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Sample records for french gazel cohort

  1. Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.

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    Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study.

  2. Effect of retirement on alcohol consumption: longitudinal evidence from the French Gazel cohort study.

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    Marie Zins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of retirement on alcohol consumption. The objectives were to examine changes in alcohol consumption following retirement, and whether these patterns differ by gender and socioeconomic status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed alcohol consumption annually from 5 years before to 5 years after retirement among 10,023 men and 2,361 women of the French Gazel study. Data were analyzed separately for men and women, using repeated-measures logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Five years prior to retirement, the prevalence of heavy drinking was about 16% among men, and not patterned by socioeconomic status. Among women, this prevalence was 19.5% in managers, 14.7% in intermediate occupations, and 12.8% in clerical workers. Around retirement, the estimated prevalence of heavy drinking increased in both sexes. In men, this increase was 3.1 percentage points for managers, 3.2 in intermediate occupations, 4.6 in clerical workers, and 1.3 in manual workers. In women, this increase was 6.6 percentage points among managers, 4.3 in intermediate occupations, and 3.3 among clerical workers. In men the increase around retirement was followed by a decrease over the following four years, not significant among manual workers; among women such a decrease was also observed in the non-managerial occupations. It is difficult to assess the extent to which the results observed in this cohort would hold for other working populations, other conditions of employment, or in other cultural settings. A plausible explanation for the increase in heavy drinking around retirement could be that increased leisure time after retirement provides more opportunities for drinking, and not having to work during the day after may decrease constraints on drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of increased consumption around retirement suggest that information about negative effects of alcohol consumption should be

  3. The impact of stressful life events on excessive alcohol consumption in the French population: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.

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    Sara L Tamers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. METHODS: Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021, children leaving home (p<0.001, and death of loved ones (p = 0.03, and decreased before widowhood (p = 0.015; in the year straddling the event, increased consumption was observed for important purchase (p = 0.018 and retirement (p = 0.002; at the time of the event, consumption decreased for marriage (p = 0.002, divorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all p<0.001, and increased for retirement (p = 0.035. For men, heavy alcohol consumption increased in the years up to and surrounding the death of loved ones, retirement, and important purchase (all p<0.001, and decreased after (all p<0.001, except death of loved one: p = 0.006; at the time of the event, consumption decreased for all events except for children leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all p<0.001. For women and men, heavy alcohol consumption decreased prior to marriage and divorce and increased after (all p<0.001, except for women and marriage: p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Stressful life events promote healthy and unhealthy alcohol consumption. Certain events impact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time.

  4. Effect of stressful life events on changes in smoking among the French: longitudinal findings from GAZEL

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    Tamers, Sara L.; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Marino, Miguel; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in life events may play a contributing role in changes in smoking behaviors. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events (SLEs) on smoking among French adults. Methods: We examined smoking prevalence in 20 625 employees of the French GAZEL cohort for up to 5 years before and after a SLE during three time periods (years −1 vs. −5; years +1 vs. −1; years +5 vs. +1). Repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events were used, employing gen...

  5. [Population-based cohorts. Example of the Gazel and Constances cohorts].

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    Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2013-02-01

    Population-based cohorts focus on the causes of diseases, especially multifactorial diseases. Some are very large, and prospectively collect personal, lifestyle, occupational and environmental data over several decades. All include biobanks. "Generalist" cohorts cover a large field of diseases and risk factors. Two examples are presented here The Gazel cohort was composed of 20,000 subjects aged 35-50 at enrolment andfollowed-up for 25 years, resulting in about 200 publications. The Constances cohort, created in 2012, aims to include a representative sample of 200,000 adults aged 18-69 at enrolment.

  6. Tiring job and work related injury road crashes in the GAZEL cohort.

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    Chiron, Mireille; Bernard, Marlène; Lafont, Sylviane; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-05-01

    The objective was to describe at-work and commuting crashes occurring in a cohort of French employees and to investigate occupational risk factors. The subjects were employees of the French national electricity and gas companies, Electricité de France and Gaz de France (EDF-GDF), who volunteered to join a research cohort (the GAZEL cohort which included 20,625 participants in 1989). Only crashes with injuries were considered. Crashes for the periods 1989--2001 were recorded together with the type of journey (commuting, work, private), the type of road-user, self-estimated responsibility, and injuries sustained by the subject. Annual incidences for gender/age groups and socio-occupational groups were computed for each of the two types of work related crashes. Occupational risk factor analyses were conducted using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates adjusting for the main confounders. A total of 146,285 person years at work were observed. Two indicators of self-reported work fatigue were associated with the occurrence of at-work crashes: "nervously tiring work" for males (RR=1.6, 95% CI [1.1; 2.3]), sustained standing for females (RR=3.0, 95% CI [1.0; 8.4]), adjusting for health status, location of residence, type of family, transport mode and mileage. As regards crashes while commuting, a self-reported uncomfortable position at work was a risk factor among women (RR=1.9, 95% CI [1.1; 3.3]). On the other hand, these occupational factors were not linked to road crashes in private trips. Work related road crashes seem then to be a matter for a specific prevention. Preventing employees from becoming exhausted should be considered as the first way to initiate such a prevention.

  7. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study

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    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk ...... factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with...

  8. Depression and the risk of cancer: a 15-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

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    Lemogne, Cédric; Consoli, Silla M; Melchior, Maria; Nabi, Hermann; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Limosin, Frédéric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2013-12-15

    Depression has long been hypothesized to be associated with cancer incidence. However, there is evidence for a positive publication bias in this field. In the present study, we examined the association between various measures of depression and cancer incidence at several sites. A total of 14,203 members of the French GAZEL (Gaz et Electricité) cohort (10,506 men, 3,697 women) were followed up for diagnoses of primary cancers from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2009. All medically certified sickness absences for depression recorded between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1993, were compiled. Depressive symptoms were self-reported in 1993, 1996, and 1999 with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. During a mean follow-up period of 15.2 years, 1,119 participants received a cancer diagnosis, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer and in situ neoplasms. Considering 6 cancer sites (prostate, breast, colorectal, smoking-related, lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues, other sites) and 4 measures of depression, we found 1 positive association and 1 negative association. Overall, there was no compelling evidence for an association between depression and cancer incidence. Such null results should be considered when addressing concerns of cancer patients and their relatives about the role of depression in cancer onset.

  9. Using sickness absence records to predict future depression in a working population: prospective findings from the GAZEL cohort.

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    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sickness absence from work predicts workers' risk of later depression. Study participants (n = 7391) belonged to the French GAZEL cohort of employees of the national gas and electricity company. Sickness absence data (1996-1999) were obtained from company records. Participants' depression in 1996 and 1999 was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The analyses were controlled for baseline age, gender, marital status, occupational grade, tobacco smoking status, alcohol consumption, subthreshold depressive symptoms, and work stress. Among workers who were free of depression in 1996, 13% had depression in 1999. Compared with workers with no sickness absence during the study period, those with sickness absence were more likely to be depressed at follow-up (for 1 period of sickness absence, fully adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.82; for 2 or more periods, fully adjusted OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.61, 2.36). Future depression was predicted both by psychiatric and nonpsychiatric sickness absence (fully adjusted OR = 3.79 [95% CI = 2.81, 5.10] and 1.41 [95% CI = 1.21, 1.65], respectively). Sickness absence records may help identify workers vulnerable to future depression.

  10. Low socioeconomic position and depression persistence: longitudinal results from the GAZEL cohort study.

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    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-05-15

    Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. intermediate/high income: OR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.28-4.95; women: low vs. intermediate/high occupational grade: OR: 2.25, 95% CI 1.06-4.80). These associations were reduced and became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and stressful life events (men and women), overall health (men), and the severity of mental health difficulties (men and women). Overall, depressed individuals with low socioeconomic position appear disproportionately likely to experience multiple risk factors of long-term depression.

  11. Work and family demands: predictors of all-cause sickness absence in the GAZEL cohort

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    Sabbath, Erika L.; Melchior, Maria; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of combined work and family demands on all-cause sickness absence and to examine variation in this relationship by occupational grade and gender. Methods: The study sample consists of 13 179 employees of Electricité de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF) who were members of the GAZEL occupational cohort in 1995. Combined work and family demands are assessed based on measures of job strain and number of dependants assessed at baseline (1995). Covariates include occupational grade and demographic, behavioural and social variables assessed at baseline. Ratios of sickness absence days to total person-days contributed by each employee were established from administrative data between baseline and the end of follow-up in 2003. Rate ratios across levels of work–family demands were then calculated. Effect modification by gender and grade of employment was tested. Results: In fully adjusted models, individuals with the highest work–family demands had a rate ratio of sickness absence of 1.78 (95% CI 1.47–2.14) compared with low-demand workers. This association was independent of occupational grade and did not vary with gender. Results were not attributable solely to psychiatric sickness absences. Conclusion: High work–family demands at baseline predict long-term all-cause sickness absence across a socio-economically diverse occupational cohort. PMID:21558153

  12. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

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    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.

  13. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

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    Agnès Le Port

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the association between dietary patterns and depression are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms assessed repeatedly over 10 years in the French occupational GAZEL cohort. METHODS: A total of 9,272 men and 3,132 women, aged 45-60 years in 1998, completed a 35-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ at baseline. Dietary patterns were derived by Principal Component Analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The main outcome measure was the repeated measures of CES-D. Longitudinal analyses were performed with logistic regression based on generalized estimating equations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The highest quartile of low-fat, western, high snack and high fat-sweet diets in men and low-fat and high snack diets in women were associated with higher likelihood of depressive symptoms at the start of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile (OR between 1.16 and 1.50. Conversely, the highest quartile of traditional diet (characterized by fish and fruit consumption was associated with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms in women compared to the lowest quartile, with OR = 0.63 [95%CI, 0.50 to 0.80], as the healthy pattern (characterized by vegetables consumption with OR = 0.72 [95%CI, 0.63 to 0.83] and OR = 0.75 [95%CI, 0.61 to 0.93] in men and women, respectively. However, there was probably a reverse causality effect for the healthy pattern. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study shows that several dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms and these associations track over time.

  14. Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL cohort study.

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    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Lange, Theis

    2011-02-01

    Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with <1% loss to follow-up. Body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were measured annually through self-reporting. During follow-up, a total of 1,045 men and women died. Sleep disturbances were associated with a higher overall mortality risk in men (P = 0.005) but not in women (P = 0.33). This effect was most pronounced for men <45 years of age (≥3 symptoms vs. none: hazard ratio = 2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.33). There were no clear associations between sleep disturbances and cardiovascular mortality rates, although men and women with sleep disturbances were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes (P < 0.001). Compared with people with no sleep disturbances, men who reported ≥3 types of sleep disturbance had an almost 5 times' higher risk of committing suicide (hazard ratio = 4.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 15.7). Future strategies to prevent premature deaths may benefit from assessment of sleep disturbances, especially in younger individuals.

  15. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study.

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    Hinnouho, Guy-Marino; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44-59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25-1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31-1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10-1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81-1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50-0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07-1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health.

  16. Does obesity modify the relationship between exposure to occupational factors and musculoskeletal pain in men? Results from the GAZEL cohort study.

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    Anastasia Evanoff

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships between physical occupational exposures, post-retirement shoulder/knee pain, and obesity. METHODS: 9 415 male participants (aged 63-73 in 2012 from the French GAZEL cohort answered self-administered questionnaires in 2006 and 2012. Occupational exposures retrospectively assessed in 2006 included arm elevation and squatting (never, <10 years, ≥10 years. "Severe" shoulder and knee pain were defined as ≥5 on an 8-point scale. BMI was self-reported. RESULTS: Mean BMI was 26.59 kg/m2 +/-3.5 in 2012. Long-term occupational exposure to arm elevation and squatting predicted severe shoulder and knee pain after retirement. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 was a risk factor for severe shoulder pain (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03, 1.90. Overweight (adjusted OR 1.71; 1.28,2.29 and obesity (adjusted OR 3.21; 1.90,5.41 were risk factors for severe knee pain. In stratified models, associations between long-term squatting and severe knee pain varied by BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays a role in relationships between occupational exposures and musculoskeletal pain. Further prospective studies should use BMI in analyses of musculoskeletal pain and occupational factors, and continue to clarify this relationship.

  17. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

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    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  18. Does sickness absence due to psychiatric disorder predict cause-specific mortality? A 16-year follow-up of the GAZEL occupational cohort study.

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    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-09-15

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990-1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993-2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence-suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers' health.

  19. Mortality associated with depression as compared with other severe mental disorders: a 20-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

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    Lemogne, Cédric; Nabi, Hermann; Melchior, Maria; Goldberg, Marcel; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Zins, Marie

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with severe mental disorders (SMD) have an increased risk of mortality from somatic diseases. This study examined whether this risk is different in persons with depressive disorders compared to those with other SMD (i.e. schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). In 1989, 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company (15,011 men and 5614 women, aged 35-50) agreed to participate in the GAZEL cohort study. Three diagnosis groups were created based on sick leave spells from 1978 onwards: 1) no SMD, 2) depressive disorders and 3) other SMD. Dates and causes of death were available from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2010. The association of diagnosis groups with mortality was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using Cox regression. During a mean follow-up of 19.8 years, 1544 participants died, including 1343 from a natural cause, of which 258 died from cardiovascular diseases. After adjustment for age, gender, occupational status, alcohol consumption, smoking and body-mass index, participants with a history of sickness absence for SMD had a greater risk of natural mortality (HR: 1.24, CI: 1.08-1.43), cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.49, CI: 1.08-2.05) and non-cardiovascular natural mortality (HR: 1.19, CI: 1.02-1.39). Compared to depressive disorders, other SMD were associated with an increased risk of natural mortality (HR: 1.94, CI: 1.17-3.22) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.58, CI: 1.53-8.39). Job security and systematic medical follow-up may fall short of preventing premature death among workers with sickness absence due to SMD.

  20. Socioeconomic position predicts long-term depression trajectory: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study.

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    Melchior, M; Chastang, J-F; Head, J; Goldberg, M; Zins, M; Nabi, H; Younès, N

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic position have high rates of depression; however, it is not clear whether this reflects higher incidence or longer persistence of disorder. Past research focused on high-risk samples, and risk factors of long-term depression in the population are less well known. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic position predicts depression trajectory over 13 years of follow-up in a community sample. We studied 12 650 individuals participating in the French GAZEL study. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. These five assessments served to estimate longitudinal depression trajectories (no depression, decreasing depression, intermediate/increasing depression, persistent depression). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational grade. Covariates included year of birth, marital status, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, negative life events and preexisting psychological and non-psychological health problems. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression, separately in men and women. Overall, participants in intermediate and low occupational grades were significantly more likely than those in high grades to have an unfavorable depression trajectory and to experience persistent depression (age-adjusted ORs: respectively 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.70 and 2.65, 95% CI 2.04-3.45 in men, 2.48, 95% CI 1.36-4.54 and 4.53, 95% CI 2.38-8.63 in women). In multivariate models, the socioeconomic gradient in long-term depression decreased by 21-59% in men and women. Long-term depression trajectories appear to follow a socioeconomic gradient; therefore, efforts aiming to reduce the burden of depression should address the needs of the whole population rather than exclusively focus on high-risk groups.

  1. Accidents corporels de la circulation routière liés à l'exercice d'une profession. Etude au sein de la cohorte Gazel

    OpenAIRE

    Chiron, M; Lafont, S; Bernard, M; CHASTANG, JF; Zins, M; Lagarde, E

    2005-01-01

    On observe les accidents corporels de la route survenus aux membres de la cohorte Gazel entre 1989 et 2000, en distinguant les accidents « de mission » (accidents du travail proprement dits), de trajet domicile-travail et lors d'un déplacement privé. On calcule les incidences pour ces trois types d'accidents. Les accidents de mission sont les moins graves, et concernent surtout les hommes. Les accidents de trajet concernent surtout les femmes. On recherche ensuite les facteurs de risque de ch...

  2. Usefulness of a single-item measure of depression to predict mortality: the GAZEL prospective cohort study

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    Lefèvre, Thomas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Stringhini, Silvia; Dugravot, Aline; Lemogne, Cédric; Consoli, Silla M.; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: It remains unknown whether short measures of depression perform as well as long measures in predicting adverse outcomes such as mortality. The present study aims to examine the predictive value of a single-item measure of depression for mortality. Methods: A total of 14 185 participants of the GAZEL cohort completed the 20-item Center-for-Epidemiologic-Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996. One of these items (I felt depressed) was used as a single-item measure of depression. All-cause mortality data were available until 30 September 2009, a mean follow-up period of 12.7 years with a total of 650 deaths. Results: In Cox regression model adjusted for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, a one-unit increase in the single-item score (range 0–3) was associated with a 25% higher risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI: 13–37%, P < 0.001). Further adjustment for health-related behaviours and physical chronic diseases reduced this risk by 36% and 8%, respectively. After adjustment for all these variables, every one-unit increase in the single-item score predicted a 15% increased risk of death (95% CI: 5–27%, P < 0.01). There is also an evidence of a dose–reponse relationship between reponse scores on the single-item measure of depression and mortality. Conclusion: This study shows that a single-item measure of depression is associated with an increased risk of death. Given its simplicity and ease of administration, a very simple single-item measure of depression might be useful for identifying middle-aged adults at risk for elevated depressive symptoms in large epidemiological studies and clinical settings. PMID:21840893

  3. A Global View of the Relationships between the Main Behavioural and Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the GAZEL Prospective Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneton, Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Herquelot, Eléonore; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ménard, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for a long time that the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is determined by many risk factors and despite the common use of algorithms incorporating several of these factors to predict the overall risk, there has yet been no global description of the complex way in which CVD risk factors interact with each other. This is the aim of the present study which investigated all existing relationships between the main CVD risk factors in a well-characterized occupational cohort. Prospective associations between 12 behavioural and clinical risk factors (gender, age, parental history of CVD, non-moderate alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression) were systematically tested using Cox regression in 10,736 middle-aged individuals free of CVD at baseline and followed over 20 years. In addition to independently predicting CVD risk (HRs from 1.18 to 1.97 in multivariable models), these factors form a vast network of associations where each factor predicts, and/or is predicted by, several other factors (n = 47 with p<0.05, n = 37 with p<0.01, n = 28 with p<0.001, n = 22 with p<0.0001). Both the number of factors associated with a given factor (1 to 9) and the strength of the associations (HRs from 1.10 to 6.12 in multivariable models) are very variable, suggesting that all the factors do not have the same influence within this network. These results show that there is a remarkably extensive network of relationships between the main CVD risk factors which may have not been sufficiently taken into account, notably in preventive strategies aiming to lower CVD risk.

  4. A Global View of the Relationships between the Main Behavioural and Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the GAZEL Prospective Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneton, Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Herquelot, Eléonore; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Larson, Martin G.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ménard, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for a long time that the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is determined by many risk factors and despite the common use of algorithms incorporating several of these factors to predict the overall risk, there has yet been no global description of the complex way in which CVD risk factors interact with each other. This is the aim of the present study which investigated all existing relationships between the main CVD risk factors in a well-characterized occupational cohort. Prospective associations between 12 behavioural and clinical risk factors (gender, age, parental history of CVD, non-moderate alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression) were systematically tested using Cox regression in 10,736 middle-aged individuals free of CVD at baseline and followed over 20 years. In addition to independently predicting CVD risk (HRs from 1.18 to 1.97 in multivariable models), these factors form a vast network of associations where each factor predicts, and/or is predicted by, several other factors (n = 47 with p<0.05, n = 37 with p<0.01, n = 28 with p<0.001, n = 22 with p<0.0001). Both the number of factors associated with a given factor (1 to 9) and the strength of the associations (HRs from 1.10 to 6.12 in multivariable models) are very variable, suggesting that all the factors do not have the same influence within this network. These results show that there is a remarkably extensive network of relationships between the main CVD risk factors which may have not been sufficiently taken into account, notably in preventive strategies aiming to lower CVD risk. PMID:27598908

  5. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solesse Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1 to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2 to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3 to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4 to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. Results A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889 comprising 809 current smokers (21%. A majority of current smokers (63% had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%, social pressure (39%, wish to improve physical fitness (36%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%, and weariness of smoking (21%. Few attempts (16% were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%, NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%, anxiety/stress (34%, a significant life event (21, weight gain (18%, and irritability (16%. Depression was rarely quoted (5%. Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%, physical fitness improvement (53%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%, weariness of tobacco (34%, and social pressure (30%. Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%, irritability (51%, and anxiety (42%, enjoying smoking (41%, and weight concerns (33%. Conclusion Smoking prevalence

  6. Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Blane, David; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate variations in quality of life at older ages we take a life course perspective to analyse long-term effects of physical working conditions upon quality of life after retirement. In doing so, we study to what extent these associations are explained by individuals’ health at older ages. Method We use administrative data and self-administered questionnaire responses from the French GAZEL cohort. Quality of life was assessed with CASP-19 in 2009 and related to three types of physical working conditions during previous working life: (1) ergonomic strain, (2) physical danger and (3) exposures to chemicals. Health was assessed in 2007 with the SF-36 Health Survey. Multiple regressions were calculated in retired men only, controlling for important confounders including social position. Results In contrast to men, few women were exposed to strenuous and dangerous working conditions in this cohort and were not included in subsequent analyses. Negative effects on retired men’s quality of life were found for the physical occupational exposures of ergonomic strain and physical danger, but not for chemical exposures. Effects were attenuated after the introduction of physical and mental health to the models, indicating an indirect effect of physical working conditions upon quality of life via health. Conclusion Adverse physical working conditions have long-term consequences for health and quality of life at older ages. Improvements to physical working conditions may improve individuals’ quality of life over the long term. PMID:23560563

  7. Iron Metabolism Disturbance in a French Cohort of ALS Patients

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    Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess iron status in a cohort of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients compared to controls in order to evaluate these parameters as a risk factor or a modifying factor of ALS. Methods. We collected serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation coefficient (TSC from 104 ALS patients at the time of diagnosis and from 145 controls. We reported phenotypic characteristics and evolution parameters such as ALSFRS-R and forced vital capacity at diagnosis and after one year of follow-up. In a first step we compared iron status between ALS patients and controls, and then we evaluated the relation between iron status and disease evolution of ALS patients using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results. We observed increased concentrations of serum iron (P=0.002 and ferritin (P<0.0001 and increased TSC (P=0.017 in ALS patients. We also showed an association between markers of iron status and high body weight loss in ALS patients. The multivariate analysis of survival highlighted a significant relation between ferritin level and disease duration (P=0.038. Conclusion. This is the first study showing a higher concentration of serum iron in ALS patients, strengthening the involvement of a deregulation of iron metabolism in ALS.

  8. Agricultural exposure and asthma risk in the AGRICAN French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Isabelle; Robert, Céline; Piantoni, Florence; Tual, Séverine; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Raherison, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of respiratory diseases in agricultural population, but a protective "farm-effect" has also been reported for asthma. In the AGRICAN cohort, self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma was analyzed according to allergy, in relation with history of life-time exposure to 13 crops and 5 livestock, pesticide exposure and early life on a farm, taking into account sex, age, education and body mass index. Among the 1246 asthmatics (8.0%), 505 were allergic (3.3%) and 719 non-allergic (4.6%). In multivariate analysis, a significant excess was observed, only for allergic asthma, in vine-growing (OR=1.43, p=0.002), fruit-growing (OR=1.58, p=0.001), greenhouses (OR=1.66, p=0.02), grasslands (OR=1.35, p=0.009), beets (OR=1.52, p=0.003) and horses (OR=1.35, p=0.04). Pesticide use and history of pesticide poisoning were significantly associated with allergic asthma in grassland, vineyards and fruit-growing and with non-allergic asthma in beets. Living on a farm in the first year of life tended to be protective for childhood allergic asthma in farms with livestock (OR=0.72, p=0.07) but deleterious in farms with vineyards, fruit or vegetables (OR=1.44, p=0.07). In AGRICAN, an increased risk of allergic asthma was observed with crop exposure, pesticide use and early life on a farm, especially in vine-growing, grassland, beets, fruit and vegetable-growing.

  9. A cohort mortality and nested case-control study of French and Austrian talc workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P; Leodolter, K; Refregier, M; Schmidt, H; Zidek, T; Haidinger, G

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether the mortality from non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases of workers employed in French and Austrian talc mines and mills is related to their long term occupational exposure. Methods: Two historical cohorts were set up comprising all male subjects who had been working continuously for at least 1 year in a series of talc producing companies in France and Austria. The French cohort consisted of those employed at a site in the French Pyrenees and working between 1 January 1945 and 31 December 1994. The Austrian cohort consisted of the workers employed between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 1995 in one of four industrial sites in the Austrian Alps. The mortality within the cohorts was compared with local death rates. Two nested case-control studies focusing on non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases were set up to estimate possible dose-response relations with cumulative exposure to talc dust based on an industry specific job exposure matrix. Results: Mortality from lung cancer was in small excess in both cohorts (France, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 21 cases observed, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.76 to 1.89; Austria, SMR 1.06, seven observed, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.19). A non-significant excess mortality was found for all non-malignant respiratory diseases in the French cohort due to a significant excess for pneumoconiosis (SMR 5.56, three observed, 95% CI 1.12 to 16.2). The case-control study of non-malignant respiratory disease showed an increased mortality in the highest exposure groups (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 for a cumulative exposure ≥800 y.mg/m3) with a significant trend (OR/100 y.mg/m3 1.08) with cumulative exposure to talc. On the contrary, no increasing trend could be found in the case-control study of lung cancer. This result must be interpreted considering the small cohort size. Adjustment on smoking and exposure to quartz did not influence these results to any extent. Conclusions: The mortality

  10. Long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in midlife on health functioning after labor market exit--results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort-reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort-reward imbalance model (R(2): 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit.

  11. Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Drubay, D.; Ancelet, S.; Laurier, D. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France). Direction Sante

    2015-08-15

    The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models. The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays. Conclusions The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

  12. Characterization of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores of a young French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesdéma, Aurélie; Fromentin, Gilles; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Arlotti, Agathe; Vinoy, Sophie; Tome, Daniel; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    The aims of our study were to characterize the psychological dimensions of eating behaviour of young French adults as measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and to analyze the association between the 3 TFEQ mean scores (main scales and subscales) and gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic data in this population. An online TFEQ questionnaire was used with a nationally representative sample of 1000 young French people (aged 20-39yrs). The average scores were 6.3±0.1 (sem) for dietary restraint, 6.0±0.1 for disinhibition and 5.0±0.1 for hunger. Compared to the limit commonly used in human food studies, young French adults were characterized by low restraint and low disinhibition levels. There was a significant gender effect on both restraint and disinhibition scores, with women showing significantly higher scores than men. Concerning the link between TFEQ scores and BMI, there was a significant effect of the BMI category on cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Disinhibition was the factor most strongly associated to BMI, independently of gender. Our results highlight both the importance of taking into account not only disinhibition but also cognitive restraint and the usefulness of subscales when studying eating behaviour and its link to body weight. We characterize the eating behaviour of a French cohort with criteria often chosen for healthy volunteers in human food studies. Consequently, we suggest new TFEQ limits (6 for cognitive restraint and disinhibition, 5 for hunger) lower than those traditionally used for this category of the population in clinical food studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prevalence of celiac disease markers in a French cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabete mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, S; Bony-Trifunovic, H; Gouilleux-Gruart, V; Djeddi, D; Dadamessi, I; Dupas, J L; Boudailliez, B

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) markers in a French cohort of 84 children type 1 diabetics. Detection of antitransglutaminase (AtTG), antiendomysium (AEA) and antigliadin (AGA) antibodies was performed. Group 1 included 81 (96.4%) diabetic patients with negative antibodies. Group 2 included 3 patients (3.6%) with positive serological markers: 1 AGA-AEA-AtTG and 1 AEA-AtTG with proved histological diagnosis and 1 AGA positive with negative histology. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to age, duration of diabetes, familial target stature, and ratios Height/Age and Weight/Height. Presence of CD serological markers was related to a lower level of HbA1c. Prevalence of CD serological markers is important in this French cohort but lower than other countries.

  14. Risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in French Guiana.

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    Mathieu Nacher

    Full Text Available Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 count<50 per mm3, CD4 count between 50 and 200 per mm3, a CD4 nadir <50 per mm3, CD8 count in the lowest quartile, herpes infection, and recent antiretroviral treatment initiation (less than 6 months. The variables associated with decreased incidence of histoplasmosis were antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months, fluconazole treatment, and pneumocystosis. There were 13.5% of deaths at 1 month, 17.5% at 3 months, and 22.5% at 6 months after the date of diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The most important predictive factors for death within 6 months of diagnosis were CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment. The present study did not study environmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era.

  15. Temporal asthma patterns using repeated questionnaires over 13 years in a large French cohort of women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux Sanchez

    Full Text Available Variable expression is one aspect of the heterogeneity of asthma. We aimed to define a variable pattern, which is relevant in general health epidemiological cohorts. Our objectives were to assess whether: 1 asthma patterns defined using simple asthma questions through repeated measurements could reflect disease variability 2 these patterns may further be classified according to asthma severity/control. Among 70,428 French women, we used seven questionnaires (1992-2005 and a comprehensive reimbursement database (2004-2009 to define three reliable asthma patterns based on repeated positive answers to the ever asthma attack question: "never asthma" (n = 64,061; "inconsistent" ("yes" followed by "no", n = 3,514; "consistent" (fully consistent positive answers, n = 2,853. The "Inconsistent" pattern was related to both long-term (childhood-onset asthma with remission in adulthood and short-term (reported asthma attack in the last 12 months, associated with asthma medication asthma variability, showing that repeated questions are relevant markers of the variable expression of asthma. Furthermore, in this pattern, the number of positive responses (1992-2005 predicted asthma drug consumption in subsequent years, a marker of disease severity. The "Inconsistent" pattern is a phenotype that may capture the variable expression of asthma. Repeated answers, even to a simple question, are too often neglected.

  16. Risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Dufour, Julie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 counthistoplasmosis were antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months, fluconazole treatment, and pneumocystosis. There were 13.5% of deaths at 1 month, 17.5% at 3 months, and 22.5% at 6 months after the date of diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The most important predictive factors for death within 6 months of diagnosis were CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment. The present study did not study environmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era.

  17. Disability-free life expectancy of older French people: gender and education differentials from the PAQUID cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pérès, Karine; Jagger, Carol; Lièvre, Agnès; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2005-01-01

    In countries with low mortality rates, the quality of the years of life is more important to consider than total life expectancy (TLE). Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is one of the most relevant indicators of health and the quality of life. This paper aims to estimate TLE and DFLE with four levels of severity of disability and to explore gender and educational differences in older French people. In this cohort study, four levels of disability severity were distinguished, disability be...

  18. Barcelona clinic liver cancer nomogram and others staging/scoring systems in a French hepatocellular carcinoma cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhoute, Xavier; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Edeline, Julien; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Pol, Bernard; Campanile, Manuela; Perrier, Hervé; Bayle, Olivier; Monnet, Olivier; Beaurain, Patrick; Muller, Cyril; Castellani, Paul; Le Treut, Yves Patrice; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Bourlière, Marc

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the performances of the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) nomogram and others systems (BCLC, HKLC, CLIP, NIACE) for survival prediction in a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) French cohort. METHODS Data were collected retrospectively from 01/2007 to 12/2013 in five French centers. Newly diagnosed HCC patients were analyzed. The discriminatory ability, homogeneity ability, prognostic stratification ability Akaike information criterion (AIC) and C-index were compared among scoring systems. RESULTS The cohort included 1102 patients, mostly men, median age 68 [60-74] years with cirrhosis (81%), child-Pugh A (73%), alcohol-related (41%), HCV-related (27%). HCC were multinodular (59%) and vascular invasion was present in 41% of cases. At time of HCC diagnosis BCLC stages were A (17%), B (16%), C (60%) and D (7%). First line HCC treatment was curative in 23.5%, palliative in 59.5%, BSC in 17% of our population. Median OS was 10.8 mo [4.9-28.0]. Each system distinguished different survival prognosis groups (P < 0.0001). The nomogram had the highest discriminatory ability, the highest C-index value. NIACE score had the lowest AIC value. The nomogram distinguished sixteen different prognosis groups. By classifying unifocal large HCC into tumor burden 1, the nomogram was less powerful. CONCLUSION In this French cohort, the BCLC nomogram and the NIACE score provided the best prognostic information, but the NIACE could even help treatment strategies. PMID:28465639

  19. Severe intestinal malabsorption associated with olmesartan: a French nationwide observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Mickael; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Weill, Alain; Ricordeau, Philippe; Allemand, Hubert; Alla, Francois; Carbonnel, Franck

    2016-10-01

    Severe sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan has been reported, but there has been no demonstration of an increased risk by epidemiological studies. To assess, in a nationwide patient cohort, the risk of hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption associated with olmesartan compared with other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors (ACEIs). From the French National Health Insurance claim database, all adult patients initiating ARB or ACEI between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 with no prior hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption, no serology testing for coeliac disease and no prescription for a gluten-free diet product were included. Incidence of hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption was the primary endpoint. 4 546 680 patients (9 010 303 person-years) were included, and 218 events observed. Compared with ACEI, the adjusted rate ratio of hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption was 2.49 (95% CI 1.73 to 3.57, polmesartan users. This adjusted rate ratio was 0.76 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.49, p=0.43) for treatment duration shorter than 1 year, 3.66 (95% CI 1.84 to 7.29, polmesartan group than in the other groups (p=0.02). Compared with ACEI, the adjusted rate ratio of hospitalisation for coeliac disease was 4.39 (95% CI 2.77 to 6.96, polmesartan users and increased with treatment duration. Olmesartan is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption and coeliac disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Frequent large germline HRPT2 deletions in a French National cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricaire, Léopoldine; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Delemer, Brigitte; North, Marie-Odile; Salenave, Sylvie; Vezzosi, Delphine; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Murat, Arnaud; Caron, Philippe; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Silve, Caroline; Chanson, Philippe; Barlier, Anne; Clauser, Eric; Porchet, Nicole; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with incomplete penetrance that can associate in a single patient parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma, fibro-osseous jaw tumor, cystic kidney lesion, and uterine tumor. Germline mutations of the HRPT2 gene (CDC73) coding for parafibromin are identified in approximately 50%-75% of HPT-JT cases and in approximately 14% of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. A whole deletion of this gene has recently been reported in 1 sporadic case and in a family presenting with HPT-JT. The objective of the study was to report molecular abnormalities of the HRPT2 gene in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a French National cohort from the Groupe d'Étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients' genomic DNA was screened by PCR-based sequencing for point mutations affecting HRPT2 and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for gross deletions. We report 20 index patients with a germinal HRPT2 abnormality. Median age at diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was 23 years (range 14-65 years). Median serum total calcium level at diagnosis was 3.19 mmol/L (range 2.8-4.3 mmol/L). Thirteen different mutations were identified by routine sequencing, including 7 mutations never reported. Seven patients (35%) carried a gross deletion of this gene (3 complete and 4 partial deletions). No genotype-phenotype correlation could be identified. A gross deletion of the HRPT2 gene was identified in 7% of patients for whom a routine screening by direct sequencing came up as negative. Gross deletion analysis of the HRPT2 gene is indicated for all patients negative for mutation, presenting with HPT-JT or familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma, or in patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid adenoma diagnosed at a young age, having a severe hypercalcemia.

  1. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-05-01

    Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.

  2. Mortality analysis in the French cohort of uranium miners; Analyse de la mortalite dans la cohorte Francaise des mineurs d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacquier, B.

    2008-10-15

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the estimation of radiation-induced risks at low dose rates. This work is based on the cohort of uranium miners French presenting multiple exposures, contamination by internal (radon and uranium dust) and external exposure (gamma radiation). An analysis of the risk of death and the relationship risk exposure was carried out within the cohort of uranium miners after extension of the monitoring until 1999, for cancers diseases and non-cancers. In addition, an analysis taking into account multiple exposures to ionizing radiation was carried out within the framework of this thesis. This analysis has improved knowledge on the risk of mortality associated with low levels of exposure to radon. (author)

  3. Association between melanocytic nevi and risk of breast diseases: The French E3N prospective cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kvaskoff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While melanocytic nevi have been associated with genetic factors and childhood sun exposure, several observations also suggest a potential hormonal influence on nevi. To test the hypothesis that nevi are associated with breast tumor risk, we explored the relationships between number of nevi and benign and malignant breast disease risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively analyzed data from E3N, a cohort of French women aged 40-65 y at inclusion in 1990. Number of nevi was collected at inclusion. Hazard ratios (HRs for breast cancer and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Associations of number of nevi with personal history of benign breast disease (BBD and family history of breast cancer were estimated using logistic regression. Over the period 15 June 1990-15 June 2008, 5,956 incident breast cancer cases (including 5,245 invasive tumors were ascertained among 89,902 women. In models adjusted for age, education, and known breast cancer risk factors, women with "very many" nevi had a significantly higher breast cancer risk (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01-1.27 versus "none"; ptrend = 0.04, although significance was lost after adjustment for personal history of BBD or family history of breast cancer. The 10-y absolute risk of invasive breast cancer increased from 3,749 per 100,000 women without nevi to 4,124 (95% CI = 3,674-4,649 per 100,000 women with "very many" nevi. The association was restricted to premenopausal women (HR = 1.40, ptrend = 0.01, even after full adjustment (HR = 1.34, ptrend = 0.03; phomogeneity = 0.04, but did not differ according to breast cancer type or hormone receptor status. In addition, we observed significantly positive dose-response relationships between number of nevi and history of biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 5,169; ptrend<0.0001 and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (n = 7,472; ptrend = 0.0003. The main limitations of our study

  4. Associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intakes in French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Lelièvre, Eva; Lampuré, Aurélie; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2017-05-30

    Few studies have focused on the influence of retirement on dietary behaviors. Our study aimed at assessing the associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intake in French adults, particularly according to spousal retirement and baseline income. This prospective study included 577 French participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort who retired over a 5-year follow-up (2009-2014 or 2010-2015). At baseline and every year, dietary intakes were assessed using 24 h records. Repeated measures of dietary intake were analysed using mixed models adjusted for energy with random effects of time and period (before and after retirement) to assess changes following retirement for each gender. After retirement, intakes of saturated fatty acids and sodium increased in both genders. Women showed specific changes after retirement: decrease in the score of adherence to recommendations and in intakes of fruits, proteins, vitamins; increase in intakes of fatty sweet products. In men with the lowest income at baseline, specific changes in intake were associated with retirement such as decrease in intake of dairy products and increase in intake of lipids. Transition to retirement was associated with unhealthier dietary intakes. These results may help defining interventions during this vulnerable life-period. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consents were obtained from all participants.

  5. SRC-GAZEL: a full-scale pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Y.; Grulois, C. [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques, Gembloux (Belgium); Martin, J.; Bourgois, F.; Jossart, J.-M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (France); Meekers, E. [Facultes Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix (France)

    1997-07-01

    In the context of the European agricultural crisis and of set-aside land, the biomass cultivation alternative for energy generation increasingly interests the agricultural world. The Short Rotation Coppice-GAZEL project studies the feasibility of generating electricity by the gasification of short rotation coppice of willows or poplars. It perfectly fits in the Belgian general energy plan: one purpose of this plan is to set up small electric generation units feeding directly the low-voltage grid in order to bring a flexible component to the massive production of nuclear power plants. The project consists of three major parts: production of short rotation coppice (SRC); mechanisation of the culture of SRC and conditioning of the wood products for gasification; and gasification and electricity production. In addition, socio-economic and environmental impacts will be analysed in detail. In this paper, we focus on the choices that have to be made regarding SRC harvesting and fuel conditioning. (author)

  6. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-04-26

    Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex-age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; Punemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3%; P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan.

  7. Cardiovascular findings and management in Turner syndrome: insights from a French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadille, Bruno; Rousseau, Alexandra; Zenaty, Delphine; Cabrol, Sylvie; Courtillot, Carine; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Salenave, Sylvie; Monnier-Cholley, Laurence; Meuleman, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Iserin, Laurence; Duranteau, Lise; Cabanes, Laure; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Bonnet, Damien; Bouchard, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; Polak, Michel; Touraine, Philippe; Lebouc, Yves; Carel, Jean-Claude; Léger, Juliane; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2012-10-01

    Congenital cardiovascular malformations and aortic dilatation are frequent in patients with Turner syndrome (TS). The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular findings and management in a large cohort of patients, including children and adults. We recruited 336 patients with TS from a network of tertiary centers. We reviewed their files, checking for cardiovascular events, cardiac valve abnormalities, and aortic diameters indexed to body surface area (BSA) from magnetic resonance imaging (n=110) or echocardiography (n=300). Informative cardiovascular data were available for only 233 patients. Vascular surgery was reported in 7.4% of the cohort. The first cause of surgery was aortic coarctation, detected in 6.9% at a median age of 9.5 (range: 0-60) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was detected in 21% at a median age of 20 years (25th-75th percentiles: 15-30). At least one aortic diameter exceeded 32 mm in 12% of the cohort. This was detected at a median age of 19 (7-30) years. When indexed to BSA, at least one aortic diameter exceeded 20 mm/m(2) in 39% of the cohort. Our study shows that cardiovascular monitoring for TS patients is currently insufficient in France. BAV is present at birth, but often remains undiagnosed until later in life. Therefore, improved management in cardiovascular monitoring is required and a more systematic approach should be taken.

  8. Association between very low PTH levels and poor survival rates in haemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    A very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (VLPL) is associated with an increased risk of adynamic bone disease, vascular calcification, and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency, the associated factors, and the prognosis of non-surgical VLPL in a cohort of prevalent HD patients. In July 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed on the French ARNOS cohort in 1,348 prevalent HD patients from 24 dialysis centres in the Rhône-Alpes area. Patients with a baseline intact PTH level <50 pg/ml (VLPL, Group 1) and ≥ 50 pg/ml (Group 2) were compared and a 42-month survival analysis was performed. Patients with prevalent or incident parathyroidectomy were excluded. We studied 1,138 prevalent HD patients. As compared to patients of Group 2 (n = 1,019), patients with VLPL (Group 1, n = 119) had lower serum albumin levels (34.5 ± 5 vs. 36.4 ± 5 g/l, p < 0.0001), less protein intake (nPCR 0.99 ± 0.28 vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, p = 0.01), higher calcaemia (2.30 ± 0.2 vs. 2.26 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.01) and were more frequently treated with calcium carbonate (67 vs. 54%, p < 0.001). Patients with VLPL had a higher mortality rate (HR: 1.4 (1.07-1.8), p = 0.006) after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage. The odds ratios of mortality for patients with VLPL remained higher in all calcaemia and serum albumin quartiles. Only 3/119 patients in Group 1 did not receive any PTH-lowering therapies (i.e. calcium carbonate (67%), alfacalcidol (38%), cinacalcet (10.1%), and dialysate calcium ≥ 1.5 mmol/l (94%)). In this observational French cohort, VLPL was observed in 10% of prevalent HD patients and was associated with poor survival rates. An inadequate therapeutic strategy could be responsible for this observation. The real consequences of this iatrogenic adynamic bone disease remain hypothetical, but it may be related to the risk of developing vascular calcification. It is hypothesized that a more adequate

  9. Leukemia risk associated with chronic external exposure to ionizing radiation in a French cohort of nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2012-11-01

    Leukemia is one of the earliest cancer effects observed after acute exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Leukemia mortality after external exposure at low doses and low-dose rates has been investigated at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Nuclear Fuel Company (AREVA NC) after an additional follow-up of 10 years. The cohort included radiation-monitored workers employed for at least one year during 1950-1994 at CEA or AREVA NC and followed during 1968-2004. Association between external exposure and leukemia mortality was estimated with excess relative risk (ERR) models and time-dependent modifying factors were investigated with time windows. The cohort included 36,769 workers, followed for an average of 28 years, among whom 73 leukemia deaths occurred. Among the workers with a positive recorded dose, the mean cumulative external dose was 21.7 mSv. Results under a 2-year lag assumption suggested that the risk of leukemia (except chronic lymphatic leukemia) increased significantly by 8% per 10 mSv. The magnitude of the association for myeloid leukemia was larger. The higher ERR/Sv for doses received 2-14 years earlier suggest that time since exposure modifies the effect. The ERR/Sv also appeared higher for doses received at exposure rates ≥20 mSv per year. These results are consistent with those found in other studies of nuclear workers. However, confidence intervals are still wide. Further analyses should be conducted in pooled cohorts of nuclear workers.

  10. Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. Design A prospective population-based study. Setting In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. Participants 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. Primary outcome measure The risk of dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. Results Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants develo...

  11. Effectiveness of Anti-Psychotics and Related Drugs in the Huntington French-Speaking Group Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désaméricq, Gaëlle; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Verny, Christophe; Charles, Perrine; Durr, Alexandra; Youssov, Katia; Simonin, Clémence; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Tranchant, Christine; Goizet, Cyril; Damier, Philippe; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Demonet, Jean-François; Morgado, Graca; de Langavant, Laurent Cleret; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Huntington's disease is a rare condition. Patients are commonly treated with antipsychotics and tetrabenazine. The evidence of their effect on disease progression is limited and no comparative study between these drugs has been conducted. We therefore compared the effectiveness of antipsychotics on disease progression. Methods: 956 patients from the Huntington French Speaking Group were followed for up to 8 years between 2002 and 2010. The effectiveness of treatments was assessed using Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) scores and then compared using a mixed model adjusted on a multiple propensity score. Results: 63% of patients were treated with antipsychotics during the survey period. The most commonly prescribed medications were dibenzodiazepines (38%), risperidone (13%), tetrabenazine (12%) and benzamides (12%). There was no difference between treatments on the motor and behavioural declines observed, after taking the patient profiles at the start of the drug prescription into account. In contrast, the functional decline was lower in the dibenzodiazepine group than the other antipsychotic groups (Total Functional Capacity: 0.41±0.17 units per year vs. risperidone and 0.54±0.19 vs. tetrabenazine, both pHuntington's disease. Although differences in motor or behavioural profiles between patients according to the antipsychotics used were small, there were differences in drug effectiveness on the evolution of functional and cognitive scores. PMID:24454865

  12. Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

    2013-08-29

    To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. A prospective population-based study. In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. The risk of dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (β=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; pboard game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players.

  13. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  14. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  15. Association between self-reported vegetarian diet and the irritable bowel syndrome in the French NutriNet cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabate, Jean-Marc; Bouchoucha, Michel; Torres, Marion J.; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Benamouzig, Robert; Julia, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in using diet counselling in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Among new emerging diets, vegetarian diets (VD) seem to be experiencing an important popularity, partly because of their alleged health benefits. A recent study performed among a rural Indian population showed that predominant VD could be associated with IBS. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the association between the VD and IBS, among a large French cohort, the NutriNet-santé study. Methods Subjects participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria (N = 41,682). Anthropometrics, socio-demographical and lifestyle data, including VD, were collected prior to the completion of Rome III questionnaire via self-administered questionnaires. Association between VD and IBS and its subtypes was investigated through multivariate logistic regression. Results The included subjects were mainly women (78.0%) and the mean age was 49.8±14.3 years. Among these individuals, 2,264 (5.4%) presented an IBS, and 805 (1.9%) reported a VD. Overall, VD was not associated with IBS or subtypes. A stable VD (i.e. self-declared at least three times) was associated with IBS (aOR 2.60 95%CI [1.37–4.91]), IBS mixed (aOR 2.97 95%CI [1.20–7.36]) and IBS diarrhoea (aOR 2.77 95%CI [1.01–7.59]). Conclusions This study suggests that a long term VD could be associated with IBS. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these results, and investigate the multiple aspects of the vegetarian diet, possibly related to the IBS. PMID:28841661

  16. Association between self-reported vegetarian diet and the irritable bowel syndrome in the French NutriNet cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscail, Camille; Sabate, Jean-Marc; Bouchoucha, Michel; Torres, Marion J; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Benamouzig, Robert; Julia, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in using diet counselling in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Among new emerging diets, vegetarian diets (VD) seem to be experiencing an important popularity, partly because of their alleged health benefits. A recent study performed among a rural Indian population showed that predominant VD could be associated with IBS. This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the association between the VD and IBS, among a large French cohort, the NutriNet-santé study. Subjects participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria (N = 41,682). Anthropometrics, socio-demographical and lifestyle data, including VD, were collected prior to the completion of Rome III questionnaire via self-administered questionnaires. Association between VD and IBS and its subtypes was investigated through multivariate logistic regression. The included subjects were mainly women (78.0%) and the mean age was 49.8±14.3 years. Among these individuals, 2,264 (5.4%) presented an IBS, and 805 (1.9%) reported a VD. Overall, VD was not associated with IBS or subtypes. A stable VD (i.e. self-declared at least three times) was associated with IBS (aOR 2.60 95%CI [1.37-4.91]), IBS mixed (aOR 2.97 95%CI [1.20-7.36]) and IBS diarrhoea (aOR 2.77 95%CI [1.01-7.59]). This study suggests that a long term VD could be associated with IBS. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these results, and investigate the multiple aspects of the vegetarian diet, possibly related to the IBS.

  17. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: novel mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene in a French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarret, Catherine; Rigal, Mélanie; Vaurs-Barrière, Catherine; Dorboz, Imen; Eymard-Pierre, Eléonore; Combes, Patricia; Giraud, Geneviève; Wanders, Ronald J A; Afenjar, Alexandra; Francannet, Christine; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile

    2012-01-15

    Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spastic di- or tetraplegia and mental retardation due a defect of the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), related to mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. In this study, we screened a French cohort of patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) for mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene. The five unrelated patients with typical SLS all present mutations in this gene. Three novel mutations were identified whereas three other ones were previously described. We also realized functional analyses at the mRNA level for two splice site mutations to study their deleterious consequences. Two of the previously described mutations had already been identified in the same region of Europe, suggesting a putative founder effect. We suggest that, (1) when clinical and MR features are present, direct sequencing of the ALDH3A2 gene in SLS is of particular interest without necessity of a skin biopsy for enzymatic assay in order to propose genetic counsel and (2) identification of mutations already described in the same population with putative founder effects may simplify genetic analysis in this context.

  18. Evans syndrome in children. Long-term outcome in a prospective French national observational cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eAladjidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term follow-up characteristics are unknown. Patients under 18 at the time of diagnosis of a first autoimmune cytopenia have been included since 2004 in a national prospective observational cohort. In 2014, 156 children diagnosed between 1981 and 2014 with ES, were analyzed. The median age at initial cytopenia was 5.4 (0.2-17.2 years old. For 85 sequential cases, the median delay between the episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3. The median follow-up since ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8. ES revealed underlying diseases in 10% of children; in 60% of patients, various associated immune manifestations were observed, and ES remained primary in 30%. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were respectively 25% and 61%. In all, 69% of children required one or more than one second-line immune treatment and 15 patients (10% died at a median age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1.This national work provides the first consistent clinical description for ES and underscores the high percentage of associated immune manifestations, the long-term complications, and treatment toxicities. Current challenges include the identification of underlying genetic immune dysregulations and better characterization of subgroups of patients and of second-line therapy strategies.

  19. Description and outcome of a cohort of 8 patients with WHIM syndrome from the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaussant Cohen Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHIM syndrome (WS, a rare congenital neutropenia due to mutations of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV-induced Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial Infections and Myelokathexis. The long term follow up of eight patients highlights the clinical heterogeneity of this disease as well as the main therapeutic approaches and remaining challenges in the light of the recent development of new CXCR4 inhibitors. Objective This study aims to describe the natural history of WS based on a French cohort of 8 patients. Methods We have reviewed the clinical, biological and immunological features of patients with WS enrolled into the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry. Results We identified four pedigrees with WS comprised of eight patients and one foetus. Estimated incidence for WS was of 0.23 per million births. Median age at the last visit was 29 years. Three pedigrees encompassing seven patients and the fetus displayed autosomal dominant heterozygous mutations of the CXCR4 gene, while one patient presented a wild-type CXCR4 gene. Two subjects exhibited congenital conotruncal heart malformations. In addition to neutropenia and myelokathexis, all patients presented deep monocytopenia and lymphopenia. Seven patients presented repeated bacterial Ears Nose Throat as well as severe bacterial infections that were curable with antibiotics. Four patients with late onset prophylaxis developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Two patients reported atypical mycobacteria infections which in one case may have been responsible for one patient’s death due to liver failure at the age of 40.6 years. HPV-related disease manifested in five subjects and progressed as invasive vulvar carcinoma with a fatal course in one patient at the age of 39.5 years. In addition, two patients developed T cell lymphoma skin cancer and basal cell carcinoma at the age of 38 and 65 years. Conclusions

  20. A comparison between different prediction models for invasive breast cancer occurrence in the French E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartois, Laureen; Gauthier, Émilien; Heitzmann, Julia; Baglietto, Laura; Michiels, Stefan; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Delaloge, Suzette; Ragusa, Stéphane; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer remains a global health concern with a lack of high discriminating prediction models. The k-nearest-neighbor algorithm (kNN) estimates individual risks using an intuitive tool. This study compares the performances of this approach with the Cox and the Gail models for the 5-year breast cancer risk prediction. The study included 64,995 women from the French E3N prospective cohort. The sample was divided into a learning (N = 51,821) series to learn the models using fivefold cross-validation and a validation (N = 13,174) series to evaluate them. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the expected over observed number of cases (E/O) ratio were estimated. In the two series, 393 and 78 premenopausal and 537 and 98 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. The discrimination values of the best combinations of predictors obtained from cross-validation ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. In the validation series, the AUC values in premenopausal and postmenopausal women were 0.583 [0.520; 0.646] and 0.621 [0.563; 0.679] using the kNN and 0.565 [0.500; 0.631] and 0.617 [0.561; 0.673] using the Cox model. The E/O ratios were 1.26 and 1.28 in premenopausal women and 1.44 and 1.40 in postmenopausal women. The applied Gail model provided AUC values of 0.614 [0.554; 0.675] and 0.549 [0.495; 0.604] and E/O ratios of 0.78 and 1.12. This study shows that the prediction performances differed according to menopausal status when using parametric statistical tools. The k-nearest-neighbor approach performed well, and discrimination was improved in postmenopausal women compared with the Gail model.

  1. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Sante Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  2. Rifampin use in acute community-acquired meningitis in intensive care units: the French retrospective cohort ACAM-ICU study.

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    Bretonnière, Cédric; Jozwiak, Mathieu; Girault, Christophe; Beuret, Pascal; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Anguel, Nadia; Caillon, Jocelyne; Potel, Gilles; Villers, Daniel; Boutoille, David; Guitton, Christophe

    2015-08-26

    Bacterial meningitis among critically ill adult patients remains associated with both high mortality and frequent, persistent disability. Vancomycin was added to treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin as recommended by French national guidelines. Because animal model studies had suggested interest in the use of rifampin for treatment of bacterial meningitis, and after the introduction of early corticosteroid therapy (in 2002), there was a trend toward increasing rifampin use for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this article is to report on this practice. Five ICUs participated in the study. Baseline characteristics and treatment data were retrospectively collected from charts of patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis during a 5-year period (2004-2008). The ICU mortality was the main outcome measure; Glasgow Outcome Scale and 3-month mortality were also assessed. One hundred fifty-seven patients were included. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis were the most prevalent causative microorganisms. The ICU mortality rate was 15%. High doses of a cephalosporin were the most prevalent initial antimicrobial treatment. The delay between admission and administration of the first antibiotic dose was correlated with ICU mortality. Rifampin was used with a cephalosporin for 32 patients (ranging from 8% of the cohort for 2004 to 30% in 2008). Administration of rifampin within the first 24 h of hospitalization could be associated with a lower ICU survival. Statistical association between such an early rifampin treatment and ICU mortality reached significance only for patients with pneumococcal meningitis (p=0.031) in univariate analysis, but not in the logistic model. We report on the role of rifampin use for patients with community-acquired meningitis, and the results of this study suggest that this practice may be associated with lower mortality in the ICU. Nevertheless, the only independent predictors of ICU

  3. Determinants of folate and vitamin B12 plasma levels in the French E3N-EPIC cohort.

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    de Batlle, Jordi; Matejcic, Marco; Chajes, Veronique; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Amadou, Amina; Slimani, Nadia; Cox, David G; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-12-21

    Impaired B vitamin status has been identified as a risk factor for major chronic diseases. This study aims at examining the determinants of plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations, considering lifestyle factors and MTHFR polymorphisms. A total of 988 women aged 40-65 years from the French E3N cohort were investigated. Intakes of folate and vitamin B12 were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and plasma concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. Dietary scores were computed to summarize folate and vitamin B12 dietary sources. MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C were determined by Kaspar assay. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess correlations between main determinants and plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels. The partial correlation coefficient between dietary intakes and plasma folate was 0.19 (p value vitamin B12. Dietary scores were the main determinant of B vitamin plasma concentrations with a percent change per unit increase of 12.64% (p value vitamin B12. Homozygous (T/T) or heterozygous (C/T) women for MTHFR-C677T had lower plasma folate concentrations [C/T: -6.48% (p value = 0.038) and T/T: -15.89% (p value vitamin plasma concentration include: smoking status for folate, and age and hormone replacement therapy for vitamin B12. We confirmed previous findings on the role of diet as main determinant of folate and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations. However, the impact of genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors on plasma B vitamin concentrations should not be neglected.

  4. Disability-free life expectancy of older French people: gender and education differentials from the PAQUID cohort.

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    Pérès, Karine; Jagger, Carol; Lièvre, Agnès; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2005-09-01

    In countries with low mortality rates, the quality of the years of life is more important to consider than total life expectancy (TLE). Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is one of the most relevant indicators of health and the quality of life. This paper aims to estimate TLE and DFLE with four levels of severity of disability and to explore gender and educational differences in older French people. In this cohort study, four levels of disability severity were distinguished, disability being evaluated for mobility, instrumental and basic activities of daily living. For each level, TLE and DFLE were calculated using multi-state models from transition probabilities. From the population of two areas of South West France 3,777 subjects were randomly selected from the electoral rolls. At the baseline, they were aged 65 years and over, living in the community and were interviewed 6 times over the 10-year follow-up. At age 65, women lived longer than men (4.5 extra years), but shorter fully independent lives (-2.2 years). They also lived longer in each of the three degrees of disability (+4.2 years with moderate or severe disability). The higher educated lived longer (1.3 extra years at age 65), with the additional years free of disability. Regardless of age, gender and education, there appeared to be a 1-year incompressible time spent with severe disability. To conclude, these are the first health expectancies based on the longitudinal data for France. Whilst most of the studies were based on cross-sectional data, this paper gives a more realistic indicator of the health and socio-economic inequalities in France in the 1990 s.

  5. Outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome: A nationwide cohort-based study from the French Society of Hemapheresis.

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    Huart, Antoine; Josse, Anne-Gaëlle; Chauveau, Dominique; Korach, Jean-Michel; Heshmati, Farhad; Bauvin, Eric; Cointault, Olivier; Kamar, Nassim; Ribes, David; Pourrat, Jacques; Faguer, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    The overall and renal outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome (GS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary hemorrhage, have mostly been reported in small-sized cohorts or by aggregating patients receiving a variety of therapies that include aggressive (i.e., combined plasma exchanges, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide) and less aggressive (i.e., either plasma exchanges or immunosuppressive drugs, or no treatment). To address the prognosis of GS patients with relatively homogeneous management including plasma exchanges, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study on GS patients included in the registry of the French Society of Hemapheresis. 122 patients were included (kidney alone (n = 28), lung alone (n = 5), or combined involvement (n = 89)). All 122 patients received plasma exchanges (median number of sessions: 13 [9-17]), either alone (n = 8) or associated with combined corticosteroids and oral or IV cyclophosphamide (n = 101) or with corticosteroids alone (n = 12) or cyclophosphamide alone (n = 2). One-year survival was 86.9%. 7/16 patients died from severe infection. In multivariate analyses (Cox's regression model), being aged <60 years, and number of plasma exchanges were correlated to overall survival. The use of alternative immunosuppressive drugs (because of refractory or relapsing GS) was correlated to mortality at one year. Superiority of oral cyclophosphamide compared to intravenous intake was close to significant. Using a logistic regression model, renal survival in patients alive at 1 year was only predicted by serum creatinine <500 μmol/L at presentation. This large series describes the predictive factors for overall and renal survival of GS patients treated by plasma exchanges. Interventional studies that compare oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide, as well as testing new immunosuppressive therapies, are warranted

  6. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Kahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007. Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235 were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007 were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI, and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85, alcohol misuse (OR 2.80, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13. Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%, anxiety (50%, and suicidal behaviours (50% generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%, anxiety (38%, suicidal behaviours (40%, and

  7. [Psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model].

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    Niedhammer, I; Siegrist, J; Landre, M F; Goldberg, M; Leclerc, A

    2000-10-01

    Two main models are currently used to evaluate psychosocial factors at work: the Job Strain model developed by Karasek and the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. A French version of the first model has been validated for the dimensions of psychological demands and decision latitude. As regards the second one evaluating three dimensions (extrinsic effort, reward, and intrinsic effort), there are several versions in different languages, but until recently there was no validated French version. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity, and discriminant validity. The present study was based on the GAZEL cohort and included the 10 174 subjects who were working at the French national electric and gas company (EDF-GDF) and answered the questionnaire in 1998. A French version of Effort-Reward Imbalance was included in this questionnaire. This version was obtained by a standard forward/backward translation procedure. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the three scales of extrinsic effort, reward, and intrinsic effort: Cronbach's Alpha coefficients higher than 0.7 were observed. A one-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of the scale of extrinsic effort. A three-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of reward, and these dimensions were interpreted as the factor analysis of intrinsic effort did not support the expected four-dimension structure. The analysis of discriminant validity displayed significant associations between measures of Effort-Reward Imbalance and the variables of sex, age, education level, and occupational grade. This study is the first one supporting satisfactory psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. However, the factorial validity of intrinsic effort could be questioned. Furthermore, as most previous studies were based on male samples

  8. Effectiveness and tolerance of single tablet versus once daily multiple tablet regimens as first-line antiretroviral therapy - Results from a large french multicenter cohort study

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    Cotte, Laurent; Ferry, Tristan; Pugliese, Pascal; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Allavena, Clotilde; Cabié, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Rey, David; Duvivier, Claudine; Cheret, Antoine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Pradat, Pierre; Parienti, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Pill burden during antiretroviral treatment (ART) is associated with worse adherence and impaired virological suppression. We compared the effectiveness, tolerance, and persistence on treatment of single tablet regimens (STRs) with non-STR once-daily regimens in patients receiving first-line ART. Methods Retrospective analysis of naïve HIV-1 infected patients prospectively enrolled in the French Dat’AIDS cohort and initiating first-line ART with STRs or once-daily non-STRs from 2004 to 2013. The primary outcome was time to treatment discontinuation defined by any change in the treatment regimen. STR and non-STR groups were compared controlling for baseline risk factors by inverse probability weighted treatment Cox analysis (IPWT) and propensity-score matching (PSM). Results Overall, 3212 patients (STR 499, non-STR 2713) were included. Median time to treatment discontinuation was shorter in non-STR patients than in STR patients, both in the IPWT (HR = 0.61, pPSM cohort (HR = 0.55, pPSM cohort (HR = 0.91, p = 0.33). A lower rate of virological failure was observed with STRs than with non-STRs in both cohorts (HR = 0.23; p = 0.002 and HR = 0.22, p = 0.003, respectively). A lower rate of treatment modification for adverse event was observed with non-STRs in the IPWT cohort (HR = 1.46, pPSM cohort (HR = 1.22, p = 0.11). Conclusion First-line therapy with STRs was associated with a longer time to treatment discontinuation than with non-STRs. However, when ART modification for simplification was not considered as a failure, STRs and non-STRs were similar. PMID:28152047

  9. Impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk of lung cancer death in a simulated study based on the French Uranium Miners' Cohort.

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    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Leuraud, Klervi; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    Measurement error (ME) can lead to bias in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. Here a simulation study is described that is based on data from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort and that was conducted to assess the effect of ME on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated with radon exposure. Starting from a scenario without any ME, data were generated containing successively Berkson or classical ME depending on time periods, to reflect changes in the measurement of exposure to radon ((222)Rn) and its decay products over time in this cohort. Results indicate that ME attenuated the level of association with radon exposure, with a negative bias percentage on the order of 60% on the ERR estimate. Sensitivity analyses showed the consequences of specific ME characteristics (type, size, structure, and distribution) on the ERR estimates. In the future, it appears important to correct for ME upon analyzing cohorts such as this one to decrease bias in estimates of the ERR of adverse events associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.

  10. Age- and sex-related reference values for serum insulin concentration and its biological determinants in a French healthy population. The STANISLAS cohort.

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    François, Aurélie; Maumus, Sandy; Vincent-Viry, Monique; Guéguen, René; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Insulin is involved in coronary heart disease through diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A great deal is known about insulin and its correlates, as well as factors related to changes in insulin. However, few studies consider the broad variety of correlates simultaneously. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to characterize the main factors of biological variation affecting serum insulin concentration and to establish reference limits of insulinemia in a presumably healthy French population. Insulin was measured using a microparticular enzymatic immunoassay. A total of 646 subjects aged 11-58 years from the STANISLAS cohort and divided into four groups of 162 males, 157 females, 163 boys and 164 girls, were included in the statistical analyses. In the whole population, serum insulin concentration varied from 0.80 to 54.60 microU/ml. Significant factors affecting insulin were age, gender, body mass index and glucose, in addition to alanine aminotransferase and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men, triglycerides and oral contraceptive use in women, and alkaline phosphatase in girls. In summary, we presented biological correlates of insulin in both healthy French male and female adults and children/adolescents and determined reference limits for insulin for each group. These results will contribute to a better interpretation of insulin data in further studies and laboratory investigations.

  11. [Impact of the A influenza pandemic on anti-seasonal influenza vaccination of French general practitioners: A cohort follow-up 2007-2010].

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    Hurtaud, A; Songis, P-H; Di Patrizio, P; Boivin, J-M

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of the A influenza pandemic on the anti-seasonal influenza vaccination of French general practitioners. A survey was conducted in 2007 in a random sample of general practitioners. A second survey conducted in 2010 included all general practitioners who had not been vaccinated in 2007 and one-third of those who had been. Responses were obtained from 1010 general practitioners in 2007. The coverage rate of anti-seasonal influenza vaccination reached 73%. In 2010, the coverage was 73.5% and rate of anti-A influenza vaccination was 59% (weighted numbers). Between the two surveys, 130 family physicians (15.5%) changed their behavior. Analysis showed that the A influenza pandemic had a slight positive impact on anti-seasonal influenza vaccination. This first cohort of French general practitioners concerning influenza vaccination found the same anti-seasonal influenza vaccination rates widely reported in the literature and showed that the A influenza pandemic had slight impact on it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Incidence of Colon and Rectal Cancers in French Men: The Asbestos-Related Diseases Cohort (ARDCo-Nut).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Christophe; Thaon, Isabelle; Hérin, Fabrice; Clin, Benedicte; Lacourt, Aude; Luc, Amandine; Coureau, Gaelle; Brochard, Patrick; Chamming's, Soizick; Gislard, Antoine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Wild, Pascal; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Andujar, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    The relationships between asbestos exposure and colorectal cancer remain controversial. We examined the association between asbestos exposure and colorectal cancer incidence. Volunteer retired workers previously exposed to asbestos were invited to participate in the French ARDCo screening program between 2003 and 2005. Additional data on risk factors for colorectal cancer were collected from the ARDCo-Nut subsample of 3,769 participants in 2011. Cases of colon and rectal cancer were ascertained each year through 2014 based on eligibility for free medical care following a cancer diagnosis. Survival regression based on the Cox model was used to estimate the relative risk of colon and rectal cancer separately, in relation to the time since first exposure (TSFE) and cumulative exposure index (CEI) to asbestos, and with adjustment for smoking in the overall cohort and for smoking, and certain risk factors for these cancers in the ARDCo-Nut subsample. Mean follow-up was 10.2 years among 14,515 men, including 181 colon cancer and 62 rectal cancer cases (41 and 17, respectively, in the ARDCo-Nut subsample). In the overall cohort, after adjusting for smoking, colon cancer was significantly associated with cumulative exposure (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26 for a 1-unit increase in ln-CEI) and ≥ 20-40 years since first exposure (HR = 4.67; 95% CI: 1.92, 11.46 vs. 0-20 years TSFE), and inversely associated with 60 years TSFE (HR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.70). Although rectal cancer was also associated with TSFE 20-40 years (HR = 4.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 18.27), it was not associated with ln-CEI, but these findings must be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of cases. Our findings provide support for an association between occupational exposure to asbestos and colon cancer incidence in men. Citation: Paris C, Thaon I, Hérin F, Clin B, Lacourt A, Luc A, Coureau G, Brochard P, Chamming's S, Gislard A, Galan P, Hercberg S, Wild P, Pairon JC, Andujar P. 2017. Occupational

  13. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

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    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  14. [Study of the promosud cohort. Predictors of adherence to treatment plans by French patients living with HIV].

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    Delmas, Philippe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Côté, José; Lauwers-Cancès, Valérie; Delon, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence in patients treated by antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection, after 12 months of follow-up, and to identify potential predictive factors of adherence over a one-year period. All patients included in the cohort had an optimal adherence at inclusion, evaluated by the level of viral load and a questionnaire. Among the 133 patients included in the cohort, 115 patients were still followed one year later. Potential risk factors analysed in the study were: side effects, social support, level of stress, stress adaptation, strategies of coping and quality of life. The stress-coping model developed by Lazarus-Folkman (1984) was used to analyse pathways by which variables could influence level of adherence. Results showed that patients who stayed adherent during the follow-up reported less side effects, had a lower level of stress than patient who became non-adherent over time. They used more frequently active strategies of coping (positive reappraisal) and had a higher score of quality of life. Results from logistic regression showed variables associated with adherence at one year were strategies of positive reappraisal (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.15) and a high score of physical health status (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 0.99-3.49). The score of mental health status at inclusion was a predictive factor of adherence one year later, a lower score being predictive of a non-optimal level of adherence (OR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.002-1.09). For reinforcing adherent behaviours, interventions focused on the learning of active strategies of coping should be developed. The measure of quality of life should also become a standard measure of patients' surveillance, as biological parameters are.

  15. Prevalence of simple and complex sacral perineural Tarlov cysts in a French cohort of adults and children.

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    Kuhn, Félix P; Hammoud, Sonia; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Poiraudeau, Serge; Feydy, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of simple and complex sacral perineural Tarlov cysts (TCs) in a cohort of children and adults. Retrospective observational epidemiological study assessing 1100 consecutive sacral magnetic resonance (MR) studies, including 100 children and adolescents. All patients underwent 1.5T MR imaging with T1 and T2 weighted image acquisitions in sagittal and axial planes. All perineural cysts affecting the sacral nerve roots S1-S4 were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Two hundred and sixty-three sacral TCs were found in 132 adult patients (13.2%), with a female predominance (68%). None was found in children. The prevalence of TCs increased with age. The average number of cysts per patient was 2.0±1.2 with a maximum of 6 cysts in a single patient. Most of the cysts (87.5%) showed a homogenous central fluid collection and a parietal course of the nerve fibers. Complex patterns were present in 33 cysts (12.5%) within which 28 cysts showed endocystic crossing of nerve fibers and 5 cysts contained internal septations. Seventy cysts (26.6%) eroded the adjacent bone and 13 cysts (4.9%) extended to the pelvis. The prevalence of sacral TCs in our cohort corresponded to 13%, with a female predominance. Interestingly no TCs were found in children or adolescents (cysts with internal septations, or endocystic crossing of nerve fibers, pre-interventional characterization of sacral TCs might help to choose an appropriate procedure in the treatment of rare symptomatic variants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of 2012-2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population: estimation in a French web-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debin, Marion; Colizza, Vittoria; Blanchon, Thierry; Hanslik, Thomas; Turbelin, Clement; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Most of the methods used for estimating the influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) target the individuals who have an influenza-like illness (ILI) rather than virologically-proven influenza and access the healthcare system. The objective of this study was to estimate the 2012-2013 IVE in general French population, using a cohort of volunteers registered on GrippeNet.fr, an online surveillance system for ILI. The IVE estimations were obtained through a logistic regression, and analyses were also performed by focusing on at-risk population of severe influenza, and by varying inclusion period and ILI definition. Overall, 1996 individuals were included in the analyses. The corrected IVE was estimated to 49% (20 to 67) for the overall population, and 32% (0 to 58) for the at-risk population. Three covariables appeared with a significant effect on the occurrence of at least one ILI during the epidemic: the age (P = 0.045), the presence of a child in the household (P<10(-3)), and the frequency of cold/flu (P<10(-3)). Comparable results were found at epidemic peak time in the hypothesis of real-time feed of data. In this study, we proposed a novel, follow-up, web-based method to reveal seasonal vaccine effectiveness, which enables analysis in a portion of the population that is not tracked by the health care system in most VE studies.

  17. Amniocentesis and mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales French Perinatal Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbrot, Laurent; Jasseron, Carine; Ekoukou, Dieudonné; Batallan, Agnès; Bongain, André; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Blanche, Stéphane; Tubiana, Roland; Rouzioux, Christine; Warszawski, Josiane

    2009-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether performing an amniocentesis increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 (MTCT). We studied HIV -1 infected mothers and their children enrolled in the multicenter French Perinatal HIV Cohort from 1985 to 2006. One hundred sixty-six amniocenteses were performed among 9302 singleton pregnancies, the proportion increasing from 1.0% before 2001 to 4.7% in 2005-2006. Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was more frequent in the amniocentesis group (58.4% vs 33.2%). MTCT tended to be higher in the amniocentesis group, among mothers who received no antiretroviral agents (25.0%; 3/12 vs 16.2%; 343/2113; P = .41) as well as among mothers receiving zidovudine monotherapy or a double-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor combination (6.1%; 3/49 vs 3.3%; 117/3556; P = .22), but the difference was not significant. Among 81 mothers receiving HAART, there was no case of MTCT. Our results suggest that amniocentesis is not a major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission in mothers treated with effective antiretroviral therapy.

  18. Dietary intakes and diet quality according to levels of organic food consumption by French adults: cross-sectional findings from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

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    Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to assess dietary profiles of adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort according to different levels of organic food consumption using detailed self-reported data on organic food intakes. Food intakes were obtained using an organic food frequency questionnaire (Org-FFQ). The participants were ranked into five groups (quintiles, Q) according to the proportion of organic foods in their diet. To determine diet quality, two scores were computed reflecting adherence to food-based recommendations (mPNNS-GS) and the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet). Relationships between levels of organic food consumption and dietary characteristics were assessed using multivariable-adjusted ANCOVA models. The NutriNet-Santé Study. French adults from the NutriNet-Santé Study (n 28 245). Intakes of foods of plant origin increased along with the contribution of organic foods to the diet while a reverse trend was identified for dairy products, cookies and soda (P-trendorganic food consumers exhibited better diet quality, although intermediate organic food consumers showed better adherence to specific nutritional recommendations related to animal products. The study provides new insights into the understanding of organic food consumption as a part of a healthy diet and sheds some light on the dietary profiles of different categories of organic food consumers. These results underline strong dietary behaviour correlates associated with organic food consumption that should be controlled for in future aetiological studies on organic foods and health.

  19. Prognostic value of isolated tumor cells and micrometastases of lymph nodes in early-stage breast cancer: a French sentinel node multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Classe, Jean-Marc; Garbay, Jean-Rémy; Giard, Sylvia; Cohen, Monique; Faure, Christelle; Hélène, Charytensky; Belichard, Catherine; Uzan, Serge; Hudry, Delphine; Azuar, Pierre; Villet, Richard; Penault Llorca, Frédérique; Tunon de Lara, Christine; Goncalves, Anthony; Esterni, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    To define the prognostic value of isolated tumor cells (ITC), micrometastases (pN1mi) and macrometastases in early stage breast cancer (ESBC). We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study at 13 French sites. All the eligible patients who underwent SLNB from January 1999 to December 2008 were identified, and appropriate data were extracted from medical records and analyzed. Among 8001 patients, including 70% node-negative (n = 5588), 4% ITC (n = 305), 10% pN1mi (n = 794) and 16% macrometastases (n = 1314) with a median follow-up of 61.3 months, overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates at 84 months were not statistically different in ITC or pN1mi compared to tumor-free nodes. Axillary recurrence (AR) was significantly more frequent in ITC (1.7%) and pN1mi (1.5%) compared to negative nodes (0.6%). Survival and AR rates of single macrometastases were not different from those of ITC or pN1mi. In case of 2 macrometastases or more, survival rates decreased and recurrence rates increased significantly. Micrometastases and ITC do not have a negative prognostic value. Single macrometastases might have an intermediate prognostic value while 2 macrometastases or more are associated with poorer prognosis.

  20. Excessive trading, a gambling disorder in its own right? A case study on a French disordered gamblers cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Boutin, Claude; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Caillon, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Trading and gambling appear to share some similarities. Indeed, traders can get professionally involved in high-risk types of trading as if it were gambling. This research explores whether excessive trading can be conceptualized as a subset of gambling disorders. To better acknowledge the existence of an addictive-like trading behavior and to discuss its phenomenological similarities with gambling disorders. The data of 8 excessive traders out of a cohort of 221 outpatients seeking treatment in our Problem Gambling unit were analyzed. Our case series revealed important similarities with gambling disorders in terms of diagnosis, trajectory and comorbidities. Like many disordered gamblers, excessive traders of this study experienced a number of small early wins, chased their losses, and ended up losing control over the money they invested. All of them invested in very risky stocks associated with short-term trading leading to potential large gains, but also with very significant losses. The structure itself of the two activities (gambling and trading) is very close. Our results tended to support the idea of an addictive-like trading behavior as a subset of gambling disorders. Investing is not a form of gambling, but some people gamble with investments. Several observations and recommendations can be made: (i) conduct researches; (ii) build and validate specific assessment tools; (iii) develop strategies for prevention and treatment; and (iv) conduct more rigorous studies to clarify what we named an addictive-like trading behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Characterization of a French Cohort of GNE-mutation negative inclusion body myopathy patients with exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Mathieu; Gorokhova, Svetlana; Laforet, Pascal; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Pouget, Jean; Attarian, Shahram; Eymard, Bruno; Deleuze, Jean-François; Boland, Anne; Behin, Anthony; Stojkovic, Tanya; Bonne, Gisele; Levy, Nicolas; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin

    2017-03-03

    Hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) refers to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases. The overlapping histochemical features of hIBM with other genetic disorders lead to low diagnostic rates with targeted single-gene sequencing. This is true for the most prevalent form of hIBM, GNEpathy. Therefore, we used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to determine whether a cohort of clinically suspected GNEpathy patients undiagnosed by targeted GNE analysis could be genetically characterized. Twenty patients with hIBM but undiagnosed by targeted GNE sequencing were analyzed by WES before data filtering on 306 genes associated with neuromuscular disorders. Seven patients out of 20 were found to have disease-causing mutations in genes associated with hIBM or genes allowing for hIBM in the differential diagnosis or associated with unexpected diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing is an efficient strategy in the context of hIBM, resulting in a molecular diagnosis for 35% of the patients initially undiagnosed by targeted GNE analysis. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Sante cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. METHODS: Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51% and regular (RCOP, 14% organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines, compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity (25 ≤ body mass index<30 and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30: -36% and -62% in men and -42% and -48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001. OCOP participants (% generally showed intermediate figures. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

  3. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Roussel

    Full Text Available According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk.Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09 with a follow-up of up to 30 months.Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and > 50 (men or 60 (women, but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death.Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8% received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates and 2.21% (statins. The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR 540 of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR 540 = 1.73 (1.28-2.32.Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy.

  4. Fuel cell powered by natural gas. The projet `Gazel` four years later; La pile a combustible au gaz naturel. Le projet `Gazel` apres quatre ans de exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.N. [Service de Gaz, Services Industriels de Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The Services Industriels of Geneve (SIG) acted as a pioneer when in 1993 they purchased and commenced the operation of a first generation phosphoric acid fuel cell ONSI PC25A. The object of the SIG fuel cell pilot project, Gazel, is to promote the technology of fuel cells powered by natural gas, by demonstrating the feasibility of exploitation of the technique, and by seeking to optimize profitability conditions in an installation on an industrial scale. For almost four years, the operational results obtained conform to, and in some cases even exceed, the initial estimates, which were already very favourable in comparison with traditional technologies of electricity production. Indeed, ecological and technical performances more than corresponds to the manufacturer expectations. Long duration tests should allow to evaluate the profitability of the fuel cell, justly considered to be a technology of the future for the gas industry. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1993 haben die Industriellen Betriebe in Genf (SIG) auf eigene Rechnung die Brennstoffzelle PC25A von ONSI erworben und als erste deren regulaeren Betrieb aufgenommen. Mit diesem Projekt hatten die SIG sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Brennstoffzellen-Technologie zu lancieren. Erdgas wird zur Speisung der Brennstoffzelle benutzt, und das Projekt ist eine Demonstration des zuverlaessigen Betriebs dieser Technologie, mit dem im industriellen Massstab die Rentabilitaetsbedingungen reell optimiert werden. Die in den beinahe vier Jahrzehnten Betriebsdauer erzielten resultate entsprechen voll den Erwartungen und uebertreffen in einzelnen Details die urspruenglichen Vorgaben, die im Vergleich zu den herkoemmlichen Technologien der Elektrizitaetserzeugung bereits sehr viel guenstiger sind. Den an sie gestellten technischen und oekologischen Forderungen von Seiten des Herstellers hat die realisierte Anlage tatsaechlich voellig entsprochen. Langzeitversuche dieser Art sind ideal, um die Rentabilitaet der Brennstoffzelle

  5. Long-term efficacy and toxicity of abacavir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to the most prescribed ARV regimens before 2013 in a French Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, Paul; Dramé, Moustapha; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cotte, Laurent; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Delobel, Pierre; Huleux, Thomas; Rey, David; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2016-09-01

    Data on the long-term efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) are scarce. This combination has the advantage of simplifying treatment and improving long-term tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of any discontinuation of antiretroviral (ARV) regimen because of virologic failure (VF), and/or adverse drug reaction (ADR) among patients receiving stable ARV regimens for at least 6 months.ABC/3TC/NVP was compared to ABC/3TC with either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), unboosted ATV, or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with either one of the following: ATV/r, unboosted ATV, DRV/r, efavirenz (EFV), or NVP, in the French prospective multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort.The study enrolled 16,511 patients treated with following ARV regimens: ABC/3TC/NVP (n = 1089), TDF/FTC/NVP (n = 1542), ABC/3TC/DRV/r (n = 1065), ABC/3TC/ATV/r (n = 1847), ABC/3TC/ATV (n = 563), TDF/FTC/ATV/r (n = 3519), TDF/FTC/DRV/r (n = 2767), TDF/FTC/ATV (n = 419), and TDF/FTC/EFV (n = 3700). Mean follow-up was 36 ± 24 months. Patients treated with ABC/3TC/NVP received this regimen as a switch regimen in 97% of cases. By multivariable analysis, the risk of treatment discontinuation due to VF was similar between ABC/3TC/NVP and other ARV regimens, except for TDF/FTC/ATV and ABC/3TC/ATV, which were associated with a higher risk of treatment interruption due to VF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-3.06 and HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.51-3.18, respectively). Treatment discontinuation due to ADR was lowest with the ABC/3TC/NVP regimen. Other ARV regimens were associated with a 1.80- to 3.19-fold increase in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to ADR (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).ABC/3TC/NVP as a simplification regimen is a long-term effective regimen with lower discontinuation due to long-term toxicity compared with other standard ARV regimens.

  6. Triple therapy in treatment-experienced patients with HCV-cirrhosis in a multicentre cohort of the French Early Access Programme (ANRS CO20-CUPIC) - NCT01514890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hézode, Christophe; Fontaine, Hélène; Dorival, Céline; Larrey, Dominique; Zoulim, Fabien; Canva, Valérie; de Ledinghen, Victor; Poynard, Thierry; Samuel, Didier; Bourlière, Marc; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Raabe, Jean-Jacques; Alric, Laurent; Marcellin, Patrick; Riachi, Ghassan; Bernard, Pierre-Henri; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Métivier, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Serfaty, Lawrence; Abergel, Armand; Causse, Xavier; Di Martino, Vincent; Guyader, Dominique; Lucidarme, Damien; Grando-Lemaire, Véronique; Hillon, Patrick; Feray, Cyrille; Dao, Thong; Cacoub, Patrice; Rosa, Isabelle; Attali, Pierre; Petrov-Sanchez, Ventzislava; Barthe, Yoann; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Pol, Stanislas; Carrat, Fabrice; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    In phase III trials, the safety profile of triple therapy (pegylated interferon/ribavirin with boceprevir or telaprevir) seems to be similar in HCV treatment-experienced cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, but few cirrhotics were included. We report the week 16 safety and efficacy analysis in a cohort of compensated cirrhotics treated in the French Early Access Programme. 674 genotype 1 patients, prospectively included, received 48 weeks of triple therapy. The analysis is restricted to 497 patients reaching week 16. A high incidence of serious adverse events (40.0%), and of death and severe complications (severe infection or hepatic decompensation) (6.4%), and a difficult management of anaemia (erythropoietin and transfusion use in 50.7% and 12.1%) were observed. Independent predictors of anaemia < 8 g/dl or blood transfusion were: female gender (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.11-4.33, p=0.024), no lead-in phase (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.15-4.39, p=0.018), age ≥ 65 years (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.54-6.02, p=0.0014), haemoglobin level (≤ 12 g/dl for females, ≤ 13 g/dl for males) (OR 5.30, 95% CI 2.49-11.5, p=0.0001). Death or severe complications were related to platelets count ≤ 100,000/mm(3) (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.30-7.41, p=0.0105) and albumin <35 g/dl (OR 6.33, 95% CI 2.66-15.07, p=0.0001), with a risk of 44.1% in patients with both. However, the on-treatment virological response was high. The safety profile was poor and patients with platelet count ≤ 100,000/mm(3) and serum albumin <35 g/L should not be treated with the triple therapy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Accounting for Berkson and Classical Measurement Error in Radon Exposure Using a Bayesian Structural Approach in the Analysis of Lung Cancer Mortality in the French Cohort of Uranium Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Rage, Estelle; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Ancelet, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure. Indeed, we are typically faced with exposure uncertainty in a time-varying exposure variable where both the type and the magnitude of error may depend on period of exposure. To address the challenge of accounting for multiplicative and heteroscedastic measurement error that may be of Berkson or classical nature, depending on the year of exposure, we opted for a Bayesian structural approach, which is arguably the most flexible method to account for uncertainty in exposure assessment. We assessed the association between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality in the French cohort of uranium miners and found the impact of uncorrelated multiplicative measurement error to be of marginal importance. However, our findings indicate that the retrospective nature of exposure assessment that occurred in the earliest years of mining of this cohort as well as many other cohorts of underground miners might lead to an attenuation of the exposure-risk relationship. More research is needed to address further uncertainties in the calculation of lung dose, since this step will likely introduce important sources of shared uncertainty.

  8. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    With the concept foodscapes as a point of departure, this paper explores the fundamental notions and the history of the traditional French cuisine in order to gain understanding of the ostensible rootedness of tradition in the modern French landscape of food and eating habits Concerned voices about...... By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...

  9. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  10. Mortality in nuclear workers of the French electricity company: period 1968-2003; Cohorte des travailleurs du nucleaire a Electricite de France: mortalite des agents statutaires sur la periode 1968-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Laurent, O.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Epidemiologie, DRPH/SRBE/LEPID, 92 - Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Hubert, D.; Garcier, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2009-08-15

    Background We conducted a mortality study on a cohort of French nuclear workers employed at Electricite de France (EDF). A first cancer mortality analysis had covered the period 1968-1994. This paper presents results from a mortality analysis including nine additional years of follow-up to cover workers employed from 1968 to 2003. Methods The cohort includes 22 393 workers, 97% of whom are males. Employment data were updated using the EDF personnel file. Vital status was ascertained using the French National Registry of Population, and further completed using EDF personnel and pension files. Causes of death were obtained from the National registry of causes of death. Standardised Mortality Ratios (S.M.R.) were computed using national rates as references. Variations of all causes and all cancers S.M.R.s were studied according to demographic and occupational characteristics. Results At the study end point (31/12/2003), 74% of workers are still in active employment. Only 0.3% of workers are lost to follow-up. The median duration of follow-up is 20 years. Causes are ascertained for 96% of deaths. The total number of deaths is 874, 307 of which are cancer deaths. S.M.R.s for all causes and cancers show a significant deficit compared to the French national mortality. No significant excess was observed for any of the cancer sites studied. Non-significant excesses are observed for pancreatic, pleural, kidney and brain cancer. Significant variations of all causes S.M.R.s according to age at study entry and attained age are observed. Significant variations of all causes and all cancers S.M.R.s according to diploma at employment are observed, with a reduced S.M.R. for a higher level of diploma. Conclusion There is a significant deficit of mortality compared to the general population, reflecting a strong Healthy Worker Effect. Although nine years of follow-up were added, this cohort is made up of young workers, most of whom are still in active service. Regular updating of the

  11. The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzcharles Mary-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI, and the Symptom Severity scale (SS measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31, measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and a visual analogue scale (VAS for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p  Conclusions The French FSDC is a valid instrument in French FM patients with reliability and construct validity. It is easily completed, simple to score, and has the potential to become the standard for measurement of polysymptomatic distress in FM.

  12. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    With the concept foodscapes as a point of departure, this paper explores the fundamental notions and the history of the traditional French cuisine in order to gain understanding of the ostensible rootedness of tradition in the modern French landscape of food and eating habits Concerned voices about...

  13. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  14. Impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk of lung cancer death in a simulated study based on the French Uranium Miners' Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Thiebaut, Anne C.M. [INSERM, U657, Paris (France); Institut Pasteur, Unite Pharmaco-Epidemiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Paris (France); Univ. Versailles Saint-Quentin, Garches (France); Henry, Stephane [Medical Council Areva Group, Pierrelatte (France); Benichou, Jacques [INSERM, U657, Rouen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Rouen, Unite de Biostatistique, Rouen (France); Univ. Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2012-05-15

    Measurement error (ME) can lead to bias in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. Here a simulation study is described that is based on data from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort and that was conducted to assess the effect of ME on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated with radon exposure. Starting from a scenario without any ME, data were generated containing successively Berkson or classical ME depending on time periods, to reflect changes in the measurement of exposure to radon ({sup 222}Rn) and its decay products over time in this cohort. Results indicate that ME attenuated the level of association with radon exposure, with a negative bias percentage on the order of 60% on the ERR estimate. Sensitivity analyses showed the consequences of specific ME characteristics (type, size, structure, and distribution) on the ERR estimates. In the future, it appears important to correct for ME upon analyzing cohorts such as this one to decrease bias in estimates of the ERR of adverse events associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  15. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  16. Estimating the trend of the French BSE epidemic over six birth cohorts through the analysis of abattoir screening in 2001 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bonnardière, Claude; Calavas, Didier; Abrial, David; Morignat, Eric; Ducrot, Christian

    2004-01-01

    A bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) testing programme at the abattoir started in 2001 in France. A total of 5 281 293 bovines were tested in 2001 and 2002; 87 were found positive in 2001--37 per million (95% CI 30-46)--, whereas only 71 in 2002--24 per million (95% CI 19-30). Logistic regression models were run to compare the prevalence of BSE on successive birth cohorts, using a pair-wise method of controlling for age at testing; the prevalence on the first one, determined on animals slaughtered in 2001, was compared to the prevalence on the following one determined on animals slaughtered in 2002. Five models were performed in order to compare the birth cohorts preceding and following the months of June 1993 (i.e. July 92-June 93 birth cohort compared to July 93-June 94 birth cohort) (8.5 years old cattle), June 1994 (7.5 years old cattle), June 1995 (6.5 years old cattle), June 1996 (5.5 years old cattle) and June 1997 (4.5 years old cattle). The models were adjusted for the production type of cattle and the test used. The results showed a significant increase (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.08-4.9) of the BSE prevalence between the July 93-June 94 and July 94-June 95 cohorts, and then a significant decrease over the next two birth cohorts; the July 95-June 96 birth cohort was significantly less affected than the July 94-June 95 one (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.78), and the July 96-June 97 birth cohort was significantly less affected than the July 95-June 96 one (OR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.37). The increase in BSE prevalence between the July 93-June 94 and July 94-June 95 cohorts was in agreement with modelling studies, but needs to be confronted to the data on fallen stock at the national level. The decrease in BSE prevalence on the birth cohorts born after June 1995 was in agreement with the findings on the fallen stock in the western part of France and matches the implementation of the removal of specified risk materials (SRM) and dead animals from the processing of meat

  17. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Baudry

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes.

  18. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-21

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes.

  19. French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  20. French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF FUZULI’S GAZEL WITH “USANMAZ MI” REDIF WITH POINT OF VIEW IN STRUCTURALISM / FUZŪLĮ’NİN “USANMAZ MI” REDİFLİ GAZELİNİN YAPISALCILIK AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ÜST (M.A.H.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article mentioned that rhyme with “usanmaz mı” gazel of Fuzūlį was investigated point of view in structuralisim. Before given some information about linguistics and structuralism. After gazel was explained and structural specialities was point out.

  2. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  3. First nationwide web-based surveillance system for influenza-like illness in pregnant women: participation and representativeness of the French G-GrippeNet cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Paul; Guerrisi, Caroline; Turbelin, Clément; Blondel, Béatrice; Launay, Odile; Bardou, Marc; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Goffinet, François; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Colizza, Vittoria; Hanslik, Thomas; Kernéis, Solen

    2016-03-11

    Pregnancy is a risk factor for severe influenza resulting in increased risks of hospitalisation and death in mothers and their new-borns. Our objective was to assess the representativeness and participation of French women to a new web-based collaborative tool for data collection and monitoring of Influenza Like Illness (ILI) during pregnancy. During the 2014/2015 influenza season, pregnant women living in metropolitan France were enrolled through a web platform ( https://www.grippenet.fr/). Then throughout the season, participants were asked to report, on a weekly basis, if they had experienced symptoms of ILI. Representativeness was assessed by comparing the characteristics of participants to those of the French National Perinatal Survey. For each participant, the participation rate was the number of weekly questionnaires completed, divided by the length of follow-up (in weeks). Predictors of active participation (participation rate >15%) were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. A total of 153 women were enrolled. Participants were older (mean age 34 years vs. 29 years) and more highly educated (high school level 89% versus 52%) than the general population of pregnant women in France, but the sample did not differ on pregnancy-related characteristics (parity, history of hospitalisation during a previous pregnancy). The median rate of participation was high (78%, interquartile range: 34-96). Higher educational level and participation to a previous GrippeNet.fr season were associated with active participation. Despite small sample size and lack of representativeness, the retention rate was high, suggesting that pregnant women are prone to adhere to a longitudinal follow-up of their health status via the Internet.

  4. Reading Comprehension in a Large Cohort of French First Graders from Low Socio-Economic Status Families: A 7-Month Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentaz, Edouard; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Theurel, Anne; Colé, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children’s grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Methodology/Principal findings Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. Conclusion/Significance These results challenge the ‘simple view of reading’. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them. PMID:24250802

  5. Reading comprehension in a large cohort of French first graders from low socio-economic status families: a 7-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentaz, Edouard; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Theurel, Anne; Colé, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children's grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. These results challenge the 'simple view of reading'. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them.

  6. Reading comprehension in a large cohort of French first graders from low socio-economic status families: a 7-month longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gentaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children's grade level and socioeconomic status (SES. This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade in 394 French children from low SES families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results challenge the 'simple view of reading'. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French, which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them.

  7. Evaluation of the Grade Nine French Immersion Program in Fredericton, N.B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Vicky A.

    The academic achievement in French of two cohorts of grade 9 students of a public school early immersion program in New Brunswick, which has total French-language instruction through grade 4 and includes all students in the program except transfers was compared to that of a group of native French-speaking students at a nearby French-language…

  8. Management and cost analysis of cancer patients treated with G-CSF: a cohort study based on the French national healthcare insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilleul, Patrick; Jacot, William; Emery, Corinne; Lafuma, Antoine; Gourmelen, Julie

    2017-09-04

    To describe the management and costs associated with G-CSF therapy in cancer patients in France. This study analyzed a representative random population sample from the French national healthcare insurance database, focusing on 1,612 patients with hematological or solid malignancies who were reimbursed in 2013 or 2014 for at least one G-CSF treatment dispensed in a retail pharmacy. Patient characteristics and treatment costs were analyzed according to the type of cancer. Then the costs and characteristics of patients associated with the use of different G-CSF products were analyzed in the sub-set of breast cancer patients. The most frequent malignancies in the database population were breast cancer (23.3%), hematological malignancies (22.2%), and lung cancer (12.4%). The reimbursed G-CSF was pegfilgrastim in 34.1% of cases, lenograstim in 26.7%, and filgrastim in 17.9%. More than one G-CSF product was reimbursed to 21.3% of patients. The total annual reimbursed health expenses per patient, according to the type of G-CSF, were €27,001, €24,511, and €20,802 for patients treated with filgrastim, lenograstim, and pegfilgrastim, respectively. Ambulatory care accounted for, respectively, 35%, 38%, and 41% of those costs. In patients with breast cancer, ambulatory care cost was €7,915 with filgrastim, €7,750 with lenograstim, and €6,989 with pegfilgrastim, and the respective cost of G-CSF was €1,733, €1,559, and €3,668. All available G-CSF products have been shown to be effective in cancer patients, and both daily G-CSFs and pegylated G-CSF are recommended in international guidelines. Nevertheless, this analysis of G-CSF reimbursement indicates that the choice of product can markedly affect the total cost of ambulatory care.

  9. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  10. The influence of multiple types of occupational exposure to radon, gamma rays and long-lived radionuclides on mortality risk in the French "post-55" sub-cohort of uranium miners: 1956-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquier, Blandine; Rage, Estelle; Leuraud, Klervi; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Houot, Jennifer; Acker, Alain; Laurier, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    The adverse health effects of radon on uranium miners, especially on their lungs, are well documented, but few studies have considered the effects of other radiation exposures. This study examined the mortality risks associated with exposure to radon, external γ rays and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) in the French "post-55" sub-cohort, which includes uranium miners first employed between 1956 and 1990 for whom all three types of exposure were assessed individually. Exposure-risk relationships were estimated with linear excess relative risk models and a 5-year lag time. The post-55 sub-cohort includes 3377 miners, contributing 89,405 person-years, followed up through the end of 1999 with a mean follow-up of 26.5 years. Mean cumulative exposure was 17.8 WLM for radon, 54.7 mSv for γ rays, and 1,632 Bq.m(-3).h for LLR. Among the 611 deaths observed, 66 were due to lung cancer. Annual individual exposures were significantly correlated. Increased mortality was observed for lung cancer (SMR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.65) and for brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancer (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.35). Cumulative exposure to radon, γ rays and LLR was associated only with a significant risk of lung cancer. These new results could suggest an association between lung cancer and exposure to γ rays and LLR. They must nonetheless be interpreted with caution because of the correlation between the types of exposure. The calculation of organ doses received by each of these exposures would reduce the collinearity.

  11. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  12. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25 ≤ body mass indexorganic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

  13. Adverse effects of isolation: a prospective matched cohort study including 90 direct interviews of hospitalized patients in a French University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilley-Lerondeau, B; Bourigault, C; Guille des Buttes, A-C; Birgand, G; Lepelletier, D

    2017-01-01

    Isolation precautions in patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria or other communicable infectious agents can be associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess satisfaction and psychological impact of patients hospitalized with isolation precautions in comparison with controls. An observational prospective cohort study was performed in five different medical and surgical departments in a 3,000-bed university hospital in Western France between March and July 2012. Different scales were used to assess patient satisfaction (qualitative scale) and anxiety (Spielberger scale), including 30 patients with isolation precautions and 60 matched patients without isolation precautions over 45-hour interviews. Cases were significantly less satisfied than controls for healthcare workers (HCW) assistance in activities of daily life (p patients with isolation precautions were not satisfied about the quality of the information related to their infectious status control measures. The median score [range] of anxiety significantly was higher in patients with isolation precautions (52 [20-56] vs 31 [23-73], p patient satisfaction according to the availability and relationship with HCW. Professionals should be aware of adverse effects of isolation and inform patients more actively with regard to their infectious status and precautions.

  14. The natural gas fuel cell project Gazel of the Services Industriels de Geneve - results and perspectives. La pile a combustible au gaz naturel. Le projet Gazel des SIG: Resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.L. (Service du Gaz, Services Industriels de Geneve (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    The demonstration and pilot project Gazel, of the Services Industriels de Geneve has as its objective the promotion of the technology of the natural gas-operated fuel cell. The probability of the technical application shall be demonstrated by the gas industry, as well as the development of optimum scientific marginal requirements for a facility of industrial magnitude. The first results after more than a year operation correspond to the original expectations, even surpassing these in certain aspects, although these expectations compared to the traditional technology of electrical utilisation had already been very favourably assigned. It has been proved that the technical as well as the environmental performance of the facility corresponds to our expectations and thus provide a good basis start for our project. Long-term tests will permit our employees to refine further the economic manner of operation of the fuel cell which can be looked upon as a future technology of the gas industry. The experiences already gathered in the facility at Lignon, in the fields of operation and maintenance, as well as the knowledge obtained by intensive international contacts, permit us to look to the future with great confidence. (orig.)

  15. DENEYSEL EDEBİYAT YÖNÜYLE DÎVÂN ŞİİRİNDE BİR TARZ: GAZEL-İ MUSANNA’ YAHUT “GAZEL ENDER GAZEL”

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut KOÇOĞLU (M.A.H.)

    2016-01-01

    Özellikle son yıllarda şiir mecmûaları üzerine incelemeler arttıkça, dîvânşiirinin biçim ve hünere dayalı henüz keşfedilmemiş birçok yönünün bulunduğuortaya çıkmaktadır. Dîvân şiirinin hüner ve özellikle biçime dayalı sanatsal yönü,bu alanda çalışan akademisyenler tarafından Batı’daki “deneysel edebiyat” terimiile ifade edilmektedir. Ankara Adnan Ötüken İl Halk KütüphanesiKoleksiyonu’nda bulunan bir Mecmû’a-yı Eş’âr ve Fevâid’de, araştırmacılartarafından örneği bulunmamış bir gazel tespit ett...

  16. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  17. Association of Anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis Antibody Titers With Nonsmoking Status in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the Prospective French Cohort of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Raphaèle; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Cantagrel, Alain; Minet, Jacques; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the possible link between Porphyromonas gingivalis infection and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to antibody profile, genetic and environmental factors, and RA severity. For assessing P gingivalis infection, serum levels of antibodies directed against P gingivalis lipopolysaccharide were measured in 694 patients with early RA who were not exposed to steroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Anti-P gingivalis antibody titers were compared between patients with early RA and various control groups, and according to various patient characteristics. Anti-P gingivalis antibody titers did not significantly differ between patients with RA and controls and did not significantly differ with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), or HLA shared epitope status. Anti-P gingivalis antibody titers were significantly higher among patients who had never smoked compared to patients who had ever smoked (P = 0.0049). Among nonsmokers, high anti-P gingivalis antibody levels were associated with a higher prevalence of erosive change (47.5% versus 33.3% with modified Sharp/van der Heijde score erosion subscale ≥1; P = 0.0135). In this large early RA cohort, we did not detect any association of anti-P gingivalis antibodies with RA or with ACPA status. These results suggest that the association of periodontitis and RA could be linked to bacterial species other than P gingivalis or to a mechanism other than citrullination. Nevertheless, we found higher anti-P gingivalis antibody titers in nonsmokers. In addition, in this population of nonsmokers, high anti-P gingivalis antibody titers were associated with more severe disease. We hypothesize that the role of tobacco in RA pathogenesis is so high that the effect of P gingivalis could be revealed only in a population not exposed to tobacco. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  19. Antifungal therapy for patients with proven or suspected Candida peritonitis: Amarcand2, a prospective cohort study in French intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montravers, P; Perrigault, P F; Timsit, J F; Mira, J P; Lortholary, O; Leroy, O; Gangneux, J P; Guillemot, D; Bensoussan, C; Bailly, S; Azoulay, E; Constantin, J M; Dupont, H

    2017-02-01

    The clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients treated for Candida peritonitis (CP) were compared according to the type of systemic antifungal therapy (SAT), empiric (EAF) or targeted (TAF) therapies, and the final diagnosis of infection. Patients in intensive care units (ICU) treated for CP were selected among the AmarCAND2 cohort, to compare patients receiving EAF for unconfirmed suspicion of CP (EAF/nonCP), to those with suspected secondarily confirmed CP (EAF/CP), or with primarily proven CP receiving TAF. In all, 279 patients were evaluated (43.4% EAF/nonCP, 29.7% EAF/CP and 25.8% TAF patients). At SAT initiation, the severity of illness was similar among EAF/nonCP and EAF/CP patients, lower among TAF patients (median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) 49 and 51 versus 35, respectively; p 0.001). Candida albicans was involved in 67%, Candida glabrata in 15.6%. All strains were susceptible to echinocandin; 84% to fluconazole. Echinocandin was administered to 51.2% EAF/nonCP, 49% EAF/CP and 40% TAF patients. At day 28, 72%, 76% and 75% of EAF/nonCP, EAF/CP and TAF patients, respectively, were alive. An increased mortality was observed in patients with a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score <7 if SAT was delayed by ≥6 days (p 0.04). Healthcare-associated CP (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.52-9.64, p 0.004), SOFA ≥8 at ICU admission (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.08-6.34; p 0.03), and SAPS II ≥45 at SAT initiation (OR 5.08, 95% CI 1.04-12.67; p 0.001) impacted the 28-day mortality. In summary, only 56.6% of ICU patients receiving SAT had CP. Most strains were susceptible to SAT. A similar 28-day mortality rate was observed among groups; the late administration of SAT significantly worsened the prognosis of patients with less severe CP. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-world costs and outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with targeted therapies: a cohort study from the French health insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Rana; Fleury, Laetitia; Nachbaur, Gaelle; Maunoury, Franck; Vanhille, Jean-Louis; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    The objective of this study was to describe treatment patterns, survival, healthcare use and costs in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in a real-world setting. We used the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database for the Ile-de-France region to perform a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with mRCC treated by a first-line targeted therapy. Treatment naïve patients were identified combining the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes (C64 & C77-C79) and a first prescription of targeted therapies. Descriptive analyses were performed on treatment patterns and patients' characteristics. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined using Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival analysis. All healthcare resource use and costs were estimated on a per patient per month (PPPM) basis (€2016). A total of 327 treatment naïve patients with mRCC were included. Median follow-up was 13.4 months. Sunitinib accounted for 73% of first-line treatments. The most frequently observed treatment sequence for the first two lines was sunitinib-everolimus (16%; n = 137) and for the first three lines sunitinib-everolimus-axitinib (20%; n = 49). First-line PFS for sunitinib, everolimus, pazopanib, sorafenib and other was 8.7, 6.2, 10.7, 5.7 and 11.2 months, respectively. Median OS for patients treated by first-line sunitinib, everolimus, pazopanib, sorafenib and other was respectively 14.7, 8.1, 21.1, 8.9 and 14.0 months. From the NHI's perspective, the mean PPPM was €5546. The average PPPM in pre-progression was €5597 compared to €5541 beyond progression of the disease. Oral targeted therapies accounted for 53% of the total PPPM. This descriptive study showed that the economic burden of mRCC is substantial with oral targeted therapies accounting for 53% of the PPPM. OS and PFS in real life are poorer than observed in clinical trials.

  1. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  2. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  3. Towards a French Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  4. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  5. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  6. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  7. Meet French Architecture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan

    2005-01-01

    On April 5, a French architectural exhibition entitled ""French Visions: City, Architecture and Sustainable Development"" was unveiled in Beijing Urban Planning Center. As a key exhibition within the framework of French Year in China, the exhibition will also be displayed in Shanghai and Chongqing. The largest exhibition of its kind ever held in China, French Visions extensively showed accomplishments of contemporary French architectural design.

  8. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-service Teacher Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Carr

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior coursework as candidates applying to existing French specialist cohorts. The FLAGS program begins with a five-week summer immersion experience through Explore! and then proceeds with UBC's regular Bachelor of Education program but with an added French conversation course, a core French methodology course and a core French practicum concentration (augmented, in some cases, with a three-week practicum in a francophone locale. FLAGS is intended to address the less than satisfactory state of elementary core French teaching and learning in British Columbia.

  9. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-service Teacher Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Carr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior coursework as candidates applying to existing French specialist cohorts. The FLAGS program begins with a five-week summer immersion experience through Explore! and then proceeds with UBC's regular Bachelor of Education program but with an added French conversation course, a core French methodology course and a core French practicum concentration (augmented, in some cases, with a three-week practicum in a francophone locale. FLAGS is intended to address the less than satisfactory state of elementary core French teaching and learning in British Columbia.

  10. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  11. French Lessons A Memoir

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Brilliantly uniting the personal and the critical, French Lessons is a powerful autobiographical experiment. It tells the story of an American woman escaping into the French language and of a scholar and teacher coming to grips with her history of learning. Kaplan begins with a distinctly American quest for an imaginary France of the intelligence. But soon her infatuation with all things French comes up against the dark, unimagined recesses of French political and cultural life.The daughter of a Jewish lawyer who prosecuted Nazi war criminals at Nuremburg, Kaplan grew up in the 1960s in the Mi

  12. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  13. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  14. French courses for BEGINNERS

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    We are now offering a French course for beginners. If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link, or contac: Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896 or Martine Zuffi, tel. 73483. Language Training French Training Kerstin Fuhrmeister Tel. 70896 kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch  

  15. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  16. French in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  17. French in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the usage of French in Gabon. As in other nations of francophone Africa, French is the language of upward social mobility in Gabon, and it offers access to the international community. However, one factor peculiar to Gabon is the virtual absence of a Gabonese national language, which promotes a greater dependency upon a mastery of the…

  18. The French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  19. Pardon my French pocket French slang dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Kate

    2009-01-01

    A runaway bestseller since its launch, Pardon My French! is a pocket-sized dictionary of French and English slang as it is spoken today. This edition includes even more non-standard language from the colloquial to the vulgar, with over 2,500 terms added. Ideal for both Francophobes and Francophiles alike. Over 14,000 referencesDozens of helpful usage notes to explain interesting meanings and originsThematic panels on the slang of sex, alcohol, violence etcFully updated and revised panels on varieties of slang (eg verlan, javanais, Black American slang)

  20. Lebib Divanı’nda Musiki Terimleri ve Bir “Gazel-i Ferah-Sâz” Musical Terms in Divan of Lebib and A “Gazel-i Ferah-Saz”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdris KADIOĞLU

    2012-09-01

    airleri musiki unsurlarını da kullanarak şiirlerine ayrı bir ahenk katmışlardır. Bu yüzyılda, musiki kültürüne aşina olduğu şiirlerinden belli, taşralı bir şair olan Lebib Efendi (öl.1182/1768 de telli, vurmalı, üflemeli sazlarla ilgili terimleri, musiki makamlarını ve deyimleri ustalıkla şiire sokmuştur. Şair Nabi’nin gezmek için Diyarbakır’a gittiği, sazlı sözlü sohbetlere katıldığı, onun için düzenlenen şiir meclislerinde bestelenen gazellerinin okunduğu bilinmektedir. Şair Lebib de Diyarbakır’ın musiki atmosferinden oldukça etkilenmiş, musiki konulu beyitler yazmıştır. Hatta Lebib’in bir şiiri tamamen musiki terimlerini içermektedir. Çalışmamız giriş, altı ana başlık, sonuç ve kaynakçadan oluşmaktadır. Giriş bölümünde Lebib Efendinin hayatı, edebi kişiliği ve eserleri hakkında özet bilgi verilmiş, on sekizinci yüzyılda Diyarbakır’da divan edebiyatının genel durumu açıklanmıştır. Makalede, “divan şiirine yansıyan musiki terimleri, Lebîb-i Âmidî Dîvanı’nda mûsikî ile ilgili unsurlar, oyun ve gösteri unsurları, musiki unsurlarıyla ilgili deyimleri, musiki makamları, gazel-i ferahsâz” ana başlıklar altında incelenmiştir. Ayrıca musiki unsurlarının divandaki bir şiire yansımaları incelenmiş ve şiirin beyitleri açıklanmıştır. Lebîb Divanı’nda üflemeli, vurmalı ve telli musiki âletlerinin adları, musiki makam adları, musiki aletlerinin aksamıyla ilgili terimler ve musikiyle ilgili deyimler dikkat çekici yoğunlukta kullanılmıştır.

  1. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend nouvelle cuisine was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.

  2. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  3. Modern French Grammar Workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    An innovative new workbook of exercises and language tasks for intermediate and advanced learners of French. This Workbook can be used independently or alongside Modern French Grammar.This Workbook provides exercises in:* Essential grammatical structures* Everyday functions such as agreeing and disagreeing* Role-plays set in a wide range of different contextsIt is suitable for group or pair work and for private study.A comprehensive answer key at the back of the Workbook enables you to check on your progress.This Workbook is ideal for all learners who have a basic knowledge of French, includin

  4. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  5. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  6. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  7. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, A; Salmi, L R; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their attitudes towards traffic safety using the same self-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were also available. The mean change in scores analysis showed that support for relaxing existing regulations decreased significantly during this period, while support for heightened enforcement and stricter regulations showed some decrease but remained high overall, especially concerning blood alcohol content and speed controls. Multivariate analyses suggest that highly educated drivers changed their attitudes towards road safety regulations more than other categories. Our results suggest that increased traffic law enforcement measures led to increasing support for current restrictions. Even if support for additional traffic law enforcement began to wane slightly in 2004, a large part of our population remained in favour of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving.

  8. Adding a French Touch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Deep in Sichuan Province,a mountain town strives to re-brand itself as a romantic tourist destination With French-style cobblestone streets,an eclectic mix of buildings and architecture,and the overall relaxing atmosphere,

  9. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  10. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  11. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  12. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: tel. 72844. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  13. Language Training: French

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  14. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  15. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  16. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  17. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  18. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  19. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  20. Psychotropic drug initiation during the first diagnosis and the active treatment phase of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a cohort study of the French national health insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Cécile; Rueter, Manuela; Laurent, Guy; Bourrel, Robert; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Despas, Fabien

    2016-11-01

    Patients with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) are known to be at risk of developing psychological disorders. The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of psychotropic drug use during the diagnosis and the active treatment phase in comparison with controls from the general population, and to identify factors associated with this use. B-NHL patients were selected through the French national health insurance database in the Midi-Pyrénées region (southwestern France) from January 1, 2011, to April 31, 2013. Patients with a previous history of B-NHL and/or psychotropic drug treatment were excluded. Among 745 newly diagnosed B-NHL patients, psychotropic treatment was initiated in 31.5 % (95 % CI [28.1-34.9]), compared to 7.6 % (95 % CI [7.57-7.64]) in the general population during the same period. This incidence was comparable in colorectal cancer patients (33.5 %) but higher than that in patients with myocardial infarction (23.5 %) or with a first knee replacement surgery (22.4 %). Anxiolytics and hypnotics were the most frequently used drugs. Median duration of treatment was 37 days for anxiolytics and 58 days for hypnotics, with 20.8 % of patients remaining under treatment at 8 months. Factors associated with psychotropic drug initiation were young age, health care consumption in the year before diagnosis, and initial care at a university hospital. The high rate of psychotropic drug initiation reflects a high level of anxiety at the initial phase of B-NHL patients' trajectory. This pharmacoepidemiological study reveals inappropriate use in some patients, which should now be investigated in lymphoma survivorship.

  1. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    Buxbaum, Marcella Ottolenghi

    2001-01-01

    This practical, inexpensive volume features over 1,000 common French words, each accompanied by a French sentence demonstrating proper usage. Also included are definitions arranged by such categories as family, food, numbers, and more. (These words are not repeated in the alphabetical section.) A page of Vocabulary Tips explains how to easily recognize hundreds of French/English cognates.

  2. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  3. Syllabification and French Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Much research has focused on the question of whether phonological rules can and should be stated more appropriately in terms of the syllable than other units, notable segments and various boundaries. Formulation of rules without reference to the syllable obscures the motivation and unity of alternations. French has rules for consonant deletion…

  4. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  5. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  6. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  7. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  8. Arthur Rimbaud: French symbolist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Raats

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Rimbaud as a poet occupies a unique position in the history of French literature and with his theory of poetry he greatly influenced not only the Symbolist movement of which he was one of the chief initiators, but all of contemporary poetry.

  9. French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 15 July to 28 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: 702 SF Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training

  10. Reformer Takes French Reins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The painful reforms chosen by French voters to rejuvenate their sluggish economy have smoothed the way for Nicolas Sarkozy to take up France’s top political job.The 52-year-old leader of the ruling right-wing Union

  11. Teaching the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  12. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  13. Fluconazole and Echinocandin Resistance of Candida glabrata Correlates Better with Antifungal Drug Exposure Rather than with MSH2 Mutator Genotype in a French Cohort of Patients Harboring Low Rates of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellière, Sarah; Healey, Kelley; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Carrara, Bastien; Barbaro, Alessandro; Guigue, Nicolas; Lecefel, Christophe; Touratier, Sophie; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Perlin, David S.; Bretagne, Stéphane; Alanio, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is a major pathogenic yeast in humans that is known to rapidly acquire resistance to triazole and echinocandin antifungal drugs. A mutator genotype (MSH2 polymorphism) inducing a mismatch repair defect has been recently proposed to be responsible for resistance acquisition in C. glabrata clinical isolates. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of antifungal resistance in a large cohort of patients in Saint-Louis hospital, Paris, France, some of whom were pre-exposed to antifungal drugs, as well as to determine whether MSH2 polymorphisms are associated with an increased rate of fluconazole or echinocandin resistance. We collected 268 isolates from 147 patients along with clinical data and previous antifungal exposure. Fluconazole and micafungin minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) were tested, short tandem repeat genotyping was performed, and the MSH2 gene was sequenced. According to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility breakpoints, 15.7% of isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC > 32 mg/L) and 0.7% were resistant to micafungin (MIC > 0.03 mg/L). A non-synonymous mutation within MSH2 occurred in 44% of the isolates, and 17% were fluconazole resistant. In comparison, fluconazole resistant isolates with no MSH2 mutation represented 15% (P = 0.65). MSH2 polymorphisms were associated with the short tandem repeat genotype. The rate of echinocandin resistance is low and correlates with prior exposure to echinocandin. The mutator genotype was not associated with enrichment in fluconazole resistance but instead corresponded to rare and specific genotypes. PMID:28066361

  14. Symbolism in French literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pack

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available To talk of Symbolism in French literature may be ambiguous, as two different categories of writers have been grouped under this generic term: the symbolists stricto sensu, such as Moréas or Viélé-Griffin, who were mostly minor poets, and some great figures of French literature. The aim of this article is to show that, although Symbolism as an organized movement did not produce any important contribution, the nineteenth century witnessed indeed the emergence of a new trend, common to several poets who were inclined to do away with the heritage of the classical school. These poets - of whom Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud and Mallarmé are the most renowned, although they did not really associate with the symbolist school, created individualistic poetry of the foremost rank.

  15. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  16. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  17. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  18. Early cannabis initiation and educational attainment: is the association causal? Data from the French TEMPO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Bolze, Camille; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J; Pryor, Laura; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie

    2017-05-18

    : Adolescent cannabis use has been reported to predict later educational attainment; however, results of past studies may be confounded by inappropriate control for factors that make some youths more likely to use cannabis precociously than others. We aimed to test the possibility of a causal relationship between early cannabis initiation and later academic achievement. : Analyses are based on data collected among TEMPO cohort study participants (France, 2009, n  = 1103, 22-35 years). Participants were previously assessed in childhood (1991) and adolescence (1999); additionally, their parents had taken part in a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study (GAZEL). Early cannabis initiation was defined as use at age 16 or earlier. Educational attainment was defined as the completion of a high-school degree ('Baccalauréat'). Early (up to and including age 16 years) and late (after age 16 years) cannabis-use initiators were compared with non-users using logistic regression models controlled for inverse probability weights (IPWs) of exposure calculated based on participants' socio-demographic, juvenile and parental characteristics. : In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, early cannabis initiators were more likely than non-users to have low educational attainment [odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.55]. In IPWs-controlled analyses, this association somewhat decreased (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.40). Late cannabis initiators did not have lower educational attainment than non-users. Early cannabis use and educational attainment appeared more strongly associated in young women than in young men. : Early cannabis can cause low educational attainment. Youths who initiate cannabis use early require attention from addiction and education specialists to reduce their odds of poor long-term outcomes.

  19. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  20. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  1. French grammar made easy

    CERN Document Server

    McNab, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    The Grammar Made Easy series is ideal for complete beginners as well as for those non-linguists who have some knowledge of the language but need to know the basics of grammar to progress beyond phrasebook level. The books consist of seven units that present basic grammar topics in an accessible and non-patronising manner. The interactive CD-ROM provides extensive interactive grammar practice, it contains around 220 activities (those included in the book plus extra ones) covering all the language in French Grammar Made Easy. Learners work at their own pace and move through the different sect

  2. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  3. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  4. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  5. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  6. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  7. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  8. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  9. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  10. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  11. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  12. Essential French Verbs Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Marie-Therese

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Verbs is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn verbs effectively.

  13. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  14. Publications in psychology: French issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANK ARNOULD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the situation of psychology publications in France, in particular, the visibility of French research through journals and bibliographic databases; the role of publications for the evalua-tion of researchers and laboratories, and the contribution of French psychologists to a national publica-tions archiving platform.

  15. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  16. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  17. CPAFFC Delegation Visits French Polynesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShenglun

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Gaston Flosse, president of the Government of French Polynesia, a CPAFFC delegation headed by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and Vice President Su Guang paid a goodwill visit to French Polynesia in September 2003. The Government of French Polynesia attached great importance to the visit. During their stay there, the delegation exchanged views with President Flosse many times on promoting friendship and cooperation between the Chinese and French Polynesian peoples. Both sides unanimously held that to promote friendship and strengthen cooperation are the common aspiration of the Chinese and French Polynesian people, which is conducive to the prosperity and development of the two sides and world peace. The delegation had extensive contacts with highranking officials and personages of various circles, and achieved its purpose of strengthening understanding, enhancing friendship and promoting cooperation.

  18. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  19. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norweg......PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts...... investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. FUTURE PLANS: Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays...

  20. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  1. The french educational satellite arsene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  2. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese languages), but also to standard French, official French (acrolectal .... Page 3 ... dynamic than others. ... Common French and popular French are not standardized or normalized ..... Coming back to the organization of the National Lexicographic Units (NLUs) ... As a result of these studies, a major project involving.

  3. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  4. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the... fabricated shall be safe and suitable. French dressing contains not less than 35 percent by weight...

  5. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  6. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  7. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  8. French switch off in protest

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  9. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  10. Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  11. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  12. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  13. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  14. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabia, Séverine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: Adequate folate intake may be important for breast cancer prevention. Its protective effect may be influenced by factors associated with folate metabolism. We sought to evaluate folate intake in relation to breast cancer risk and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B(2) and B(12). METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis of folate intake was conducted among 62,739 postmenopausal women in the French E3N cohort who had compl...

  15. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  16. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  17. Supporting French Teachers for a Paradigm Shift in Grammar Education: A Teacher Trainer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Joël

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a series of pedagogical workshops that was offered over two years to a cohort of 50 teachers practising in Ontarian French schools. Focusing on grammar teaching, the workshops' objectives were to: (a) contribute to the teachers' development of linguistic knowledge consistent with the grammar under new provincial standards and…

  18. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  19. Descriptive study of sedentary behaviours in 35,444 French working adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    /non-work), occupation, and perceptions towards physical activity, in a large sample of adults. METHODS: We assessed sedentary behaviours cross-sectionally in 35,444 working adults (mean ± SD age: 44.5 ± 13.0 y) from the French NutriNet-Santé web-based cohort. Participants self-reported sedentary behaviours, assessed...

  20. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés;

    2014-01-01

    new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naı ̈ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ̃ o Mendes, the main...

  1. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lappin-Fortin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French and French immersion graduates was compared based on total output and several measures of grammatical and syntactical accuracy. Few statistically significant differences emerge. However, a subgroup of core French learners who had benefitted from an authentic immersion experience appears to outperform both regular core French and French immersion groups. The purpose of this quantitative study is primarily diagnostic; the results should help universities better serve the needs of first-year students. Résumé Les études comparant la compétence écrite des étudiants de programmes d’immersion française et de français cadre sont peu nombreuses—particulièrement au niveau postsecondaire. Mon corpus consiste en des échantillons du français écrit de 255 étudiants issus de ces deux formations qui commencent un cours de français à l’université. J’ai comparé leur production globale et leur précision sur le plan morphosyntaxique. Peu de différences statistiquement significatives en émergent. Toutefois, un sous-groupe d’étudiants cadre ayant bénéficié d’une expérience d’immersion authentique se révèle comme le plus compétent selon plusieurs des mesures utilisées. Les résultats de cette étude quantitative devraient aider les universités à mieux répondre aux besoins des étudiants de première année.

  2. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bégassat Marion

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5% and urinary system malformations (0.3%. Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence. Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children.

  3. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  4. French revolution or industrial revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...

  5. French revolution or industrial revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...

  6. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  7. La Langue Francaise (The French Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemada, Bernard

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography cites works concerning the French language, including works by foreign authors in translation, with nine major topics: bibliographies; introductory linguistics, the formation and evolution of French; phonetics and phonology, lexicography, grammar, language variation, stylistics, and translation. (Text is in French.)…

  8. Excellence Award for French SMEs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ More and more French S&M enterprises are interested in China market in recent years,according to the statistic from French Chamber of Commerce and Industs in China(CCIFC),over 1200 French enterprises have set up their representative offices or joint venture.

  9. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  10. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  11. Flavor Release from French Fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with the MS-NOSE using both panelists and a mouth-model system. The identity of several volatiles measured with the MS-NOSE was verified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time and the effect of adding salt on I-max (maximum intensity of compounds) and on

  12. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  13. Exploiting French Songs as Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Vicki L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategy for teaching culture and conversation at the third- and fourth-year undergraduate level using authentic documents as the primary materials. The medium chosen for this course was the French chanson, but similar strategies may be applicable to any modern language using the culturally appropriate materials. (eight references) (LET)

  14. Literary Historiography and French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjef Houppermans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Literary History has changed its objectives during the last decades. In theory as well as in literary analysis a worldwide perspective has taken the place of strictly demarcated approaches. The openness to the world and the ongoing dialogue with the other resonates in recent French Literature. Academic critique can accompany and guide these evolutions.

  15. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir. The sec...

  16. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  17. Li Na Aces French Open

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese tennis player becomes the first Asian to win a Grand Slam singles title Chinese tennis player Li Na beat defending champion Francesca Schiavone from Italy,6-4,7-6,on the clay court at Roland Garros,winning the 2011 French Open Tennis Tournament on June 4.She made history by becoming the first Chinese to win a grand slam singles title.

  18. Stars War in French Gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergaud, Olivier; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the careers from a sample of more than 1,000 top French chefs over more than twenty years and link it to the success or reputation of the restaurants where they have worked. This allows us to test what are the determinants of success but also to investigate the dynamics...

  19. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  20. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  1. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  2. Cohort description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains...... a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18...

  3. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  4. French Pen Pals Made Easy KS3

    CERN Document Server

    Leleu, Sinéad

    2010-01-01

    French Pen Pals Made Easy provides an easy way for pupils to communicate in French with other French speakers. It contains fill-in-the-gap letters, so even pupils just beginning to learn French can have the satisfaction of being able to communicate effectively in French. The format is ideal for non-specialist teachers as it does not require fluency and little or no preparation is required. English translations of the letters are included, as are lists of vocabulary, key grammar points and exten

  5. Suicide in the French armed forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjeux, Guillaume; Labarère, José; Galoisy-Guibal, Laurent; Ecochard, René

    2004-01-01

    Several states, of whom France, have been alarmed about suicide in the military. An observational longitudinal cohort study was conducted to check whether the suicide risk in the French army was higher than in the general population and to find out the more prone to self-harm destruction personnel categories. From 1997 to 2000 inclusive, 230 suicides occurred among 315,934 person.years; i.e., the overall annual crude suicide rate was 18.2 per 100,000 active-duty personnel. With the National data for 1999 as reference, army men had a lower suicide risk than men in the overall population of similar age categories (standardised mortality ratio = 67). A Poisson regression model showed that the incidence rate in the Gendarmerie was twice as high as in the Land Forces (incidence rate ratio = 2.15), that the incidence relative risk increased threefold over 4 years, and that the incidence rate ratio amongst under 25 and from 40 to 44-year-old personnel was almost twice as high as in the 25-29-year-old category. The main suicide methods were use of a firearm (51%) and hanging (28%). Despite a global lower risk than in the general population, certain army categories, i.e., Gendarmerie personnel and young men, deserve specific surveillance and preventive measures.

  6. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  7. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  8. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  9. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  10. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  11. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  12. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 26 April to 1 July 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact. Kerstin Fuhrmeister : Tel. 70896. Language Training French Training Kerstin Fuhrmeister Tel. 70896 kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch  

  13. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development

    2011-01-01

    Language Training French Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch   The next session will take place from 24 January to 1 April 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.  

  14. Germline mutations in BMP9 are not identified in a series of Danish and French patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, P. M.; Dupuis-Girod, S.; Giraud, S

    2016-01-01

    had a different vascular-anomaly syndrome, the suspicion that BMP9 mutations might cause HHT remained. To evaluate if germline mutations in BMP9 can be identified in HHT patients, we investigated the Danish and the French Lyon cohort of mutation-negative and clinically definite HHT patients. Exons...

  15. A Glossary of Agricultural Terms. English-French, French-English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Univ., Washington, DC. American Language Center.

    This volume consists of two glossaries of agricultural terms, one English-French, the other French-English. The terms provided deal with animals, plants, crop cultivation, animal husbandry and agricultural technology. (CLK)

  16. Berber genealogy and the politics of prehistoric archaeology and craniology in French Algeria (1860s-1880s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effros, Bonnie

    2017-03-01

    Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine. Alleging that these constructions were Gallic, Féraud hypothesized the close affinity of the French, who claimed descent from the ancient Gauls, with the early inhabitants of North Africa. After Féraud's claims met with scepticism among many prehistorians, French scholars argued that these remains were constructed by the ancestors of the Berbers (Kabyles in contemporary parlance), whom they hypothesized had been dominated by a blond race of European origin. Using craniometric statistics of human remains found in the vicinity of the standing stones to propose a genealogy of the Kabyles, French administrators in Algeria thereafter suggested that their mixed origins allowed them to adapt more easily than the Arab population to French colonial governance. This case study at the intersection of prehistoric archaeology, ancient history and craniology exposes how genealogical (and racial) classification made signal contributions to French colonial ideology and policy between the 1860s and 1880s.

  17. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  18. French Flight Test Program LEA Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reusable . French Flight Test Program LEA Status RTO-EN-AVT-185 17 - 5 Figure 4: CAD view of LEA vehicle. The test principle consists in...Figure 8: CLEA model under test at ONERA test facility. Some parametric studies related to forebody have been carried out in order to determine a...PROPULSION: ENGINE DESIGN – INTEGRATION AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT” is focused on the French flight experiment program called “LEA”. French R&T effort

  19. Histoplasma capsulatum in Cayenne, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquet, Olivier; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Michel, Myriam; Aznar, Christine

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a soil sampling survey in September 2008 in central Cayenne, French Guiana, using molecular methods to assess the presence of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Four of the 31 samples collected (12.9 %) tested positive by PCR, with confirmation of the result by DNA sequencing. H. capsulatum is therefore present in urban environments in French Guiana. These results provide additional support for the primary prophylaxis of AIDS-related histoplasmosis in French Guiana.

  20. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Colloquial French: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to French as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in French in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial French is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range

  1. Learning to Read in English and French: Emergent Readers in French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheila Cira; Koh, Poh Wee; Deacon, S. Hélène; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of word reading in English and French for 69 children in early total French immersion from first through third grade. The influence of phonological awareness, orthographic processing, and vocabulary in English and French on the achievement and growth of word reading in the 2 languages were…

  2. Juvenile hemochromatosis locus maps to chromosome 1q in a French Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Sylvain R; Lanzara, Carmela; Grimard, Doria; Carella, Massimo; Simard, Hervey; Ficarella, Romina; Simard, Raynald; D'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Férec, Claude; Camaschella, Clara; Mura, Cathrine; Roetto, Antonella; De Braekeleer, Marc; Bechner, Lucien; Gasparini, Paolo

    2003-08-01

    Juvenile hemochromatosis (JH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that causes iron overload. In the French Canadian region of Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean the worldwide largest cohort of JH cases has been identified. Here, we report the mapping of this large cohort of cases to the HFE2 locus on chromosome 1q. A maximum multipoint location score of 7.02 was observed with marker D1S2344. A common ancestral haplotype, showing the presence of a founder effect, was identified. The analysis of recombinants allowed us to confirm the JH candidate region.

  3. French ports - seeking competitive edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechener, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Port Reform Law of July 1992 provides the basis upon which working practices at all major French ports are now modelled. The article examines the new employment arrangements and the implications for dry bulk trade. The legislation means ports are relieved of surplus labour capacity and no longer tied by traditional work practices. The article also considers recent trade news such as the GATT negotiations. Port development projects are previewed at major ports including Dunkerque, Le Havre, Rouen, Nantes/St Nazaire, Lorient, La Rochelle/Pallice, Brest, Bordeaux, Calais, Strasbourg, Paris and Sete. 5 tabs., 12 photos.

  4. The French atomic bomb tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Nayak

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the details of two French Atomic Tests. Both were carried out at Hamoudia in the vicinity of Reggane (Sahara, the first on 13th of February 1960 and the second on the 1st April 1960. The nuclear explosive used in both cases was plutonium. In the first test the device was placed on the top of a tower of about 100 meters high whereas in the second test it was placed in a prefabricated shed. According to unofficial reports, the yields of the two tests were about 60Kt and less than 20Kt respectively.

  5. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  6. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  7. Radical Reform of the French University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  8. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  9. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  10. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  11. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  12. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  13. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  14. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  15. Commercial French Radio in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melpignano, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes several techniques for implementing commercial radio to improve listening comprehension skills in the foreign language student. Canadian radio, accessible to much of the northern United States, brings news, weather, and sports, in French, to the student of French and provides major components for sharpening comprehension skills. (PJM)

  16. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  17. The Impact of French on English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梁好

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In retrospect,foreign languages had a great impact on English development and evolution.However,French had the most fundamental influence because of the Norman Conquest in 1066AD.In terms of words,French and English fused together,which enormously enriched English words and expressions.The main

  18. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  19. On the Feminism in French Lieutenant's Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琴

    2010-01-01

    Sarah in The French Lieutenant's Woman has been regarded as a representative of feminism in modern literature field.Undoubtedly, Sarah is an independent woman ahead of her time.The paper is attempted to focus on the feminism in The French Lieutenant's Woman from many aspects and analyze the reasons of such kind of feminism.

  20. Inside French and English Infant Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveaud, Maroussia

    2005-01-01

    This article compares everyday life in French and English Key Stage 1 classes. It draws on ethnographic research in both countries to compare the experience of school children in various situations, ranging from learning to active participation in the life of the class. It suggests that socialisation in French and English primary schools develops…

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF INDONESIAN LOANWORDS FROM FRENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Indri Hardini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When two languages come into contact, they exert a reciprocal influence, often unbalanced. A phenomenon that often occurs in case of language contact is the absorption or borrowing of lexical elements, which will enrich the vocabulary of the receiving language. In this article, we deal with words adopted from French in Indonesian and vice-versa. This research shows that most of the words of French origin in Indonesian/Malay language were borrowed through Dutch. Historical background explains why there are no direct loanwords from French language in Indonesian. Nowadays, a second batch of words originating from Old French finds their way into Indonesian through English. On the other hand, very few words from Malay-Indonesian origin were borrowed in French, and their route was not straight either: they were conveyed through Portuguese or Dutch. Phonological adaptation and shift of meaning may have happen when the words were loaned from French to Dutch language or later, when adapted from Dutch into Indonesian language. The data analysed in this article may help teachers of French as a Foreign Language in Indonesia, as well as teachers of Indonesian as a Foreign Language in French-speaking countries, to predict which words will be immediately recognized by their students, and when they should pay extra-attention to faux-amis (cognates whose meanings differ.

  2. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  3. Work Disability among Employees with Diabetes: Latent Class Analysis of Risk Factors in Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Virtanen

    Full Text Available Studies of work disability in diabetes have examined diabetes as a homogeneous disease. We sought to identify subgroups among persons with diabetes based on potential risk factors for work disability.Participants were 2,445 employees with diabetes from three prospective cohorts (the Finnish Public Sector study, the GAZEL study, and the Whitehall II study. Work disability was ascertained via linkage to registers of sickness absence and disability pensions during a follow-up of 4 years. Study-specific latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups according to prevalent comorbid disease and health-risk behaviours. Study-specific associations with work disability at follow-up were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis.Separate latent class analyses for men and women in each cohort supported a two-class solution with one subgroup (total n = 1,086; 44.4% having high prevalence of chronic somatic diseases, psychological symptoms, obesity, physical inactivity and abstinence from alcohol and the other subgroup (total n = 1,359; 55.6% low prevalence of these factors. In the adjusted meta-analyses, participants in the 'high-risk' group had more work disability days (pooled rate ratio = 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99 and more work disability episodes (pooled rate ratio = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.46. These associations were similar in men and women, younger and older participants, and across occupational groups.Diabetes is not a homogeneous disease in terms of work disability risk. Approximately half of people with diabetes are assigned to a subgroup characterised by clustering of comorbid health conditions, obesity, physical inactivity, abstinence of alcohol, and associated high risk of work disability; the other half to a subgroup characterised by a more favourable risk profile.

  4. Disputing Rossellini: Three French perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Harvey-Davitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his burgeoning body of film theoretical work the French philosopher Jacques Rancière repeatedly turns to some canonical films by Neorealist pioneer Roberto Rossellini. Not simply retreading tired motifs of Neorealism, Rancière’s comments offer some profound new insights, revolutionising prior perspectives on Rossellini. In this article I shall put Rancière’s perspective into dialogue with two of the most significant of these perspectives: André Bazin’s and Gilles Deleuze’s. In doing so I shall claim that Rancière’s approach departs radically from the canonised, standardised Neorealist conception of Rossellini. Instead, I wish to claim that he describes a modernist artist primarily concerned with aesthetic clashes. In doing so I shall contemplate how the meaning of these films has evolved since the era of their contemporary reception, demonstrating the congruence and disparity between these three disparate approaches.

  5. Oligodendroglioma in a French bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Ho

    2003-08-01

    A 5-year-old, male French bulldog with bradycardia, dyspnea, and decerebrate rigidity was necropsied. Macroscopic findings were restricted to the brain, and a single mass, 1.5 x 2.0 x 1.5 cm in size, was observed mainly at the right cingulum with prominently protruding into the dilated right lateral ventricle. The mass was grayish white in color, soft and gelatinous, but not clearly delineated. Microscopically, the mass consisted of diffuse proliferated neoplastic oligodendroglial cells characterized by small, round, and hyperchromatic nuclei with clear cytoplasm and the cells aggressively invaded into the adjacent parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that most of the neoplastic cells were positive for S-100 protein, vimentin, neuron specific enolase (NSE), and neurofilament protein (NFP). From these findings, the mass was diagnosed as oligodendroglioma.

  6. French Society Abroad: The Popularization of French Dance throughout Europe, 1600-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paul Rinehart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dissemination of French dance, dance notation, and dance music throughout Europe, and it explains the reasons why French culture had such an influence on other European societies from 1600-1750. First, the paper seeks to prove that King Louis XIV played a significant role in the outpour of French dance and the arts. Next, the paper discusses prominent French writers of dance notation who influenced the spread of French dance literature and training throughout Europe. Finally, the paper delineates European composers and their involvement in the development and production of French dance music. Using academic, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, and other scholarly sources, this paper seeks to accurately present the information in an orderly fashion. The paper contains visual evidence of dance and music notation to assist the reader in understanding the subject matter. Additionally, theories of contemporary authors as well as authors from the time period are discussed to present concrete evidence. The two main types of dance discussed in the paper are ballroom and court dances, which were prominent within the French royal court. One major finding of the research is the fact that French court and ballroom dances were specifically designed to communicate the power and prestige of King Louis XIV; consequently, other European countries were influenced to strive for similar prestige. Another finding is that many forms of French dance notation were translated and published in other countries, which increased the use of French dance throughout Europe. Musically, European composers such as Handel and Mozart included elements of French dance music in their compositions, and thus played a significant role in prevalence of French dance music throughout Europe. Overall, this paper proves that French dance received wide recognition due to political influence, availability of dance notation, and the involvement of prominent composers.

  7. Milli Kütüphanede Bulunan 06 Hk 319/1 Numaralı Gazel Mecmûası Üzerine About Ghazel Mecmua Numbered 06 Hk 319/1 In National Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ATİLA

    2013-03-01

    manzum ve mensur yazıların bir araya getirildiği kitap ve şiir defterleri olarak kullanılmıştır.Osmanlı ilim, kültür ve edebiyatında çok sayıda örneği bulunan manzum mecmûalar, zamanının şiir antolojileri sayılabilir. Mecmûalar, edebiyat tarihimizin birincil derecedeki kaynaklarında yer almayan şâir ve şiirlerin tespitinde önemli mürâcaat kaynaklarındandır. Ayrıca yazıldıkları dönemin şiir zevkinin tespitinde, üslup araştırmalarında ve şâirlerin edebî kişiliğinin belirlenmesinde araştırmacılara katkı sağlamaktadır.Bu çalışmada ele aldığımız 06 Hk 319/1 numaralı mecmûa, iki ana bölüm hâlinde tertip edilmiştir. Mecmûanın birinci bölümünde müsemmen, müseddes, murabba’, muhammes, müseddes, müsebba’, müstezâd, kasîde, tercî-bend ve rubâ’î nazım şekilleri ile yazılmış şiirler yer almaktadır. “Mecmûa-yı Gazeliyyât” başlığını taşıyan ikinci bölümde ise gazeller bulunmaktadır. Çalışmamızda öncelikle mecmûanın genel özellikleri hakkında bilgi verilmiş ardından eserin ikinci kısmında yer alan gazeller ele alınmıştır. Şiirlerin incelenmesi sırasında şâirlerin isimleri ile her gazelin matla’ beyitleri, şiirlerin sıra numaraları, vezinleri, varak numaraları tablo hâlinde gösterilmiştir. Tablonun hacim bakımından uzun olması sebebiyle makta’ beyitlere yer verilmemiştir. Şiirlerin bulunduğu dîvân vb. eserlerden ulaşılabilenlere mürâcaat edilmiş, ilgili şiirlerin yer alıp almadığı incelenmiş ve mevcutsa sayfa numaraları tablonun açıklamalar kısmında belirtilmiştir.

  8. Persistent maternal depressive symptoms trajectories influence children's IQ: The EDEN mother-child cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria

    2016-01-01

    for The EDEN Mother–Child Cohort Study Group; International audience; Background: This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine mother–child pairs from the French EDEN mother–child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based o...

  9. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2014-01-01

     COLLOQUIAL FRENCH is easy to use and completely up to date!Specially written by experienced teachers for self-study or class use, the course offers a step-by-step approach to written and spoken French. No prior knowledge of the language is required.What makes COLLOQUIAL FRENCH your best choice in personal language learning?Interactive - lots of exercises for regular practiceClear - concise grammar notesPractical - useful vocabulary and pronunciation guideComplete - including answer key and reference sectionWhether you''re a business traveller, or about to take up a daring challenge in adventu

  10. The French human biomonitoring program: First lessons from the perinatal component and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Fillol, Clémence; Charles, Marie-Aline; Denys, Sébastien

    2016-11-17

    This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program currently consists in two surveys: a perinatal component related to a selection of 4145 pregnant women who have been enrolled in the Elfe cohort (the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood) in 2011, and a general population survey related to adults aged 18-74 years and children as from 6 years (Esteban). The aim of this manuscript is to present highlights of the French human biomonitoring program with particular focus on the prioritization of biomarkers to be analyzed in the program and the selection of biomarkers applied to both program components. The Delphi method was used to establish a consensual list of prioritized biomarkers in 2011. First results of the perinatal component of the French HBM program have shown that the biomarkers prioritized were relevant, as almost all pregnant women were exposed to them. However, for some biomarkers, levels' decreases have been observed which may partly be explained by measures taken to prohibit some of these chemicals (e.g. atrazine) and by industrial processes evolutions leading to the substitution of others (e.g. bisphenol A, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate/DEHP, dialkyl phosphates). Therefore, the list of biomarkers to be monitored in the French HBM program has been implemented to include some substitutes of biomarkers prioritized in the first instance (e.g. bisphenol S, F). Finally, this method combines rigor and flexibility and helped us to build a prioritized list that will be shared and supported by many if not all actors.

  11. THE COMPARİSON OF TWO COMMENTARİES FROM THE METHOD ANGLE MADE BY WALTER G. ANDREWS AND İSKENDER PALA OF NABİ’S “GELÜR GİDER” RHYMED GAZEL / NÂBÎ’NİN “GELÜR GİDER” REDİFLİ BİR GAZELİNE WALTER G. ANDREWS ve İSKENDER PALA TARAFINDAN YAPILAN İKİ ŞERHİN METOT AÇISINDAN MUKAYESESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut KOÇOĞLU (M.A.H.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available “Şerh” means to commentary the literal texts and make the understood. The classical Turkish Literature works are commentaried in şerh. As the classical Turkish literature were explained in the past, they are today done in the şerh. The conventionel şerh methods have been used since 14th century. At present modern şerh method are being used. Nâbî’s, 17th century, gazel were commentaried by Walter G. Andrews and İskender Pala. The study of these two scientists’ şerh method, could be useful from the text şerh point of view.

  12. French Olympics Topic Pack Games, Activities and Resources to Teach French

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    The enthusiasm and excitement surrounding the Olympics makes it an ideal topic for teaching French. Not only will pupils learn the French words for sports, we also give you ideas to reinforce vocabulary and sentence structures for a range of topics, from colours and weather to numbers and travel. In addition, using the information on France at the Olympics included in the resource will help to cover the Intercultural Strand of the Framework for Modern Languages. The French Olympics Topic Pac...

  13. Colloquial French 2 the next step in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Broady, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Do you know French already and want to go a stage further? If you're planning a visit to France, need to brush up your French for work, or are simply doing a course, Colloquial French 2 is the ideal way to refresh your knowledge of the language and to extend your skills.Colloquial French 2 is designed to help those involved in self-study, and structured to give you the opportunity to listen to and read lots of modern, everyday French. It has been developed to work systematically on reinforcing and extending your grasp of French grammar and vocabulary.Key features of Colloquial French 2 include

  14. Colloquial French 2 the next step in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Broady, Elspeth

    2014-01-01

    Do you know French already and want to go a stage further? If you''re planning a visit to France, need to brush up your French for work, or are simply doing a course, Colloquial French 2 is the ideal way to refresh your knowledge of the language and to extend your skills.Colloquial French 2 is designed to help those involved in self-study, and structured to give you the opportunity to listen to and read lots of modern, everyday French. It has been developed to work systematically on reinforcing and extending your grasp of French grammar and vocabulary.Key features of Colloquial French 2 includ

  15. Unforgettable French Memory Tricks to Help You Learn and Remember French Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Rice-Jones, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Unforgettable French uses memory tricks to teach and reinforce major points of rench grammar from the basics up to high school level, to learners of all ages. It may be used: by anyone who wishes to gain confidence in speaking French, as a evision aid, to consolidate the learner's grasp of grammatical points, to complement whatever French scheme you are using, and by French teachers at all levels, from elementary school through to adult. These tried-and-tested memory tricks help to explain "tri

  16. Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the French armed forces in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Jacques-Robert; Mura, Marie; Roudaut, Gwenaëlle; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Briolant, Sébastien; Garnotel, Eric; Simon, Fabrice; Pommier De Santi, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were performed 2 years apart in French military personnel deployed from France to French Guiana. In 2011, military medical centres in French Guiana reported 40 cases of intestinal parasitism in service members returning from illegal gold mining sites in the rainforest. In 2013, 48 out of 132 service members returning from French Guiana after a 4-month mission had eosinophilia and seven were infected with hookworm. A presumptive first-line treatment with albendazole could be the most pragmatic strategy.

  17. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  18. FRENCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: THE GATEWAY TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... acquire such skills in specific areas for accessing employment to live a meaningful life within the ... In concrete terms this policy considers the importance of ... neighbours, it is desirable for every Nigerian to speak French.

  19. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  20. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.

  1. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  2. Screening of GABRB3 in French-Canadian families with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Martin, Caroline; Poulin, Chantal; Gravel, Micheline; Carmant, Lionel; Cossette, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Mutations in the GABRB3 have been recently associated with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) in families from Honduras and Mexico. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of mutation in this gene in our cohort of families with CAE and other related idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndromes. We screened the open reading frame of GABRB3 in 183 French-Canadian individuals with IGE, including 88 with CAE. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified,five of which are novel. The previously described P11S missense mutation was found in three affected and one unaffected individuals from a French-Canadian family. However, the P11S variant was also found in one of our 190 control individuals of French-Canadian origin, suggesting that this variant is rather a rare polymorphism in this population. Further screening of other IGE cohorts from various ethnic origins would help to confirm the association between this rare functional variant and epilepsy.

  3. Calvin and discipline among French and Italians

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    John Calvin is a figure who ties together in important ways the Reformations in France and Italy. His theology, particularly as summarized in his Institutes, was widely adopted among Protestants in both countries. He helped arrange projects supported by them in both countries. The first Protestant translation of the Bible into French, for example, was financed by Waldensians, many of them living in Savoy, and published in Neuchâtel in French Switzerland. He worked with secular leaders possess...

  4. Criminology à la francaise : French academic exceptionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Colson, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience; On the 13 th of February 2012, a decree established criminology as a new discipline in the French university system. Six months later, the new Ministry of Higher Education and Research rolled back the reform and abolished the newly created section of criminology. Because French university governance remains centralized and corporatist, any project that transforms an interdisciplinary field of research into a fully-fledged academic discipline is difficult to carry out, ...

  5. Survey for Citrus diseases in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Thermoz, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The presence on the continent of major threats for Citrus orchards has required a survey to assess the situation of Citrus pathogens in the French territory of Guiana. Agriculture in French Guiana is located on the coast (about 300 Kms from west to east and 50 Km wide). There are 1200 Ha of Citrus orchards (Ministry of Agriculture). Citrus are grown either for export (Tahiti lime) or for local consumption : sweet oranges, tangerines and hybrids. Trees are grafted on Carrizo citrange, Rough le...

  6. Activating teaching methods in french language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kulhánková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is activating teaching methods in french language teaching. This thesis outlines the issues acitvating teaching methods in the concept of other teaching methods. There is a definition of teaching method, classification of teaching methods and characteristics of each activating method. In the practical part of this work are given concrete forms of activating teaching methods appropriate for teaching of french language.

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF INDONESIAN LOANWORDS FROM FRENCH

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Indri Hardini; Philippe Grangé

    2016-01-01

    When two languages come into contact, they exert a reciprocal influence, often unbalanced. A phenomenon that often occurs in case of language contact is the absorption or borrowing of lexical elements, which will enrich the vocabulary of the receiving language. In this article, we deal with words adopted from French in Indonesian and vice-versa. This research shows that most of the words of French origin in Indonesian/Malay language were borrowed through Dutch. Historical background explains ...

  8. 2,001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The ideal travel companion and at-home reference, this volume features over 2,000 common French words, each accompanied by a brief definition, a sentence in French demonstrating proper usage, and a translation. These up-to-date terms cover twenty-first century digital technologies and consumer electronics, and a convenient reference section offers greetings and words related to directions, restaurant orders, and other everyday activities, plus helpful tips on vocabulary and grammar.

  9. The French in American Television Commercials, Part One: Plus ca change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    Discusses French stereotypes in television commercials to supply data with which to confront prejudices that American students bring to French class. Three kinds of commercials are examined: (1) French people promoting French products, (2) non-French people promoting French products, and (3) French people promoting American products. (AMH)

  10. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  11. Reformulation and the Learning of French Pronominal Verbs in a Canadian French Immersion Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkin, Sharon; Swain, Merrill; Smith, Monika

    2002-01-01

    Examines a subset of collaborative dialogues that occurred in a a multistage task where Canadian Grade 7 French immersion students worked together in pairs. Each pair wrote a story, noticed differences between their text and a reformulator's revision, and reflected on their noticing. Traces development of the target language (French), with…

  12. Primary prophylaxis of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV patients in French Guiana: arguments for cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Vantilcke, Vincent; Blanchet, Denis; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Histoplasmosis is the first cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related deaths in French Guiana. Cohort data were used to determine whether primary prophylaxis with 100 mg itraconazole for patients with CD4 counts histoplasmosis for a cost of 36,792 Euros per averted death, 1,533 per life-year saved, 4,415 Euros per averted case, when only counting the costs of itraconazole prophylaxis. Taking into account the total costs of hospitalization showed that primary prophylaxis would allow a savings of 185,178 Euros per year. Even in a scenario of low adherence, primary prophylaxis would be cost-effective in French Guiana, and presumably in the rest of the Guianas and the Amazon.

  13. [Acute schistosomiasis in French travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, C-A; Bourvis, N; Fromentin, M; Jaspard, M; Teboul, F; Bougnoux, M-E; Hanslik, T

    2006-08-01

    The clinical presentation of acute schistosomiasis in travellers differs from those observed with chronic schistosomiasis in people from endemic areas. The objective of this study is to describe the main clinical and biological characteristics of the acute schistosomiasis in French travellers. Retrospective study conducted in 42 hospital laboratories of parasitology in France, based on a questionnaire filled out for each case of schistosomiasis diagnosed in subjects non-originating from an endemic country and returning from of a stay in Africa, between 2000 and 2004. Seventy-seven cases of acute schistosomiasis diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were reported by 15 of the 33 laboratories having taken part in the study. The patients were 26 years old on average and 60% were contaminated in West Africa. Seventy patients (91%) presented at least one symptom at the moment of the diagnosis, but only 44 (57%) presented sufficiently intense symptoms to justify a medical consultation spontaneously. The most frequently reported clinical signs were fever (44%), diarrhoea (40%), pruritus (25%), cough (21%) and hematuria (20%). Hypereosinophilia (82%), elevated liver enzymes and positive serology were respectively reported in 82, 23 and 90% of the cases. Ova were found in the urines or the stool in 60% of the cases. Eleven patients were hospitalized. Acute schistosomiasis must be evoked in patients returning from endemic country and presenting with non-specific symptoms; including patients whose bathes in contaminated water was limited to a short contact of the feet in a river. The high frequency of the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic forms exposes the infected people to a delayed diagnosis and therefore to an evolution towards the chronic form of schistosomiasis. The increase in tourism towards the endemic areas could be accompanied by an increase in the frequency of the schistosomiasis, and encourages setting-up an active monitoring of acute schistosomiasis.

  14. Evolvement of French advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnel, Galadriel

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to chronicle the development of the advanced practice nurse (APN) in France and compare international APN indictors of quality care with French studies. A review of the literature was performed by accessing the MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane Databases for studies of quality of care by APNs during 1965-2012. The author's participation on a national task force in collaboration with the French Ministry of Health provided additional information. After applying limits of this search, 36 studies fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. In both the French and international APN nursing literature, the most frequently described quality of care measures were level of patient satisfaction and other patient outcomes (clinical and laboratory measures) according to evidence-based guidelines. In three French studies (nephrology, neuro-oncology, and urology settings), nurses performed direct patient care and were legally permitted to take on some limited responsibilities usually held by French physicians, including clinical examinations, diagnosing, and prescribing. Creation of the APN role in France can respond to public health challenges including the rising incidence of chronic diseases and an impending physician shortage. Future APN research should focus on rigorous, innovative design development including collaborative care models. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. TMEM187-IRAK1 Polymorphisms Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility in Tunisian and French Female Populations: Influence of Geographic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathalie; Auger, Isabelle; Roudier, Jean; Sénéchal, Audrey; Geneviève, David; Lefranc, Gérard; Mrenda, Bakridine M'Madi; Benedito, Cécilia; Pardoux, Etienne; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Jorgensen, Christian; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms have been identified in the Xq28 locus as risk loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated the association between three polymorphisms in the Xq28 region containing TMEM187 and IRAK1 (rs13397, rs1059703, and rs1059702) in two unstudied populations: Tunisian and French. The rs13397 G and rs1059703 T major alleles were significantly increased in RA patients (n = 408) compared with age-matched controls (n = 471) in both Tunisian and French women. These results were confirmed by a meta-analysis replication study including two independent Greek and Korean cohorts. The rs1059702 C major allele was significantly associated with RA, only with French women. In the French population, the GTC haplotype displayed a protective effect against RA, while the ATC, GCC, and GTT haplotypes conferred significant risk for RA. No association for these haplotypes was found in the Tunisian population. Our results replicated for the first time the association of the three Xq28 polymorphisms with RA risk in Tunisian and French populations and suggested that RA susceptibility is associated with TMEM187-IRAK1 polymorphisms in women. Our data further support the involvement of X chromosome in RA susceptibility and evidence ethnicities differences that might be explained by differences in the frequencies of SE HLA-DRB1 alleles between both populations. PMID:28271077

  16. Correspondence Theory and Phonological Blending in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though less productive than rival word-formation processes like compounding and affixation, blending is still a rich source of neologisms in French. Despite this productivity, however, blends are often seen by scholars as unpredictable, uninteresting, or both. This analysis picks up where recent studies of blending have left off, using Correspondence Theory and a bundle of segmental constraints to deal with this phenomenon as it pertains to French. More specifically, it shows that blending is the result of a single output standing in correspondence with two or more other outputs, and that we do not need to refer to prosodic information, which is crucial in accounts of blending in languages with lexical stress like English, to account for the process in French. The analysis also differs from previous studies in that it locates blending exclusively within the phonology, leaving its morphological and semantic characteristics to be handled by other processes in the grammar.

  17. Edexcel international GCSE and certificate French

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Edexcel specification by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific exam advice and practice, it helps to build all the skills needed for success. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification. The book provides up-to-date

  18. Acoustic aspects of vowel harmony in French

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper examines acoustic aspects of vowel harmony (VH), understood as regressive vowel-to-vowel assimilation, in two regional varieties of French in six speakers' productions of 107 disyllabic word pairs. In each word pair, the word-initial vowel (V1) was phonemically either /e/ or /o/, and the word-final stressed vowel (V2) alternated between /e-E/, /ø-oe/, /o-O/ or /i-a/. Results are consistent with the idea that VH in French entails variations in tongue height a...

  19. Histiocytic ulcerative colitis in a French bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Masanari; Takase, Katsuaki

    2003-03-01

    A 9-month-old French bulldog was referred for signs of chronic large bowel diarrhea. The dog had an increased frequency of defecation, tenesmus and hematochezia. Flexible colonoscopy showed hyperemia, irregularities and ulcerations with multifocal hemorrhages in the mucosa from the descending colon to the proximal rectum. Multiple colonic biopsies were characterized by infiltrations of PAS positive histiocytes in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) was made, and the animal showed only minimal improvement, although it was treated with nutritional and medical therapies. This is the second case of HUC in French bulldog, a breed which has ancestral relations to Boxer dogs.

  20. Necrotising encephalitis in a French bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmann, D; Konar, M; Howard, J; Vandevelde, M

    2007-06-01

    A 20-month-old, female French bulldog was presented with a three-month history of generalised seizures and progressive ataxia with occasional falling over on either side. Neurological examination revealed signs, suggesting a multifocal intracranial lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed two connected lesions on the left side of the caudal brainstem and a further lesion in the cerebrum. The dog was euthanased, and histopathological examination revealed lesions which closely resembled those of necrotising encephalitis in Yorkshire terriers. This is the first case describing this type of necrotising encephalitis in a French bulldog.

  1. 90 Multilingual Education for Nation Building: The Case for French ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    multilingual education and highlight how French language ... actively through speaking, writing, or signing or passively. (through listening ... and skills that can help them to be self-actualized. .... The Importance of French Language in Nigeria.

  2. Teaching and learning of French: Imperative for educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching and learning of French: Imperative for educational opportunities, ... This paper seeks to reflect on the importance of French Language Teaching and ... of human endeavour, be it commerce, science, technology, culture, diplomacy ...

  3. French scientists offered time to set up companies

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    1999-01-01

    The French minister of national education, research and technology announced that French researchers working for public research institutes and universities are to be offered up to six years sabbatical leave to set up their own companies (11 para)

  4. Health Information in French (français)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations MRI Scans MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations MRSA MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) - français (French) ...

  5. Insights from the French Immersion Experience in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safty, Adel

    Canada's French immersion program began in 1965 in response to anglophone parent demand for bilingual French/English instruction. Instruction entirely in French begins in kindergarten, and formal English instruction begins in third grade. The program's popularity has caused rapid expansion, with success attributed to changing attitudes toward…

  6. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  7. Word Parsing by Late-Learning French-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golato, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Research on early learning French-English bilinguals suggests that development of segmentation is best characterized by a parameter-setting theory of language acquisition in which French segmentation is marked relative to English segmentation. Reports recent research with late-learning French-English bilinguals that finds evidence for parameter…

  8. Ten Projects to Involve Your Students Directly in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Peter C.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes 10 activities to provide French classes of all levels with a broad spectrum of language projects involving direct and active use of French including students polling each other, skits based on television commercials, geographical "show and tell," cooking French dishes, writing a monthly newspaper, and field trips. (BK)

  9. A French Culture Course for Non-Language Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Utah State University changed its "potentially...boring and probably...useless" French civilization course (taught in French and required of majors) to an English-taught course for French majors and majors in business, economics, political science, and prelaw. The new course focuses on stereotypes, cultural differences, and current…

  10. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  11. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  12. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  13. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  14. The second French car; Der zweite Franzose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    The Flence Z.E. is the second electric-powered car that French manufacturer Renault presented within a short period of time. The limousine has a roomy passenger compartment but little space for luggage. Refuelling is possible by battery exchange within just a few minutes, but not in Germany.

  15. Le Francais Courant, Part VI: Contemporary French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course, developed largely within the framework of units 13, 14, and 15 of the second edition of "A-LM French, Level 2," emphasizes development of basic audiolingual skills. Conversational topics permit the student to review his summer vacation. Principal elements of structure are expressions of quantity, pronouns--including those…

  16. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs…

  17. Get Started in French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Catrine

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling beginner's course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100723) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100716).

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. Using Drama in the French Immersion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacker, Deborah L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of the oral language interactions of French immersion students involved in a group drama about the early settlers. Finds that four language functions (informative, directive, expressive, and imaginative) were characteristic of children's interactions during group drama. Finds relationships between type of session and the…

  20. How to Find Out in: French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan E.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of French language and literature. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials for language study include dictionaries and encyclopedias, histories of the language, and…

  1. Teaching French Culture. Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ross; Suozzo, Andrew

    In today's global village, the choice of languages and cultures offered to the high school and college student in constantly increasing. Several reasons are offered for choosing the more traditional option of French/Francophone culture: internationalism, political contributions, intellectual achievements, France's role in Europe and in technology,…

  2. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  3. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  4. French grammar you really need to know

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive and clear explanations of key grammar patterns and structures are reinforced and contextualized through authentic materials. You will not only learn how to construct grammar correctly, but when and where to use it so you sound natural and appropriate. French Grammar You Really Need to Know will help you gain the intuition you need to become a confident communicator in your new language.

  5. Henri Vetch and His French Bookstore Peking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on enormous firsthand materials as journals, memoirs, newspapers, correspondences, archives, bibliographies and books etc., this article tries to clarify some important aspects concerning Henri Vetch and his French Bookstore Peking such as when Henri Vetch took over his father Francis Vetch’s La Librairie Francaise and established his own French Bookstore Peking, how its inner structure worked and what its major businesses covered. By doing so, the author tells the story of the French Bookstore Peking: how it had witnessed the vicissitudes of its time and its own, how it had contributed to the cultural exchange and communication between China and the West through its daily business activities such as book retails, consignments, purchases on demand, and publication of books on various aspects of China in English and other languages written by distinguished western sinologists and authors. In all, this article makes efforts to explore the publishing history of an individual-Henri Vetch from 1930 to 1953, whose publishing house, the French Bookstore Peking, served both for an academic club and a private library, and had played an active role in the cultural life of Beijing or even the whole China during that time. [Article content in Chinese

  6. [Leishmania braziliensis Vianna, 1911 in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, J P; Piens, M A; Pratlong, F; Rioux, J A

    1989-01-01

    A new case of cutaneous Leishmaniasis to L. braziliensis Vianna, 1911, contracted in French Guyana is reported. The parasite, isolated in culture, is identified by enzymatic typing (13 zymoden). The identified zymodem is zymodem MON-43. It is the same of the WHO reference strain L. braziliensis s. st.

  7. U.S.-French Commercial Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-19

    from 20.8%). The government still has stakes in Bull and Safran , and in 1,280 other firms. While the trend has been to privatize many large...involve Areva, the state-owned nuclear group and other French companies, plus the huge defense/aerospace companies Thales and Safran .12 At the same

  8. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  9. French-Style Luxury Comes to Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    LANDMARK LUXURY: Francois Vanvi,Director of Sales & Marketing of Sofitel Wanda Beijing, points to the hotel as a landmark in the hospitality industry of Beijing"Our customer- minded services are the embodiment of French luxury, and focus on offering enjoyment and feelings of ease."—Francis Vanvi

  10. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  11. How to Find Out in: French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan E.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of French language and literature. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials for language study include dictionaries and encyclopedias, histories of the language, and…

  12. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: 702 SF Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  13. Teaching Old French Literature to Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harry E.

    As a prelude to graduate-level work for French majors, medieval studies are proposed for undergraduate students. Problems inherent in the establishment of the undergraduate program are identified with some suggested solutions. Concepts related to historical grammar, teaching materials, literature, and linguistics are developed. A logical course…

  14. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues…

  15. Amenager la langue francaise (French Language Planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Jean-Claude

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of French language planning focuses on two different roles: official, cherished language of France and international language subject to outside influence. Three areas of concern are discussed: borrowing from English; lexical variation outside France; and influence of computer science on language, particularly the use of spell-checking…

  16. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  17. The Autism Diagnostic Experiences of French Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Beatrice; Oudaya, Lila; Ehrenberg, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This survey focused on French parents' views of the diagnostic process relating to their child with autism. Data were collected on the age at diagnosis, the time taken to obtain a diagnosis and the difficulties encountered. Questionnaires filled in by the parents (n = 248) and in-depth interviews (n = 43) were analyzed in order to obtain…

  18. Perfect Your French (book only) Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Arragon, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling advanced course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444102079) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444102062).

  19. The Longitudinal Development of Clusters in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing…

  20. Diaphasic variation and change in French pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anita Berit

    2013-01-01

    The French pronominal paradigm demonstrates a colloquial variation between expressing the 1st person plural as on and as nous (On est 19 dans ma classe meaning the same as Nous sommes 19 dans ma classe). This use of definite on is stigmatized by some as working class and incorrect and seen as a s...

  1. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  2. Developing a Strategic Marketing Plan in the French Market : Case: A Chinese company in the French Stevia Market

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuren

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: ChenYuren 2011. Developing a Strategic Marketing Plan in the French Market. Case: A Chinese company in the French Stevia market. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 54. Appendices 2. The objective of the thesis is to develop a strategic marketing plan for a Chinese case company in the French Stevia market. The elements of this strategic marketing plan and the analyses of the French Stevia market are the major parts of the thesis. This strate...

  3. [International cohort studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, W; Pigeot, I

    2012-06-01

    Among observational studies, cohort studies, i.e. longitudinal observations of selected population groups, provide the highest possible evidence of a causal association between specific risk factors (exposure) and the occurrence of disease in populations. Besides the fact that many exposures cannot be investigated in experimental designs, cohort studies have the advantage over randomized clinical trials that they are conducted in free living populations and not in restrictive, clinical settings. In this paper we describe the aims and features of international cohorts that have been selected because of their impact, their size or their endpoints. We do not only present the study designs and survey instruments used but we also highlight some of the most important results gained by these studies. Most of these prospective studies investigated common chronic diseases in the elderly, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis and ophthalmologic disorders. Newer cohorts and recent reassessments of existing cohorts almost always include the collection and storage of biological samples. In recent years technological developments allowed the implementation of cutting edge measurement procedures, such as imaging techniques for phenotyping. Finally, we discuss on the one hand whether these designs can be transferred to the German situation and on the other hand to what degree the results obtained from foreign cohorts can be generalized for the German population. We conclude with recommendations for future cohort studies.

  4. The Impact of L2 Dialect on Learning French Vowels: Native English Speakers Learning Quebecois and European French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wendy; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a second language (L2) dialect affects how accurately the L2 is perceived and produced. Specifically, the study examined differences between the production and perception of French vowels /i/, /y/, and /u/ by learners of either Quebec French (QF) or European French (EF). These vowels differ across the two varieties, both…

  5. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  6. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  7. A French National Survey on Clotting Disorders in Mastocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, Ana B.; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Canioni, Danielle; Brouzes, Chantal; Gyan, Emmanuel; Durupt, Stéphane; Durieu, Isabelle; Cathebras, Pascal; Costédoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Launay, David; Pilmis, Benoit; Barete, Stephane; Frenzel, Laurent; Lortholary, Olivier; Hermine, Olivier; Hermans, Cedric; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mastocytosis is characterized by a clonal mast cell proliferation with organ infiltration and uncontrolled degranulation. Although not characteristic and poorly explained, some patients develop clotting abnormalities. We retrospectively identified patients with established diagnosis of mastocytosis and related clotting abnormalities (clinical and/or biological) using the national French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. From our cohort of 14 adult patients with clotting abnormalities (median age 46 years [range 26–75]), 4 had a presentation suggestive of a primary hemostasis disorder alone (by their symptoms and/or abnormal clotting tests [PFA, von Willebrand's disease [vWD] screening]) and 10 had a laboratory impairment of secondary hemostasis. Among these, 7 had bleeds characteristic of a coagulation cascade disorder (severe/life-threatening in 5 and mild in 2 patients). Clotting abnormalities were of variable severity, typically related to intense crisis of degranulation, such as anaphylactic reactions, and/or to severe organ infiltration by mast cells. Importantly, classical hemostatic management with platelet transfusion, fresh frozen plasma, or vitamin K infusions was unsuccessful, as opposed to the use of agents inhibiting mast cell activity, particularly steroids. This illustrates the crucial role of mast cell mediators such as tryptase and heparin, which interfere both with primary (mainly via inhibition of von Willebrand factor) and secondary hemostasis. There was interestingly an unusually high number of aggressive mastocytosis (particularly mast cell leukemia) and increased mortality in the group with secondary hemostasis disorders (n = 5, 36% of the whole cohort). Mast cell degranulation and/or high tumoral burden induce both specific biologic antiaggregant and anticoagulant states with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening bleeds. Hemostatic control is achieved by mast cell inhibitors such as

  8. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of

  9. Cohort Profile Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order...... of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates...

  10. L206W mutation of the cystic fibrosis gene, relatively frequent in French Canadians, is associated with atypical presentations of cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, R.; Ferreira-Rajabi, L.; Robb, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Over 400 mutations have been reported at this locus. Although severe forms of cystic fibrosis are usually associated with pancreatic insufficiency, pulmonary dysfunction, and elevated sweat chloride, there is a wide range of phenotypes, including congenital absence of the vas deferens, observed with some of the milder mutations. The L206W mutation, which was first identified in patients from South France, is relatively frequent in French Canadians from Quebec. In this report, we document the atypical form of cystic fibrosis associated with this mutation in a cohort of 7 French Canadian probands. 20 refs.

  11. Diabetes in acromegaly, prevalence, risk factors, and evolution: data from the French Acromegaly Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieffe, Sandrine; Morange, Isabelle; Petrossians, Patrick; Chanson, Philippe; Rohmer, Vincent; Cortet, Christine; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Brue, Thierry; Delemer, Brigitte

    2011-06-01

    The French Acromegaly Registry records data of acromegalic patients' since 1992 in French, Belgian (Liège), and Swiss (Lausanne) centers. We studied the prevalence of diabetes in this population looking for risk factors. Patients from one of the centers (Reims) were then analyzed more thoroughly. This study has been conducted on all the patients recorded from 1999 until 2004 (519 patients). Evolution of cohorts' was reassessed in 2009. Of the different variables recorded in the registry: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), duration of acromegaly, GH, IGF1 and prolactin levels, pituitary tumor size, hormonal deficiencies, presence, duration and treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and rheumatological disease were analyzed. The prevalence of diabetes in the registry was 22.3%. Diabetic patients were older and had a higher BMI. Compared with the data of the French Social Security, acromegalic patients showed a more precocious apparition of diabetes and prevalence was higher in each age group. Compared with non-diabetic acromegalic subjects, diabetic patients had a more prolonged evolution of acromegaly before diagnosis. The levels of GH and IGF1 were not significantly different between the two groups. Only hypertension was significantly more frequent in diabetic patients. In our population, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 22.3%. The GH and IGF1 levels did not appear as predictive factors for the presence of diabetes. On the contrary, age, BMI, and hypertension were significant risk factors as in the general population of type 2 diabetics.

  12. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  13. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  14. The French language virtual medical university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  15. French for specific purpose; French for academic purpose; academic writing; types of discourse; academic discourse; course design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Lallouet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available French for academic purpose is a recent development of French for specific purposes. This new branch of didactics aims to facilitate studies of non-native speakers at French or French speaking universities. Its concern is also to analyze the needs and diffi culties of foreign students so that a tailored course enabling them to follow any course in their fi eld of study could be worked up. The purpose of this article is to see if such an approach can be applied into a department of French where French language is at the same time aim, content and means of study. It will be briefl y explained what French for academic purpose is all about. We will then outline the diffi culties experienced by our students when writing their BA and MA theses. Finally we will take into account the practical aspects and     difficulties of such an approach.

  16. A Replication Study for Association of LBX1 locus with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in French-Canadian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Dina; Julien, Cédric; Samuels, Mark E; Moreau, Alain

    2017-06-09

    A case-control association study. To investigate the relationship between LBX1 polymorphisms and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) in French-Canadian population. It is widely accepted that genetic factors contribute to AIS. Although the LBX1 locus is so far the most successfully replicated locus in different AIS cohorts, these associations were replicated mainly in Asian populations, with few studies in Caucasian populations of European descent. We recruited 1568 participants (667 AIS patients and 901 healthy controls) in the French-Canadian population. Genomic data was generated using the Illumina Human Omni 2.5 M BeadChip. An additional 121 AIS cases and 51 controls were genotyped for specific SNPs by multiplex PCR using standard procedures. BEAGLE 3 was used to impute the following markers: rs7893223, rs11190878 and rs678741 against the 1000-genomes European cohort phased genotypes given that they were absent in our GWAS panel. Resulting genotypes were combined then used for single marker and haplotyped-based association. Four markers showed association with AIS in our cohort at this locus; rs11190870 the most studied marker, rs7893223, rs594791, and rs11190878. When we restricted the analysis to severe cases only, four additional SNPs showed associations: rs11598177, rs1322331, rs670206 and rs678741. In addition, we analyzed the associations of the observed haplotypes and dihaplotypes formed by these SNPs. The haplotype TTAAGAAA and its homozygous dihaplotype showed the highest association with our severe group and was the highest risk haplotype. The haplotype CCGCAGGG was significantly more associated with the control group, and its homozygous or heterozygous dihaplotype was less frequent in the severe group compared to the control group, suggesting that CCGCAGGG may represent a protective haplotype. We have replicated the association of the LBX1 locus with AIS in French-Canadian population, a novel European descent cohort, which is known for its unique

  17. Towards a unified medical lexicon for French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Baud, Robert; Burgun, Anita; Namer, Fiammetta; Jarrousse, Eric; Grabar, Natalia; Ruch, Patrick; Le Duff, Franck; Thirion, Benoît; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2003-01-01

    Medical Informatics has a constant need for basic Medical Language Processing tasks, e.g., for coding into controlled vocabularies, free text indexing and information retrieval. Most of these tasks involve term matching and rely on lexical resources: lists of words with attached information, including inflected forms and derived words, etc. Such resources are publicly available for the English language with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, but not in other languages. For the French language, several teams have worked on the subject and built local lexical resources. The goal of the present work is to pool and unify these resources and to add extensively to them by exploiting medical terminologies and corpora, resulting in a unified medical lexicon for French (UMLF). This paper exposes the issues raised by such an objective, describes the methods on which the project relies and illustrates them with experimental results.

  18. UMLF: a unified medical lexicon for French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Baud, Robert; Burgun, Anita; Namer, Fiammetta; Jarrousse, Eric; Grabar, Natalia; Ruch, Patrick; Le Duff, Franck; Forget, Jean-François; Douyère, Magaly; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2005-03-01

    Medical Informatics has a constant need for basic medical language processing tasks, e.g. for coding into controlled vocabularies, free text indexing and information retrieval. Most of these tasks involve term matching and rely on lexical resources: lists of words with attached information, including inflected forms and derived words, etc. Such resources are publicly available for the English language with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, but not in other languages. For the French language, several teams have worked on the subject and built local lexical resources. The goal of the present work is to pool and unify these resources and to add extensively to them by exploiting medical terminologies and corpora, resulting in a unified medical lexicon for French (UMLF). This paper exposes the issues raised by such an objective, describes the methods on which the project relies and illustrates them with experimental results.

  19. French language space science educational outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  20. FRENCH CARDS - NEW PROCEDURE FOR INITIAL APPLICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Human Resources Division would like to remind members of personnel that they are obliged to submit an application form for a French card as soon as they have a permanent address in either Switzerland or in France and they are actually living there. Following the rationalization of our administrative procedures, as of October 1st, 2002, the initial application procedure for a French card will now be as follows: The member of personnel should complete an application form. If necessary, an application form must also be completed for family members. These forms must then be transferred via e-mail to the appropriate Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) who will forward them to the Cards Service. In parallel, the member of personnel should submit the necessary supporting documents to the Cards Service. The application form (Word format only), the procedural details, the necessary supporting documents as well as the conditions of issue are available here.   Human Resources Division Tel. 74469

  1. The French Research Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 6 June, the French Minister for Higher Education and Research, Valérie Pécresse, was welcomed by CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar. Robert Aymar accompanies Valérie Pécresse and Bernard Accoyer on a visit to CMS. A dozen physicists took part in the round-table discussion, including the Director-General, project leaders, deputy spokesmen, members of the experiments, CERN personnel and users.At first, the Minister was given a tour of the CMS experiment and the LHC tunnel, accompanied by the President of the French National Assembly, Bernard Accoyer. The delegation then took part in a round-table discussion. The main objective of the Minister’s visit was to obtain input on the organisation of large research infrastructures, based on information concerning CERN’s administrative and scientific configuration and the experiment collaborations. As J.-J. Blaising, Head of the PH Depa...

  2. Predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenga, Narcisse; Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    French Guiana is the French territory where the HIV epidemic is most preoccupying. In Cayenne, the mother to child HIV transmission rate was 6% in 2006-2008. Despite free testing and treatment, HIV pregnant women often have delayed or insufficient access to care. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of antiretroviral treatmentFrench Guiana) and then to describe their attitudes, practices, and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. A case control study was conducted including all deliveries in Cayenne from 2003 to 2010. For each case, a standardized questionnaire including epidemiological, clinical, and biological data was administered. The analysis first described the summary statistics and then bivariate analysis studied the relation of each variable with the outcome. Multivariate analysis adjusted for the confounding factors. Thirty-three women in the first group and 96 in the control group were included in the study. Women born in French Guiana (OR = 5, IC95% = 1.22-20.86, p=0.027) had a high risk of treatment<4 weeks. The other factors associated with treatment<4 weeks in our study were benefiting from food parcels (OR = 12.72, IC95% = 2.07-78.14, p=0.006), consulting a traditional healer when sick (OR = 9.86, IC95% = 2.57-37.88, p= < 0.001), and drug use (OR = 6.27, IC95% = 1.26-31.13, p=0.025). These predictive factors should be considered in prevention programs against mother to child transmission of HIV.

  3. Assessing future sustainability of french public finances

    OpenAIRE

    Creel, Jérôme; Hubert, Paul; Saraceno, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on the French public finances' consolidation by investigating the long-term sustainability of France's fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government's tax receipts and expenditures. We find that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the rest of the Euro Area (mostly because of public wages and social benefits), its trend is comparable to its neighbours. Net lending is also under control, thanks to the high levels...

  4. French NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    two great European continental powers, shared a strategic interest in preventing any resurgence of German power in the center of Europe. The United...internal structure inherited from de Gaulle and Pompidou made any European or allied role problematic at best. In 1975, large divisions were...substantial • m . . , a l I I I I -12- concern to the French. By opening up the prospects of German unity and more normal interaction in the center of Europe

  5. Foreword: French Language Acquisition in Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Offord

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The foreword to Vivliofika’s cluster of articles on French language acquisition in Imperial Russia mentions the scholarly project and conference out of which the cluster arises, briefly describes the UK-based project, states the importance of study of education in it, summarises a few of the main educational questions that are germane in this connection and, finally, simply introduces the contents of the cluster.

  6. [The First World War and French nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Margaret H

    2014-06-01

    The First World War changed the place of women in French society. The major contribution they made in numerous sectors of activity is indisputable. However, the process of professionalisation was not really undertaken and the level of training given to the nurses, most of whom were volunteers, was very sketchy. The nurses seemed to be appreciated as much for their dedication as for their skills.

  7. Low Speed Automation, a French Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Sébastien; Cour, Maurice; NOUVELIERE, Lydie; LAMBERT, Alain; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Popieul, Jean-Christophe; Mourllion, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays, vehicle safety is constantly increasing thanks to the improvement of vehicle passive and active safety. However, on a daily usage of the car, traffic jams remains a problem. With limited space for road infrastructure, automation of the driving task on specific situation seems to be a possible solution. The French project ABV, which stands for low speed automation, tries to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to prove the benefits. In this article, ...

  8. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  9. Fundamental physics in space: The French contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie

    2003-08-01

    This paper outlines the space Fundamental Physics projects developped under CNES responsability together with the french scientific community, either in the national french programme or in the french contribution to the ESA programme, mainly: -the MICROSCOPE project which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, on a microsatellite of the MYRIADE series developped by CNES, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is part of the ACES project of ESA, located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H-MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -a contribution to the AMS spectrometer which searches for cosmic antimatter, on the external part of the International Space Station, -a contribution to the LISA mission of ESA for direct detection and measurement of gravitational waves by interferometry, -ground-based studies on cold-atom interferometers which could be part of the HYPER project submitted to ESA.

  10. FRENCH CARDS - NEW PROCEDURE FOR INITIAL APPLICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Human Resources Division would like to remind members of personnel that they are obliged to submit an application form for a French card as soon as they have a permanent address in either Switzerland or in France and they are actually living there. Following the rationalization of our administrative procedures, as of October 1st, 2002, the initial application procedure for a French card will now be as follows: The member of personnel should complete an application form. If necessary, an application form must also be completed for family members. These forms must then be transferred via e-mail to the appropriate Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) who will forward them to the Cards Service. In parallel, the member of personnel should submit the necessary supporting documents to the Cards Service. Users are requested to apply for a French card through the Users Office. The application form (Word format only), the procedural details, the necessary supporting documents as well as the conditions of issue a...

  11. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Why the cohort was set up? CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. Cohort participants CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18–69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. Data collection phases At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Main types of data collected Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. Control of selection effects To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Data access Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. PMID:27884936

  12. Time trends in exposure of cattle to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and cohort effect in France and Italy: value of the classical Age-Period-Cohort approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Age-Period-Cohort (APC analysis is routinely used for time trend analysis of cancer incidence or mortality rates, but in veterinary epidemiology, there are still only a few examples of this application. APC models were recently used to model the French epidemic assuming that the time trend for BSE was mainly due to a cohort effect in relation to the control measures that may have modified the BSE exposure of cohorts over time. We used a categorical APC analysis which did not require any functional form for the effect of the variables, and examined second differences to estimate the variation of the BSE trend. We also reanalysed the French epidemic and performed a simultaneous analysis of Italian data using more appropriate birth cohort categories for comparison. Results We used data from the exhaustive surveillance carried out in France and Italy between 2001 and 2007, and comparatively described the trend of the epidemic in both countries. At the end, the shape and irregularities of the trends were discussed in light of the main control measures adopted to control the disease. In Italy a decrease in the epidemic became apparent from 1996, following the application of rendering standards for the processing of specific risk material (SRM. For the French epidemic, the pattern of second differences in the birth cohorts confirmed the beginning of the decrease from 1995, just after the implementation of the meat and bone meal (MBM ban for all ruminants (1994. Conclusion The APC analysis proved to be highly suitable for the study of the trend in BSE epidemics and was helpful in understanding the effects of management and control of the disease. Additionally, such an approach may help in the implementation of changes in BSE regulations.

  13. Presentation of the selected French libraries and the French library system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moja Kotar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Selected French libraries (Bibliotheque nationale de France, Bibliotheque publique d’information, multimedia library of the Cité des sciences et de l’industrie as well as Paris public libraries are presented in the article. France does not have a union catalogue at the national level, therefore libraries use different platforms for shared cataloguing and compile more union catalogues. According to their needs, French libraries join into consortia for the acquisition of electronic resources, which can be either geographically or thematically delimited or formed by the institutions of the same status. The author believes that the Slovenian library network works well considering much smaller budget for culture and higher education in comparison with France. To improve its performance, more funds would have to be allocated and higher reputation of the library profession achieved, comparable to the situation in France. Digitization of resources is the area where the Slovenian librarianship lags most behind the French one.

  14. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gladys Ibanez; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Claire Rondet; Hugo Peyre; Anne Forhan; Monique Kaminski; Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles

    2015-01-01

    International audience; IntroductionStudies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10–20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children’s health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children’s early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.MethodsIn the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicat...

  15. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  16. French firms display their technical know-how at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six French companies presented their latest technological advances to the CERN community during the industrial exhibition "La France au CERN", held on 7–9 June. The inauguration took place in the presence of Rolf Heuer, director-general of CERN, together with Catherine Cesarsky, the French high-commissioner for atomic energy, Michel Spiro, president of CERN Council, and Jean Baptiste Mattei from the French permanent mission at the UN in Geneva.

  17. Early lessons from the recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis cohort ESPOIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Bernard; Rincheval, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    ESPOIR is a French multicenter cohort of patients with undifferentiated arthritis enrolled within six months of symptom onset, naive to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and corticosteroid therapy, and either having rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or being at risk for progression to RA. The cohort is sponsored by the French Society for Rheumatology (Société française de rhumatologie [SFR]). Between December 2002 and March 2005, 813 patients were enrolled at 14 regional university hospitals, with the participation of a network of community-based rheumatologists. The objective was to establish a database on recent-onset inflammatory joint disease and, more specifically, on RA to serve for scientific research in the clinical, epidemiological, pathophysiological, and healthcare-cost fields. Ten years after enrolment were started, the cohort still has about 500 patients. The scientific committee has approved 104 clinical research projects, of which many are ongoing, and 54 original articles written by numerous French and international groups have been published. These projects cover a vast spectrum of topics including environmental factors, diagnosis, outcomes, prognosis, disease evaluation, imaging, genetics, biomarkers, costs, and RA management strategies.

  18. French Modular Impoundment: Final Cost and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, Peter [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States); French, Bill [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This report comprises the Final Cost and Performance Report for the Department of Energy Award # EE0007244, the French Modular Impoundment (aka the “French Dam”.) The French Dam is a system of applying precast modular construction to water control structures. The “French Dam” is a term used to cover the construction means/methods used to construct or rehabilitate dams, diversion structures, powerhouses, and other hydraulic structures which impound water and are covered under FDE’s existing IP (Patents # US8414223B2; US9103084B2.)

  19. Arts in space: French experiences and elements of prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques

    2009-04-01

    The French space adventure started more than 40 years ago. Its rich and long scientific and technical tradition made France able to occupy the place which is hers today. But what does happen to the world of arts, to which the French culture brought so much? Beyond some French artists belonging to the community of the space artists, do arts constitute a true dimension of the French space activity? Conversely, did space influence the national artistic culture? This paper proposes to tackle these questions according to a retrospective historical glance and to offer some prospective reflexions.

  20. Nigeria (A Cohort Analysis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The international movement against female circumcision gained momentum in the past two decades. Although recent studies report ... Affecting the Health of Women and Children, Ogun State Chapter, Abeokuta, Ogun State .... cohort effect in trends or provided plausible ... and other international rights movements drew.

  1. Age at onset variance analysis in spinocerebellar ataxias : a study in a Dutch-French cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Hendriks, H.; Durr, A.; Zuijlen, M.C.A. van; Stevanin, G.; Camuzat, A.; Sinke, R.J.; Brice, A.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), the issue of whether non-CAG dependent factors contribute to onset age remains unsettled. Data on SCA genotype, onset age, normal/expanded CAG repeat length, sex of the patient and transmitting parent, and family details were available from 802 patients. B

  2. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  3. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  4. [French language pharmaceutical publications in 1995. I. Assessment and analysis of French language pharmaceutical periodicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bador, P; Grand, C; Locher, F

    1996-01-01

    Periodicals constitute a vital source of information and an invaluable continuing education medium to pharmacists. The aim of the present study was to compile the list of the 83 pharmacy-related periodicals published in French as at 1995 with a view to establishing their main characteristics. The first part focuses on the definition of the concept of "French language pharmaceutical periodicals" selected for the survey needed a) to be in circulation in 1995 and published at least two times a year, b) published by pharmacists or non-pharmacists but must carry articles intended to help, inform, or retrain pharmacists irrespective of their specialties (community, hospital, biological or industrial pharmacy) as well as their closest collaborators (assistants, technicians, etc.) and c) published in French. The second section presents the methodology of the survey, which consisted essentially in consulting publisher and library catalogs and direct interviews with embassies and Pharmacy Associations in French-speaking countries. Questionnaires were also sent out to editors of periodicals and the information gathered was analysed by computer. The following section reproduces the results of the the survey: These were classified into three categories: scientific, professional, and continuing education periodicals. The last section concentrates on their readership (national, international), frequency, modalities of publication, date of creation, indexing in bibliographic databases.

  5. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDufour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/ - /ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations.

  6. Complementarity between microarray and immunoblot for the comparative evaluation of IgE repertoire of French and Italian cypress pollen allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Y; Nicaise, P; Brázdová, A; Charpin, D; Scala, E; Mari, A; Sutra, J P; Chollet-Martin, S; Sénéchal, H; Poncet, P

    2014-01-01

    Cypress pollen represents the primary cause of respiratory allergies in Mediterranean areas. Patients allergic to Cupressus sempervirens pollen (Cups) (CPA) can be discriminated on the basis of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to a basic 14 kDa protein (BP14) or to high-molecular-weight (HMW) glycoproteins only. Specific IgE repertoires of two differentially exposed CPA cohorts, French and Italian, were investigated using an IgE microarray system (some known major allergens from several allergenic sources) and individual IgE immunoblotting (IB) of whole Cups pollen extract separated by SDS-PAGE (all allergens from one allergenic source: cypress pollen). The prevalence of sensitization to BP14 was higher in French (37 %) than in Italian patients (17 %) and major differences were observed in IgE reactivities to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Thirty percent of the Italian CPA (4 % in the French group) had specific IgE against the Parietaria pollen LTP, independently of IB subgroups. Regarding peach LTP sensitization, all Pru p 3+ Italian CPA (10 %) were in the HMW+ subgroup, while Pru p 3+ French CPA (20 %) were all included in the BP14+ subgroup. BP14 sensitization is likely a marker of Cups exposure and is, in French CPA, significantly correlated to Pru p 3 sensitization. The IgE immunoblot and microarray are complementary tools that highlight differences in the subtle sensitization profile between groups of patients in comparative studies.

  7. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  8. A vos marques! an accelerated French course

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Alison; Tippett-Spirtou, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    A Vos Marques! is an introductory course for students taking French as an option alongside their main degree course. It has been developed specifically for false beginners: students who have a slight acquaintance with the language.The course comprises a student's book, teacher's book and three 60-minute audio cassettes and, through fifteen chapters, follows the progress of an English-speaking student studying in Paris, whose achievements are designed to reflect those of the course user.Special features include:* activities involving pair and group work* an aid to self-

  9. Cor Triatriatum Sinister in a French Bulldog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo L. G. Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old male French Bulldog was evaluated due to recent history of intolerance to exercise and coughing. The clinical, radiographic, and echocardiographic findings were consistent with cor triatriatum sinister (CTS, a congenital heart anomaly in which the left atrium is subdivided into two compartments by an abnormal fibromuscular membrane. This defect has been rarely recognized in humans and in domestic cats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the disorder in the canine species.

  10. The French experience of environmental data sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Leobet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The context of the late 1990s When I arrived at the Ministry for the Environment in late 1998, my mission was to disseminate information and maps on natural and technological hazards on the web. The legal framework was designed by a 1989 law that gave every French citizen the right to be informed about the risks that concern himself. Nearly ten years later, its implementation was still barely begun. In the field of natural hazards, but also in others, some politicians were convinced of the im...

  11. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajot, F X; Le Pont, F; Gentile, B; Besnard, R

    1982-01-01

    Lutzomyia umbratilis is confirmed as the vector of Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, the cause of "pian bois" in man in French Guiana. Although spending most of the year in the forest canopy, this sandfly is abundant at ground level for about two weeks at the beginning of the long rainy season. The maximum number of infective bites per man per hour (3.9) was reached at the end of November 1979. Infections were found in one of seven Potos flavus, seven of 15 Choleopus didactylus and two of 19 rodents examined. C. didactylus seems likely to be the main reservoir.

  12. Evaluation of a Grammar of French Determiners

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Existing syntactic grammars of natural languages, even with a far from complete coverage, are complex objects. Assessments of the quality of parts of such grammars are useful for the validation of their construction. We evaluated the quality of a grammar of French determiners that takes the form of a recursive transition network. The result of the application of this local grammar gives deeper syntactic information than chunking or information available in treebanks. We performed the evaluation by comparison with a corpus independently annotated with information on determiners. We obtained 86% precision and 92% recall on text not tagged for parts of speech.

  13. Fifth French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 2-yearly French-German Conferences on Optimization review the state-of-the-art and the trends in the field. The proceedings of the Fifth Conference include papers on projective methods in linear programming (special session at the conference), nonsmooth optimization, two-level optimization, multiobjective optimization, partial inverse method, variational convergence, Newton type algorithms and flows and on practical applications of optimization. A. Ioffe and J.-Ph. Vial have contributed survey papers on, respectively second order optimality conditions and projective methods in linear programming.

  14. « As the French Book Seyeth »

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Sir Thomas Malory’s Morte Darthur (Winchester MS, circa 1469 ; Caxton’s printing, 1485) is a late medieval English Arthuriad that persistently defers to the authenticity and authority of its French ancestors. In fact, Malory revels in such deference : no fewer than ninety-eight times he refers to « books » that he purportedly translates. Often he refers only to « the book », but when – thirty-nine times – he specifies the language or source of the book, it is, with only one exception, « the F...

  15. Cultures in Conflict. The French Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Chappey, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Professeur assistant à l’Université du Nevada (Las Vegas), spécialiste de l’histoire des hommes de lettres et du théâtre des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (voir son ouvrage A Field of Honour. Writers, Court Culture, and Public Theater in French Literary Life from Racine to the Revolution, New York, Columbia University Press, 2002), Gregory S. Brown propose ici un manuel original et stimulant sur l’histoire de la Révolution française. Soucieux de proposer une synthèse générale des différents phénomè...

  16. French Science Festival Comes To Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From October 15 to 21, two local science communication groups, the Euroscience-Léman and the Passerelle Science-Cité of Geneva University within the framework of the French Fête de la Science will collaborate to offer a huge range of events.  With the theme of food and drink, all sorts of activities will be open to the public. There is something for every taste:  fun activities for young and old alike, science cafes and debates, theatre performances, and a visit to CERN.  For more information go to: Fête de la Science 2001

  17. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 18 July to 31 August 2005. Timetable: Monday 08:30 to 10:30 Tuesday 08:30 to 10:30 Wednesday 11:00 to 13:00 Thursday 15:00 to 17:00 Duration: 54 hours Price: 702 CHF. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  18. Expeditionary medicine in Africa: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eric; Kenane, Maj Nadia; Montcriol, Ambroise; Palmier, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    The French army is often engaged in stability and support operations in Africa, and its military health service has gained much experience. The goal of this article is to present our military medical management strategies during the two main phases of military action. These situations most often begin with an initial combat phase, with combat casualty care. This consists of first aid, i.e., treatment of bleeding points, followed by battlefield forward medical care, damage control surgery, and resuscitation in forward surgical units. The quieter second phase of peacekeeping operations is dominated by the management of tropical diseases and their prevention, essential for the preservation of the military strength.

  19. How to pass higher French for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Get your best grade with this guide to Higher French for CfE. We are working with SQA to gain endorsement for this title. This book contains all the advice and support you need to revise successfully for your Higher (for CfE) exam. It combines an overview of the course syllabus with advice from a top expert on how to improve exam performance, so you have the best chance of success. - Refresh your knowledge with complete course notes - Prepare for the exam with top tips and hints on revision techniques - Get your best grade with advice on how to gain those vital extra marks

  20. "So She Has Been Educated by a Vulgar, Silly, Conceited French Governess!" Social Anxieties, Satirical Portraits, and the Eighteenth-Century French Instructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth's pedagogical short stories "Mademoiselle Panache" (1800, 1801) and "The Good French Governess" (1801) portray contrasting French instructors, and illustrate a transformation in English girls' education in French at the end of the eighteenth century. While "Mademoiselle Panache" looks back to the disingenuous French instructors of…

  1. Une Planche de Salut pour le Francais: le Francais Quotidien et les Niveaux de Langue (A Last Resort for French: Everyday French and Language Levels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    Before asking how to teach French, one should ask what French to teach. It is suggested that everyday French, "la langue usuelle," should be the norm for American teachers and textbook writers and editers. Greater utilization of film scenarios and songs of good quality are among the means suggested. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  2. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pizza

    Full Text Available Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population.We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1 and 470 healthy subjects.Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years, a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30], as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps. Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]. Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects.Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  3. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  4. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  5. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  6. French Neurologists during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  7. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  8. Women in interventional cardiology: The French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Michel Troper and french legal realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Glučina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The name of Michel Troper has become an inevitable reference in constitutional law and legal theory textbooks. This author kick-started his academic career with a thesis on a subject of separation of powers, thus prolonging the tradition of numerous French legal scholars, namely, that of providing contemporary discernment of French classical constitutional doctrines. Charles Eisenmann innovative views on the necessity of displacing attention from the theories and to the process of emergence, forms and functioning of those theories have had a decisive influence on Troper's scientific development. His Nanterre period is when general legal theory becomes of his primary interest. In the same manner as his mentor before him, Troper perceives Kelsen's theoretical paradigm as a starting point and engages in a polemical dialogue with the ideas of the Viennese jurist, deciding to push his somewhat rudimentary theory of interpretation of law to its extreme consequences. Affiliating his theoretical enterprise to movements and schools of thought such as American, Scandinavian and, primarily, Italian legal realism, Troper elaborates his own theory of interpretation of law ( TRI which will promptly become notorious for its alleged radicality. In the subsequent period of his career, Troper introduces the theory of legal constraints ( TCJ, destined to enable him to preserve his loyalty to positivist epistemology while striving to amend the radicality of the TRI by mobilising the concept of a specific causality supposedly inherent both to the legal system and the legal agents' mindset.

  10. Yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The financial problems of the nuclear power industry in France are explained. Cogema, the waste reprocessing company ventured into the French financial futures market and lost money. It is trying to sue its brokers over this disaster. Framatome, the State reactor manufacturer is trying to diversify into aeronautics, electronics and foodstuffs. The electric utility EdF is sliding into debt and, with no price rise allowed, this situation will get worse. Theoretically EdF should be delivering cheap electricity from nuclear power stations. However, French electricity prices are not significantly cheaper than those of Germany and the United Kingdom. The generating capacity will increase greatly over the next few years. The availability of existing plants is also improving. In spite of efforts to export its electricity (about 10% is exported) EdF seem unable to make its extra electricity cheaper and is heavily in debt. The fast breeder programme has also not lived up to expectations due to a sodium leak at Superphenix. (U.K.).

  11. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication.

  12. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Richard A.; Dey, Prakash M.; Lawton, Michael A.; Lamb, Christopher J.

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors. PMID:16662813

  14. The structure of modern standard French a student grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maj-Britt Mosegaard

    2016-01-01

    This book is an advanced student's grammar of French that integrates traditional grammar with knowledge and insights from modern linguistics. It assumes some prior knowledge of French grammar but is designed to be accessible to those with no background in linguistics.

  15. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  16. Discrimination of English and French orthographic patterns by biliterate children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or a French spelling pattern, and they were asked to decide whether each pseudoword should go in an English dictionary or a French dictionary if it became a real word. Comparison groups of monolingual English children, monolingual French children, and English-French bilingual university students were also tested on the task. French immersion students in both grades were above chance in discriminating between the two types of pseudowords but were well below adult performance on the task. Measures obtained in kindergarten showed that early print knowledge had some ability to predict later ability to discriminate between the orthographic patterns of the two languages. Further analyses indicated that exposure to print in each language in Grades 1 to 3 was strongly related to discrimination performance. The findings are interpreted as being consistent with the statistical learning hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  18. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching French in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. French is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  19. An Empirical Study of Pronunciation Errors in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Joel

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of a study that sought to test the pronunciation problems of a large number of American students in a beginning college-level French course. Learner difficulties over a 15-week period were used to create a hierarchy of minimal contrasts representing major, secondary, and minor problems for the students in learning French sounds.…

  20. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  1. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  2. French Antipathy to Turkey's EU Candidacy: The Language Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, James

    2009-01-01

    French political leaders have voiced objections to prospective Turkish membership of the European Union (EU), citing material reasons as well as cultural objections involving the uncertain role of a predominantly Islamic society within a European political and economic bloc. Given the importance of the French language as a component of France's…

  3. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  4. Talking It through: Two French Immersion Learners' Response to Reformulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    This article documents the importance of collaborative dialogue as part of the process of second language learning. The stimulus for the dialogue we discuss in this article was a reformulation of a story written collaboratively in French by Nina and Dara, two adolescent French immersion students. A sociocultural theoretical perspective informs the…

  5. The nominalized infinitive in French: structure and change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeman, P.

    2010-01-01

    Many European languages have both nominal and verbal nominalized infinitives. They differ, however, in the degree to which the nominalized infinitives possess nominal and verbal properties. In this paper, nominalized infinitives in French are analyzed. It is shown that, whereas Old French was like o

  6. The French Evolution: France and the Europeanisation of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the salient characteristics of the French higher education system are examined in the light of its recent evolution and in the context of overwhelming Europeanisation trends. In spite of major weaknesses still hindering the performance of French universities, it is argued that following the recent wave of reforms, the country is…

  7. Assimilation and Affirmative Action in French Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…

  8. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  9. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  10. The Batavian Revolution: typical French, typical Dutch or typical Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdan, A.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of Simon Schama's monograph on Dutch Patriots and French 'Liberators', the Batavian Revolution (1795-1806) has usually been interpreted as French-inspired and thus as 'alien' to the Netherlands. The original Dutch revolutionary achievements are underestimated as are those in the P

  11. Illustrated glossary of process equipment. Chinese/English/French edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruit, B.

    1984-01-01

    Here is a volume of process equipment and terms in standard Mandarin Chinese, English, and French. As with the English/French/Spanish edition, each page illustrates a particular piece of equipment, with captions identifying the key components. Glossaries at the end of each major section include the Romanized pronunciation of the Chinese.

  12. For the Good of France: The French Experience in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    still neocolonial in its relations with Africa. An examination of French actions in the Côte d’Ivoire from 2002 until early 2006 will reveal that...1 Tomas Profant, French Geopolitics in Africa: From Neocolonialism to Identity, Perspectives: Central

  13. Constructing Language: Evidence from a French-English Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrory, Gee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a French-English bilingual child between the ages of two years three months and three years five months, growing up bilingually from birth, with a French mother and English father in an English speaking environment. In focussing upon questions in the child's two languages, and charting in some detail the emergence…

  14. Teaching a Literature Course on the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James P.

    1993-01-01

    One professor's approach to developing a course on French writers of the revolutionary era is presented. The lecture/discussion/oral report course was taught entirely in French and included a variety of literary genres. The syllabus, weekly log of lecture/discussion topics, and a bibliography are appended. (LB)

  15. The Danish Youth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2010-01-01

    income. Loss to follow-up was only associated with adolescents' higher probability of drinking and use of tobacco, and none of the other factors were associated with attrition. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in the Danish Youth Cohort represent a great variety of different groups of socio-demographic...... factors, although they differ from non-participants as regards a range of socio-demographic factors. This should be taken into account in future analyses....

  16. European-French cross-cultural adaptation of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire and pretest in French-speaking Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray-Kaeser, S.; Satink, T.J.; Andresen, M.; Martini, R.; Thommen, E.; Bertrand, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version d

  17. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E - 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  18. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Bérubé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL mapping study (n=1035. Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P=7.90E-10. The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  19. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D.; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E − 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients. PMID:27445529

  20. The Study of English Negative Transfer to French Language Learning with French Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧

    2013-01-01

    English language(EL) and French language(FL) are very similar in their language attributes—lexicon, syntax and tenses. During FL acquisition, especially during the early acquisition stages, FL learners are strongly influenced by their EL forms. The es⁃sential point of this paper is to distinguish the differences and similarities of the EL and FL, then to suggest some strategies to re⁃strain the negative transfer effectively, which would be helpful in third language acquisition.

  1. Concentration in the French Press Media Industry: Quantitative Analysis. The Case of the French Press Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Badillo, Patrick-Yves; Lesourd, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at studying the concentration of the French press industry, using as quantitative benchmarks several concentration indexes, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman index, and the diversity index adapted to the media sector recently introduced by Noam (2003). This Noam index has, so far, not been used extensively, at least to our knowledge. Our paper is organised as follows. The second part begins by a media industry-oriented discussion various statistical indexes of concentration, and...

  2. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  3. The dramatic extraction construction in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abeillé

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on spoken corpora (Corpaix, CRFP and on previous studies (Sabio 1995, 1996, we identify a construction common in spoken French, which we analyze as a particular case of extraction:a. dix sept ans il a. (Seventeen years he has [Corpaix]b. deux cigarettes j'ai fumé. (Two cigarettes I smoked [on the fly]The construction can only be a root clause and a declarative clause. Its interpretation is that of a thetic proposition. On the other hand, it is not associated with a unique information structure, since it is compatible with a focus-ground partition, with the extracted constotunet as a narrow focus, or with an all focus interpretation. We call this construction ‘dramatic extraction’, and the extracted element a ‘center’ (i.e. a focus or a figure. We formalize our analysis in the HPSG grammar.

  4. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: CHF 702 Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  5. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: 702 SF Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  6. [French validation of the Frustration Discomfort Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamayou, J-L; Tsenova, V; Gonthier, C; Blatier, C; Yahyaoui, A

    2016-08-01

    Rational emotive behavior therapy originally considered the concept of frustration intolerance in relation to different beliefs or cognitive patterns. Psychological disorders or, to some extent, certain affects such as frustration could result from irrational beliefs. Initially regarded as a unidimensional construct, recent literature considers those irrational beliefs as a multidimensional construct; such is the case for the phenomenon of frustration. In order to measure frustration intolerance, Harrington (2005) developed and validated the Frustration Discomfort Scale. The scale includes four dimensions of beliefs: emotional intolerance includes beliefs according to which emotional distress is intolerable and must be controlled or avoided as soon as possible. The intolerance of discomfort or demand for comfort is the second dimension based on beliefs that life should be peaceful and comfortable and that any inconvenience, effort or hassle should be avoided. The third dimension is entitlement, which includes beliefs about personal goals, such as merit, fairness, respect and gratification, and that others must not frustrate those non-negotiable desires. The fourth dimension is achievement, which reflects demands for high expectations or standards. The aim of this study was to translate and validate in a French population the Frustration and Discomfort Scale developed by Harrington (2005), assess its psychometric properties, highlight the four factors structure of the scale, and examine the relationships between this concept and both emotion regulation and perceived stress. We translated the Frustration Discomfort Scale from English to French and back from French to English in order to ensure good quality of translation. We then submitted the scale to 289 students (239 females and 50 males) from the University of Savoy in addition to the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale. The results showed satisfactory psychometric

  7. French space programmes related to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  8. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  9. The many encounters of Thomas Kuhn and French epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or 'French epistemology'. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors than often thought. The second part focuses on the reactions of French epistemologists on Kuhn's work, which were often very critical. It is argued that behind some superficial similarities there are deep disagreements between Kuhn and French epistemology. This is finally shown by a brief comparison with the reaction of more recent French philosophers of science, who distance themselves from French epistemology and are more positive about Kuhn. Based on these diverse appreciations of Kuhn, a typology of the different positions within the philosophy of science is suggested.

  10. French validation of the critical care family needs inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Chartier, L

    1990-03-01

    This study is a contribution to the French validation of Molter and Leske Critical Care Family Needs Inventory (CCFNI). The importance of this validation study is based on the presumption that evaluation of family needs relies on the use of measures that are reliable and valid for a specific population. The preliminary validation of the French text of the CCFNI was carried out by back translation method of the French form into English by three translators. Then the final French version was selected. The study was conducted in the surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada. The sample consisted of 207 voluntary subjects selected from adult members of the immediate family visiting a patient in the intensive care unit. The data collection was spread over a 10-week period. The French version of the CCFNI was given to subjects for self-reporting at the end of a 15-minute face-to-face interview. The reliability of the French version yielded 0.91 as Cronbach alpha coefficient. The Spearman-Brown split-half coefficient was 0.89, and the Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.88. Principal-component analysis and factorial matrices were used to examine the clustering structure of the French version of this instrument.

  11. Teaching French Language in Minority and Multilingual Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Żuchelkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author presents problems of identity encountered by Acadian students that originate from their relative degree of linguistic isolation. Social circumstances of Acadian-speaking persons in the Atlantic Provinces (especially in New Brunswick comprise : the degree of contact with external varieties of French, the degree of contact with varieties of English, the availability of schooling in French, the use of French in a working environment. All these aspects offer a chance of teaching languages in multilingual societies. The author shows that social interrelationships within the community and within universities also play a significant role in the maintenance of the minority language and culture.

  12. [2013 update about arthropod envenomations in French Guyana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, F; Imbert, C

    2014-02-01

    French Guiana, by its geographical situation, its climate and its biodiversity, is often called "the green hell". Indeed, this French department of America shelters a wildlife rich, abundant among which many species of arthropods, some of which are responsible for envenomations. These accidents consist of scorpion's or hymenoptera's stings or spider's bites. The associated clinical aspect is variable, from simple pain to circulatory collapse, or lung oedema. However, symptomatology is generally mild; four deaths associated to arthropod envenomations have been reported in the past 25 years. This article focuses on envenomations in French Guiana, describing favoring human behavior, risks and venoms associated with the main related animal species.

  13. Trade in French books in Zagreb: 1796-1823

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Tingle

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to contribute to the picture of the book trade in Zagreb in the late 18th and early19th century. The objectives of the research were to find out which booksellers’ catalogues were available in Croatian capital Zagreb in that period and to illustrate the conclusions that can be drawn from the information gathered by focusing on a narrow topic: trade in French books in a particular period. A focus on French books was inspired by the importance of French culture in...

  14. Liquidity and Fama-French Three-Factor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈政

    2012-01-01

      The Fama-French three-factor model was proposed to explain the expected return. In this paper,the author takes advantage of the recent data from NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ stocks to examine whether the Fama-French three-factor model can explain the expected return well on the basis of reviewing the importance of liquidity and criticizing the Fama-French three-factor model. It turns out that the three-factor model can still reflect the factor in asset pricing to a certain degree.

  15. [The Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourriat, Jean-Louis; Dahan, Benjamin; Lapandry, Claude

    2012-01-01

    French (AP-HP) and Chinese (Beijing Health Office) hospitals, with support from the French company Total, collaborated in order to improve Chinese doctors' knowledge of emergency and disaster medicine prior to the Beijing Olympic Games. A Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center was subsequently opened in Beijing in 2008, with the aim of providing high-level continuous medical training for Chinese specialists in emergency medicine. Teaching in the management of critical situations was based on the use of a latest-generation simulator (Sim 3G; Laerdal). This collaboration has had both pedagogical and diplomatic benefits.

  16. 7 CFR 993.109 - Modified definition of non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified definition of non-French prunes. 993.109... definition of non-French prunes. The definition of non-French prunes set forth in § 993.6 is modified to read as follows: Non-French Prunes means prunes commonly known as Imperial, Sugar, Robe de Sargent,...

  17. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  18. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  19. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  20. Japon: Le francais en sursis? (Japan: French in Stay of Execution?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecheur, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, second-language instruction and specifically French instruction are at a crossroads. Despite appearances of normalcy, survival of university-level French instruction is threatened by greater current interest in Asian languages. In response, the French Embassy and Japanese Association of French Professors have established a policy to…

  1. Japon: Le francais en sursis? (Japan: French in Stay of Execution?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecheur, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, second-language instruction and specifically French instruction are at a crossroads. Despite appearances of normalcy, survival of university-level French instruction is threatened by greater current interest in Asian languages. In response, the French Embassy and Japanese Association of French Professors have established a policy to…

  2. Promouvoir le francais: Norvege, Chine, Israel (Promoting French: Norway, China, Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenet, Jean-Jack

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for promoting French and French language instruction are described. In Norway, a French popular music promotion has been launched cooperatively by record producers in both countries; a Chinese program links like organizations in the two countries; and in Israel, an initiative focuses on French song. (MSE)

  3. The performance of functional methods for correcting non-Gaussian measurement error within Poisson regression: corrected excess risk of lung cancer mortality in relation to radon exposure among French uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Leuraud, Klervi; Rage, Estelle; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-12-30

    A broad variety of methods for measurement error (ME) correction have been developed, but these methods have rarely been applied possibly because their ability to correct ME is poorly understood. We carried out a simulation study to assess the performance of three error-correction methods: two variants of regression calibration (the substitution method and the estimation calibration method) and the simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) method. Features of the simulated cohorts were borrowed from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort in which exposure to radon had been documented from 1946 to 1999. In the absence of ME correction, we observed a severe attenuation of the true effect of radon exposure, with a negative relative bias of the order of 60% on the excess relative risk of lung cancer death. In the main scenario considered, that is, when ME characteristics previously determined as most plausible from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort were used both to generate exposure data and to correct for ME at the analysis stage, all three error-correction methods showed a noticeable but partial reduction of the attenuation bias, with a slight advantage for the SIMEX method. However, the performance of the three correction methods highly depended on the accurate determination of the characteristics of ME. In particular, we encountered severe overestimation in some scenarios with the SIMEX method, and we observed lack of correction with the three methods in some other scenarios. For illustration, we also applied and compared the proposed methods on the real data set from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort study.

  4. A Migrant Culture on Display: The French Migrant and French Gastronomy in London (19th – 21st centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    The large contemporary French migrant population – estimated by the French Consulate at around 300,000–400,000 in the UK, the majority living in London and the South-East – remains ‘absent’ from studies on migration, and, in a study of migrant food history in Britain, is considered not to have left traces as a migrant community. Over the centuries, the presence of various French communities in London has varied significantly as far as numbers are concerned, but what does not change is their s...

  5. Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-08-01

    Discussion: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories.

  6. [Treating mentally wounded patients within the French armed forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Pierre; Rio, Anaïck; Lahutte, Bertrand; Boisseaux, Humbert

    2012-12-01

    The French army has put in place a doctrine aimed at treating mentally wounded soldiers. A real treatment pathway comprising different specialised medical staff, places and time frames supports the soldier from the theatre of operations to France.

  7. Le francais par le theatre. (French through Theater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agular, Claudio; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The techniques used in a course on "French through the theater" emphasize the dramatic rather than realistic, authentic expression rather than authentic language, and the use of instruction to launch students on their own personal course of learning. (MSE)

  8. LEGACY - EOP CRITTERCAM Deployments on French Frigate Shoals monk seals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRITTERCAMs, were deployed on a 42 monk seals at French Frigate Shoals Hawaii. Sixty nine hours of video comprised of 3192 recording segments collected at...

  9. French-Language Satellite TV in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Russell G.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the elements of satellite technology, provides information on French and other foreign-language programming, and offers suggestions for using satellite television in the classroom. (Author/JL)

  10. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  11. FRENCH LANGUAGE: A BASIC G.S COURSE FOR NNAMDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Globalization which opens up the world has necessitated learning of ... French, Modern European languages or foreign languages. ... research. The impact of information and Communication Technologies on teaching and.

  12. A syntactic and lexical approach to French reflexive verbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corina Petersilka

    2012-01-01

    This Construction grammar approach to French refl exive verbs describes the formal and semantic constraints at work in the different refl exive constructions, points out at their different branches...

  13. Autosegmental Representation of Epenthesis in the Spoken French ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    sentences containing both French vowel and consonant sounds while Goldsmith's. Autosegmental ... deletes vowels at the end of a word, a very common sound change. This may well produce ..... Acoustic phonetics. Second edition.

  14. The repositioning of literature in French foreign language teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The repositioning of literature in French foreign language teaching in South Africa: ... a disciplinary tradition evident in both corpus and teaching methods. ... themselves from traditional approaches in their shift from text-centredness to ...

  15. "Etre" ou ne pas "etre" in Immersion French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Valerie; Nadasdi, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Examines verbal auxiliary selection in the speech of French immersion students. Examines variation in auxiliary selection in the oral discourse to determine to what extent it resembles that of native speakers. (Author/VWL)

  16. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  18. A Bibliographic Guide to French-Canadian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyszko, Aleksandra

    1978-01-01

    The guide lists reference materials such as bibliographies, indexes and dictionaries, and selected literary works. Periodicals are included. The majority of the items included are in French, some are bilingual; annotations are in English. (Author)

  19. French physicist's brother denies links to Al Qaeda

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    "Days after the French authorities placed a physicist working in Switzerland under formal investigation in a terror case, a portrait of the man and his work has begun to emerge from interviews with officials and his lawyer"

  20. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population......, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....