. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  19. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... As we honor the long history and vast contributions of Italian Americans, let us recommit to... society and steer the course of our history. During Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, we... Culture Month. I call upon all Americans to learn more about the history of Italian Americans, and to...

  20. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  1. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Should the SPD and The Left overcome existing differences, the grouping could represent a leftward shift in German politics. Alliance ’90 / The...and replaced it with less generous social assistance benefits already available to poor individuals, regardless of employment history . These changes...director at Volkswagen . 48Hans-Werner Sinn, Can Germany Be Saved?, p. 108. 49 Alister Miskimmon and Walter E. Paterson, “Conclusion: coping with the

  2. Self-Employment among Italian Female Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self-employment. Design/methodology/approach: A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non-graduate…

  3. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  4. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  5. Introduzione / Introduction | Guzzetta | Italian Studies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Introduzione / Introduction. G Guzzetta. Abstract. Identità Italiane In Movimento. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/issa.v21i1-2.43947 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. The Italian Footwear Industry: an Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirolo, Luca; Giustiniano, Luca; Nenni, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide readers with a deep empirical analysis on the Italian footwear industry in order to investigate the evolution of its structure (trends in sales and production, number of firms and employees, main markets, etc.), together with the identification of the main drivers of competitiveness in order to explain the strategies implemented by local actors.

  7. Energy and competition in italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, G.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of competition of the Italian production is based on the analysis of the prices. The most important period is between the first petroliferol crisis and these days. The production is concentrated on sector of old tradition and executed from an enterprise of small dimension [it

  8. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Vicario, E.; Petaccia, A.; Savanella, V.

    1999-01-01

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization [it

  9. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  10. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  11. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  12. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  13. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  14. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  15. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  16. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  17. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  18. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  19. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  20. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  1. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  2. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  3. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  4. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  5. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  6. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  7. Tools for the development of a benthic quality index for Italian lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo SOLIMINI

    2006-02-01

    , the mean of these three variables was calculated for each taxon (mean BQIW. Third, the mean BQIW was multiplied by taxa abundance and divided by the total number of specimens present at each site for which the BQIL was obtained. Using a regression between BQIL and TSI values, lake sites were assigned to 5 quality classes as required by the Italian Law 152/99 and the WFD 2000/60/CE. This assignment must be considered as tentative, because different lake types should be considered separately to develop an index. At present the lack of information from different lake typologies hinders the development of a more sophisticated index such as the French Lake Biotic Index (LBI.

  8. On the origin and meaning of the German word Luft and some meteorological terms concerning atmospheric water, especially fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller, Detlev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The English and French word “air” is derived from the Latin aer, which comes from the Greek άήρ. In contrast, the German word “Luft” is a common Proto-Germanic word; in Old English “ lift” and “ lyft”. The word Luft (also Danish, Swedish and Norwegian is associated with brightness; the German Licht (light, an air (in an atmospheric sense without fog or clouds. Air and water were originally “elements” in ancient Greek and were transmutable; they represented two kinds of the “ layer of mist” (atmosphere. Dark or thick air was mist or cloud, hiding the gods (who lived in the upper air or sky; the aether. Different terms are presented that describe fog and clouds in connection with the history of the process of understanding. Finally, the word Luft (air as a term for gaseous chemical compounds (“kinds of gases” is discussed. In addition to the German, all terms are given in Greek, Latin, English and French .

  9. The French market of thermal solar and its perspectives. Conditions are met for a sustained and durable market growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at assessing the rebound ability of the thermal solar energy market, at assessing the impact of the large legal framework which aims at developing thermal solar energy, at assessing the weight of French industries with respect to the German giants, and at understanding the strategy of equipment manufacturers and installers/integrators. The report presents the operating principles and applications of thermal solar energy production, presents the European and the French regulatory context, discusses the situation of France with respect to its commitments in terms of renewable energy as heat source, comments the dynamics of the French market, discusses the business model of this sector, and comments the position and strategies of front-end and back-end actors, i.e. equipment manufacturers on the one hand, and installers on the other hand

  10. 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Bassis, Simone; Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Italy, Vietri sul Mare (Salerno), during May 17-19, 2012. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in three main components, two special sessions and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks and natural intelligence, also including applications of present compelling interest.

  11. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panizzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe, are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy, generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.  

  12. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  13. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  14. Italian students win a trip to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The six winners of the Progetto Lauree Scientifiche came to CERN to discover the LHC experiments. Six Italian high-school students visited CERN last week as part of a biennial project sponsored by the Italian Research ministry, the University of Ferrara and INFN. A total of 160 enthusiastic students took part in the project, which aims to introduce and foster interest in higher levels of science and technology. The Progetto Lauree Scientifiche prize was awarded to these students for their excellent grades in an examination covering various areas of physics, including laser, solid and particle physics. The winners spent six days at CERN touring the Laboratory and seeing first-hand the various aspects of research in one of the leading European centres, as well as the excitement of the particle physics adventure.

  15. A healthy lesson, Italian-style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ricciardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the conclusions of the World Health Organisation’s 2000 report Italy had the second best health system in the world [1] with Italians having one of the highest rates of life expectancy... However, since 2001 the 19 Italian Regions and 2 Autonomous Provinces have exercised their autonomy very differently, with Northern regions being more successful in establishing effective structures of health care delivery, management and monitoring, as compared to regions in the South. This regional variation in health care reflects (and exacerbates differences of contextual, political, economic and cultural, factors as well as differences between regional health systems. A recent survey [2] showed that in 14 of the 21 Regions and Autonomous Provinces, the system is performing fairly well and is well perceived by citizens.

  16. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  17. Operational Art and the German 1918 Offensives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabecki, D T

    2009-01-01

    At the tactical level of war the Germans are widely regarded as having had the most innovative and proficient army of World War I. Likewise, many historians would agree that the Germans suffered from serious, if not fatal, shortcomings at the strategic level of war. It is at the middle level of warfare, the operational level, that the Germans seem to be the most difficult to evaluate. Although the operational was only fully accepted in the 1980s by many Western militaries as...

  18. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  19. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  20. Nuclear engineering education in italian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulla, S.; Panella, B.; Ravetto, P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the evolution and the present situation of the university-level nuclear engineering education in Italy. The problems connected with the need of qualified faculty in view of a dramatic increase of students is pointed out. A short description of the programs at present available at Italian universities is also presented, together with some statistics referred to Politecnico di Torino. The mathematical and computation content of each programs is also analyzed. (author)