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Sample records for french electricity supply

  1. Technical results French electricity supply industry 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents provisional results for the French electricity supply industry (excluding overseas territories). Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE. Data from 2001 to 2005 were updated in order to take into account additional information given by different actors of the electrical energy sector. Contents: 1 - General results in France (National consumption, Physical exchanges with foreign countries, Net generation, Energy consumed, Electrical energy balance in France, Energy generated); 2 - Consumption in France (Annual consumption, Weekly consumption in 2007, Temperature, Daily consumption); 3 - Electrical energy flows (End consumption by type of customer, Physical flows of electrical energy, Physical exchanges with foreign countries); 4 - Trend of the electricity market (Cross-border contractual exchanges, Balance Responsible Entities, Sales of generation capacity auction, Energy sales on Powernext Day-Ahead TM , Balancing mechanism); 5 - Generation in France (Installed capacity and generation by type of facility, thermal, hydro, other renewable energy sources); 6 - Equipment on the electricity network (Equipment in operation as of 31 December); 7 - Power system operation (Equivalent time of interruption, Long outage frequency, Short outage frequency, Number of annual Significant System Events by severity); 8 - Access to the RTE network; 9 - Development over the past 15 years (Facilities in France at year-end, Annual results in France); 10 - International comparisons (Energy data of UCTE countries in 2006); 11 - Terminology

  2. Electricity supplies in a French nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As the operation of a nuclear power station requires a power supply system enabling this operation as well as the installation safety, this document describes how such systems are designed in the different French nuclear power stations to meet the requirements during a normal operation (when the station produces electricity) or when it is stopped, but also to ensure power supply to equipment ensuring safety functions during an incident or an accident occurring on the installation. More precisely, these safety functions are provided by two independent systems in the French nuclear power stations. Their operation is briefly described. Two different types of nuclear reactors are addressed: pressurised water reactors (PWR) of second generation, EPR (or PWR of third generation)

  3. Technical results of the French electricity supply industry 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Provisional detailed results of power flows in France in 2002, with the operating context and international comparisons. This booklet presents provisional results, expressed in rounded values because of some estimated values. Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE: general results France; operation outlook; energy flows; exchanges with foreign countries; French consumption; French generation; network operation; access to the transmission network; development over the past 15 years; international comparisons; terminology

  4. The destabilization of the French electricity supply industry nascent competition in an open environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2001-06-01

    In February 2000 France, compelled by the 1996 European Directive 96/92, undertook a minimal reform of the organisation of its electricity industry, while preserving the boundaries of the incumbent company. The aim of this paper is to analyse the conditions of destabilization of the industrial organisation of the French ESI, by identifying the economic factors of endogenous and exogenous erosion. Firstly, after setting out the main elements of the French reform, which is aimed at making the electricity market contestable, the effectiveness of the ''contestability'' of the French power market is discussed. Secondly in order to test the stability of the new institutional arrangements, an institutional prospect is developed, on the basis of economic factors of instability and resistance, to produce two contrasting scenarios: one in which the particularly French model is retained (limited contestability market scenario); another in which there is movement towards a de-integrated competitive model (contamination by competition scenario). Thirdly the author concludes on the basis of recent elements, that the future would be a mix of these two trajectories which will come within in the progressive integration of the national markets in continental Europe. (A.L.B.)

  5. The destabilization of the French electricity supply industry nascent competition in an open environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2001-06-01

    In February 2000 France, compelled by the 1996 European Directive 96/92, undertook a minimal reform of the organisation of its electricity industry, while preserving the boundaries of the incumbent company. The aim of this paper is to analyse the conditions of destabilization of the industrial organisation of the French ESI, by identifying the economic factors of endogenous and exogenous erosion. Firstly, after setting out the main elements of the French reform, which is aimed at making the electricity market contestable, the effectiveness of the ''contestability'' of the French power market is discussed. Secondly in order to test the stability of the new institutional arrangements, an institutional prospect is developed, on the basis of economic factors of instability and resistance, to produce two contrasting scenarios: one in which the particularly French model is retained (limited contestability market scenario); another in which there is movement towards a de-integrated competitive model (contamination by competition scenario). Thirdly the author concludes on the basis of recent elements, that the future would be a mix of these two trajectories which will come within in the progressive integration of the national markets in continental Europe. (A.L.B.)

  6. Law of the electricity sector in France. The legal framework for the French electricity supply between legal market deregulation requirements and public service obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, Julius

    2016-01-01

    The process of creating an internal electricity market is still unfinished. This has, in addition to technical reasons, also legal reasons: The persistence of the structures and regulatory frameworks that have grown during monopoly times, in part is very strong, which is particularly evident in France. The power supply there is intensively controlled by its state as a public service, both indirectly by the state-owned company EDF and directly by statutory regulations. The market deregulation is not thereby completely prevented. However, together with the particular importance of nuclear power for the French power supply, considerable barriers to market opening are emerging. Against this background and out of the historical development, the author examines the current French law of the electricity sector across all value-creation stages in its relations to EU law. [de

  7. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  8. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  9. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  10. French electric power balance sheet 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Pierron, Helene

    2008-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2007: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, progresses in the implementation of market mechanisms, durable rise of RTE's investment, and RTE's commitment in sustainable development

  11. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  12. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  13. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  14. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel; Usatorre, Karine de

    2007-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  15. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  16. Technical results of the French electricity supply industry 2002; Resultats techniques du secteur electrique en France 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Provisional detailed results of power flows in France in 2002, with the operating context and international comparisons. This booklet presents provisional results, expressed in rounded values because of some estimated values. Data come from measures made by RTE, completed by various actors of the power system and by estimations made by RTE: general results France; operation outlook; energy flows; exchanges with foreign countries; French consumption; French generation; network operation; access to the transmission network; development over the past 15 years; international comparisons; terminology.

  17. Research document no. 30. Introducing competition in the French electricity supply industry: the destabilization of a public hierarchy in an open institutional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The introduction of market rules in a electricity supply industry characterized by a vertically integrated monopoly and public ownership is not inherently doomed to failure if characteristics of the reform or other elements of industrial structures give room for enforcing market-rules. The organisation of the French ESI in a public monopoly was deeply rooted in French institutional peculiarities. The paper analyses how the governmental goal of preserving the national champion EDF have had two paradoxical effects in favour of competition development and the building of safeguards for the entrants: the creation of a credible regulatory governance structure with effective power of control on the network access, and which promoted market-rules and the creation of a power exchange for balancing the incumbent dominant position; and the enforcement of the credibility of the regulatory framework by the self control of the incumbent on the use of its dominant position and on the capture of the regulator. This two effects results from the influence of the European institutional environment which is superposed to the national one, in particular under the intensive scrutiny of the European Commission, on a model far behind the competitive model. The paper concludes to the originality of such an institutional model: a permanent regulatory threat on the incumbent for balancing the effects of public property and integration of industrial structures. (author)

  18. Research document no. 30. Introducing competition in the French electricity supply industry: the destabilization of a public hierarchy in an open institutional environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of market rules in a electricity supply industry characterized by a vertically integrated monopoly and public ownership is not inherently doomed to failure if characteristics of the reform or other elements of industrial structures give room for enforcing market-rules. The organisation of the French ESI in a public monopoly was deeply rooted in French institutional peculiarities. The paper analyses how the governmental goal of preserving the national champion EDF have had two paradoxical effects in favour of competition development and the building of safeguards for the entrants: the creation of a credible regulatory governance structure with effective power of control on the network access, and which promoted market-rules and the creation of a power exchange for balancing the incumbent dominant position; and the enforcement of the credibility of the regulatory framework by the self control of the incumbent on the use of its dominant position and on the capture of the regulator. This two effects results from the influence of the European institutional environment which is superposed to the national one, in particular under the intensive scrutiny of the European Commission, on a model far behind the competitive model. The paper concludes to the originality of such an institutional model: a permanent regulatory threat on the incumbent for balancing the effects of public property and integration of industrial structures. (author)

  19. French electricity report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In terms of electricity, 2003 saw a great increase in electricity consumption in France. This increase was accompanied by a global progression in cross-border commercial exchanges, but a notable drop in the net export balance for physical exchanges between France and its neighbouring countries

  20. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  1. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  2. Law of the electricity sector in France. The legal framework for the French electricity supply between legal market deregulation requirements and public service obligations; Stromwirtschaftsrecht in Frankreich. Der Rechtsrahmen fuer die franzoesische Elektrizitaetsversorgung zwischen unionsrechtlichen Marktoeffnungsvorgaben und gemeinwirtschaftlichen Verpflichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckler, Julius

    2016-07-01

    The process of creating an internal electricity market is still unfinished. This has, in addition to technical reasons, also legal reasons: The persistence of the structures and regulatory frameworks that have grown during monopoly times, in part is very strong, which is particularly evident in France. The power supply there is intensively controlled by its state as a public service, both indirectly by the state-owned company EDF and directly by statutory regulations. The market deregulation is not thereby completely prevented. However, together with the particular importance of nuclear power for the French power supply, considerable barriers to market opening are emerging. Against this background and out of the historical development, the author examines the current French law of the electricity sector across all value-creation stages in its relations to EU law. [German] Der Strombinnenmarktprozess ist nach wie vor unvollendet. Dies hat neben technischen auch rechtliche Gruende: Die Beharrungskraefte der zu Monopolzeiten gewachsenen Strukturen und Ordnungsrahmen sind zum Teil aeusserst stark, was sich besonders in Frankreich deutlich zeigt. Die dortige Stromversorgung wird ausgehend von ihrer Einordnung als Service Public sowohl mittelbar durch das Staatsunternehmen EDF als auch unmittelbar durch gesetzliche Regelungen intensiv staatlich kontrolliert. Die Marktoeffnung wird dadurch zwar nicht vollkommen verhindert. Zusammen mit der besonderen Bedeutung der Kernkraft fuer die franzoesische Stromversorgung ergeben sich hieraus aber erhebliche Marktoeffnungshemmnisse. Vor diesem Hintergrund und ausgehend von der historischen Entwicklung untersucht der Autor das geltende franzoesische Stromwirtschaftsrecht ueber alle Wertschoepfungsstufen hinweg in seinen Bezuegen zum EU-Recht.

  3. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  4. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2003 for consumption, prices of electric power, power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  5. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2000 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  6. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2002 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  7. French dissatisfactions on the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The author first notices that the French electricity professional consumers are dissatisfied with the results of the creation of the European domestic electricity market in 1997: price increase either on bills or on the wholesale markets, and even more price increases are to come. The author proposes to examine several issues: what has been done during the 6 or 7 past years, that is since the California crisis in 2000-2001, to put the European electrical reforms on a virtuous track? Have the basic market economy principles been respected to protect competitiveness of all energy consumer professionals? How and why the French government or EDF will make us pay gas, coal or CO 2 emission permits like in England or Germany whereas the French electricity production has mainly (90 or 95 per cent) a nuclear or hydraulic origin?

  8. Electricity supply in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, R; Evans, N

    1986-01-01

    This study is about future needs for electricity in the United Kingdom, the options for meeting these needs, and the issues that affect the choices between options. It examines the implications of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the problems that could arise if decisions on new power station construction continue to be delayed following the Sizewell PWR Inquiry. The book reviews the historical development of electricity supply in the UK. Alternative scenarios are outlined for future energy and electricity demand and their implications for future power station construction are deduced. Issues that are discussed include the choice of coal or nuclear power and the related political uncertainties, environmental problems such as acid rain, feasibility and costs of electricity supply options, and the likely effect on future energy import costs of alternative choices for electricity supply.

  9. Cheap electricity from French tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, H.

    1980-02-01

    A tidal power plant built in Saint-Malo, France is examined, and some of the problems that have resulted in recent years are analyzed. These include mechanical problems due to turbine runner-blade seal failure and electrical problems involving electroerosion and structural station difficulties. the effects of tidal power plants on the environment are discussed, and it is noted that all possible side effects of the operations are very limited. Attention is given to the basic requirements for constructing power sites.

  10. The future of electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In this interview with a prominent expert of the electric power industry, problems of assuring electricity supply, the economics of nuclear electricity generation, the supply structure, and cogeneration are discussed. (UA) [de

  11. Gas supply and Yorkshire Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Yorkshire Electricity, among other independent suppliers of gas, now competes for a share of the United Kingdom gas market, previously monopolised by British Gas. The experience of this successful electric utility company, expanding into the industrial and domestic gas supply market is described in the article. The company`s involvement stems partly from the fact that significant volumes of gas are landed at three terminals within its franchise area. The company will also seek to use subsidaries to generate electric power from gas turbine power plants and explore the possibilities of developing combined heat and power (CHP) plants where appropriate. (UK)

  12. Danish electricity supply. Statistik 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities issues each year the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The total electric power consumption in 1999 is almost the same as in 1998. There has been a moderate consumption increase in the households and the service sector whereas the consumption in industry has decreased. 1999 is the first year with actual competition in the power-producing sector. The increased competition from the Scandinavian hydro-electric power plants and the growing number of privately owned wind turbines and other decentralised power plants result in a decline in the power production at the electric utilities of 10% compared to the year 1998. In 1999 electric power from renewable energy sources such as wind, biomass, and waste covers close to 10% of the total Danish power consumption. More than 400 new turbines are installed in 1999 and the total capacity of wind power increases with ca. 20%. The actual energy content of the wind in 1999 was, however, 15% lower than normally which results in a significant reduction of the utilisation of the wind turbine capacity. (ln)

  13. Electricity supply in Sweden 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The year 1983 was characterized by a continued decrease in oil consumption and an increase in electricity consumption. Totally the supply of fuels decreased from 278TWh to 264 TWh in 1983. The electricity supply increased from 99.9 TWh in 1982 to 110.8 TWh in 1983. The consumers total energy use decreased from 358 TWh in 1982 to 355 TWh in 1983. Electricity consumption excluding transmission losses increased from 91,4 TWh in 1982 to 101.1TWh in 1983. The increase was due to electric space heating disconnectable electric boilers and to industry. At the end of 1983 the electric heating subscriptions are estimated to corresponds to 45 percent of all one-family houses. Hydropower accounted for 54 percent and nucler power accounted for 34 percent of the total supply of electricity in 1983. The highest hourly load during 1983 amounted to 20862 MW. The lowest load during 1983 amounted to 5185 MW. Ten nuclear power units were in commercial operation during the year. The energy availability figures were as follows: Barsebaeck 1 85 percent, Barsebaeck 2 82 percent, Forsmark 1 84 percent, Forsmark 2 88 percent, Oskarshamn 1 87 percent, Oskarshamn 2 83 percent, Ringhals 1 59 percent and Ringhals 2 68 percent. The production of electricity from conventional thermal power stations was only 4.0 TWh. Back pressure power in industry contributed 2.5 TWh of this figure and combined power and district heating stations 1.3 TWh. Two coal fired combined power and district heating plants were added and sevearl combined power and district heating plants have been rebuilt to be coal fired. The high voltage power grid system permits joint operation by all the power companies in the country, and the major power companies utilize the network for exchanging surplus power with other power companies. An account of the public debate on energy in Sweden during 1983 is also given.(L.E.)

  14. Economical electricity supply and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K

    1980-05-01

    During the first oil crisis in 1973, hundreds of millions of D-marks have been wasted by medium-sized businesses in the FRG due to avoidable losses and increased electricity costs. Serious attempts towards excluding such losses have to be initiated by an analysis of the individual technical conditions of an enterprise and by consultations 'on site'. Problems relating to an economical electricity supply and utilization in medium-sized industrial enterprises are discussed in this article from the point of view of an industrial consultant being an expert in this field. Practical examples are also given.

  15. Green light for the opening of the French electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2000-01-01

    The French market of electricity is progressively opening to competitiveness. A recent act of parliament allows main industrialists to choose their electricity suppliers, this choice concerns only one third of the electricity market. A regulatory authority has been set up to assure a fair competition and a fair access to the French distribution network for electricity producers. (A.C.)

  16. French electric power balance sheet and RTE's technical results for 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel; Lartigau, Thierry; Coutier, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's preliminary technical results for the year 2004: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, market development, infrastructures performance and evolution, environmental aspects. A second part is devoted to a presentation of the actors of the electricity market, while a third part presents the results of the 2004 RTE's clients survey

  17. The French wholesale electricity and natural gas markets. 2008 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    This second report on the operation of French wholesale electricity and natural gas markets deals with CRE wholesale market surveillance activities. It follows on from the different work undertaken or announced in the first surveillance report and in the proceedings of the CRE deliberation held on the 8 January 2009. It capitalizes on the experience gained in this area since the Law of the 7 December 2006 gave the CRE market surveillance powers. It is also based on feedback from discussions and interaction with the different stakeholders, through the public consultations held by CRE in 2008 and 2009. market surveillance applies to: - electricity and gas, - bilateral transactions, trading on exchanges and cross-border transactions, - all maturities, from short-term markets to long-term contracts, - all French wholesale market counter-parties, whatever nationality they may have, - contracts for physical delivery, as well as to financial products. The Law also allows extensive surveillance of market participants' behaviour, in that the CRE can oversee not only transactions between operators but also their bids and the correspondence between the prices charged and the position of each operator. In order to address these different subjects, the electricity and gas sections of this report are divided into four main chapters dealing with the development of trading, wholesale market price trends, the fundamentals (generation, infrastructures) and, finally, the analysis of electricity transactions and the supply of alternative gas operators. Contents: A - Methodology notice, Introduction, Summary of the report; B - Section 1 - Wholesale electricity markets: The development of the main wholesale market segments, Monitoring of price formation in France in terms of fundamentals and in comparison with the main interconnected European markets, Analysis and transparency of generation, The analysis of transactions; C - Section 2 - Wholesale natural gas markets: The

  18. Conference on the security of electricity supply: France-Germany crossed views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Antoine; Kaelble, Laure; Maurer, Christoph; Veyrenc, Thomas; Roques, Fabien; Jacquemart, Yannick; John, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR), in cooperation with the French transmission system operator - RTE, organised a conference on security of electricity supply in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 160 participants exchanged their views on the following topics: the regulatory framework and the legal instruments for ensuring the security of supply, the role of energy transmission system operators, the role of renewable energies in the electricity market and their impact on the security of supplies. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Security of supply and electricity markets (Antoine Caron); 2 - White Paper on electricity Market Design (Laure Kaelble); 3 - Security of Supply - Concept and Definition: On the Way to a Common Understanding? (Christoph Maurer); 4 - The French capacity market: lessons learnt and way forward (Thomas Veyrenc); 5 - electricity market evolutions: divergencies and compatibilities between French and German models? (Fabien Roques); 6 - Infrastructures and European coordination: action of the French transmission system operator - RTE (Yannick Jacquemart); 7 - Interconnection and Security of Supply - experiences of the German TSO Amprion at the French-German Border (Oliver John)

  19. French electricity union, 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    The Union Francaise de l'Electricite (UFE - French Electricity Union), an association governed by the law of 1901, created in May 2000, is the professional association for the electricity sector. It represents the sector's employers within the electricity and gas industries branch and promotes the interests of its members, producers, system operators or electricity suppliers, in both economic and industrial areas. Directly or indirectly, the UFE includes more than 500 companies that employ more than 150, 000 people in France, with a sales figure of more than euro 40 billion. This report summarises the 2009 key events and figures and the activities of the different committees and working groups: the Sustainable Electricity Club, the General Economy Committee, the Social Committee of Employers' Groups, the Generation Committee, the Hydroelectricity Working Group, the Markets Committee, the Systems and Public Service Committee, and the European Affairs Committee. The year 2009 was marked by the effects of the international crisis that affected all of the economic workings of all of the world's countries. In an attempt to deal with its consequences, each state prepared a recovery plan and implemented austerity measures. For its part, France is relying on its Great Loan in order to re-invigorate the sectors that are likely to be the drivers of the recovery and of a new rapid expansion of industry. The electricity sector has essential strengths, notably one of the least carbon-producing production stocks in Europe, and it also ensures that France has energy security and independence. In 2009, the UFE devoted itself to demonstrating the central role that electricity can play in the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases. However, France must now concentrate its efforts on setting up a true energy policy that consolidates its carbon competitive advantage. This clearly means a framework that encourages crucial investments in industrial infrastructures: basic and

  20. Meeting Ontario's electricity supply challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between nuclear generation and other existing power generation, with particular reference to the natural gas industry. The aim of the paper was to present a rationale for an extensive nuclear restart in the near future in Ontario. An energy forecast was provided, generating capacity requirements were examined, with particular reference to requirements beyond conservation and renewable energy supplies. The cost effectiveness of nuclear rehabilitation was compared to combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in terms of capital and non-fuel costs. Future prospects of gas prices were discussed, as well as the possibilities of demand outstripping supply. CCGT costs were compared to nuclear rehabilitation in terms of overall electricity prices, including capital, non-fuel operating costs and fuel costs. Steps towards making the nuclear option a reality included a sustainable market environment; clear policy framework; a balanced energy mix; long term price certainty; and clear regulatory requirements. In was concluded that in order to regenerate its potential, the nuclear industry must demonstrate world class project management; fixed scope; fixed supplier prices; program commitment; guarantees; and realistic future production estimates. It was also concluded that nuclear restart and life extension was an extremely attractive option for consumers, offering long term stable competitive power, with fuel diversity and future reserves as well as zero greenhouse gas emissions and an optimization and use of existing facilities. Challenges in creating the right climate for nuclear rehabilitation were the difficulties in making the nuclear option attractive to investors as well as developing correct estimation of project times, costs, and scopes and allocation of project risks. tabs., figs

  1. Air-drop blood supply in the French Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaudin, Olivier; Baillon, A; Varin, N; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Civadier, C; Clavier, B; Sailliol, A

    2018-02-12

    Haemorrhagic shock remains the leading cause of preventable death in overseas and austere settings. Transfusion of blood components is critical in the management of this kind of injury. For French naval and ground military units, this supply often takes too long considering the short shelf-life of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) and the limited duration of transport in cooling containers (five to six days). Air-drop supply could be an alternative to overcome these difficulties on the condition that air-drop does not cause damage to blood units. After a period of study and technical development of packaging, four air-drops at medium and high altitudes were performed with an aircraft of the French Air Force. After this, one air-drop was carried out at medium altitude with 10 RBCs and 10 French lyophilised plasma (FLYP). A second air-drop was performed with a soldier carrying one FLYP unit at 12 000 feet. For these air-drops real blood products were used, and quality control testing and temperature monitoring were performed. The temperatures inside the containers were within the normal ranges. Visual inspection indicated that transfusion packaging and dumped products did not undergo deterioration. The quality control data on RBCs and FLYP, including haemostasis, suggested no difference before and after air-drop. The operational implementation of the air-drop of blood products seems to be one of the solutions for the supply of blood products in military austere settings or far forward on battlefield, allowing safe and early transfusion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Electricity supply of Switzerland. Development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzner, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the history of the Swiss power supply since the founding of the Swiss Electricity Works Association in the year 1985 is provided. Power supply, requirements, linkage and exchange with other countries are dealt with. Further themes are the organizational structures, tariffs, power supply and energy policies, as well as national and international connections. 87 figs., 40 refs

  3. Electric power supply in China. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Heng

    1987-01-01

    Professor Chen, visiting professor at the RWTH Aachen, gave several lectures dealing with his country, the electric power supply in China and with special research activities of Chinese scientists. This article is based on two of his lectures, and will be published in two parts, the first of which provides a brief description of China, an overview on electric power supply, and a brief description of the large power plants and large electrical subsystems. The second part will deal with operation planning, extension planning as well as with research and development in the field of electric energy supply. (orig.) [de

  4. The French electric assessment for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables this article comments the evolution of the French electricity production, of the wind energy production and of the solar photovoltaic energy production since 2003 or 2005, and the level of imports and exports from and to neighbouring countries. The author outlines that meteorological conditions have been notably fair (soft winter and cool summer), comments the level of the export balance and the content of these exchanges. He comments the relative growth of wind energy and photovoltaic energy with respect to nuclear and hydroelectric energies which represent nearly 90 per cent of the production. Provisional costs related to energy public services are assessed for 2015 and their evolution since 2003 is indicated. The wind energy load factor evolution in October and December is commented, as well as the exploitation of thermal gas or coal plants. The author outlines some contradictions in the requirements specified in the law for energy transition, notably regarding the occurrence of a cold wave which would require the use of fossil energy plants to compensate the intermittency of wind and solar energy

  5. Evolution of the on-site electric power sources on French 900 MWe PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Jean [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Departement d' Analyse de Surete, Service d' Analyse Fonctionnelle, Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, B.P. No. 6, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1986-02-15

    Additional means have been provided on the French 900 MWe PWRs to improve safety if both the off-site and on-site Power sources are lost, namely: - a primary pump seal water injection device, one for two units; - a gas turbine generator for each site; - supplying any failing unit with electric power from a house load operating unit; - supplying a unit from a diesel generator of another unit. (author)

  6. Planning games for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.

    1977-01-01

    The author shows the main differences between the electricity supply planning game for the Bernische Kraftwerke AG (PEW-1) and that for the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (PEW-2). (orig.) [de

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  8. General conditions for electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    If it is uncertain whether future power bills will be paid fully, it is admissible to take an action claiming a declaration which states that the electricity rate payment boycotter has no right to non-payment nor a right to withhold payment towards the electricity supply utility, and that the electricity supply utility has the right to stop energy supply because of reduced electricity rate payments effected and/or announced, and to denounce the contract without observing any term of notice. If the electricity buyer reduces a power bill to be paid without any legal grounds, the electricity supply utility has the right to stop power supplies and to denounce the power supply contract without observing any term of notice. The freedom of thought and the freedom of opinion must not be expressed by reducing power bills to be paid. Basic rights discontinue to be effective as soon as a contract or law is broken. A weighing of protected interests is not effected if the exercise of a basic law is unlawful. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Electricity supply in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  10. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  11. Trying to understand French-German electric power exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The author aims at understanding the differences of electric balance between France and Germany depending on whether statistics produced by RTE or statistics produced by the ENSTO-E are considered, as both bodies measure electricity exchanges between both countries. It appears that electricity entering France from Germany is in fact transiting to other countries, whereas France exports about 10 TWh each year. This analysis is important when these imports from Germany are often used as arguments by opponents to the substitution of CO 2 emitting energy sources by electricity to artificially increase the low carbon content of the French electricity, notably by putting electric heating into question again

  12. Electric power. The boom of continuous supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing needs in electric supply that exist in computer industry and Internet or more classical industry and tertiary sector have boosted the non-interruptible power supply market and decentralized generation groups. One can imagine the development of mini networks exploited by new types operators, progressive renunciation of the diesel engine for the profit of gas turbine and soon fuel cell and new opportunities for the cogeneration. (N.C.)

  13. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW) [de

  14. French wholesale electricity and gas markets in 2007. Monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    be improved at this stage. Published information on availability forecasts of power generation facilities were insufficient. Finally, CRE has established that the limited development of competition on the retail market and the implementation of the transitional regulated tariff for balancing markets (TaRTAM) have curbed the increase of the wholesale electricity market's activity. Considering these findings, CRE will carry out audits on the valuation methods used by EDF for its nuclear and hydraulic generation. Based on a public consultation, CRE will also formulate recommendations on generation transparency. On the gas wholesale market, CRE observes that the activity on the wholesale market has grown all along 2007 but remained focused on short-term trading. In particular, little public information was available on the market because most of the deals were concluded without intermediary. Moreover, CRE notes that the supplying conditions of suppliers who are not former incumbents in Europe were not satisfactory. These suppliers had to acquire most of their gas on the French market. In order to improve the transparency of the gas wholesale market, CRE will publish aggregated and anonymous information on the bilateral market according to information on volumes that will be collected from market participants

  15. French retail electricity and gas markets functioning - 2012-2013 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    French retail electricity and gas markets are still progressively opening to competition. Competition dynamics, even if more limited on the electricity market, is changing in a favorable way. These changes reflect the development of more competitive market offers with respect to regulated sales tariffs in both energies, as well as a better knowledge of these markets by end-users. In this context of retail markets development, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) pays more and more attention to the monitoring of actors behaviour, in particular in the domain of price and offer transparency. This activity is going to become reinforced in the future with the scheduled disappearance of regulated sales tariffs. This report presents the situation of the French retail electricity and gas markets by December 31, 2012 (supplies, offers and prices), with a comparison with other European countries (Germany, UK, Belgium)

  16. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  17. Nanotechnological solutions for Nigeria's electricity supply problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for every roof. The energy generated from the sun would be stored in inverters or other energy storage facilities like supercapacitors and superconductors during the day and would be useable during the night. Keywords: Nanotechnology, nano photovoltaic cells, Electricity Generation and Supply, Hybrid Energy Building ...

  18. Electricity demand and supply to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will attempt to make projections of energy and electricity demand, and the possible share of nuclear generation in global supply, up to 2020. This horizon has been chosen because the long lead times prevailing in the energy sector imply long-term planning, even though the degree of uncertainty is quite large when looking several decades ahead. Electricity demand, as well as primary energy consumption, depends on many technical and economic factors, obviously including demography. Using statistical data for past decades, it is possible to quantify by econometric methods and the links between energy and electricity consumption and economic parameters. The models defined may then be used to make projections of future electricity consumption. The share of nuclear electricity in primary energy supply can be estimated by taking into account the various constraints and lead times limiting the deployment of nuclear generating capacity, and the shares of other energy sources in electricity generation in each country or region. It should be emphasized that the scenarios presented below are illustrative, and are not forecasts of future energy and electricity demand. Because of the method adopted and the assumptions made, the scenarios reflect a 'conventional wisdom'. However, they do incorporate concerns for environmental protection and improvements regarding energy efficiency. (author)

  19. Electricity: French industrialists tied up by prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    With more than 50% of increase in 3 years, the electricity prices reach summits in France. The industrialists, initially enthusiastic over the promises of the liberalization of European energy markets, are today particularly disappointed and denounce an irrational logic. The reasons of these inflationary prices are explained in this article: alignment of electricity prices with respect to the prices of the less efficient producers (oil and gas power plants), lack of peak production means which induces prices volatility, a commodity market model unsuitable to electricity specificities, lack of transparency in the establishment of reference prices, no margins for negotiation, and will of Electricite de France (EdF) to restore its financial status. (J.S.)

  20. French retail electricity and gas markets functioning - 2011-2012 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    French retail electricity and gas markets are progressively opening to competition. These changes reflect the development of more competitive market offers with respect to regulated sales tariffs in both energies, as well as a better knowledge of these markets by end-users. In this context of retail markets development, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) pays attention to the monitoring of actors behaviour, in particular in the domain of price and offer transparency. This report presents, first, the situation of the French retail electricity and gas markets by December 31, 2011. Then, an economic analysis of the supplies on retail market is made. Next, a qualitative analysis of transparency and operation on retail markets is presented. Finally, CRE makes some proposals for the improvement of the transparency and operation of these markets

  1. The French electricity policy facing European integration and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, M.C.

    2004-02-01

    The french electricity policy is traditionally defined by public authorities. The preference for nuclear power implies great risk and severe damage to the environment. These features of french electricity policy are however questioned by the increasing influence of european law and the (relatively) recent recognition of the environmental issues of such policy. This thesis intends to study the consequences of two 'new' tendencies that seem to be inevitable in the field of electricity policy: the decreasing role of national public authorities and the diffusion of the concept of sustainable development. The theoretical model which underlies the organization of commercial exchanges is replacing the traditional intervention of the State. regarding of this basic good. The adoption of legal rules to organize the electricity market has involved the development of many economic instruments. Those instruments aim at modifying the electricity policy in accordance with the principle of integration of environmental dimension in sectoral policies. The main object of our work is to analyse the consequences of these changes in the concept of public utility as well as in the importance given to environmental protection in the new forms of electricity policies. (author)

  2. Integrated resource planning in Danish electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Resource Planning in Danish Electricity Supply is a development project run by a cooperation of Danish electric power companies. It takes environmental issues, such as energy conservation, into consideration in addition to the European Union's proposal for a directive on the introduction of competition within the common energy market. The concept of integrated resource planning is described as a tool that can be used for a total cost minimization of the activities on the supply side and the demand side, this concept is further elucidated. It is explained that there must be an economic balance between the efforts on both sides and that this will ensure a total cost minimization. Preconditions, related for example to socio-economics, and procedures (step-by-step planning), functional barriers, a definition of roles and international influence and dialogue are also discussed. Satisfaction is expressed for this method of integrated resource planning, yet uncertainty as to the future structure of the free electricity market implies a cautious implementation. (AB)

  3. Electricity consumption and ICT in the French service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, Fabrice [Toulouse Univ., (GREMAQ-CNRS, IDEI), Toulouse (France); Feve, Patrick [GREMAQ-Univ. de Toulouse 1, Toulouse, 31 (France); Portier, Franck [Toulouse Univ., (GREMAQ, LEERNA, IDEI, IUF, CEPR), Toulouse (France)

    2005-05-01

    The paper documents the evolution of electricity use and the development of information and communication (IC) technologies in the French service sector. To that purpose, we put together two data sets documenting electricity consumption and the diffusion of IC capital goods. Using a simple factor demand model, we estimate the structural parameters of the model using both the time series and the cross-sectional dimension of the data, and allow for a specific effect of IC capital goods on the efficiency of electricity in production. We obtain robust results showing that, once controlled for technical progress, prices, and heated areas, electricity intensity of production increases with computers and software, while it decreases with the diffusion of communication device. (Author)

  4. Deregulation of Electricity Supply Industry in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Al-Maghderi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the opportunities available and the conditions needed for the deregulation of the Electricity Supply Industry (ESI, with particular reference to the Sultanate of Oman. The paper highlights the general issues of regulation required to encourage competition in the ESI.  After that, the discussion focuses on regulation methods in the privatized ESI by describing the regulators control through price caps setting for regulatees, the conduct regulation process, the rate of return regulation setting, and the spot market (the pool contract. Finally, the prospects of restructuring and privatizing the ESI in the Sultanate of Oman are examined by reviewing the current structure of the industry and government objectives in deregulation of the electricity sector as well as the regulation framework.

  5. Electricity supply opportunities -- The Mexican door opens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Anyone who assumes that the Mexican market for electrical capacity is just a matter of selling equipment and services is in for a shock. The astute neighbor to the south is exploring privatization in the power sector with a style and flair that is uniquely Mexican. While free market-market forces have, to some extent, already transformed the manner in which new generating capacity is added in the US, a Mexico equivalent will not develop over night. Mexico is no place for the faint of heart. You have to play hard in order to win against competition almost equivalent to that of the US market and have the staying power to be around long enough to reap the rewards. This work presents the author's views concerning the manner in which competition has been introduced within the electricity supply market of the neighbor to the south

  6. Pathways for the North European electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odenberger, M.; Unger, T.; Johnsson, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of the electricity-supply systems in Northern Europe (Germany, UK, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway) until the year 2050. The focus is on the response to an assumed common stringent CO 2 -reduction target and on the role of carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS). Special emphasis is put on turn-over in capital stock, timing of investments and the infrastructural implications of large-scale introduction of CCS. The analysis is carried out through scenario analysis with the aid of a techno-economic model, in which a case including CCS is compared to a case excluding this option. The phase out of the present capital stock (power plants) is included from the Chalmers energy infrastructure databases, which gives information on present and planned power plants down to block level for plants exceeding 10 MW net electric power. Assuming technical lifetimes for these plants yield residual capacities in each year, here referred to as the phase-out pattern. CCS technologies are assumed to become commercially available in 2020. The age structure of the power plants indicate that full turn-over in capital stock will take several decades with the present generation capacities accounting for around 50% of generated electricity in 2020. The results show that CO 2 emission reductions of 20% and 60% by the years 2020 and 2050, respectively, relative to 1990, can be met at a marginal cost of abatement of about 25-40 Euro /ton CO 2 over the period studied if CCS is included as an option from 2020. At the same time the marginal cost of generating electricity lies in the range 45-60 Euro /MWh. Excluding CCS raises the marginal cost of abatement with about 10 Euro /ton CO 2 , whereas the marginal cost of electricity generation increases with roughly 5-10 Euro /MWh. The CO 2 target by the year 2020 is met by implementation of renewable electricity and fuel shifting from coal to gas. After 2020 CCS technologies constitute an attractive way

  7. Electric Power Supply Chain Management Addressing Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Cong, Ronggang

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management played a critical role in the electric power industrial chain optimization. The purpose of this paper was to review a sample of the literature relating to supply chain management and its possible applications in electricity power system, especially in the context of climate...... change. The study compared the difference between electric power supply chain management and traditional supply chain management. Furthermore, some possible research topics are addressed. The aim of this paper was to promote the application of supply chain management in the China electricity sector...

  8. The French wholesale electricity and natural gas markets. 2009-2010 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    This report on the operation of French wholesale electricity and natural gas markets deals with CRE wholesale market surveillance activities. It capitalizes on the experience gained in this area since the Law of the 7 December 2006 gave the CRE market surveillance powers. It is also based on feedback from discussions and interaction with the different stakeholders through public consultations. Market surveillance applies to: - electricity and gas, - bilateral transactions, trading on exchanges and cross-border transactions, - all maturities, from short-term markets to long-term contracts, - all French wholesale market counter-parties, whatever nationality they may have, - contracts for physical delivery, as well as to financial products. The Law also allows extensive surveillance of market participants' behaviour, in that the CRE can oversee not only transactions between operators but also their bids and the correspondence between the prices charged and the position of each operator. In order to address these different subjects, the electricity and gas sections of this report are divided into four main chapters dealing with the development of trading, wholesale market price trends, the fundamentals (generation, infrastructures) and, finally, the analysis of electricity transactions and the supply of alternative gas operators. Contents: A - Introduction, Summary of the report; B - Section 1 - The wholesale electricity markets: The development of the main segments of the wholesale market, Electricity prices, Analysis of generation and its transparency, Analysis of transactions; C - Section 2 - The wholesale gas markets: The development of gas trading, Gas prices, The gas infrastructures, The supply of players/new entrants; D - Section 3 - Appendices: Glossary, Index to graphs, Index to tables, Index to boxes

  9. Nuclear and intermittent renewables: Two compatible supply options? The case of the French power mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, Camille; Mansilla, Christine; Costa, Pascal da; Mathonnière, Gilles; Duquesnoy, Thierry; Baschwitz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The complementary features of low-carbon power sources are a central issue in designing energy transition policies. The French current electricity mix is characterised by a high share of nuclear power which equalled 76% of the total electric production in 2015. With the increase in intermittent renewable sources, nuclear flexibility is examined as part of the solution to balance electricity supply and demand. Our proposed methodology involves designing scenarios with nuclear and intermittent renewable penetration levels, and developing residual load duration curves in each case. The load modulation impact on the nuclear production cost is estimated. This article shows to which extent the nuclear annual energy production will decrease with high shares of intermittent renewables (down to load factors of 40% for proactive assumptions). However, the production cost increase could be compensated by progressively replacing the plants. Moreover, incentives are necessary if nuclear is to compete with combined-cycle gas turbines as its alternative back-up option. In order to reconcile the social planner with plant operator goals, the solution could be to find new outlets rather than reducing nuclear load factors. Nuclear flexibility could then be considered in terms of using its power to produce heat or hydrogen. - Highlights: •Nuclear flexibility is examined to balance the system with high renewables share. •Impacts of wind and solar shares on the nuclear load factor and LCOE are assessed. •Nuclear fleet replacement must be progressive to ensure competitive load-following. •Incentives are needed for nuclear to compete with CCGT gas back-up. •We recommend considering nuclear flexibility through the power use.

  10. Behaviour of French electrical cables under fire conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, R.; Chaussard, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.; Such, J.M

    2001-12-01

    A fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment notably damaging electrical cables that are a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this communication is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. Moreover, are indicated the impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred. (authors)

  11. The significance and impact of the new French electricity organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batail, J.

    2000-01-01

    The years 1996 to 1998 saw the introduction of 'internal electricity market' and 'internal gas market' directives. In France, the year 2000 has recently been marked by the enactment of the new electricity law and soon a gas law will also be brought into force. The issues are technical-economic, industrial, social and political. This article points out the particular nature of the 'power supply network industries', recalls the arguments presented during communal debates about electricity and explains the solutions that have resulted in agreement. Finally, it details the practical impact of the recent electricity law, aimed at revitalizing the electricity network by the introduction of competition, whilst clarify and consolidating the public service in a competitive context and equipping the energy policy with suitable tools for this new context. What is required is a balance between the advantages of moderate liberalization and a certain number features to which France adheres to i.e. the security of national supplies, the involvement of public authorities in the preparation for the collective and access to cheap electricity for all, etc. (authors)

  12. Towards future organization of French electricity sector; Vers la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, Dominique; Pierret, Christian [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    This document displays information and questions concerning the future organization of the French electric sector. The directive on the domestic electricity market was adopted in 1996 by the Council of the Ministers of European Union and Parliament. The member states were due to transpose the directive within their national legislation up to 19 February 1999. The directive establishes principles but provides large reaches of maneuver to the member states which can choose the organizational means according to their own expectations. These task is considered as feasible by the authors. It must reinforce the public service by giving added strength to the security of supply and ensuring everybody's access to a well marketed and high quality electric supply. By introduction of certain well controlled elements of competition this evolution should also contribute to cost lowering, boost of the national competitiveness and support of employment. The document contains seven chapters which expose the following items: 1. The objectives of reorganization; 2. The directive and its reach; 3. Strengthening the public service; 4. Revamping the electric service to promote the growth; 5. Preserving the grids for the general benefit; 6. Defining the place of EDF within the new organizational scheme; 7. Developing an efficient regulation. Finally, an appendix is given containing the Directive 96/92/CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 October 1996, concerning the common rules for domestic electricity market.

  13. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Working under the aegis of public authorities, RTE periodically prepares and makes public a multi-annual forecast of the electricity supply-demand balance in France, as required by law. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the ability of the French power system, in interaction with neighbouring systems, to properly satisfy demand, based on the likeliest scenarios for trends in demand, demand response and generation

  14. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of February 10, 2000, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Public Authorities, periodically establishes a multi-annual forecast report on the balance of electricity supply and demand in France. The Generation Adequacy Report is one basis for the Minister for Energy, and the Public Authorities in general, to build the Multi-annual Investment Plan (referred to in this document by its French acronym PPI for Programmation Pluri-annuelle des Investissements) for electricity generation facilities, introduced by the above-mentioned law. The Generation Adequacy Report deals with the security of the French electricity supply. It intends to identify over a period of about fifteen years the risks of imbalances in continental France between the electricity demand and the generation capacity available to supply it. It enables the identification of the generation capacity required to meet the peaks of demand. The choice of generation technologies to be developed, which is dictated by environmental and economic concerns, is not covered by the Generation Adequacy Report, but is a matter for the other stakeholders in the French electric system, under the guidelines determined by the PPI. The Generation Adequacy Report is published by RTE on its web site and thus accessible to all to serve transparency and contribute to the French energy debate. This document is the fourth edition of the Generation Adequacy Report published by RTE, following its 2003, 2005 and 2007 editions. RTE publishes partial updates in-between to reflect developments in generation capacity. The last update was published in 2008. The time horizon of the 2009 edition of the Generation Adequacy Report is 2025

  15. Generation adequacy report 2009 on the electricity supply - demand balance in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of February 10, 2000, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Public Authorities, periodically establishes a multi-annual forecast report on the balance of electricity supply and demand in France. The Generation Adequacy Report is one basis for the Minister for Energy, and the Public Authorities in general, to build the Multi-annual Investment Plan (referred to in this document by its French acronym PPI for Programmation Pluri-annuelle des Investissements) for electricity generation facilities, introduced by the above-mentioned law. The Generation Adequacy Report deals with the security of the French electricity supply. It intends to identify over a period of about fifteen years the risks of imbalances in continental France between the electricity demand and the generation capacity available to supply it. It enables the identification of the generation capacity required to meet the peaks of demand. The choice of generation technologies to be developed, which is dictated by environmental and economic concerns, is not covered by the Generation Adequacy Report, but is a matter for the other stakeholders in the French electric system, under the guidelines determined by the PPI. The Generation Adequacy Report is published by RTE on its web site and thus accessible to all to serve transparency and contribute to the French energy debate. This document is the fourth edition of the Generation Adequacy Report published by RTE, following its 2003, 2005 and 2007 editions. RTE publishes partial updates in-between to reflect developments in generation capacity. The last update was published in 2008. The time horizon of the 2009 edition of the Generation Adequacy Report is 2025. (author)

  16. French know-how in the field of geothermal energy. District heating and electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This brochure is aimed at presenting the French expertise, public and private, at international level in the field of geothermal energy (district heating and electricity generation systems). It presents a summary of the French public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training and offers from private companies. It has been designed by the ADEME in cooperation with the French ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development, the French association of geothermal energy professionals, Ubifrance (the French Agency for international business development) and the French renewable energies union

  17. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-01-01

    The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. ...

  18. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  19. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of 10 February 2000, at least every two years, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Government, establishes a multi-annual Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. A new regulatory framework specifies the methods to be used by RTE for drawing up this independent technical expert report. The Generation Adequacy Report is one of the elements used by the Minister for Energy and the Government in general, to determine the Multi-annual Investment Programme (referred to by the French acronym PPI) for investing in energy generation facilities, introduced by the above-mentioned law. RTE publishes the report, which also appears on-line on the operator's web site www.rtefrance.com. This principle of transparency means that the information can be circulated to all the players involved in the power system and helps drive the energy debate. RTE published a previous report in 2005, which was partially updated in 2006. The Generation Adequacy Report is part of measures aimed at ensuring the security of the French electricity supply. It is intended to identify the risks of imbalances between electricity demand and the generation supply available to satisfy it over a period of around fifteen years. Consequently, it identifies the generation capacity required to meet peak demand. The choice of generation technologies to be developed, which is dictated by environmental and economic concerns, is not covered by the Generation Adequacy Report, but is a matter for the other players involved in the French electric system, and more generally, the orientations determined by the PPI. In order to carry out the analysis of the overall supply- demand balance in mainland France, RTE establishes domestic electricity demand forecasts, which it then compares with expected developments in the generating fleet

  20. Analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance for the winter period 2009-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    Every year, RTE conducts a prospective study of the balance between supply and demand for electricity for the coming winter period, covering the whole of mainland France. This period of the year is looked at closely, primarily due to the high levels of electricity demand seen during cold snaps. The study by RTE is used to identify periods where the supply-demand balance comes under strain; it explores the measures that can be taken by electricity market players and RTE to avoid any interruption in supply during peak demand periods in France. RTE is responsible for managing the balance between supply and demand for electricity in mainland France, in real time. To do this, it anticipates potential risks that may supply may come under strain - well in advance - and informs market players. If periods are identified where the supply-demand balance comes under strain, RTE works with the electricity generators to look at possible ways of altering the schedules for shutting down generating units, and takes account of the possibilities for demand response (load reduction) reported by suppliers. As a last resort, if these preemptive measures prove insufficient and the situation becomes critical, RTE alerts the government of the risk that supply will be interrupted, and takes action in real time to limit the impact on the power system. For temperatures close to seasonal norms, the forecast outlook for the electricity supply-demand balance appears significantly less favourable than last winter until the end of January. Imports could be required between mid-November 2009 and the end of January 2010, to cover electricity demand in France and satisfy the technical security margin stipulated by RTE. To do this, suppliers would have to look to the European markets, in addition to activating demand response (load reduction) possibilities with their customer portfolios. In the event of an intense and sustained spell of cold weather, the technical limit for imports into the French

  1. Report on the behalf of the Foreign Affair Commission on the bill project adopted by the Senate, authorizing the approval of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Monaco Principality related to the supply of electricity to the Monaco Principality - Nr 4171

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvard, Loic

    2012-01-01

    This document outlines that, according to the convention, electricity tariffs are the same for Monaco inhabitants and for French consumers since 1951, and that the new convention leaves this situation unchanged. A second part comments the relationship between France and Monaco in the domain of energy. The content of the Commission debate is reported

  2. Solar island electricity supply at Flanitzhuette. Solare Inselstromversorgung Flanitzhuette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, U. (Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this research project is the planning, erection and operation of a permanent electricity supply independent of the grid based on photo-electrics for an isolated hamlet in the Bavarian Forest. Criteria for the development and optimisation of solar electricity supply concepts are to be obtained from practical experience. The investigation and exploitation of energ saving potential and an harmonious integration of the solar plant in the landscape are also important aspects. (orig.)

  3. Model Design on Emergency Power Supply of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the mobile storage characteristic of electric vehicles, an emergency power supply model about the electric vehicles is presented through analyzing its storage characteristic. The model can ensure important consumer loss minimization during power failure or emergency and can make electric vehicles cost minimization about running, scheduling, and vindicating. In view of the random dispersion feature in one area, an emergency power supply scheme using the electric vehicles is designed based on the K-means algorithm. The purpose is to improve the electric vehicles initiative gathering ability and reduce the electric vehicles gathering time. The study can reduce the number of other emergency power supply equipment and improve the urban electricity reliability.

  4. Risk management of power supply in open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinta-Runsala, E.; Kiviniemi, J.

    1999-12-01

    The open electricity market has increased the need of risk management in electric utilities. In this publication the concepts of risk assessment and measures mostly concentrating on market risks for power supply companies are reported. An essential past of the risk management includes the electricity derivates and trade

  5. Research and development in the electricity supply industry conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document summarizes the views expressed in the conference papers. These are grouped into fuels for the future, coal fired powers stations, renewables, use of heat as a by-product of electricity generation, fuel cells, electric vehicles, and environmental issues in the electricity supply industry. The points and ideas from the two workshops held in conjunction with the conference are also summarized

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Electricity Supply Inadequacy: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has many electricity supply problems with major causes being natural causes (drought), oil price shock, system disruption by conflict, and low investment in electricity generation. To solve the problem, many countries adopted several reforms. However, the reforms failed to bring solutions. Electricity sector privatisation ...

  7. Electricity intensity backstop level to meet sustainable backstop supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2006-01-01

    The concept of a backstop level of electricity intensity is introduced and illustrated for the highest income economies of the world. The backstop level corresponds with the intensity that would be triggered by applying end-use electricity prices equal to the cost price of a fully sustainable electricity supply. Section 1 of the paper discusses the issue of electricity (also energy) intensity of economies. It is argued that identifying a 'demand for electricity intensity' bridges the gap between the high willingness to pay for electricity services on the one hand and the disinterested attitude of consumers regarding the invisible and impalpable product electricity on the other hand. Assessment of the demand curve for electricity intensity in a cross section of high income OECD countries comes to a long-run price elasticity of almost -1. Section 2 revives Nordhaus' concept of backstop supply technologies for weighing three power sources (fossil, nuclear, and renewable sources) in meeting today's criteria of sustainable backstop technology. Only renewable sources meet the main sustainability criteria, but the economic cost of a fully sustainable electricity supply will be elevated. The closing question of Section 3, that is, whether the countries can afford the high cost of backstop electricity supplies, is answered by indicating what reductions in intensity are required to keep the electricity bills stable. The targeted intensity level is called the backstop level, and provides a fixed point for electricity efficiency policies. The analysis supports the call for comprehensive and enduring tax reform policies

  8. Electrical power supply and process heat supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This paper consists of an economic analysis in which three geothermal electricity production scenarios are evaluated. The first is a 400 MW facility using cost and production data developed in this study. The other two are 400 and 880 MW units using cost data from a separate State of Hawaii study made to evaluate the economic feasibility of an interisland submersible electricity cable. In all cases, the scenarios are evaluated using the same economic model described, but in this case also reflecting depletion allowances permitted by the tax code. The output price is measured as cents per kWh, assuming delivery of the power to a bulk buyer at the plant fence. The two cases reflecting the State of Hawaii study use lower capital costs, which result in lower electricity prices when evaluated through the economic model. Since the assumptions of these two cases were not developed under this study, the resulting price figures are not used as part of the base case integrated systems. Rather, they are presented only as a special case, and are used as one scenario in the sensitivity analyses of integrated systems

  9. Sustainability of electricity supply technology portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Stefan; Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Heck, Thomas; Schenler, Warren; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the approach to the evaluation of sustainability of current and future electricity supply options of interest for a major Swiss utility Axpo Holding AG. The motivation behind this effort has been to provide a solid basis for a state-of-the-art interdisciplinary assessment and use this framework within a dialog with a wide spectrum of stakeholders. The development and implementation of the methodology was coordinated by Axpo in co-operation with the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) and other scientific institutions. The evaluation covers environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainability. Methods used include among others Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The associated databases developed by PSI have been extensively used, subject to major extensions necessary for analysing the future technologies. Learning curves were employed for future cost estimates. Furthermore, particularly in the social area expert surveys were used. The results were aggregated using total (internal plus external) costs approach and Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). For MCDA a set of criteria and the associated indicators was established. In total 75 indicators were quantified, including 11 environmental, 33 social and 31 economic. 18 current and 18 future technologies have been analysed including nuclear as well as fossil and renewable technologies. Total costs were estimated for these technologies providing a clear ranking with nuclear having the lowest costs and some of the renewable showing remarkable cost reductions until 2030. This ranking is partially controversial mainly due to the limited representation of social aspects in the total costs. The results of MCDA-applications involving elicitation of preferences from a relatively homogeneous stakeholder group, i.e. 85 employees of the Axpo Group (including also NOK, EGL, CKW and Axpo IT), are summarized. In addition, sensitivity of

  10. Sustainability of electricity supply technology portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Stefan; Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Dones, Roberto; Heck, Thomas; Schenler, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the approach to the evaluation of sustainability of current and future electricity supply options of interest for a major Swiss utility Axpo Holding AG. The motivation behind this effort has been to provide a solid basis for a state-of-the-art interdisciplinary assessment and use this framework within a dialog with a wide spectrum of stakeholders. The development and implementation of the methodology was coordinated by Axpo in co-operation with the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) and other scientific institutions. The evaluation covers environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainability. Methods used include among others life cycle assessment (LCA), impact pathway approach (IPA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The associated databases developed by PSI have been extensively used, subject to major extensions necessary for analyzing the future technologies. Learning curves were employed for future cost estimates. Furthermore, particularly in the social area expert surveys were used. The results were aggregated using total (internal plus external) costs approach and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). For MCDA a set of criteria and the associated indicators was established. In total 75 indicators were quantified, including 11 environmental, 33 social and 31 economic. Eighteen current and 18 future technologies have been analysed including nuclear as well as fossil and renewable technologies. Total costs were estimated for these technologies providing a clear ranking with nuclear having the lowest costs and some of the renewables showing remarkable cost reductions until 2030. This ranking is partially controversial mainly due to the limited representation of social aspects in the total costs. The results of MCDA-applications involving elicitation of preferences from a relatively homogeneous stakeholder group, i.e. 85 employees of the Axpo Group (including also NOK, EGL, CKW and Axpo IT), are summarized. In addition

  11. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-06-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The present contribution deals with the cases named under (3) and (4). Cases (1) and (2) were dealt with in a previous article. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed.

  12. Interim supply in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W

    1977-05-01

    The interim supply or the so-called 'condition without a contract' can occur within the framework of energy supply in the relationship between: 1) public utility and tariff customer, 2) public utility and the special last-in-line consumer, 3) supplying and distributing public utility, 4) public utility and territorial administrative body. The contribution at hand deals with the cases under 1) and 2); cases 3) and 4) are dealt with in an article to be published. Relevant contract clauses and laws and their effects on contracting partners are discussed. 41 references.

  13. Bottleneck management in the German and European electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This publication describes how bottlenecks in the German and European electricity supply pose a danger to the realization of the European internal market in electricity, the transition to electricity production from renewable resources and to the safeguarding of grid availability and security of supply. Bottlenecks at cross-border interconnectors between member states of the European Union are hampering cross-border trade in electricity, posing an impediment to EU-wide competition among electricity production and electricity trading companies. Grid bottlenecks at cross-border interconnectors isolate national markets from one another, with the result that it is not always possible in the European Union to have the most competitive power plant produce electricity. This amounts to a loss of welfare compared with what it would be in the case of an electricity supply without bottlenecks. Furthermore, bottlenecks make it impossible for green electricity that would be eligible for promotion for reasons of climate and environmental protection to be transmitted unimpeded from the most suitable site to the consumer regions. Thus the transmission of electricity produced from wind power in Northern Germany to the industrial centres in Southern Germany is impeded by bottlenecks along the north-south lines of the national transmission network. Today some of the German electricity supply networks already have to be operated near the limits of their capacity, especially during high wind episodes. This poses a growing danger to network availability and security of supply. Since the installation, expansion and conversion of electricity supply networks in Germany and other member states of the European Union is no longer progressing at the required speed, growing importance attaches to the management of bottlenecks. The goal of bottleneck management is to resolve conflicts over network use such as can occur in overload situations with as little discrimination and as little

  14. Alternative strategies for electricity supply from RENEL's power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, A.; Popescu, M.; Breazu, F.; Valcereanu, G.; Oprea, G.; Velcescu, O.; Popovici, D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition to the market economy imposes the refurbishment and rehabilitation of the energy sector. This development must be based on the principles of economic efficiency having in view both the conditions of environmental protection and the energy demand and supply. This paper will describe some alternative strategies for electricity supply, taking into account the forecast of electricity demand integrated into total energy demand, as well as the environmental protection regulations. (author). 1 fig., 4 refs

  15. Electric power supply: the viability of natural gas cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, C.P. de; Ennes, S.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The technical and economical aspects of Natural Gas conversion into electricity through cogeneration, analysing the potentials and costs of the power systems connections to downstream processes is related. The insertion impacts of these cogeneration potentials into the Electrical Network are also analysed, with special emphasis on the supply deficit risk reduction. The generation conditions for both auto-sufficiency and exceeding supply to network are determined, regarding the purposes of attendance efficiency improvement and the necessary new service stimulus. (author)

  16. Report on 'electricity quality'. Diagnosis and propositions related to the continuity of electric power supply - October 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    As public electric power distribution networks have been facing a significant increase of annual supply outage mean duration since several years, different stakeholders, notably authorities, are concerned by this degradation, even though final consumers are globally satisfied. This report thus addresses this issue. A first part proposes a precise analysis of electricity quality degradation: degradation of supply continuity has been noticed during the last decade, France stands at a good rank in Europe regarding this issue, and consumer expectations regarding quality are difficult to identify. The report outlines that many actors contribute to the definition of the electricity quality level: the French Parliament, the French government, and standardization bodies. It describes how licensing authorities and distribution network operators are acting for supply quality in public distribution networks. The report however outlines that stakeholders have different motivations regarding supply quality. The next chapter shows that actions have already been undertaken and results have already been obtained by ERDF regarding electricity quality. It also outlines that use prices are the main sources of financing expenses aimed at improving supply quality. In the next chapter, the report outlines that, within an uncertain context, perspectives of improvement of supply quality have to be discussed within the frame of the wider context of grid evolution, and also in terms of transparency

  17. Electric power supply for a mine: Principles and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mienville, G.; Grellety, J.

    1990-01-01

    The power supply of a water pumping system at the PEN or RAN mine is studied. A reliable pumping system was required because of the small volume of the available drainage reservoirs. Different power supply systems are considered. The 20 RV system configuration and adapted safety devices are described. The use of a generating set was required to ensure the mine operations. The power supply system in use allowed a reduction of the electricity cost [fr

  18. The deregulation of Taiwan electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is on the brink of embarking on an ambitious reform in the electricity sector. The future electricity market of Taiwan will be operated under the framework set out in the Electricity Act Amendment. Independent system operator (ISO) will be the core body of the future market operations and its establishment will therefore be the key to the liberalization. This paper presents the proposed implementation plan based on diverse factors considered by the officials. A three steps phased introduction of Taiwan ISO is discussed. During the proposed Phase I interim market arrangements, Taipower's System Operation Department will assume the role of System Operator for the market. The dispatch rules are largely based on the existing Taipower internal procedure. As competition increases, the need for increased transparency will necessitate the establishment of a fully independent ISO in Phase II to provide the real time dispatch services. This will be completed within 2 years after the passage of the Electricity Act Amendment Bill. In the last phase of the deregulation process a multilateral market arrangement for managing energy imbalance and transmission constraints will result in better outcomes in relation to the policy objectives of security and economic efficiency. The 2-year timeframe stipulated in the Electricity Act Amendment Bill is a challenge for the Government and the industry. However, a smoothly functioning Taiwan ISO will bring benefits to the industry and the country in general

  19. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  20. Can Slovakia secure reliable electricity supply without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pnacek, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with structure of electricity production in the Slovak republic in 2006 and perspectives of electricity supply up to 2020 year. Decommissioning of Unit 1 and Unit 2 of the Bohunice NPP and completion of Unit 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP are discussed

  1. Electric power supply in Sweden 1979/80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Generation, transmission and consumption of electricity for the year 1979/80 in Sweden are review in this report. The net supply of electricity in TWh was 60.2 from hydro, 20.1 from nuclear, 12.1 from fossil thermal and 1.4 imported. Detailed statistics are given for both consumption and generation. (L.E.)

  2. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  3. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  4. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  5. Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Indre, G.; Gugu, F.; Vilceanu, M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

  6. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  7. Primary energy sources for electricity supply in the FRG - demand and requirements as seen by the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhoff, R.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the present energy supply situation in the FRG, the attempt is made to elucidate basic tendencies for its development until 1990. The author pleads for the necessary growth by means of a series of theses. The supply with electric power being in the foreground can only be secured in the long run by means of greater utilization of coal and nuclear energy. Due to costs, other energy sources - playing a major role - will contribute less to the supply of electric power. (UA) [de

  8. Maximizing electrical power supply using FACTS devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Karsten; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Modern society critically depends on the services electric power provides. Power systems rely on a network of power lines and transformers to deliver power from sources of power (generators) to the consumers (loads). However, when power lines fail (for example, through lightning or natural disasters) or when the system is heavily used, the network is often unable to fulfill all of the demand for power. While systems are vulnerable to these failures, increasingly, sophisticated control devices...

  9. Decentralized energy supply and electricity market structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christoph; Vogel, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Small decentralized power generation units (DG) are politically promoted because of their potential to reduce GHG-emissions and the existing dependency on fossil fuels. A long term goal of this promotion should be the creation of a level playing field for DG and conventional power generation. Due to the impact of DG on the electricity grid infrastructure, future regulation should consider the costs and benefits of the integration of decentralized energy generation units. Without an adequate c...

  10. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  11. Electricity and energy policy: french specificities and challenges in the european framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In the today context of the electric power european market deregulation and the increase of the energy prices, the energy policy must change. The increase of the energy prices makes wonder the question of the competitiveness of the french economy: what type of supplies and which technological orientations will allow to reduce the constraints. After a presentation of the today electric power french market and the recently modifications bond to the deregulation, this note aims to describe the evolutions, since the first petroleum crisis, of the place given to the electric power in the energy policy, as the technological choices explaining the today structure he electricity production, characterized by the major part of the nuclear. Then the energy policy in matter of the electric power is discussed in the european context, to present the choices impacts facing the european objectives of energy security, environment and market liberalization. (A.L.B.)

  12. Questioning the sustainable palm oil demand: case study from French-Indonesia supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalil, D.; Barus, R.

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable palm oil has been widely debated. Consuming countries insist certified sustainable produces palm oil, but in fact the absorption of the certified palm oil is still less than 60%. This raise questions about the sustainable palm oil demand. In this study, such a condition will be analysed in French-Indonesia supply chain case. Using monthly and quarterly data from 2010 to 2016 with Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach and Error Correction Model, demand influencing factors and price integration in each market of the supply chain is estimated. Two scenarios namely re-export and direct export models are considered in the Error Correction Model. The results show that France Gross Domestic Product, prices of France palm oil import from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Germany, and price of France groundnut import significantly influence the France palm oil import volume from Indonesia. Prices in each market along palm oil re-export France-Indonesia supply chain are co-integrated and converge towards long-run equilibrium, but not in the direct export supply chain. This leads to a conclusion that France market preferences in specific and EU market preferences in general need to be considered by Indonesian palm oil decision makers.

  13. Electricity supply alternatives : the next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of the energy market for New England and the state of New York were summarized. It was predicted that in the next five years, virtually all proposals for electricity generation for New England and New York will be gas-fired combined cycle projects which are designed to meet new generation requirements and displace older steam units. The status of nuclear plants will influence project economics. It has been estimated that New England will need about 6,000-7,000 MW by 2004. This need is driven by the current deficiencies and increased shortfalls due to load growth and economic retirements of 2,000-4,000 MW. Market assumptions for new entrants, merchant plant economics, gas requirements in New England, pipeline capacity and power generation, and the challenges facing the natural gas industry were reviewed. A list of proposed combined cycle natural gas merchant power plants and their generating capacity was also provided. 1 tab., 5 figs

  14. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope This paper discusses the identification of the environmental consequences of marginal electricity supplies in consequential life cycle assessments (LCA). According to the methodology, environmental characteristics can be examined by identifying affected activities, i...... in capacity but can be characterised as a complex set of affected electricity and heat supply technologies. A long-term YAM technology is identified for the Danish BAU2030 system in the case of three different long-term marginal changes in capacity, namely coal, natural gas or wind power. Discussion Four...... of four different situations are provided. We suggest that the technology mix with the installation of natural gas or coal power plant is applied as the marginal capacity. Conclusions The environmental consequences of marginal changes in electricity supply cannot always be represented solely by long...

  15. Fostering future organization of French Electric Power. A report to Prime Minister; Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise. Rapport au Premier Ministre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Jean Louis [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1998-07-02

    This report addressed to the prime minister deals with the main four issues relating to the problem of revamping the French electricity sector. These are featured as: 1. The public electricity supply; 2. The future development of 'Electricite de France'; 3. The social renovation of the electricity sector; 4. Management and the role of policy. In turn these four chapters are detailed. Thus the first one addresses the problems: 1. Customizing the general interest supply; 2. Electricity general supply and the state policy; 3. Sustaining innovation, environmental protection and energy management; 4. The transport and distribution grid, the resistance structure of the public supply. Also, this chapter describes the role of the operators in the public electricity supply and tackles the problem of financing the commitments of the public supply. The second chapter sketches the tasks and management of EDF, considers establishing an agency to ensure accounting transparency, discusses the major significance of local collectivities and personnel. The third chapter addresses the following issues: 1. The range of application of the statute of electric and gas industries; 2. Adaptation of the statute; 3. Development of the statute; 4. Pensioners. The forth chapter deals with the definition of regulation, i.e. the management of the network authority and makes proposals for constituting relating commissions. In conclusion, the author pleads for maintaining and developing a major national operator ensuring public supply requirements as well as promotion of French electricity industry. The proposals made by the report's author concerning the operational ways of renewing the nuclear sector, the management of grid of electric transport, the role of local collectivities, creation of a professional trade, the founding regulation commissions and others are thought to prepare France to cope efficiently to the international competition in the years to come. The report is

  16. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  17. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezes-Cadiere, H.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.) [fr

  18. Improvements in electric power supply in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovskii, Yu.P.; Nabokov, Eh.P.; Savel' ev, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews measures taken by major coal producing countries to increase output levels. Discusses research carried out into advance design of equipment in FRG, UK, USA and France and proposes establishment of central automatic control of electric power supply system in Soviet mines, improvement in underground power supply equipment, increase in reliability, stabilization of standby capacity in low voltage circuits, maintenance-free electrical equipment, and efficient spare part storage in underground workings. States that introduction of the proposed system (details are given) will ensure that Soviet mines will eventually reach the development level of foreign mines. 2 refs.

  19. Scenario analysis on future electricity supply and demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Ishihara, Keiichi N.; Mclellan, Benjamin C.; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Under continuing policies of CO 2 emissions reduction, it is crucial to consider scenarios for Japan to realize a safe and clean future electricity system. The development plans for nuclear power and renewable energy - particularly solar and wind power - are being reconsidered in light of the Fukushima nuclear accident. To contribute to this, in the present study, three electricity supply scenarios for 2030 are proposed according to different future nuclear power development policies, and the maximum penetration of renewable energy generation is pursued. On the other side of the equation, three electricity demand scenarios are also proposed considering potential energy saving measures. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate quantitatively the technological, economic and environmental impacts of different supply policy selections and demand assumptions on future electricity systems. The scenario analysis is conducted using an input–output hour-by-hour simulation model subject to constraints from technological, economic and environmental perspectives. The obtained installed capacity mix, power generation mix, CO 2 emissions, and generation cost of the scenarios were inter-compared and analyzed. The penetration of renewable energy generation in a future electricity system in Japan, as well as its relationship with nuclear power share was uncovered. -- Highlights: ► Scenario analysis is conducted on future electricity systems under different supply policies and demand assumptions. ► Scenario analysis is conducted using a input–output hour-by-hour simulation model for real-time demand-supply balance. ► The technological, economic and environmental impacts of supply policies and demand assumptions on future electricity systems are studied. ► The maximum penetration of renewable energy generation is pursued in the scenario analysis using the hour-by-hour simulation. ► The relationship between the penetration levels of renewable energy and nuclear power

  20. Risk analysis of critical infrastructures emphasizing electricity supply and interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjølle, G.H.; Utne, I.B.; Gjerde, O.

    2012-01-01

    Failures in critical infrastructures can cause major damage to society. Wide-area interruptions (blackouts) in the electricity supply system have severe impacts on societal critical functions and other critical infrastructures, but there is no agreed-upon framework on how to analyze and predict the reliability of electricity supply. Thus, there is a need for an approach to cross-sector risk analyses, which facilitates risk analysis of outages in the electricity supply system and enables investigation of cascading failures and consequences in other infrastructures. This paper presents such an approach, which includes contingency analysis (power flow) and reliability analysis of power systems, as well as use of a cascade diagram for investigating interdependencies. A case study was carried out together with the Emergency Preparedness Group in the city of Oslo, Norway and the network company Hafslund Nett. The case study results highlight the need for cross-sector analyses by showing that the total estimated societal costs are substantially higher when cascading effects and consequences to other infrastructures are taken into account compared to only considering the costs of electricity interruptions as seen by the network company. The approach is a promising starting point for cross-sector risk analysis of electricity supply interruptions and consequences for dependent infrastructures.

  1. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  2. Forward-looking report of the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction presenting the objective of this report and the method used for its predictions, this document proposes an analysis of energy consumption: past trends, context of predictions, building up of predictions, global predictions, impact of demand control, comparison with a previous forward-looking assessment, comparison with other scenarios and other European countries. It analyses and discusses power consumption predictions (electricity consumption time variations, load curve evolution perspectives, peak power), production supply (current stock, thermal nuclear, thermal fossil, thermal decentralized, hydroelectric, wind energy, and photovoltaic production), the evolution of the supply-demand balance on a medium term for France and for two French regions. It finally proposes a long term prospective vision regarding energy

  3. The integrated North American electricity market : investment in electricity infrastructure and supply : a North American concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2006-03-01

    Electricity supply and infrastructure solutions for the United States and Canada were discussed along with the availability of fuel supply and the diversity of fuel sources. This document focuses on investment in transmission infrastructure in order to assure sustainable generation sources for both countries while addressing constraints along the border, which will allow for enhanced cross-border trade. The Canadian Electricity Association has proposed 3 areas of bi-national cooperation to promote effective investment in electricity infrastructure and supply in the North American market: (1) cooperation in enhancing electricity supply, (2) cooperation in enhancing transmission infrastructure, and (3) cooperation in addressing air quality issues and climate change. The report discussed electricity generation by fuel source in Canada and the United States; status of restructuring in Canada; as well as the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market. It also discussed regulatory and policy matters affecting the investment environment. Last, it discussed the need for opportunities for investment in the North American market, distribution and demand side measures, and cooperation in enhancing transmission infrastructure. It was concluded that growing electricity demand in both the United States and Canada requires investment in electricity infrastructure and supply in the future. Resolving electricity infrastructure and supply needs must be an international concern, requiring the full engagement and cooperation of both countries. 1 tab, 2 figs

  4. Electricity supply industry. Structure, ownership and regulation in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study surveys developments and implications in the electricity supply industries in OECD countries. Chapter 1 introduces the issues. (Competition or electricity supply for everybody?) Electricity markets are dynamic and the participants are restructuring and repositioning themselves in order to benefit from new opportunities or policy initiatives. These changes are described in chapter 2. Privatisation is being pursued by some governments, not only for reasons of economic efficiency. Arguments for and against privatisation and different ways of introducing it are discussed in chapter 3. Fair trade and competition legislation, as it applies to all corporate entities, creates the institutional framework within which the utility has to operate. Various approaches to regulation and recent developments are described in chapter 4; the implications of regulatory changes are analysed in chapter 5. Having surveyed recent developments and their direct consequences, this study then goes on to look at their broader implications for the achievement of a range of energy policy objectives. Chapter 6 looks at fuel choice and investment decisions. Chapter 7 considers the issue of security of electricity supply, which has many special characteristics for both suppliers and regulators. OECD countries use different approaches for ensuring security of supply. Chapter 8 looks at environmental protection. Chapter 9 looks at energy efficiency. Chapter 10 discusses pricing. The introduction of competition has significant effects: it tends to reduce costs, remove cross subsidies, and bring prices more closely in line with the structure of costs. But there is no clear evidence at this stage as to whether, in the long run, competition produces lower overall prices. Finally chapter 11 analyses risk. The electricity business, like every other business, is faced with a variety of risks that cover every financial and technical facet of electricity production, transport, and supply. (N.C.)

  5. The French wholesale electricity, natural gas and CO2 markets in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    . With the resumption of demand, wholesale prices on the principal European markets were above the low points reached in 2010. The average spot price in the North zone was euro 17.6 /MWh in 2010, corresponding to a rise of 40% compared to 2009. This rise continued in 2011, with the spot price reaching levels close to euro 25 /MWh. This fourth CRE report on performance of the French energy markets incorporates an analysis of the CO 2 markets for the first time. Since the entry into effect of the banking and financial regulation law in October 2010, CRE has been charged with monitoring transactions carried out by suppliers, traders and producers of electricity and natural gas on greenhouse gas emission quotas, and on the term contracts and financial instruments for which they constitute the underlying. This monitoring, which is a transposition of the recommendations of the Prada report, is coordinated with the French financial regulator AMF (Autorite des Marches Financiers), which monitors French spot and futures exchanges in CO 2 . Cooperation between CRE and the AMF was formalised in a memorandum of understanding signed and made public in December 2010. As provided by the banking and financial regulation law, this agreement covers the electricity, gas and CO 2 markets and allows to implement a regulation adapted to both the financialisation of the energy markets and their specificities. Confidence in the European carbon market was affected at the beginning of 2010 by quota thefts recorded in some European countries. The European Commission has since acted to strengthen the security of the registries, one of the key links in the carbon market infrastructure. European carbon prices have varied in a volatile fashion in a context of an excess supply of quotas compared to actual emissions in both 2010 and 2009. The prospect of going to phase III in 2013, when quotas will become paid in large part - completely for the electricity sector - is supporting prices. Recently, prices

  6. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. The work was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), and was supported by the Swiss Association of Producers and Distributers of Electricity (VSE). Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels: 1) individually for each system considered, 2) comparison of systems, 3) comparison of supply

  7. The electricity supply industry as a subject for public criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.

    1977-01-01

    The German electricity supply industry is becoming the subject for more public criticism although it has supplied the whole population and industry in recent years with electricity without limitations and at a favourable price. In spite of the satisfactory and exemplary achievements of this branch of the economy a wave of criticism has built up, caused by the increase in nuclear power station construction, and this is assuming greater proportions and includes wider fields. This situation requires a matching publicity campaign in a number of directions which must be preceded by comprehensive research into causes. It is urgently necessary to achieve a realisation of the basic questions in this branch of the economy in all those, engaged in electricity supply. Full information on the special physical characteristics of the electricity produced, with all the consequences which follow from these, must be supplied to the relevant groups in society both within and outside the economy and also to the mass media, together with continuous efforts to gain the trust of the public. (orig.) [de

  8. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  9. A Factorial Study of Electricity Supply in Nigeria | Igboanugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper weighs up a number of variables vitiating electricity supply in Nigeria, and offers increased insight and awareness about their insidiousness. The study employed a survey approach, using the Rensis Likert's attitudinal scale, to generate respondents' data matrix that was analyzed with Principal Component ...

  10. Electricity supply enterprises: Profits in comparison between industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnl, U.

    1995-01-01

    The acquisition of participations by major electricity supply enterprises during the last years met with strong criticism from the general public and revived the controversial discussion about electricity prices and profits. Yet the electricity industry is subject to specific legal price controls guaranteeing a price formation that is cost-economical, just and fair under the causation principle and does not permit excessive profits. Under this aspect and against the background of discussing this issue on an economic basis the author presents an empirical survey. (orig.)

  11. Summary of the electric power supply program for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Minoru

    1981-01-01

    The plans of electric power supply for fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982) by the power companies were formulated and submitted to the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Along with the current up trend of economic activities, the demands of electric power will be on the increase. A summer peak of power consumption may rise all the more due to the increase in room-cooling units. On the other hand, the problem of petroleum is unsettled. Under the situation, the principal considerations behind the formulation of the plans are the effective utilization of other energy resources than oil and the suppression of oil-burning power generation, the economical usage of all power generation facilities and stabilized demand and supply, and the promotion of wide-area operation. The situation in fiscal 1981, power demands, power source facilities demand and supply balance, and the interchange of power among power companies are described. (J.P.N.)

  12. Optimal pricing of transmission and distribution services in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.D.; Cory, B.J.; Perera, B.L.P.P.

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy for the separate pricing of transmission and distribution services in electricity supply is formulated and evaluated. The proposed methodology is a multivariate transmission generalisation of the method of peak load pricing previously applied to the optimal time-of-use pricing of generation on a power system with diverse generation technologies and with elastic demand. The method allocates both capacity and operational costs on a time-of-use basis, in an optimal manner, that avoids cross-subsidisation both between differing supply system participants and differing times of usage. The method is shown to promote the optimal development of the transmission, distribution or interconnecting systems, rewarding justified investments in transmission capacity and discouraging overinvestment. It also leads to appropriate returns on invested capital without significant 'revenue reconciliation'. This contrasts with SRMC pricing as is shown by a comparative revenue evaluation. It is concluded that the method has wide potential application in electricity supply. (author)

  13. Electricity and gas supplies under pressure. 2005 winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, C.; David, P.; Coquet, P.

    2005-10-01

    Point of view on the demand for electricity and gas in light of European deregulation in 2005. Demand for electricity and gas by consumers and businesses soared to record highs as temperatures continued to fall steeply across Europe in January and February 2005. While unexpected seasonal trends have always had a major impact on electricity and gas supplies, this time, it occurred at a time when deregulation across all European markets is bringing new complexity notably in pricing and availability of supply. So what conclusions can be drawn from this acute market situation? Is deregulation delivering what it promised? What are the possible impacts on the business model of suppliers? What trends are we likely to observe in response to the challenges of operating in the new deregulated market place?

  14. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R; Gantner, U; Hirschberg, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doka, G; Knoepfel, I [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels:(1) individually for each system considered, (2) comparison of systems, (3) comparison of supply options. Results are also provided for these three levels.

  15. Generation adequacy report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2016 edition + executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After a presentation of the elaboration framework of this generation adequacy report, and of the objectives of the risk analysis, this report proposes a detailed analysis of electricity consumption in France. It describes the main determining factors of electric power consumption: energy efficiency, economic growth, demography, and transfers and new uses of electricity. It proposes a sector-based analysis of energy demand (housing sector, office building sector, industrial sector, transport, energy and agriculture sectors), and an assessment of perspectives for power consumption. It also proposes a power-based analysis of electricity consumption: influence of temperature on electricity consumption, analysis of the load curve, perspectives for electricity consumption peak. The next part addresses the evolution of electricity supply in France. It presents the existing production fleet, proposes an overview of renewable energies (ground-based wind energy, offshore wind energy and marine energies, solar photovoltaic energy, bio-energies, hydraulic energy), presents some characteristics of the French nuclear fleet (installed capacity, availability), analyses the flame-based thermal fleet (oil-based, coal-based, gas-based combined, combustion turbine, and decentralised thermal installations). It also discusses the issue of load management, and proposes a synthetic overview of the electricity production fleet (supply evolutions on the medium term, evolutions with respect to the 2015 provisional assessment). The next chapter reports a risk analysis on the medium term by presenting indicators of supply safety, by proposing a failure risk analysis (diagnosis on the medium term, comparison with the previous provisional assessment, sensitivity to extreme events), by presenting energy assessments, by reporting sensitivity analysis (to consumption hypotheses, to hypotheses related to the development of renewable energies, to hypotheses related to the nuclear fleet), by reporting

  16. Strategies for regional integration of electricity supply in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Bayem, Herman; Bednyagin, Denis; Dong, Jun

    2007-01-01

    To improve peoples' living conditions in West African countries national governments have to considerably reinforce the electricity supply infrastructures. Rehabilitation of the existing installations and construction of new power generation facilities and transmission lines require substantial resources which are tremendously difficult to raise due to the region's specific economical and political conditions. This paper examines the long-term prospects for integrated development of the regional electricity industry and evaluates its advantages by using PLANELEC-Pro, a 'bottom-up' electricity system expansion planning optimisation model. The evolution of regional electricity market is analysed on the basis of two strategies. The 'autarkical' strategy consists in adequate expansion of national power generation systems and the exchanges of electricity between the countries in sub-zones. Another approach referred to as 'integration' strategy is recommended in this article. It leads to fast retirement of the obsolete power plants and the integration of new investment projects at the level of whole West African sub-region. The main finding is that the regional integration strategy is capable to bring about additional benefits in terms of reduced capital expenditures, lower electricity supply cost and the enhanced system's reliability compared to the autarkical strategy

  17. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  18. Questions of the day in the electricity supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, P [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    The author deals with the especially important points that have given rise to the situation in the German electricity supply industry since the oil-price crisis, and in particular in the year 1976. He then turns to the present urgent problems facing the supply industry. The following are discussed: the energy program; meeting the power demand; nuclear energy from licensing up to the disposal of the waste material; use of conventional power stations; actions by associations/initiatives; saving of energy; promotion of energy consumption by advertising; and power/heat coupling.

  19. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  20. The inquiry into electricity supply in New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2007, the Premier of New South Wales (NSW) announced the establishment of an Inquiry into Electricity Supply in that State to be undertaken by the author of this paper. Fundamental to the Inquiry was the perceived need for additional baseload generating capacity, the identification of the available technologies, carbon constraints and the policy options that would encourage the private sector to undertake the required investments. Although NSW is part of the competitive National Electricity Market, State-owned generators dominate baseload supply. In addition, the State operates three electricity retailing businesses, has a monopoly on transmission and distribution, and provides price stability for NSW residential consumers through the Electricity Tariff Equalisation Fund. Overall, therefore, the State dominates the industry and, not surprisingly, potential private investors are sceptical that its market roles may be based upon criteria other than the purely commercial. The Inquiry's report, which was publicly released in September 2007, recommended sale of all State assets in both electricity generation and retail. This paper provides a rationale for that recommendation

  1. The inquiry into electricity supply in New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Anthony D. [School of Economics and Finance, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    In May 2007, the Premier of New South Wales (NSW) announced the establishment of an Inquiry into Electricity Supply in that State to be undertaken by the author of this paper. Fundamental to the Inquiry was the perceived need for additional baseload generating capacity, the identification of the available technologies, carbon constraints and the policy options that would encourage the private sector to undertake the required investments. Although NSW is part of the competitive National Electricity Market, State-owned generators dominate baseload supply. In addition, the State operates three electricity retailing businesses, has a monopoly on transmission and distribution, and provides price stability for NSW residential consumers through the Electricity Tariff Equalisation Fund. Overall, therefore, the State dominates the industry and, not surprisingly, potential private investors are sceptical that its market roles may be based upon criteria other than the purely commercial. The Inquiry's report, which was publicly released in September 2007, recommended sale of all State assets in both electricity generation and retail. This paper provides a rationale for that recommendation. (author)

  2. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues.

  3. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galen, Paul S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  4. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  5. Supply of appropriate nuclear technology for the developing world: small power reactors for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising-Goodman, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the supply of small nuclear power plants (200 to 500 MWe electrical generating capacity) available on today's market, including the pre-fabricated designs of the United Kingdom's Rolls Royce Ltd and the French Alsthom-Atlantique Company. Also, the Russian VVER-440 conventionally built light-water reactor design is reviewed, including information on the Soviet Union's plans for expansion of its reactor-building capacity. A section of the paper also explores the characteristics of LDC electricity grids, reviewing methods available for incorporating larger plants into smaller grids as the Israelis are planning. Future trends in reactor supply and effects on proliferation rates are also discussed, reviewing the potential of the Indian 220 MWe pressurised heavy-water reactor, South Korean and Jananese potential for reactor exports in the Far East, and the Argentine-Brazilian nuclear programme in Latin America. This study suggests that small reactor designs for electrical power production and other applications, such as seawater desalination, can be made economical relative to diesel technology if traditional scaling laws can be altered by adopting and standardising a pre-fabricated nuclear power plant design. Also, economy can be gained if sufficient attention is concentrated on the design, construction and operating experience of suitably sized conventionally built reactor systems. (author)

  6. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  7. Job Satisfaction for Employees: Evidence from Karachi Electric Supply Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Frukh, Nousjheen; Herani, Gobind M.; Mohammad, Mahmud; Mohammad, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    Research has been conducted in order to critically evaluate and examine the level of employees’ satisfaction as well as the factors of dissatisfaction among the employees of Karachi Electric supply Corporation (KESC). The purpose of this study is also to observe and analyze the factors which create job dissatisfaction especially among the hardworking managers, and to find out the reasons which make them realize that they don not have a clear career path along working with KESC. The primary da...

  8. Estimating zonal electricity supply curves in transmission-constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei-Ardakani, Mostafa; Blumsack, Seth; Kleit, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many important electricity policy initiatives would directly affect the operation of electric power networks. This paper develops a method for estimating short-run zonal supply curves in transmission-constrained electricity markets that can be implemented quickly by policy analysts with training in statistical methods and with publicly available data. Our model enables analysis of distributional impacts of policies affecting operation of electric power grid. The method uses fuel prices and zonal electric loads to determine piecewise supply curves, identifying zonal electricity price and marginal fuel. We illustrate our methodology by estimating zonal impacts of Pennsylvania's Act 129, an energy efficiency and conservation policy. For most utilities in Pennsylvania, Act 129 would reduce the influence of natural gas on electricity price formation and increase the influence of coal. The total resulted savings would be around 267 million dollars, 82 percent of which would be enjoyed by the customers in Pennsylvania. We also analyze the impacts of imposing a $35/ton tax on carbon dioxide emissions. Our results show that the policy would increase the average prices in PJM by 47–89 percent under different fuel price scenarios in the short run, and would lead to short-run interfuel substitution between natural gas and coal. - Highlights: • We develop a method to estimate of zonal supply curves in electricity markets. • The model estimates zonal electricity prices and zonal fuel utilization. • The model implicitly captures the average impacts of transmission constraints. • Using the method, we project supply curves for the seventeen utility zones of PJM. • We use the estimated supply curves to study the impacts of Pennsylvania's Act 129 and a carbon tax of $35 per ton

  9. The future frigates of the French navy: all electric ships?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letot, L. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement/Direction des Systemes de forces et de la Prospective (DGA/DSP/SASF), 75 - Paris (France); Herjean, Y. [EMM/PL/EPG, France (France)

    2000-07-01

    The application of the all electric ship concept is interesting in the context of several types of warship. Although there it does not pose any major difficulties for simple ships (replenishment ships, amphibious ships) and can be implemented with off-the-shelf technology, its application to combat ships is more ambitious and risky. The renewal of a major part of our frigate fleet in 2008 offers the opportunity to apply this concept. The military and economic advantages have to be demonstrated. Having summarized the programme, the paper discusses the advantages of the all electric concept and examines several areas of technological difficulty that will need to be resolved. Finally, the paper presents work in progress, which will determine whether or not the electric solution is retained for the future multi-mission frigate. (authors)

  10. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  11. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y. [Hijjawi Faculty of Engineering; Yarmouk University; Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  12. The operation of French electric power and natural gas retail markets - Report 2014-2015. Report 2015 by the CRE on the operation of French electricity and natural gas markets - Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets (customers, number of providers, and so on), and an executive summary, this voluminous report proposes a presentation of CRE's missions regarding the survey and control of retail markets, and of the methodology adopted to survey retail markets, and a recall of the main steps of electricity market and natural gas market opening. Then, it its first chapter, the report proposes a detailed picture and analysis by the end of 2014 for the electricity retail market, for the natural gas retail market, and a discussion about key process follow-up and power cut-off for unpaid bills. The second chapter addresses supplies and prices. It analyses the levels and evolutions of electricity regulated tariffs, of regulated tariffs for gas sales, and of the various market supplies. The third chapter addresses issues related to competition and to the operation of the retail market: the end of sales regulated tariffs, general framework for the survey of providers' practices, provider price practices, analysis of commercial practices implemented by providers, evolutions of the competitive environment on the retail market. An appendix briefly addresses retail markets and regulated tariffs in Europe. A second report proposes a more synthetic presentation which is used as a press file, proposes an executive summary, and addresses the following issues: status of competition (key data for 2014 and 2015), the end of sales regulated tariffs for professionals as a major step of market opening to competition, favourable regulatory context and market price leading to an intensified competition on the residential market, the preferred market supplies for residential consumers, comparison between fixed price and regulated tariffs, an almost non-existent opening in the competition of local distribution utilities, and regulated tariffs in Europe

  13. Italian electricity supply contracts optimization: ECO computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, G.; Savelli, D.

    1993-01-01

    The ECO (Electrical Contract Optimization) code written in the Microsoft WINDOWS 3.1 language can be handled with a 286 PC and a minimum of RAM. It consists of four modules, one for the calculation of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) tariffs, one for contractual time-of-use tariffs optimization, a table of tariff coefficients, and a module for monthly power consumption calculations based on annual load diagrams. The optimization code was developed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) to help Italian industrial firms comply with new and complex national electricity supply contractual regulations and tariffs. In addition to helping industrial firms determine optimum contractual arrangements, the code also assists them in optimizing their choice of equipment and production cycles

  14. Aligning PEV Charging Times with Electricity Supply and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a growing source of electricity consumption that could either exacerbate supply shortages or smooth electricity demand curves. Extensive research has explored how vehicle-grid integration (VGI) can be optimized by controlling PEV charging timing or providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, such as storing energy in vehicle batteries and returning it to the grid at peak times. While much of this research has modeled charging, implementation in the real world requires a cost-effective solution that accounts for consumer behavior. To function across different contexts, several types of charging administrators and methods of control are necessary to minimize costs in the VGI context.

  15. Security of supply in Competitive Electricity Markets. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    A stable and reliable electricity supply is a fundamental factor in our modern economy and many people think that the deregulated market is a threat to this - or at least, they think that there is a need for a new type of regulation. Others believe that the threat to security of supply comes from short sighted politicians rather than from competitive markets. Regulation in order to increase security of supply is a threat to well functioning competitive markets - not the other way around. To give an overview of different regulatory models and to discuss each model's particular pros and cons, ELFORSK (Swedish Electrical Utilities RandD Company) on behalf of the Swedish electricity industry, the national grid company Svenska Kraftnaet and the Regulating Authority has arranged this two-day Conference. This conference once again gathers people from many different parts of the world to exchange ideas and experiences from their respective area of operations. Our belief is that people from the industry, the governments as well as from the academic world will find these two days a useful opportunity to build new relationships and gain new insights into the topics covered. There are three main topics for the Conference: Experiences from Different Markets; The Value of Security of Supply; Ongoing research projects. The members of the Conference Committee are impressed by the quality of the papers presented at this Conference and we believe that this is a source of knowledge that will influence decisions makers in many countries. (11 papers presented at the conference have been indexed separately. Powerpoint presentations have not been indexed but are available from the Market Design homrpage)

  16. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  17. EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

  18. Security of electricity supply at the generation level: Problem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the restructuring process, back in 1982 in Chile, the ability of an electricity market to provide the system with the required level of security of supply has been put into question. The mistrust on the ability of the market, left to its own devices, to provide sufficient generation availability when needed, is more and more leading to the implementation of additional regulatory mechanisms. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators’ agendas. In this paper, we revisit this discussion under the light of thirty years of electricity market experience. We analyze the different reasons why, although ideally the market is supposed to provide itself an adequate security of supply at the generation level, this result is still far from being achieved in practice. - Highlights: ► Discussion on the need for capacity mechanisms is revisited. ► Reasons behind adequacy problem are analyzed. ► Regulator’s intervention to guarantee supply is most of the times justified.

  19. Electricity and energy policy: French specificities and stakes in the European framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The present day context of liberalization of European power markets and increase of energy prices raises the question of the competitiveness of the French economy: what type of supply and what technological trend would allow to relax this constrain? It is therefore the overall main trends of the French energy policy that should be reexamined in the broader framework of Europe. This is the aim of this document. It presents, first, the present day organization of the French power market and the recent changes that have followed its opening to competition. Then, it describes the evolutions since the first petroleum shock and the share given to electricity in the French energy mix, the technological choices that have led to the present day domination of nuclear energy in the power generation means. Finally, this policy and its perspectives is compared to the main European trends in the domain of energy security, environment protection and market liberalization. It appears, in particular, that the choices made by France in the domain of electricity (demand mastery efforts, large share given to electricity, preponderance of nuclear power, development of renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power) have limited its energy bill and enhanced its energy independence. Also, all energy sources considered, they have led to a low level of CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to other developed countries. (J.S.)

  20. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of electricity for the period from January 2001 until 30 June 2003. On 13 January 2000 a market survey was sent to 43 firms in sixteen Member States. Following this market survey, CERN received an unsolicited offer from EDF/EOS. With a view to verifying the competitiveness of the offer, three firms and one consortium in four Member States, qualified from the market survey, were requested to submit quotations. CERN received three quotations from two firms and the consortium which indeed confirmed that the offer from EDF/EOS was very competitive. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium EDF (FR)/EOS (CH), which submitted the unsolicited offer, for the supply of electricity until June 2003 for a total estimated amount, based on the present schedules of the accelerators for the associated period, of 290 000 000 French francs, not subject to revision. At the present ra...

  2. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural- and gas-works gas 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    and personal services +1.5 %; and in the household sector (excluding agricultural households) +0.5 %. Imports of electrical energy from neighbouring countries amounted to 10 252 GWh, a decrease of 35.5 % compared to 1997, and exports increased by 33 % to 12 960 GWh. The share of imports in the total supply was 6.6 % in 1998, while the share of exports was 8.3 %

  3. French experience in transient data collection and fatigue monitoring of PWR's nuclear steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaton, M.; Morilhat, P.; Savoldelli, D.; Genette, P.

    1995-10-01

    Electricite de France (EDF), the french national electricity company, is operating 54 standardized pressurizer water reactors. This about 500 reactor-years experience in nuclear stations operation and maintenance area has allowed EDF to develop its own strategy for monitoring of age-related degradations of NPP systems and components relevant for plant safety and reliability. After more than fifteen years of experience in regulatory transient data collection and seven years of successful fatigue monitoring prototypes experimentation, EDF decided to design a new system called SYSFAC (acronym for SYsteme de Surveillance en FAtigue de la Chaudiere) devoted to transient logging and thermal fatigue monitoring of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The system is fully automatic and directly connected to the on-site data acquisition network without any complementary instrumentation. A functional transient detection module and a mechanical transient detection module are in charge of the general transient data collection. A fatigue monitoring module is aimed towards a precise surveillance of five specific zones particularly sensible to thermal fatigue. After the first step of preliminary studies, the industrial phase of the SYSFAC project is currently going on, with hardware and software tests and implementation. The first SYSFAC system will be delivered to the pilot power plant by the beginning of 1996. The extension to all EDF's nuclear 900 MW is planned after one more year of feedback experience. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs

  4. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G; Jenkins, N [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  5. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  6. Questions of the day in the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.

    1977-01-01

    In his exposition the author deals with the especially important points which have given rise to the situation in the German electricity supply industry since the oil-price crisis, and in particular in the year 1976. He then turns to the present urgent problems facing this branch of industry. As key-words we would mention: the energy programme; meeting the power demand; and nuclear energy from licensing up to the disposal of the waste material; the use of conventional power stations; actions by associations/initiatives; saving of energy; promotion of energy consumption by advertising and power/heat coupling. (orig.) [de

  7. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  8. Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A., E-mail: Ahmad.Zahedi@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The most available and affordable sources of energy in today's economic structure are fossil fuels, namely, oil, gas, and coal. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, have limited reserves, and have serious environmental problems associated with their use. Coal and nuclear energy are used in central and bulky power stations to produce electricity, and then this electricity is delivered to customers via expensive transmission lines and distribution systems. Delivering electric power via transmission and distribution lines to the electricity users is associated with high electric power losses. These power losses are costly burdens on power suppliers and users. One of the advantages of decentralized generation (DG) is that DG is capable of minimizing power losses because electric power is generated at the demand site. The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are (i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and (ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an unsustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, which when used, cannot be replaced. Hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.The price of energy is increasing and there are no evidences suggesting that this trend will reverse. To compensate for this price increase we need to develop and use high energy efficient technologies and focusing on energy technologies using renewable sources with less energy conversion chains, such as solar and wind. The world has the potential to expand its capacity of clean, renewable, and sustainable energy to offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power use. The increasing utilization of alternative sources such as hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar and

  9. A review of learning rates for electricity supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Edward S.; Azevedo, Inês M.L.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Yeh, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mathematical models have been proposed to characterize and quantify the dependency of electricity supply technology costs on various drivers of technological change. The most prevalent model form, called a learning curve, or experience curve, is a log-linear equation relating the unit cost of a technology to its cumulative installed capacity or electricity generated. This one-factor model is also the most common method used to represent endogenous technical change in large-scale energy-economic models that inform energy planning and policy analysis. A characteristic parameter is the “learning rate,” defined as the fractional reduction in cost for each doubling of cumulative production or capacity. In this paper, a literature review of the learning rates reported for 11 power generation technologies employing an array of fossil fuels, nuclear, and renewable energy sources is presented. The review also includes multi-factor models proposed for some energy technologies, especially two-factor models relating cost to cumulative expenditures for research and development (R&D) as well as the cumulative installed capacity or electricity production of a technology. For all technologies studied, we found substantial variability (as much as an order of magnitude) in reported learning rates across different studies. Such variability is not readily explained by systematic differences in the time intervals, geographic regions, choice of independent variable, or other parameters of each study. This uncertainty in learning rates, together with other limitations of current learning curve formulations, suggests the need for much more careful and systematic examination of the influence of how different factors and assumptions affect policy-relevant outcomes related to the future choice and cost of electricity supply and other energy technologies. - Highlights: • We review models explaining the cost of 11 electricity supply technologies. • The most prevalent model

  10. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  11. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  12. Solar and the future of Ontario's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential contribution of solar energy to Ontario's electricity supply was evaluated in this PowerPoint presentation. Only 3.5 per cent of Canada's photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to the electricity grid. However, 47 per cent of all homes in Ontario have the potential to install 3 kW PV arrays, and the solar industry has the potential to achieve growth rates of between 50 to 75 per cent, with medium term sustainable growth estimated at 30 to 40 per cent annually. The benefits of grid-connected solar energy include employment and wealth creation in Ontario; reductions in peak demand; and improved grid efficiency. It was noted that the price of solar PV is declining. Various market niches for solar energy technologies were outlined, and the targeting of early adopters was recommended as a first market for PV growth. An overview of the value of PV build-ups in California was presented, as well details of international tariffs and rates. A 10 year program leading to the installation of 15,000 PV systems or 40 MWp of installed capacity in Ontario by 2015 was outlined, as well as a plan for solar financing. It was concluded that priming the market now will mean that solar will be prepared to contribute to Ontario's supply during the 2015-2025 period, when its price will be competitive. refs., tabs., figs

  13. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  14. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  15. Sustainable electricity options for Malaysia: the emerging importance of renewable electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, M.M.; Yusop, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic expansion in Malaysia over recent decades has led to a large growth in demand for electricity. Demand growth has put a strain on the ability of the economy to expand its electricity infrastructure capacity rapidly to meet the surge in demand. Over the next decade or two, assuming Malaysia will continue to grow at current growth rates of 4.0%, Malaysia will require enormous supply of electricity to meet demand growth. To congregate this challenge, Malaysia needs to consider the energy supply systems that can contribute to the long-term sustainability of economy in the future. Energy supply is critical to social and economic development, and they both have direct and indirect impacts on the environment. The idea of sustainable energy frequently focuses on renewable energy (RE) resources and consideration of these resources in meeting the energy requirements of Malaysia is given high priority in this paper. This paper will embrace the issue of electricity supply resources, technologies and energy policies in accommodating the economy towards energy sustainability over the long term, thus meeting immediate energy needs. It is also the intention of this paper to highlight new and existing RE technologies and their important roles in encouraging a sustainable electricity supply growth pattern in Malaysia. RE generation systems will begin to make significant contributions to new generation capacity installations. However, political and policy reform will have to occur at an unprecedented rate for this to materialise. Malaysia Vision 2020 envisions for a caring society to evolve as part of the country ambition of achieving developed nation status. A balanced growth using sustainable development principles is advocated in which today's needs are met without compromising the needs of future generation

  16. Forecast Development of Electricity Supply in the Indonesian Archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, T. M.; Widayanti, E.; Hartati, R. S.; Giriantari, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is an archipelago consisting of 17 000 islands, of which some are heavily populated and others have no inhabitants or even a name. The country’s population is growing by 1.1% per year, so the demand for electricity has been increasing as well. The Indonesian archipelago — as a location for renewable energy sources such as micro-hydro, wind, solar, geothermal and biomass—presents unique opportunities to invest in expanding power production. In the industrialised regions and on large islands, such as Kalimantan, the electricity demand is highest. Most of the electricity is supplied by large power plants using fossil fuel — coal, oil and gas — which causes an increase in the volume and concentration of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the currently installed power plants do not meet the energy needs of Indonesia’s population of two hundred million. As a solution, within the next five years, the Indonesian Government plans to build power plants adding 35 000 MWe. The electricity demand forecast for 2050 will be around 200 GWe, with 160 GWe coming from renewable and conventional energy sources and 40 GWe from alternative sources such as nuclear power. To meet the demand for electricity in Indonesia, an expansion strategy is needed for alternative sources of energy on the islands around the Java Sea and on the island of Kalimantan at locations safe from earthquakes. The Indonesian Government has provided some guidelines for commercial nuclear power plants, such as those contained in Government regulations No. 5 and No. 43 of 2006. (author)

  17. Ten-year statistics of the electric power supply. Status and tendencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The ten-year statistics of the electric power supply in Denmark for 1991-2000 presents in tables and figures the trend of the electric power supply sector during the last ten years. The tables and figures present information on total energy consumption, combined heat and power generation, fuel consumption and the environment, the technical systems, economy and pricing, organization of the electricity supply, and information on electricity prices and taxes for households and industry in various countries. (LN)

  18. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2017 Edition. Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    In accordance with French legislation, each year RTE drafts and publishes the 'Generation Adequacy Report' concerning the supply demand balance of electricity. As a diagnostic reference for security of supply and of the electric network, the report is a key corporate exercise which is used to shed light on the medium to long term forecasts for security of supply, and therefore to develop national energy policies. This 2017 report presents: 1 - the power consumption and its perspectives according to the correct implementation of energy efficiency actions; 2 - the power generation park with scenarios integrating a public control and a modeling of the economic decisions of competing actors; 3 - A realistic European power trade vision integrating energy policy uncertainties of neighboring countries; 4 - The five next year analysis: a tight balance with necessary choices; 5 - the 'Ohm' scenario: an unprecedented adaptation of the production park to meet the nuclear share law goal; 6 - The 'Ampere' scenario for a reduction of nuclear production following the rhythm of renewable energy sources development; 7 - The 'Hertz' scenario with a development of thermal means to accelerate the nuclear phasing out without CO 2 emissions increase; 8 - The 'Volt' scenario for a sustained development of renewable energy sources together with an evolution of the nuclear park adapted to the European economic opportunities; 9 - The 'Watt' scenario for an automatic decommissioning of reactors after 40 years of operation; 10 - Self-consumption development and the transformation of the power system under the effect of investment decision decentralization; 11 - Cross-analysis of scenarios: the 2030-2035 power system has to be decided today

  19. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  20. Security of supply and investments in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Today, security of supply in electricity can be expressed in new terms, given the development of competition beyond national borders, particularly after the blackouts that occurred in Italy and New-York in 2003. Three causes are put forward to explain the difficulties encountered: the excessive market power of generators; market design that failed to acknowledge the electricity's specific attributes and incoherent government policy at national levels or between neighboring countries. Revisiting these debates, we try to develop the following conjectures: - If there are no regulatory or political barriers to siting, and if the market includes industrial players integrated from generation to marketing, market power is limited and controllable; - It is crucial to take into account the specific attributes of electricity in the design of power markets; - analysis of recent crises reveals them to be related to incoherent, unstable government policy and market design. Herein lies what are no doubt the most important and difficult questions to which economists and experts should devote further structured analyses. (author)

  1. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  2. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  3. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  4. Gas supply planning for new gas-fired electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores several key issues in gas supply planning for new gas fired electric generation facilities. This paper will have two main sections, as follows: developing the gas supply plan for a gas-fired electricity generation facility and exploring key gas supply contract pricing issues

  5. Forecast analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance in France for summer 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    Under normal meteorological conditions, and notwithstanding localized risks associated with the vulnerability of certain regions, the forecast outlook for the electricity supply-demand balance in continental France shows no particular risk for the entire summer 2013 period. Special vigilance is maintained in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region, given the risk of forest fires and potential outages affecting the dual 400 kV link from Toulon. This assessment is based on the assumption that forecast demand for summer 2013 will remain broadly stable as compared with summer 2012, given public economic indicators, but also that the forecast availability of the French generating fleet will increase by 1100 MW compared with summer 2012. This increased availability is based on information supplied by generators, and notably includes scheduled temporary outages of certain combined cycle gas turbines. Finally, growth in photovoltaic generation (3,700 MW of installed capacity currently in France) is continuing at a sustained pace, leading to a 700 MW increase in the mean availability rate for this generation technology as compared with summer 2012. Moreover, the substantial investments already made by RTE or currently in progress to develop its network (voltage support measures, Cotentin-Maine line, etc.) have had a very positive impact on the reliability of the power system. (authors)

  6. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  7. Future view of electric power supply techniques. Distribution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Toshio

    1988-06-20

    Present situations surrounding the power distribution are described, and the problems and future trend of the power distribution are reviewed. It is described for the situations that the gravity of a power demand is transfering from industrial use to home use and the dependence on electrical energy is increasing. It is pointed out for the features that the distribution system exists on not only supply side but also customer side, the system is complicated and two-dimentional, and there is a tremendous amount of facility. High voltage, high frequency and automatic distribution, and the distributed power sources such as fuel cells are described in terms of the problems to ensure the power supply. The protection and decreasing of service interruptions, the protection of harmonic wave, and long-life equipments are described in terms of the problems to ensure the power quality. As for the problems to ensure a comfortable life and space, the communication system using the distribution system for a customer service or automatic operation in a house, and the enviromental harmony by a small facility or underground distribution are described. (1 tab)

  8. The electricity supply industry in Queensland, financial report 1982/83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This fourth financial report deals with the finances of the electricity supply industry and includes three sections. Section 1: letter to the minister; scope of the report; the Commission; the electricity authorities; forecasts; tariff policy; and the Queensland Electricity Supply Industry Superannuation Board. Section 2: consolidated schedules; and audited financial statements. Section 3: statistics; including production, distribution, consumption, financial, accidents, towns and locations.

  9. Analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance during the winter of 2008-2009: moderate risk of supply disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2008-2009

  10. Determining optimal interconnection capacity on the basis of hourly demand and supply functions of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Meunier, William; Coquentin, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Interconnections for cross-border electricity flows are at the heart of the project to create a common European electricity market. At the time, increase in production from variable renewables clustered during a limited numbers of hours reduces the availability of existing transport infrastructures. This calls for higher levels of optimal interconnection capacity than in the past. In complement to existing scenario-building exercises such as the TYNDP that respond to the challenge of determining optimal levels of infrastructure provision, the present paper proposes a new empirically-based methodology to perform Cost-Benefit analysis for the determination of optimal interconnection capacity, using as an example the French-German cross-border trade. Using a very fine dataset of hourly supply and demand curves (aggregated auction curves) for the year 2014 from the EPEX Spot market, it constructs linearized net export (NEC) and net import demand curves (NIDC) for both countries. This allows assessing hour by hour the welfare impacts for incremental increases in interconnection capacity. Summing these welfare increases over the 8 760 hours of the year, this provides the annual total for each step increase of interconnection capacity. Confronting welfare benefits with the annual cost of augmenting interconnection capacity indicated the socially optimal increase in interconnection capacity between France and Germany on the basis of empirical market micro-data. (authors)

  11. Different approaches to supply adequacy in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellon, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern that liberalized electricity markets may not provide incentives for sufficient investment in generation capacity to meet future demand. This is problematic because electricity markets are characterized by short-term inelastic demand in which the long-term supply-demand balance cannot be achieved through a market-clearing price. Also, final consumers do not feel the need to engage in long-term contracts because they are usually isolated from spot prices by regulated tariffs. This paper presented some of the measures that have been proposed internationally to ensure a sufficient amount of generation capacity reserves. Measures such as strategic reserves, capacity payments, capacity requirements and call options were analyzed in terms of their degree of centralization or decentralization with regards to the amount of capacity and the price of capacity. Each one of these measures was analyzed in this paper to clarify their theoretical aspects as well as their international application and assessment. The analytical and practical strengths and weaknesses of each approach were discussed. Capacity payments and requirements alone were found to be inadequate both in theory and practice. It was suggested that capacity payments or requirements might work efficiently if combined with risk management approaches and hedging instruments that promote demand side participation. Regulatory intervention would then be focused on promoting rules that facilitate liquid markets for energy futures and risk management. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Supply security and short-run capacity markets for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The creation of electricity markets has raised the fundamental question as to whether markets create the right incentives for the provision of the reserves needed to maintain supply security in the short-run, or whether some form of regulation is required. In some states in the US, electricity distributors have been made responsible for providing such reserves by contracting capacity in excess of their forecasted peak demand. The so-called Installed Capacity Markets provide one means of contracting reserves, and are the subject of this paper. Under monopoly as well as under perfect competition, we identify firms' short-run opportunity costs of committing resources in the capacity market and the costs of inducing full capacity commitment. The long-run investment problem is not considered. From a welfare viewpoint, we also compare the desirability of providing reserves either through capacity markets or through the demand side (i.e. power curtailments). At the optimum, capacity obligations equal peak demand (plus expected outages) and the capacity deficiency rate (which serves as a price cap) is set at firms' opportunity costs of providing full capacity commitment. (Author)

  13. Different approaches to supply adequacy in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Dcencia Economicas, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2006-10-01

    There is a growing concern that liberalized electricity markets may not provide incentives for sufficient investment in generation capacity to meet future demand. This is problematic because electricity markets are characterized by short-term inelastic demand in which the long-term supply-demand balance cannot be achieved through a market-clearing price. Also, final consumers do not feel the need to engage in long-term contracts because they are usually isolated from spot prices by regulated tariffs. This paper presented some of the measures that have been proposed internationally to ensure a sufficient amount of generation capacity reserves. Measures such as strategic reserves, capacity payments, capacity requirements and call options were analyzed in terms of their degree of centralization or decentralization with regards to the amount of capacity and the price of capacity. Each one of these measures was analyzed in this paper to clarify their theoretical aspects as well as their international application and assessment. The analytical and practical strengths and weaknesses of each approach were discussed. Capacity payments and requirements alone were found to be inadequate both in theory and practice. It was suggested that capacity payments or requirements might work efficiently if combined with risk management approaches and hedging instruments that promote demand side participation. Regulatory intervention would then be focused on promoting rules that facilitate liquid markets for energy futures and risk management. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, we examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions. We found that variables such as entry of independent power producers (IPP), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of a regulatory agency, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market have had a variety of impacts on electricity prices, some of which were not always consistent with expected results. The research findings suggest that neither unbundling nor introduction of a wholesale pool market on their own necessarily reduces the electric power price. In fact, contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for the price to rise. However, coexistent with an independent regulator, unbundling may work to reduce electricity prices. Privatization and the introduction of foreign IPP and retail competition lower electricity prices in some regions, but not all

  15. Operation of high-current connections for the electric supply of conurbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosch, H; Krause, D

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of superconducting cables for the electric power supply of a large town is investigated on the basis of technical and economic parameters and from the point of view of the power supply.

  16. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  17. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  18. Electricity markets in the USA and recommendations for the French network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Producers' incomes from electricity markets only put a value on electricity produced/sold and do not cover all the costs relating to the provision of capacity for peak production. There is thus a gap between the increase in consumption at congested times and the investment in new units evidently necessary to maintain the viability of the system. To address this problem, a number of States in the USA decided during the 1990's to impose on suppliers capacity requirements that correspond to the demand from their client portfolios, augmented by a reserve margin. At the end of 2010, the French government also required in its NOME legislation (New Organisation of the Electricity Market) the putting in place of a mechanism of obligatory capacity for developing new infrastructure. (author)

  19. Regulatory review and barriers for the electricity supply system for distributed generation in EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Skytte, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from di...... distributed generation. This paper reviews the current regulation of the grids with respect to distributed generation in EU-15 Member States and compares the different systems. Several barriers are identified.......When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from...

  20. RTE, generation adequacy report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2014 Edition + Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As required by law, RTE's Generation Adequacy Report analyses the electricity supply-demand balance over the medium term (through the winter of 2018-2019) and proposes prospective scenarios for the long term (through 2030). Indeed, preserving the integrity of the French and interconnected European power systems requires that electricity supply and demand be balanced at all times. To determine the robustness of this balance, RTE simulates in detail how the power system will function factoring in a wide variety of technical and weather conditions, particularly winter cold spells. RTE then identifies generation capacity margins or deficits with regard to a security of supply criterion defined by law. The 2014 edition of the Generation Adequacy Report has some distinctive characteristics. - For the first time, the Generation Adequacy Report includes the risk analysis RTE was asked to conduct within the framework of the capacity mechanism. This analysis is the 'pivot point' of the economic signals sent to stakeholders and the responsibilities assigned to suppliers. - Also for the first time, the long-term scenarios in this Generation Adequacy Report seek to assess plausible variations in the French energy mix resulting from the energy transition for green growth bill (projet de loi relatif a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte). Future multi-annual energy programming (programmations pluriannuelles de l'energie) will include a specific section devoted to security of supply. With the Generation Adequacy Report attracting steadily more attention, RTE organised consultations in 2014 with many power system stakeholders. In line with RTE's commitment to transparency, collegiate consultations were held through the 'Network Outlook Committee' (Commission 'Perspectives du reseau'), information about which can be found on RTE's web site

  1. Ten-year statistics of the electric power supply. Status and tendencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The ten-year statistics of the electric power supply in Denmark for 1990-1999 presents in tables and figures the trend of the electric power supply sector during the last ten years. The tables and figures present information on total energy consumption, combined heat and power generation, fuel consumption and the environment, the technical systems, economy and pricing, organization of the electricity supply, auto-production of electricity and information on electricity prices and taxes for households and industry in various countries. (LN)

  2. The development of power generation by electricity supply undertakings and industries in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the events of recent years - the opening up of the east, efforts to stimulate international competition - the Western European electricity industry is strongly on the move. In spite of the non-uniformity of the electricity supply structures in the individual countries, the trend towards liberalization of the electricity market is characterized by different forms of expression. Against this background, this paper provides a review of the status and prospects of electricity demand developments and of primary energy supply. It considers the consequences which thereby arise for the power plant inventory of electricity supply undertakings and industries. (orig.) [de

  3. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  4. Interim report by a Committee on Demands and Supplies of Electric Enterprise Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An interim report by a committee on demands and supplies, Electric Enterprise Council, was given for the period up to the year 2000. The demands of electric power in Japan were set as 658,000 million kWh for 1990 and 768,000 million kWh for 1995. The electric power enterprises appear to be at a major turning point at present, that is, the growth in the demands tended to slow down. The features of the situation are then the stabilized supply, supply cost reduction, reasonable power source constitution, etc. The following things are described. Background and policy; power demand outlook and supply measures; power supply and supply efficiency (the composition of power sources, respective power sources with supply targets and problems, etc.); power demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  5. Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India: evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study probes nexus between electricity supply, employment and real GDP for India within a multivariate framework using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium relationship has been established among these variables for the time span 1970-71 to 2005-06. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from real GDP and electricity supply to employment without any feedback effect. Thus, growth in real GDP and electricity supply are responsible for the high level of employment in India. The absence of causality running from electricity supply to real GDP implies that electricity demand and supply side measures can be adopted to reduce the wastage of electricity, which would not affect future economic growth of India.

  6. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  7. Privatization of British electricity supply industry: Critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigni, G.

    1993-01-01

    Until 1989, despite the partially disintegrated organization of the British electricity supply industry (ESI) and the attempt of the Energy Act of 1983 to pull down entrance barriers to the power generation business, ESI operated like an integrated monopoly. Between 1989 and 1990, ESI has been subjected to a reorganization process and transfer to the private sector with the declared aim of improving short and long run micro-economic efficiency. For this purpose, the attempt of introducing competition in the phases of the production process where possible and of regulating those which are structurally non competitive, has been made. The new configuration of ESI in terms of organizational structure, property regime and regulatory system is analyzed. Areas of improvement of the regulatory system and delayed key decisions of the public operator, are identified. However, any evaluation of the process as a whole can only relate to a minor part of the present situation; thus it subtends a scenary for the future, where the role of the regulatory authority is crucial

  8. Contracts on electric power supply set up between communities (communal associations, countries) and public electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, B

    1976-01-01

    There is not any original communal right to energy supply for the population. The affiliation of local power supply to the local administration cannot be justified either by the public purpose of service or by the term provision of existence. The utilities do not get a communal license when getting the so-called licensing contract. According to its legal nature, the licensing contract is a mixture of legal positions composed of elements of the civil law and the public law. (Administrative lawsuit). The so-called power supply contract is a mutual legal relationship under civil law on the utilization of electric power, made to last. (Permanent obligation for utilization). When concluding both contracts, it is a matter of economic activities undertaken by the communities. Fiscal considerations are in the foreground. Legal regulations concerning roads and distances and serving as starting points for concluding a licensing contract are alien to the system and are to be abolished. Communities should only be responsible for local energy supply on a basis under public law. In lieu of it a stronger obligation to be met by large utilities ought to be ensured by ties under public law.

  9. Core food of the French food supply: second Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, V; Volatier, J L; Calamassi-Tran, G; Dubuisson, C; Menard, C; Dufour, A; Leblanc, J C

    2009-05-01

    As first described in the 1980s, the core food intake model allows a precise assessment of dietary nutrient intake and dietary exposure to contaminants insofar as it reflects the eating habits of a target population and covers the most important foods in terms of consumption, selected nutrient and contaminant contribution. This model has been used to set up the sampling strategy of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS) with the aim of obtaining a realistic panorama of nutrient intakes and contaminant exposure for the whole population, useful for quantitative risk assessment. Data on consumption trends and eating habits from the second French individual food consumption survey (INCA2) as well as data from a 2004 purchase panel of French households (SECODIP) were used to identify the core foods to be sampled. A total of 116 core foods on a national scale and 70 core foods on a regional scale were selected according to (1) the consumption data for adults and children, (2) their consumer rates, and (3) their high contribution to exposure to one or more contaminants of interest. Foods were collected in eight French regions (36 cities) and prepared 'as consumed' to be analysed for their nutritional composition and contamination levels. A total of 20 280 different food products were purchased to make up the 1352 composite samples of core foods to be analysed for additives, environmental contaminants, pesticide residues, trace elements and minerals, mycotoxins and acrylamide. The establishment of such a sampling plan is essential for effective, high-quality monitoring of dietary exposure from a public health point of view.

  10. The new French law on electricity: a barrier against the market and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses and comments the law adopted by the French Parliament in June 2010 which introduced a reform of electricity market organisation and pricing. He also criticises this law by assessing its impact on concurrence development and on investments, and by analysing the reasons of its instability, particularly its possible incompatibility with the European law and the fact that it is a potential opportunity for electricity providers. After having recalled the origin and the motivations of this law, the author examines how the nuclear cost-advantage is transmitted to the users. He proposes a precise description of the law, discusses the economic assessment of this reform, proposes an assessment and a discussion of its impacts on concurrence development, and of the efficiency of investments

  11. Productivity, pricing policy and investments in French and British nationalized electric companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, Martin; Huret, Romain

    2003-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the development of, and interaction between, pricing, investment and productivity in the nationalised electricity industries in the United Kingdom and France between 1945 and 1973. The paper concentrates on examining why the rate of diffusion of marginal approaches to pricing and investment was faster in France than in the UK, although it notes that, in theory at least, the coverage of marginalist ideas was greater in the UK than in France by the late 1960's. The paper highlights the influence of French engineers and economists such as Marcel Boiteux and Pierre Masse on the development of applied public economics in the UK, and suggests that the experiences of 1945- 1973 were to have a significant long-term impact on subsequent attitudes towards privatisation and the promotion of competition in the electricity industry in each economy

  12. A demand/supply and price outlook for electricity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the demand/supply and price outlook for electricity in Ontario. The paper examines the near term outlook, critical demand and supply issues, the projected Ontario demand/supply balances and finally concludes by looking at the challenges for Ontario's new market structure

  13. Ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario: is demand-side management the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuddy, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issues relating to ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario. In particular, it focuses on demand-side management as a means of achieving these objectives. The solution involves both conservation and supply. It is therefore critical that there be investment in new supply with multiple buyers/sellers. regulatory environment and pricing could encourage conservation

  14. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  15. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  16. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  17. Electricity production without CO2 emissions. French abstract of the paper of Nature: electricity without carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Bonneville, J.M.; Poitou, J.

    2008-09-01

    Electricity generation provides 18000 TWh of energy a year, around 40 % of humanity's total energy use. In doing so it produces more than 10 giga-tons of carbon dioxide every year, the largest sectoral contribution of humanity's fossil-fuel derived emissions. Yet there is a wide range of technologies, from solar and wind to nuclear and geothermal, that can generate electricity without net carbon emissions from fuel. In its paper of 13 August 2008, Nature's News looks at how much carbon-free energy might ultimately be available and which sources make mots sense. In this paper the author gives his own evaluation under each section. (A.L.B.)

  18. Electricity supply: Supporting analysis for the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Energy Information Administration at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. The results are based on assumptions provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. This report serves as an auxiliary document to the publication, Improving Technology: Modeling Energy Futures for the National Energy Strategy, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to be used as input to the development of a National Energy Strategy. The excursions discussed in this report are not necessarily the policy options which will be selected for inclusion in the National Energy Strategy (NES). This report examines the effects of various supply side options for electric utilities. The three excursions presented are: (1) Effects of the Clean Air Act Amendments on Reducing SO 2 /NO x Emissions which evaluates the impacts of proposed legislation to amend the Clean Air Act (Title V of H.R. 3030 as amended on May 23, 1990); (2) Nuclear Life Extension/New Nuclear Orders which illustrates the impact of new nuclear power plant orders and the life extension of existing nuclear plants; and (3) Nuclear and Accelerated Fossil-Fueled Generating Technologies which portrays accelerated research and development of advanced fossil-fueled generating technologies, making them commercially available earlier, with the inclusion of the nuclear option. The baseline case of this report is an update and an extension of the base case projections in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication, the Annual Energy Outlook 1990 (AEO), extending that forecast an additional 20 years to 2030. It represents the baseline case as it was on July 1990. 29 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs. (JF)

  19. Electricity supply. Older plants' impact on reliability and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Adams, Charles M.; Wood, David G.; Feehan, Daniel J.; Veal, Howard F.; Skeen, John H. III; Koenigs, Melvin J.; Lichtenfeld, David I.; Seretakis, Pauline J.

    1990-09-01

    Life extension of fossil fuel plants is a relatively recent phenomenon; thus, utilities have little experience to demonstrate the longer-term operating reliability of plants with an extended service life. While utility industry officials and government and industry studies express optimism that these plants will continue to operate reliably, the officials and the studies also caution that it is too soon to determine how pursuing life extension will affect the reliability of the nation's electricity supply. According to DOE, the number of fossil fuel generating units' 30 years old or older is expected to increase from about 2,500 in 1989 to roughly 3,700 in 1998, increasing such plants' share of overall generating capacity from 13 percent in 1989 to 27 percent in 1998. EPA estimates that with existing air quality requirements, fossil fuel plant emissions will increase steadily during the coming decade. Proposed acid rain control legislation, which would affect many plants that may have their service life extended, would require utilities to significantly reduce emissions by the year 2000 but would allow utilities flexibility in deciding how and where to achieve the reductions. If such legislation is enacted, utilities generally are expected to find reducing emissions from existing plants more cost-effective than replacing them and to continue extending plants' service life. Officials of DOE and utility organizations expressed concern, however, that EPA could decide, as it did for one plant in 1988, that alterations made in extending the service life of plants exempted from the Clean Air Act would result in increased emissions and thus cause the altered plants to lose their exemption. According to the officials, the additional costs of achieving the Clean Air Act's standards could discourage some life extension projects. However, such decisions by EPA could also reduce the nation's total power plant emissions by eliminating an existing incentive to retain exempt

  20. Suburban Housing Development and Off-Grid Electric Power Supply Assessment for North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibikunle Olalekan Ogundari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructures in North-Central Nigeria are inadequate and grid electricity is unable to meet suburban housing electricity demand. The alternative power-supply options proposed by government for the region require appropriation analysis for selection. Four public housing estates in suburban Abuja are selected for electricity demand analysis under conventional and energy-efficient lighting scenarios; then techno-economic parameters of two off-grid electric power supply systems (PV and Diesel-powered generation to meet these electricity demands are evaluated. An energy techno-economic assessment methodology is used. The study determines the energy-efficient lighting system is appropriate with 40% energy savings relative to the Conventional Lighting Systems. The diesel generator alternative power-supply option has Life Cycle Costs almost 4 times those of the PV option. The study established the PV-energy-efficient lighting system as the most feasible off-grid electric power supply alternative for implementation.

  1. Maintaining a balanced electricity supply favours increased nuclear capacity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahti, Toivola

    2001-01-01

    Finland's electricity supply is based on a balanced mix of energy sources to maximize the security of supply and to keep the volatility of electricity price at a minimum. One third of electricity is obtained from domestic sources hydro, wood and peat. Nuclear power provides one quarter and fossil fuels slightly over one fifth. Electricity imports from neighbour countries cover the rest of the consumption. It is important to maintain this balanced structure also when electricity supply is being increased. Domestic renewable sources are not enough to cover the predicted future needs, and increasing imports would risk the security of supply. Increasing the proportion of fossil fuels is not a generally desired option. Therefore, balanced increase of nuclear capacity has to be included among the choices of future electricity generation. (author)

  2. Defence in depth for electric power supplies in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Srivasista, K.; Solanki, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of electric power supply system in a nuclear power plant is to supply and distribute reliable electric power to safety related systems and systems important to safety in various forms, arrangements and combinations of redundancy and diversity in order to perform safety functions required during operational states and design basis events (DBE) such as shutting down the reactor, maintaining the reactor in safe shutdown state, containment isolation and reactor core cooling preventing significant release of radioactive material to the environment. Hence the design basis of electric power supply systems includes identification of DBE that require power supplies, adequacy of redundancy and diversity, environmental conditions to which electric equipment are qualified, identification of loads requiring interrupted and uninterrupted power supplies, time sequence in which emergency loads are to be supplied in case of interruption, provisions for maintaining and testing, consideration for minimum duration capability of emergency power supplies during station blackout etc. Based on operation experience, results of probability safety assessment and certain weaknesses noticed in defence in depth of electric power supply systems, several continuous design improvements have been made in Indian nuclear power plants during operating phase and life extension. Instituting various tests during initial commissioning, subsequent operation and life extension has ensured high standards of performance of electric power supplies. Some of these aspects are highlighted in this paper

  3. Comparative status and development trends of central electricity supply technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the present situation in the public electricity sector of the FRG with its legal and political constraints, to identify the development trends of the supply technologies for central electricity in regard to their application potential during the forthcoming 10 to 20 years. Summarizing expectations and conclusions are drawn on the foreseeable contribution of the electricity supply sector to the aspired CO 2 -reductions in the FRG

  4. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2005 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of 10 February 2000, RTE is required to draw up a multi-annual Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. The present 2005 edition has been compiled in close conjunction with the working group in charge of long-term power generation pluri-annual investment programs at the French Directorate for Energy Demand and Markets, DIDEME. The purpose of RTE's Generation Adequacy Report is to quantify the additional electric generating facilities that need to be commissioned in the years ahead. It is based on various scenarios for the development of supply and demand, adopted on January 1, 2005, and covers the period 2006-2016. Three different consumption forecast scenarios have been used. All include a substantial drop in consumption by the Eurodif plant between 2010 and 2015. The two upper scenarios (called R1 and R2) fall within current trends, with annual growth of 1.7% and 1.5% until 2010 and a slowing down thereafter; they can be considered as equally likely to occur in the short-term. The low consumption growth scenario (R3) is intended to depict a context of environmental commitments. It is based on the assumption that demand side management initiatives will have an immediate impact, which makes it rather unlikely in the short-term. Under the reference scenario (R2), French domestic consumption, which was 468.5 TWh in 2004, reaches 508 TWh by 2010 and 552 TWh by 2020. Consumption at peak time in winter increases by around 1,000 MW per year. Up until 2016, France's fleet of generating facilities will be determined by a number of changes: the recommissioning of three of EDF's fuel-oil-fired units, the expected arrival of the EPR in 2012, and the definitive shutdown by 2015 of coal-fired plants that do not meet the requirements imposed by environmental regulations. In the field of renewable energy sources (RES), three different scenarios are considered. The main difference between them is the

  5. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  6. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  7. Ecology, Economy and security of supply of the Dutch Electricity Supply System. A scenario based future analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch electricity sector has been transformed into a liberalized international energy market. Market players are free to choose from various electricity generation options when replacing or expanding production capacity. However, choices that are made now will influence emissions (ecology), integral costs (economy) and availability (security of supply) for the next 25 - 40 years. This thesis shows if and how, based on the current electricity supply system, an optimal balance of ecology, economy and security of supply can be achieved. First, the current electricity supply system is described to create a frame of reference. Then, future technological developments are described for electricity production options. Four potential scenarios are constructed featuring various uncertainties: the globalising versus the local economy; priority versus subordination for the environment; and the security/insecurity of the fuel supply. These four scenarios are worked out with a specially developed techno-economic simulation model; the results are analysed in terms of ecology, economy and security of supply. The findings indicate that it is impossible to arrive at an optimal balance for the defined scenarios. Scenarios with a low environmental impact lead to high integral costs and vice versa. However, by applying a smart combination of various modern generation technologies, CO2 capture and storage, the deployment of biomass and the re-use of residual heat it is possible to reach an optimal balance whereby the additional integral costs can be kept under control compared with the lowest-cost scenarios. To achieve this, clear growth and incentive guidelines need to be established for the various production options. This thesis will form a good starting point for that exercise

  8. Electric power supply in an offshore oil production platform | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    powered UPS system with a rotary engine UPS which can provide long-term power supply back-up as well as the benefits of rotating machines. KEY WORDS: Offshore, Platform, Power Supply, Gas turbine, Rotary Diesel UPS. [Global Jnl ...

  9. Oligopolitistic game around capacity expansion in liberalized electricity industries: The case of the French

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilotte, Laurent; Finon, Dominique; Pignon, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    The future evolution of the French electricity market is modelled with a long-term (30 years) stochastic Cournot game. The model is inspired from Pineau and Murto (Annals of operations research,121, pp.123-148). Future demand functions are random. Players chose for each future date their levels of investment in generation capacities and the capacities made available on the market, as functions of the future random realizations until the corresponding date (''sample adapted open-loop'' strategies). Players use the same objective probability distribution on the realization of the random variables determining the load demand functions of each period. Two load periods are described. Large phasing out of existing capacities begins by 2017 and new capacities invested can be thermal or nuclear. Hydropower availability is exogenous. Different market structures are studied: First, the current distribution of capacities in the present French market is maintained in time 0 and one major player compete with two small players ; second, we assume that the generation capacities existing in time 0 are splitted between three equally sized players. Preliminary results on investments and prices are compared with those obtained for a benchmark case of social planning. (Author)

  10. What leadership for the Logistic Service providers in the supply chain of the French automotive industry ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique BONET FERNANDEZ; Aline BOISSINOT

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the logistics service provider (LSP) role and skills to hold to ensure supply chain performance. The increasingly outsourcing of non-core functions by firms gives the LSP a prominent role in the

  11. System Description of the Electrical Power Supply System for the ATLAS Integral Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. S.; Song, C. H.; Baek, W. P.

    2007-02-01

    An integral effect test loop for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is constructed by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. This report describes the design and technical specifications of the electrical power supply system which supplies the electrical powers to core heater rods, other heaters, various pumps and other systems. The electrical power supply system had acquired the final approval on the operation from the Korea Electrical Safety Corporation. During performance tests for the operation and control, the electrical power supply system showed completely acceptable operation and control performance

  12. Proposal for a new Electrical Supply of the Computer Centre for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Funken, A

    2001-01-01

    To handle the future LHC experiment needs, the Computer Centre will go through a complete change of data processing methods. A total of five Computing farms will be built covering an area of 2,000 m2. The electrical power required for the new Computing farms will increase by five fold to 2 MW. This will have major impact on the technical infrastructures. Focusing on electrical issues, this paper initially explains the principle of the present electrical supply and the major drawbacks. Taking advantage of the opportunity offered by these big changes and conclusions drawn from the recent ST/EL reports, the strategy of electrical supply of building 513 is reviewed, in particular the Diesel backup supply. On this basis and benchmarking with similar Computer Centres, a proposal for a new electrical supply is presented, the objectives being to meet the increase in demand, reliability and safe operation of the Computer Centre.

  13. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph; Niedrig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  14. Delivering a secure electricity supply on a low carbon pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The energy system can only be considered sustainable in the long term if it is low carbon, affordable and secure. These three create a complex trilemma for all stakeholders in the energy business who have to strike a careful balance without neglecting any one aspect. This discussion paper examines the issues surrounding security of supply of the power system which has received less attention than the other aspects. It looks at how threats and mitigation measures can be classified in terms of where they act on the supply chain and the timescale over which they act. Only by considering the full range of timescales from seconds to decades can the full picture emerge of the effects of new technologies on security of supply. An examination of blackouts over the past 40 years sheds light on the causes of failure to supply and the most vulnerable aspects of the supply chain. - Highlights: ► Energy systems are only sustainable if they are low carbon, affordable and secure. ► Threats to security can be classified by timescale and position in the supply chain. ► The impact of new technologies on security must be considered across all timescales. ► Recent blackouts show the network is most vulnerable and weather the leading cause

  15. report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  16. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  17. Business model innovation in electricity supply markets: The role of complex value in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Stephen; Roelich, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the new opportunities that business model innovations are creating in electricity supply markets at the sub-national scale. These local supply business models can offer significant benefits to the electricity system, but also generate economic, social, and environmental values that are not well accounted for in current policy or regulation. This paper uses the UK electricity supply market to investigate new business models which rely on more complex value propositions than the incumbent utility model. Nine archetypal local supply business models are identified and their value propositions, value capture methods, and barriers to market entry are analysed. This analysis defines 'complex value' as a key concept in understanding business model innovation in the energy sector. The process of complex value identification poses a challenge to energy researchers, commercial firms and policymakers in liberalised markets; to investigate the opportunities for system efficiency and diverse outcomes that new supplier business models can offer to the electricity system. - Highlights: •Business models of energy supply markets shape energy transitions. •The British system misses four opportunities of local electricity supply. •Nine new business model archetypes of local supply are analysed. •New electricity business models have complex value propositions. •A process for policy response to business model innovation is presented.

  18. Impact of Deficient Electricity Supply on the Operations of Small Scale Businesses in North East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity supply in Nigeria is often erratic. Consumers of electricity (residential, commercial and industrial consumers suffer untold hardships as the State Owned Enterprise; the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN has been unable to supply reliable power. This is despite massive injections of funds by the Federal Government into the operations of the company over recent years. The failure has significantly impacted negatively on the operations of the business sector especially the small scale subsector that operates with little capital and are thus in most cases unable to afford a back-up facility to ensure un-interrupted power supply for their operations. The study examined the impact of deficient electric power supply on the operations of small scale businesses operating in north east of Nigeria. From the population of small scale businesses, a sample was selected through the use of stratified random sampling to ensure the effective representation of the population of small scale businesses in north east Nigeria. Results from data analysis indicates the severity of electricity supply outages and the costs imposed by power supply outages on the operation of this class of businesses in the region. The paper therefore recommends the need for policy attention towards revitalizing the electricity sector of Nigeria for enhanced supply of electricity to the national economy. When this is achieved, the small business sub-sector will be in a position to effectively lead in the drive towards industrializing the Nigerian economy.

  19. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  20. Advanced simulation of windmills in electric power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2000-01-01

    -connected windmills as a part of realistic electrical grid models. That means an arbitrary number of wind farms or single windmills within an arbitrary network configuration. The windmill model may be applied to study of electric power system stability and of power quality as well. It is found that a grid...

  1. Electricity price and Southern California's water supply options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Larry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Andre Fargeix, Golden Gate Economics, 1 Cycltron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of fluctuating electricity prices on the cost of five options to increase the water supply to urban areas in Southern California-new surface storage, water purchases, desalination, wastewater recycling, and conservation.We show that the price of electricity required to produce and transport water influences the cost of water supply options and may alter the decision makers economic ranking of these options. When electricity prices are low, water purchase is the cost effective option. When prices exceed US$ 86/MWh, conservation of electricity and water through installation of high efficiency clothes washers is the most effective option.

  2. Optimal design of future electricity supply systems. An analysis of potential bottlenecks in NW-Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joode, Jeroen de; Werven, Michiel van

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential bottlenecks that might emerge in the North-western European electricity supply system as a result of a number of (autonomous) long-term developments. The main long-term developments we identify are 1) a continuing increase in the demand for electricity, 2) a gradual shift from conventional electricity generation towards unconventional (green) generation, 3) a gradual shift from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and 4) a shift from national self-sufficient electricity supply systems towards a pan-European electricity system. Although it has been recognized that these developments might cause certain problems in some or more elements of the electricity supply chain, a coherent and comprehensive framework for the identification of these problems is lacking. More specific, governments and regulators seem to focus on certain parts of the electricity supply system separately, whereas certain interdependencies in the system have received relatively little attention. This paper presents such a framework and identifies some potential bottlenecks that receive relatively little attention from policy makers. These are 1) the increasing penetration of distributed generation, 2) an increasingly important role for demand response and 3) the lack of locational signals in the electricity supply system. The potential role of governments and markets in these issues is briefly explored. (Author)

  3. The green electricity market model. Proposal for an optional, cost-neutral direct marketing model for supplying electricity customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) is the market integration of renewable energy resources. For this purpose it has introduced compulsory direct marketing on the basis of a moving market premium. At the same time the green electricity privilege, a regulation which made it possible for customers to be supplied with electricity from EEG plants, has been abolished without substitution with effect from 1 August 2014. This means that, aside from other direct marketing channels, which will not be economically viable save for in a few exceptional cases, it will no longer be possible in future to sell electricity from EEG plants to electricity customers under the designation ''electricity from renewable energy''. The reason for this is that electricity sold under the market premium model can no longer justifiably be said to originate from renewable energy. As a consequence, almost all green electricity products sold in Germany carry a foreign green electricity certificate.

  4. Electrical power supply and controls for a remotely operated glass melter for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haideri, A.Q.

    1985-01-01

    An electrical power supply, controls and instruments used for a joule heated glass melter for nuclear waste are discussed. Remotely replaceable interconnection wiring assemblies for power, controls and instruments are also described

  5. The electricity supply-demand balance for the winter of 2015-2016. Synthesis - November 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2015-2016

  6. The electricity supply-demand balance for the summer of 2016 - June 2016. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the summer of 2016

  7. Sustainable electricity supply in the world by 2050 for economic growth and automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, P.

    2010-01-01

    Over the next 40 years, the combustion of fossil fuels for generation of electricity and vehicle transportation will be significantly reduced. In addition to the business-as-usual growth in electric energy demand for the growing world population, new electricity-intensive industries, such as battery electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles will result in further growth in world consumption of electric energy. Planning for a sustainable supply of electric energy in the diverse economies of the world should be carried out with appropriate technology for selecting the appropriate large-scale energy resources based on their specific energy. Analysis of appropriate technology for the available large-scale energy resources with diminished use of fossil fuel combustion shows that sustainable electricity supply can be achieved with equal contributions of renewable energy resources for large numbers of small-scale distributed applications and nuclear energy resources for the smaller number of large-scale centralised applications. (author)

  8. Application of electric double layer capacitor to pulse coil power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Keita; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yamada, Takuma; Kamio, Shuji; Sakumura, Morio; Cao, Qinghong; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Imazawa, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new application of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) as a sec-order quasi-DC power supply like flying-wheel motor-generators. We constructed the power supply using IGBT switching circuit and successfully demonstrated its initial operation whose current and duration time are 100 A and 3 sec, respectively, indicating a new potential of EDLC. (author)

  9. The integration of renewable energy in the French electricity system: what challenges for optimization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Ruedinger, Andreas; Pescia, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Based on research reports and dialogue through expert seminars organized by IDDRI and Agora Energiewende in 2015, this Working Paper proposes a synthesis of the main challenges for the integration of renewable energies using an analysis of the electricity system and its potential for optimization over different time frames: the potential evolution of electricity systems at the regional and national levels in France between now and 2030; an analysis of the needs and options for flexibility services beyond production systems; the potential for optimization of instruments to encourage short-term integration in line with changes in regulation regarding RES support schemes. Achieving the targets for renewable energy development (RES-E) in France (40% share of the electricity consumption) and in Europe (approximately 50%) by 2030 poses new integration challenges. The successful transformation of the electricity system based on a significant renewable component requires a systemic approach which takes into account: the evolution of demand and supply (for electricity and all energy), the interactions and competition between flexibility options for system stabilization (interconnections, active demand-side management, storage), the development of relevant infrastructure and articulation between the technical system and market design. A forward-looking analysis of electricity systems helps to assess this increase in flexibility requirements while identifying several optimization options to facilitate RES integration, starting with regional coordination. France already has a flexible electricity system, thanks notably to its hydro potential. Even so, its evolution towards 40% RES by 2030 calls for some strategic choices. On the one hand, drawing up a long-term trajectory for the evolution of electricity demand - in terms of volume as well as the nature of needs addressed - seems essential to bring coherence to the evolution of the technology portfolio and to increase the

  10. Considering supply and demand of electric energy in life cycle assessments - a review of current methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehberger, M.; Hiete, M.

    2015-01-01

    A stable power grid requires a balance between electricity supply and demand. To compensate for changes in the demand the network operator puts on or takes off power plants from the net. Peak load plants operate only at times of high electricity demand. As levels for air pollutants emissions are typically lower for peak load plants for reasons of cost-effectiveness, one could argue that a unit of electric energy consumed during peak load has always been associated with a higher environmental impact than at other times. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies, smart approaches for improving the matching between electricity consumption and supply and new products such as electric vehicles or net zero emission buildings gain in importance. In life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental impacts associated with the production and possibly transmission of electricity are most often assessed based on temporally averaged national electricity mixes as electricity flows cannot be traced back to their origin. Neither fluctuations in the supply structure nor the composition of energy supply at a certain moment or regional differences are accounted for. A literature review of approaches for handling electricity in LCA is carried out to compare strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. A better understanding and knowledge about the source of electricity at a given time and place might be valuable information for further reducing environmental impacts, e.g. by shifting electricity consumption to times with ample supply of renewables. Integrating such information into LCA will allow a fairer assessment of a variety of new products which accept a lower energy efficiency to achieve a better integration of renewables into the grid. (authors)

  11. The electricity supply industry in the German Federal Republic in the year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The present report continues the series of the annual reports issued so far, in the same form and arrangement of the available statistical material, which have been published in 'Elektrizitaetswirtschaft' since 1950 and as special publication. On the basis of official data the report gives a statistical review of public electricity supply, the industrial private undertakings and the power supply to the German Federal Railways. By combining these three groups - after omitting any overlap of the available data - an overall review of the development of electricity supply in the whole of the German Federal Republic is made possible. (orig.) [de

  12. Station blackout: Deterministic and probabilistic approach in the field of electrical supply losses by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, T.; Carnino, A.

    1986-01-01

    This example shows the thoroughness of EDF's approach in processing the difficult problems of the loss of electrical power supplies. Efforts are continuing in several directions: continued revision and improvement of operating procedures in the event of loss of electrical power supplies, PWR plant operator training courses devoted to the problems of power supply losses, and continued testing on simulators, and particularly testing under real conditions, including tests lasting several hours made possible by the performance of the new EDF simulators (two-phase code and taking all power losses into account)

  13. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  14. Using restructured electricity supply industries to understand oligopoly industry outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that many determinants of generic oligopoly market outcomes can be studied in bid-based wholesale electricity markets under much weaker assumptions than in other oligopoly industries because of their rich data, regulatory history, and clearly specified market rules. These methods are compared to those used in existing studies of oligopolistic industries where the best data available are market-clearing prices and quantities and demand and cost shifters. The extent to which the methods used in bid-based wholesale electricity markets generalize conventional methods is explained in detail and major applications of these techniques are summarized. Lessons from the study of wholesale electricity markets for the monitoring and design of other oligopolistic markets are also discussed. (author)

  15. The development of electric power supply systems in Britain and South Africa - a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, N.

    1990-01-01

    The history and progress of the electricity supply industry in Britain and South Africa display many similarities despite differences in climate, population and geography. The more interesting and outstanding features of the Central Electricity Generating Board in Britain and Eskom in South Africa have been compared, and a particularly close likeness was found. 6 tabs

  16. Integrated energy systems for hydrogen and electricity supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Univ. of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States). Florida Solar Energy Center; Manikowski, A.; Noland, G. [Procyon Power Systems Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States will soon need an increase in electric generating capacity along with an increase in the distribution capacity of the electricity grid. The cost and time required to build additional electrical distribution and transmission systems can be avoided by using distributed power generation. This paper examines the development of an integrated stand-alone energy system that can produce hydrogen, electricity and heat. The concept is based on integrated operation of a thermocatalytic pyrolysis (TCP) reactor and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The benefits include high overall energy efficiency, the production of high quality hydrogen (90 to 95 per cent free of carbon oxides), low emissions, and fuel flexibility. Experimental data is presented regarding the thermocatalytic pyrolysis of methane compared with an iron-based catalyst (which is sulfur resistant) and gasification of the resulting carbon with steam and carbon dioxide. With distributed generation, additional electrical generating capacity can be added in small increments distributed over the grid. An integrated energy system will be applicable to any type of hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, liquid propane gas, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel fuel and sulfurous residual oils. The suitable range of operating parameters needed to decoke a catalyst bed using steam and carbon dioxide as a degasifying agent was also determined. The Fe-catalyst was efficient in both methane pyrolysis and steam/CO{sub 2} gasification of carbon. It was shown that the TCP and SOFC complement each other in may ways. With the IES, high quality hydrogen is delivered to the end user. IES can also operate as either a hydrogen production unit or as an electrical power generator. The energy efficiency of the IES is estimated at 45-55 per cent. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Demand for power in Calcutta Electricity Supply Corporation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N

    1980-07-01

    Since the early 1970's there has been a continuous crisis of power supply to the Calcutta industrial region. Historical records show that only the peak demand has grown and has a potential for growth, which, with an unchanging base demand, results in a low load factor and consequently inefficient power system operation. Attempts to shift industrial loads by operating industrial plants during non-peak hours are described. Adverse economic conditions eliminated the need for extra working shifts. It is concluded that the power system supplying the Calcutta region has an insufficient peak load generating capacity and an uneconomic load curve and that stricter hourly schedules for power use by industries should be adhered to in order to minimize these problems. (LCL)

  18. Electricity supply in the insolvency of a customer; Stromlieferung in der Insolvenz des Kunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickwedde, Werner [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Within the insolvency of a electricity customer, there is no fully comprehensive protection of an energy supply company from the failure with accounts from a power supply contract. In the insolvency proceeding under consideration, the energy supply company always has a good position when the preliminary insolvency administrator is 'strong'. It happens regularly that the preliminary insolvency administrator is 'weak'. In this case the risk of failure of the energy supply company is enhanced. The energy supply company may react on this risk by adjustment to payments in advance or by discontinuing the supply as a second step. In accordance with the industrial customers energy supply companies also have the option to protect themselves from insolvency-related solution clauses against the risk of failure. In the opened insolvency proceeding the risk is reduced further because claims from the supply of electricity in any case mass liabilities and payment obligations on mass liabilities are not contestable. If the insolvency administrator does not pay, the energy supply company may stop the energy supply.

  19. Beta-electric power supply based in nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Gusev, V.V.; Zaddeh, V.V.; Petrenko, N.S.; Tsvetkov, L.A.; Tikhomiorov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    One analyzes the possibility to design 63 Ni base β-electric microwatt atomic battery expected to serve minimum 30 years. One proposes a process to ensure the full-scale commercial production of 63 Ni with 80-90% concentration in the end product. One presents and analyzes the design of a microporous silicon base β-electric converter with the optimized configuration and depth of micropores (microchannels). 63 Ni is coated on the microchannel inner surface. 63 Ni base atomic battery laboratory mock-up is available. Paper lists the design parameters and the volt-ampere characteristics of 500 microwatt capacity 63 Ni (of 90% concentration) base atomic battery [ru

  20. Sustainable energy provision: a comparative assessment of the various electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The provision of electricity is of central importance for economic growth and societal development. While numerous societal and economic benefits arise from the use of electricity, the production of electricity can also have negative impacts on the environment and the climate system. The commitment to sustainable development calls for the evaluation of the extent to which the different electricity supply options fulfill the sustainability criteria. The conceptual framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can provide a solid basis for a comparative assessment of different electricity supply options with regard to their environmental impacts, raw material requirements as well as their resulting external costs. Results of a comprehensive comparative assessment of nuclear energy and other electricity options are presented. (author)

  1. Standard for supply security. A minimum standard to guarantee the balance between electricity demand and supply for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Van Werven, M.J.N.; Seebregts, A.J.; Poort, J.P.; De Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.E.

    2004-05-01

    The development and use of a minimum reliability standard in the Dutch electricity market to guarantee an adequate balance between electricity demand and supply in the longer term are discussed. This standard can be based on the duration of a power outage and the related costs for society relative to the costs to prevent the power outage. The reliability standard can be translated in an adequacy standard when the reliability of foreign electricity supply to the Dutch market is taken into account. With a theoretical analysis and an assessment of the use of standards in foreign electricity markets and other sectors this study provides a survey of the use of standards in securing public interests. In electricity markets reliability standards can be used obligatory or only to inform market participants of the adequacy of supply preferred by consumers. If no standard is used, the market should rely on the economic incentives provided by contracts and liability. This study proposes to use a reliability standard for calculating the required generation capacity in an ex-ante market analysis using different future scenarios. On the basis of several market indicators, expected market developments can be monitored. Assessment of the market developments relative to the required generation capacity will give a signal to market participants with respect to the expected adequacy in the longer term (7 to 10 years). The assessment and the resulting signal should help to improve market transparency and assist producers, suppliers and consumers in their decisions towards an effective and efficient response on long-term market developments. Market monitoring results can be used by the government to take specific action, if necessary, to reduce barriers to invest. However, more general policy measures should not be linked to the monitoring results since this could provoke strategic behaviour [nl

  2. The fast reactor and electricity supply, a utility view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.; Hall, R.S.; Kemmish, W.B.; Thorne, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The significance of the fast reactor is discussed from the viewpoint of the Central Electricity Generating Board. The need for the fast reactor and a possible timescale for its introduction are examined. It is emphasised that demonstration of the commercial and environmental acceptability of the fuel cycle will be needed before any commitment can be made to fast reactors. (U.K.)

  3. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  4. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  5. Willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukert, K.; Telser, H.; Vaterlaus, S.; Mahler, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study made on the willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area. First, the starting point of the study and definitions of quality of supply and security of supply are noted. The methods used in the study are presented and macro-economic aspects are reviewed. The costs of black-outs are examined and the carrying out of surveys in the electricity market is discussed. The results of surveys made in households and commercial enterprises concerning the willingness to pay for security of supply and the costs incurred when supplies fail are presented and discussed. The report is completed with a comprehensive list of references and an appendix containing the results of the various tests and surveys made.

  6. The Effects of Competition Policy on TFP Growth: Some Evidence from the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kok Fong See; Tim Coelli

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to measure total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the electricity supply industry in Peninsular Malaysia from 1975 to 2005 and to assess the impact of private entry reforms upon TFP in this industry. Prior to 1995, a government-linked, vertically-integrated electricity utility, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), was essentially the sole operator. However, since 1995 privately-owned Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have also begun generating electricity, a...

  7. Electric power law: your working context for several decades. What must be known about the French law project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playe, D.

    1999-01-01

    The French government will adopt with some reticence the new organization of the electric power market as decided by the European parliament. The French transposition of the European legislative text will be discussed at the French national assembly only in February 1999 and voted only in the second semester. This paper summarizes the main points of the project of law passed in December 9, 1998 and tries to explain the stakes of the new regulatory context for Electricite de France (EdF): creation of a regulation commission, accounting dissociation between production, transport and distribution, the eligible customers, the tariffs of electricity transport, the disagreement between the government and the electric equipment professionals with respect to EdF's position, the social aspects, and the construction of direct power lines in complement of public networks. An interview of G. Poullain, head of the national council of the electric equipment (CNEE), about the future development of EdF is given in inset. (J.S.)

  8. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  9. Electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adedeji Tajudeen

    A modern and efficient infrastructure is a basic necessity for economic development and integration into the global economy. The specific problem was the inadequate and unreliable supply of electricity to manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to examine if there was a correlation between electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The population of the current correlational research study involved 28 out of 34 manufacturing corporations from various industrial sectors in Lagos, Nigeria, that are listed and traded on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Spearman rho correlations were used to assess the relationships between independent variables of electricity supply efficiency levels and the dependent variables of organizational growth and profitability. The result of the correlational analysis of the data revealed that there was a statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Gross Income (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.57; p = 0.002. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation was found between the Average Balance Sheet Size (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.54; p = 0.003. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Profit After Tax (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.60; p = 0.001, was found. No statistically significant correlation between the Average Return on Investment (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.19; p = 0.33, was discovered.

  10. Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimer, D.W.; Owen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. This paper describes the power circuits and the components used in the design

  11. Production of concentrates for supplying a national nuclear electric program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C.M.

    An analysis was made of the yearly requirements of natural U to satisfy a nuclear power program in Mexico. On the basis of these requirements an evaluation was made of the concentrate production necessary to supply those needs. The lack of known commercial reserves to satisfy the concentrate needs is shown. An estimation is made of the costs for the discovery and exploitation of sufficient reserves. In evaluating the U needs and associated costs, three cases were considered: all BWR or PWR or HWR

  12. Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with capacitor supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines in small power strike machines (energy impact is 0.01...1.0 kJ), where the characteristic mode of rare beats (pulse seismic vibrator, the arch crash device bins bulk materials), is quite effective. At the same time, the technical and economic performance of such machines is largely determined by the ability of the power source to provide a large instantaneous power of the supply pulses in the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor. The use of intermediate energy storage devices in power systems of rare-shock LEME makes it possible to obtain easily large instantaneous powers, forced energy conversion, and increase the performance of the machine. A capacitor power supply of a pulsed source of seismic waves is proposed for the exploration of shallow depths. The sections of the capacitor storage (CS) are connected to the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor by thyristor dischargers, the sequence of activation of which is determined by the control device. The charge of the capacitors to the required voltage is made directly from the battery source, or through the converter from a battery source with a smaller number of batteries.

  13. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  14. Meeting Ontario's electricity needs : a critical review of the Ontario Power Authority's supply mix advice report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.; Fracassi, J.

    2006-01-01

    In December, 2005 the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) outlined its proposed blueprint for meeting Ontario's electricity needs to 2025 in the document entitled Supply Mix Advice Report. As a result of the actions taken by the current government, the OPA believes that Ontario will have adequate electricity supplies to meet the province's needs until 2013. However, it stated that Ontario will require an additional 15,000 megawatts of new generation capacity between 2013 and 2025. The OPA also recommends that a significant proportion of this new generation capacity be nuclear. The Ontario Clean Air Alliance undertook a review of the OPA report and identified several discrepancies including an over-estimation of Ontario's rate of electricity load growth from 2005 to 2025; an under-estimation of the potential for electricity productivity improvements to reduce electricity demand and raise living standards; an under-estimation of renewable energy supply potential; an under-estimation of the potential for biomass and natural gas fired combined heat and power plants to meet electricity needs and increase the competitiveness of Ontario's industries; an under-estimation of the economic costs and risks of nuclear power; and a biased recommendation for a 70 million dollar resource acquisition budget against energy efficiency investments that would reduce demand and raise living standards. This report provides the Ontario Clean Air Alliances' analysis of the OPA report and presents it own recommendations for how Ontario can increase its electricity productivity and meet its electricity supply needs until 2025. The report concluded that the Government of Ontario should direct the OPA to develop a long-term strategy to raise the price of electricity up to its full cost without raising the electricity bills of low income consumers or impairing the competitiveness of Ontario's industries. It was suggested that Ontario's electricity productivity should be increased to the same level as

  15. French policy in the nuclear industry and last governmental decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    In the wake of the first oil shock, France embarked on an energy policy aimed at strengthening the long-term security of its supplies. French Government has confirmed the continuation of the nuclear power option as an essential component of French energy policy and in the interests of energy self-sufficiency and environmental concerns. The Government is also ready to work actively and seriously on diversifying France's electricity supply

  16. To an optimal electricity supply system. Possible bottlenecks in the development to an optimal electricity supply system in northwest Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; De Joode, J.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2006-02-01

    It is uncertain how the electricity system in Europe, and in particular northwest Europe and the Netherlands, will develop in the next fifteen years. The main objective of this report is to identify possible bottlenecks that may hamper the northwest European electricity system to develop into an optimal system in the long term (until 2020). Subsequently, based on the identified bottlenecks, the report attempts to indicate relevant market response and policy options. To be able to identify possible bottlenecks in the development to an optimal electricity system, an analytical framework has been set up with the aim to identify possible (future) problems in a structured way. The segments generation, network, demand, balancing, and policy and regulation are analysed, as well as the interactions between these segments. Each identified bottleneck is assessed on the criteria reliability, sustainability and affordability. Three bottlenecks are analysed in more detail: (1) The increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) and its interaction with the electricity network. Dutch policy could be aimed at: (a) Gaining more insight in the costs and benefits that result from the increasing penetration of DG; (b) Creating possibilities for DSOs to experiment with innovative (network management) concepts; (c) Introducing locational signals; and (d) Further analyse the possibility of ownership unbundling; (2) The problem of intermittency and its implications for balancing the electricity system. Dutch policy could be aimed at: (a) Creating the environment in which the market is able to respond in an efficient way; (b) Monitoring market responses; (c) Market coupling; and (d) Discussing the timing of the gate closure; and (3) Interconnection and congestion issues in combination with generation. Dutch policy could be aimed at: (a) Using the existing interconnection capacity as efficient as possible; (b) Identifying the causes behind price differences; and (c) Harmonise market

  17. Availability of the electrical supply system of emergency sources of 900-MW pressurized water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, A.

    A study made by CEA and EDF on the time-dependent probability of simultaneous loss of the electrical supply system from emergency sources is reported. Aspects covered include the availability of the electrical supply system in all possible conditions (2 available external sources, 1 available external source...) and the probability for repair after total loss of supply sources

  18. Priority pricing in electricity supply. An application for Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenstock, Michael; Goldin, Ephraim [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Economics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1997-06-01

    It is well known that in the event of a shortage in generation capacity, it is inefficient if the electricity utility cuts off customers randomly. It is preferable to set up a market in service priority in which customers who have a greater need pay more for the right not to be cut off. We use an econometric model of outage costs in Israel to calculate the menu of priority rates by season and time of day. Top priority rates range from zero, when the loss-of-load probability (LOLP) is zero, to 8 cents (US) per kWh when the LOLP is greatest

  19. Applications of Expert Systems within the Scottish Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the areas of application of Expert Systems within the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB). The SSEB interest in Expert Systems was initiated by a fault in a conventional power station however the paper describes how the development associated with that work, has resulted in applications for the Nuclear Power Stations. The paper contrasts the cost benefits and project risks associated with the uses of probabilistic systems and concludes that the cost benefits of these are at present too low to justify their use in on-line applications

  20. Present and prospective role of wind energy in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.; Ancona, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Information is provided on world-wide wind energy applications for the production of electricity and the various factors driving the wind turbine market: technology improvements and cost reduction, national research, incentives, utility and public acceptance. Possible restraints to (noise, aesthetics) and benefits (especially in isolated systems) from wind plant integration in utility systems are considered, as well as the use of stand-alone wind systems. Some possible forecasts on the role of wind energy in the next two decades are also given. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  2. A portfolio risk analysis on electricity supply planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-H.; Wu, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional electricity planning selects from a range of alternative technologies based on the least-cost method without assessing cost-related risks. The current approach to determining energy generation portfolios creates a preference for fossil fuel. Consequently, this preference results in increased exposure to recent fluctuations in fossil fuel prices, particularly for countries heavily depend on imported energy. This paper applies portfolio theory in conventional electricity planning with Taiwan as a case study. The model objective is to minimize the 'risk-weighted present value of total generation cost'. Both the present value of generating cost and risk (variance of the generating cost) are considered. Risk of generating cost is introduced for volatile fuel prices and uncertainty of technological change and capital cost reduction. The impact of risk levels on the portfolio of power generation technologies is also examined to provide some valuable policy suggestions. Study results indicate that replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy helps reduce generating cost risk. However, due to limited renewable development potential in Taiwan, there is an upper bound of 15% on the maximum share of renewable energy in the generating portfolio. In the meantime, reevaluating the current nuclear energy policy for reduced exposure to fossil fuel price fluctuations is worthwhile

  3. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  4. Improving the security of electricity supply - report by a rapporteur ad int

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.; Lehtonen, M.

    2002-07-01

    The storms 'Pyry' and 'Janika', which swept over Finland in October-November 2001, caused serious damages to the operability of electric systems and led to long-term and extensive interruptions in electricity supply especially in Pirkanmaa, Central Home, Poijat-Hame and in the Uusimaa region. Although the security of electricity supply in Finland has in general been on a high level, the needs of customers concerning the quality of electrical power are constantly growing, and the operational reliability of the distribution networks will thereby have to be developed. The Rapporteur ad int. appointed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry on 21 November 2001 considers that such a scheme complementing the price reduction under the Electricity Market Act should be set up that would require a fixed compensation from the distribution network operators in the case of non deliverance of electricity. The fixed compensation should be paid automatically for e.g. interruptions lasting over 12 hours. The sum would depend on the length of the interruption and on the customer's annual rate of the network service fee. The Rapporteur also gives a number of other recommendations for improving the situation. Each distribution network operator is to choose the means of improvement on a technical-economical basis. The required level in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of an electrical network should guarantee that the interruptions in electricity supply would not exceed six hours even in exceptional circumstances. Ensuring electrical safety is of prime importance in disturbance situations. Shortening the interruption times and improving the quality of electricity call for sustained investment planning and activities. The distribution network operators should draw up a ten-year action plan. including measures aiming to reduce interruptions and the related timetables. To be able to keep the interruption times short in extensive cases of disturbance, the distribution

  5. Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagdev, A.J.; Samo, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

  6. The impact of the Nome law on the French market of electricity. How competition intensity will evolve?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at understanding the Nome law and at assessing its impact on the market, at gathering and analysing key figures of the French market of electricity (energy mix, consumption, gross prices, etc.), at assessing market shares of operators and their evolution, at comparing the commercial position of electricity providers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge EDF's positions. Ten providers have been analysed: Alpiq, Direct Energie, EDF, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, E.ON France, GDF Suez, Gaz Electricite de Grenoble, Poweo, and Soregies

  7. Open access vs. common carriage in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, Gert

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the question of whether the upstream infrastructure monopolist in electricity transmission should be allowed to participate on the downstream generation market. The central assumption is that the downstream market is characterized by a U-shaped AC curve. Under this assumption, it will be shown that the unregulated upstream monopolist has an incentive for partial forward integration. He or she will, however, not have an incentive to foreclose fully the downstream market. Furthermore, it will be shown that allowing the upstream monopolist to be active on the downstream market is superior to forbidding this. In other words, under the assumptions of the model, open access will be superior to common carriage. (Author)

  8. Contrasting electricity demand with wind power supply: case study in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, P.; Janosi, I. M.; Varga, L.

    2009-01-01

    We compare the demand of a large electricity consumer with supply given by wind farms installed at two distant geographic locations. Obviously such situation is rather unrealistic, however our main goal is a quantitative characterization of the intermittency of wind electricity. The consumption pattern consists of marked daily and weekly cycles interrupted by periods of holidays. In contrast, wind electricity production has neither short-time nor seasonal periodicities. We show that wind power integration over a restricted area cannot provide a stable base load supply, independently of the excess capacity. Further essential result is that the statistics are almost identical for a weekly periodic pattern of consumption and a constant load of the same average value. The length of both adequate supply and shortfall intervals exhibits a scale-free (power-law) frequency distribution, possible consequences are shortly discussed. (author)

  9. Contrasting Electricity Demand with Wind Power Supply: Case Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre M. Jánosi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the demand of a large electricity consumer with supply given by wind farms installed at two distant geographic locations. Obviously such situation is rather unrealistic, however our main goal is a quantitative characterization of the intermittency of wind electricity. The consumption pattern consists of marked daily and weekly cycles interrupted by periods of holidays. In contrast, wind electricity production has neither short-time nor seasonal periodicities. We show that wind power integration over a restricted area cannot provide a stable baseload supply, independently of the excess capacity. Further essential result is that the statistics are almost identical for a weekly periodic pattern of consumption and a constant load of the same average value. The length of both adequate supply and shortfall intervals exhibits a scale-free (power-law frequency distribution, possible consequences are shortly discussed.

  10. Energy-efficient control of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzhechkov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for synthesizing the control laws of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive is developed. The synthesized control law for an electric drive realizes the prescribed motion and minimizes the required capacitance of the power source. It is achieved through optimal disconnection and connection to the power line of the drive at designated times of one of the power supply sections. Reduction of the required capacitance of the power supply is achieved through a fuller discharge of some of its sections in motion conditions requiring a low level of electrical voltage and saving high voltage in other sections for the respective motion conditions. A mathematical formulation of the problem and a method of its solution is proposed. An example of the implementation of the proposed method is considered.

  11. Uncertainty of Japanese electricity supply after nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the uncertainty of the Japanese energy policy influenced by disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plants. With mounting criticism of nuclear power generation, the pro-nuclear tide which existed prior to the accident will probably end in the newly formulated energy policy. A review of Japan's energy policy is about to start. It is necessary to supply energy that makes us feel safe and secure in order to support people's lives and industrial activities in society. Every energy source entails risks, and we need to develop a concept of allowance that represents what level of energy usage is permissible. This is not a matter of 'making scientific determinations demarcated by the questions of harm versus harmless and risk versus safety', but rather the social concept of 'to what extend can we tolerate the risks while still looking at something as a positive' from the perspective of people's lives. Japanese people have a tendency to judge safety subjectively and demand absolute safety. Various risks have developed in today's globalized society, and it is important to regard permissible levels for each of these risks in an objective fashion. (author)

  12. Uninterruptible power supply model of independent voltage inverter of NPP electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, V.V.; Ajdaralieva, V.Eh.

    2010-01-01

    A package of main transforming units models of advanced uninterruptible power supply systems of NPP electrical equipment was developed. The package of models allows investigating the basic modes of uninterruptible power supply systems operation by computer modeling. Simulation results were presented. Recommendations on choice of parameters of power circuit elements as well as on diagnostics and adjustment of regulators of converters control systems were given [ru

  13. Design of a Percussion and Electric Primer Gun Firing Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    solenoid failure. As new instrumentation techniques such as high-speed video and laser interferometry have been introduced into our gun testing...to drive a solenoid into a percussion primer or ignite the M52A3B1 electric primer. To reduce power requirements, it uses charged capacitor banks to...drive the solenoid or ignite the primer. This report details the design and construction of the power supplies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS power supply

  14. The supplying of primary energy to electric power stations up to 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    After specifying the role of thermal power plants in supplying France with electric power, the report examines the impact on their activity of recent events affecting energy and, in the light of this analysis, shows how in the near future it is possible to plan their supplies of fossil fuels. In the face of some uncertainty still present in this field, the adaptability of the power plants to the many and uncertain constraints of the demand constitutes a favourable and important factor [fr

  15. Annual report on electricity quality - 2013 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2013 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  16. Annual report on electricity quality - 2008 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2008 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  17. Annual report on electricity quality - 2009 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2009 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  18. Annual report on electricity quality - 2011 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2011 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  19. Annual report on electricity quality - 2016 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2016 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  20. Annual report on electricity quality - 2014 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2014 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  1. Annual report on electricity quality - 2015 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2015 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  2. Annual report on electricity quality - 2012 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Every year, RTE, the French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2012 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  3. Annual report on electricity quality - 2010 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Every year, RTE, The French transmission system operator, evaluates the electricity quality of the French grid. Quality covers two aspects: the continuity of supply (percentage of outages) and the voltage wave quality (temporary or continuous disturbances). This report presents: the 2010 key figures and highlights, RTE's electricity quality commitments, RTE's technical results and quality assurance, and RTE's action for grid performances improvement

  4. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural and gasworks gas 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Total domestic use of electricity (including transmission losses) was 143.3 TWh in 1999. This represents a decrease of 0.5 per cent compared to 1998. Usage in the household sector fell by 1.5 per cent to 34.3 TWh (including second homes). In contrast, the industry sector (manufacturing industry, mining and quarrying) increased its usage by 1.1 per cent to 55.3 TWh. Deliveries of steam and hot water for district heating were 43.7 TWh, unchanged compared to 1998. Total net production of electricity decreased in 1999 by 2.5 per cent compared to 1998 and amounted to 150.8 TWh. Hydroelectric production decreased by 4.0 per cent to 70.9 TWh. The production of conventional thermal power also fell, by 5.6 per cent to 9.4 TWh. Nuclear power contributed 70.2 TWh, almost the same as the previous year. Wind power, however, increased its production by 16.2 per cent to 358 GWh. Imports of electricity increased by 0.4 TWh to 8.5 TWh, but exports decreased by 0.9 TWh to 15.9 TWh. Total deliveries of natural gas to final consumers diminished somewhat in 1999 and amounted to 854 million m 3 (equivalent to 9226 GWh). Deliveries of natural gas substitutes (air/liquefied petroleum gas mix) decreased by 5 per cent to 26 million m 3 . The mean price of natural gas rose by approximately 6 per cent compared to 1998. Deliveries of gas-works gas fell in 1999 by 0.6 million m 3 to 109.2 million m 3 . The mean price was about 11 per cent higher than in the preceding year

  5. Electricity consumers under the state and the private sector: comparing the price performance of the French and UK electricity industries 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, Jacques; Wright, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Particularly because a preoccupation with process has tended to dominate the debate about electricity privatisation and liberalisation, this paper focuses on price outcomes by comparing the relative price performance of the French and UK electricity industries between 1990 and 2000. The main conclusion is that in 1990 the state-owned French electricity industry was performing better for most consumers than the state-owned UK industry, and a decade later it was still doing so with respect to the privately-owned UK industry. While this conclusion could be qualified by saying that, heavily prompted or assisted by the Regulator, the UK privately-owned industry has shown itself capable of achieving faster reductions in prices to close the gap between itself and the French, this achievement has been concentrated in the industrial market and even there the very significant gains were mainly restricted to the very largest consumers. In the context of the European Union the UK is shown to have performed relatively poorly for the smallest domestic consumers and, while both countries did much better in the rankings of industrial prices, they were still a long way behind the top performers. (Author)

  6. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  7. Security of Supply in Australia's National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Sebastian

    2005-06-01

    This paper discusses the experience with an energy-only market in Australia, focusing on investment and price outcomes since market commencement. Looking back at the changes in the market since it commenced in 1998, it is fair to say that the energy-only market design has been a success so far. Demand has increased steadily, but this has been matched with new investment in generation and networks. The availability and efficiency of existing plant has also increased substantially. As a result of these gains, prices have come down and are less volatile, and the reliability and security of the market has been consolidated. Compared with 1989-90, the industry delivered more electricity (an increase of 45 per cent), to more customers (an increase of 26 per cent), and with less than half the number of employees. Industrial and residential energy users have enjoyed decreased prices, thanks to a combination of increased generation and network investment, and greater competition. Despite these successes, there is scope for further reform of the NEM to aid further improvements in the market's performance. We have seen how successful the energy-only market has been in signalling new investment in peaking generation, but there is still a question as to the effectiveness of the market in signalling baseload investment. In any case, future challenges will involve ensuring that market arrangements are conducive to new investment. Indeed, following recent reviews of the Australian energy market by Australian statutory bodies, there is a consensus view that the further reform is required to improve investment signals. The 2002 Review of Australian Energy Markets recommended structural reform of the New South Wales electricity industry and the removal of ETEF. In February this year, the Productivity Commission recommended disaggregation of the generation sector in New South Wales, and took the further step of recommending that the New South Wales government should consider

  8. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  9. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Bogdanovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  10. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  11. Electric power self-producers and the support of emergent supplying by concessionaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastre, L.D.; Sebusiani, L.R.; Arantes, R.L.; Placido, R.; Vieira, F.O.; Janotta, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The electric energy supplying to self-producers has particular features due to its load behavior impressed by the industrial process load itself. This matter is regulated by the National Division of Water Sources and Electric Power - DNAEE since late 1985. Nevertheless the entry of new and different price versions at marginal costs - such as the Green Rate -stressed relative pricing adjustments on regular rates as well as on emergent ones, which is going to allow unusual commercial fronts and is going to demand a continuous managerial attention on those supplying modes. (author)

  12. INTERDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY OF A SMALL COUNTRY: THE CASE OF LITHUANIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juozaitis, R.; Bacauskas, A.

    2007-07-01

    In the report there are described the circumstances of operation of Lithuanian power system. A common plan of the Baltic power companies to build a new nuclear power plant is discussed. The report elaborates on the plans of necessary interconnections for integration of the Baltic power systems into the EU electricity market, ensuring security of supply in the Baltic region and availability to install efficient bigger capacity generation units in power stations. The experience of Lithuania demonstrates that interdependence in power sector is an advantage in maintaining security of electricity supply. (auth)

  13. A New Generation of Electrical Power Supply for Telecom Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhours, Gilles; Asplanato, Remi; Rebuffel, Christophe; Pasquet, Jean-Marie; Bardin, Bertrand; Deplus, Nicolas; Lempereur, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the main features of the new power subsystem generation for the Thales Alenia Space (TAS) Spacebus platforms.All its components (Solar Array, Solar Array Drive Mechanism, Power Conditioning Unit and Lithium-Ion batteries) have been upgraded, taking advantage of the latest available technologies. The modularity has been improved to perfectly match the sizing of each unit to the satellite power level requirement. These two improvements lead to optimal mass and cost over the whole power range.In addition, the customer benefits from a fully automatic operation of the subsystem, including redundancy, making the ground station workload negligible, even during eclipse periods. Finally, the capability to support any type of payload has been further improved, in terms of overall power level and operating modes. Payload pulsed operation capability has been especially increased to support all anticipated mission requirements. In parallel to the PCU hardware, a detailed electrical model has also been developed and correlated to analyse the regulation performance in any nominal or degraded mode. An extensive set of tests provides a verification of performances and interfaces, hardware as well as software.This paper will first describe the main requirements considered in this development. Then, the architecture will be detailed, showing how the requirements have been fulfilled. The design of each unit will be shortly presented, and finally the correlation between the regulation analysis model and the EQM measurements will be illustrated.

  14. The yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This is an account of a paper appeared in Energy Economist, February 1988 and contains a severe critique of the French nuclear power policy, in particular the Electricite de France, Cogema and Framatome. It is argued that the blueprint of the original nuclear power program has not been achieved in many topics. Points of critique to the EdF are: the electricity price, overcapacities and financial indeptedness. The French industries are not flourishing due to ample supply of cheap energy, nor do French nuclear manufacturers sell the fast breeder technology throughout the world. (qui)

  15. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  16. Dynamics of electricity supply and demand in Kerala: a macro econometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, P P

    1981-01-01

    Kerala has the reputation of being a surplus state in electricity, but per capita consumption (at 76 kWh compared to 130 kWh for Tamil Nadu during the same period) is one of the lowest in India. The state ranks only seventh in terms of installed capacity and is lower than the overall average of 32.12 MW per million of population. Industrial and technological development will mean that supply will be inadequate, and Kerala will have to import electricity unless corrective measures are taken. Abundant hydro-electric sources provide the state with non-polluting and inexpensive power as well as irrigation. This source must be maximized as the state promotes industry and raises its standard of living. This book analyzes Kerala's electricity supply, system efficiency, future demand, rural electrification programs, and economic development, and makes several recommendations for planning and implementing an increase in power production. 13 references, 1 figures, 34 tables.

  17. Development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Electrical Supply in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin Jaafar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Mohd Hanafiah Chik

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power supplies in Malaysia supplied from the power utility company Tenaga Nasional Berhad through several substations before reaching the building and equipment. The power supply is received and passed down through the 11000 V high voltage switch gears to 415 V 3-phase or 1-phase 240 V. The equipment used in this process is dangerous and monitoring hardware operating remotely (remote) is the best as only guard machinery may engage in business operations. Similarly, the supply of electrical parameters should be monitored to ensure safe and continuous supply of and according to the appropriate voltage for record and analysis when needed. This paper discusses the monitoring and data acquisition is performed using the system 'Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) was developed. (author)

  18. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural and gasworks gas 2011; El-, gas- och fjaerrvaermefoersoerjningen 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Decline in electricity use: The final consumption of electricity in the country (excluding losses) amounted in 2011 to 130.6 TWh. It meant a decline of 3.4 percent compared with the year before. The industry's use grew by 0.9 percent to 53.8 TWh. Household use (permanent housing and second homes) declined to 33.7 TWh (-9.6 percent). While other application within the service sector and public administration declined to 43.0 TWh (-3.2 percent). Increase in electricity generation: Electricity generation increased in 2011. Net production increased by 1.8 percent to 147.5 TWh, compared with the previous year. The largest increase observed for wind power, which rose by 74.2 percent to 6.1 TWh. Water power was virtually unchanged (66.7 TWh). The conventional thermal power dropped to 16.8 TWh, a decline of 11.9 percent. Nuclear power increased by 4.3 percent to 58.0 TWh. Power exchanges with foreign countries gave in 2011 a surplus of 7.2 TWh. Reduced heating supplies: Deliveries of heat to the final use declined in 2011. Delivered-na totaled 48.1 TWh, which represents a decrease of 16.1 percent compared with the year before.

  19. The supply function equilibrium and its policy implications for wholesale electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer; Newbery, David

    2010-01-01

    The supply function equilibrium provides a game-theoretic model of strategic bidding in oligopolistic wholesale electricity auctions. This paper presents an intuitive account of current understanding and shows how welfare losses depend on the number of firms in the market and their asymmetry. Previous results and general recommendations for divisible-good/multi-unit auctions provides guidance on the design of the auction format, setting the reservation price, the rationing rule, and restrictions on the offer curves in wholesale electricity auctions. (author)

  20. Effects of renewables penetration on the security of Portuguese electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, João Pedro; Dias, Luís; Martins, Inês; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the importance of the electricity sector in energy security in Portugal. • We compare energy security indicators for 2004 and 2011. • Strong wind penetration has an important role on the country energy security. • Infrastructure is the weaker component in electricity sector supply chain. - Abstract: The increase of renewables in power sector, together with the increase of their electricity share in final energy consumption, is changing our perception about energy security with diverse and contradictory statements. The Portuguese security of electricity supply is analyzed in this study by comparing selected indicators for 2 years before and after the high increase of onshore wind since 2005. Our goal is to find how the security of electricity supply was impacted by the penetration of renewables, taking a supply chain approach. Our analysis highlights that the penetration of renewables has decreased the energy dependence of the power sector by more than 20% between 2004 and 2011, while risks related to the concentration of natural gas suppliers and to the still-high share of fossil fuels suffering from price volatility are discussed. We observed a significant improvement in power interconnections with Spain, as well as an increase of the de-rated generation capacity margin, allowing proper management of renewable power intermittency if necessary, thereby improving power security. Although the share of intermittent renewables almost quadrupled in total installed capacity between those years, the indicators reveal an improvement in the quality of transport and distribution when delivering electricity to end-users. Although electricity prices increased, mainly due to taxes, the lack of energy efficiency is an aspect deserving improvement to alleviate the pressure on electricity security, mainly at high peak demands

  1. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB) [de

  2. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  3. Sectoral electricity elasticities in South Africa: Before and after the supply crisis of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blignaut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the price elasticity of electricity for various industrial sectors of the South African economy from 2002 to 2011. The data used include sectoral electricity consumption data and electricity tariff data, both courtesy of Eskom as well as output data based on national statistics. The most important contribution this paper makes is that it includes the period after the sharp rises in electricity tariffs in 2007/2008 following a period of load-shedding and insecurity in electricity supply. Previous studies have included data only until 2007 and, for the most part, have found statistically insignificant, positive elasticities. However, for the period post-2007, we found statistically significant and negative elasticities for 9 of the 11 sectors considered. Our results show that the majority of industrial sectors have become much more sensitive to changes in the price of electricity following 2007/2008, indicating to policymakers that tariff restructuring might influence consumer behaviour significantly.

  4. Exploring the water-energy nexus in Brazil: The electricity use for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo; Perrella Balestieri, José Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The present work evaluates the electricity use for the water production and supply in Brazil. Five categories of indicators were proposed, that is, per capita, water losses, energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and financial/economic, which were used in the definition of municipal average values. It takes an average 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 for production and water supply in the country. The results demonstrate that the water supply systems accounted for, at least, 1.9% of total electricity consumption in Brazil in 2012, and the water loss wastes 27% of water and energy in the water supply systems from Brazil. The production and distribution of 1 m 3 of water in Brazilian cities represents the emission of 0.050 ± 0.004 kgCO2e, being 0.014 ± 0.001 kgCO2e.m −3 associated with the water loss volumes. Furthermore, the average Brazilian cities' expenditure with electricity for the water supply is US$ 0.14 ± US$ 0.01, which corresponds to 16.8% ± 0.7% of operating expenditures and 12.9% ± 0.5% of total expenditure of the WSSs. The NE Region is the one that presents the greatest potential for the application of hydraulic and energy efficiency measures in water supply systems (WSSs). - Highlights: • We analyze the electricity use in Brazilian water supply systems. • Five categories of indicators were analyzed statistically. • Brazilian water supply systems uses 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 to supply water. • At least 1.9% of Brazilian electricity consumption is used in water supply systems. • The Northeast Region of Brazil presents the higher energy/water saving potential

  5. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply. During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies. Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge of maintaining security of electricity supply during the transition to low-carbon economies. Low-carbon policies are pushing electricity markets into novel territories at a time when most of the generation and network capacity will have to be replaced. Most notably, wind and solar generation, now an integral part of electricity markets, can present new operating and investment challenges for generation, networks and the regional integration of electricity markets. In addition, the resilience of power systems facing more frequent natural disasters is also of increasing concern. IEA Ministers mandated the Secretariat to work on the Electricity Security Action Plan (ESAP), expanding to electricity the energy security mission of the IEA. This paper outlines the key conclusions and policy recommendations to ''keep the lights on'' while reducing CO2 emissions and increasing the efficiency.

  7. The integrated North American electricity market : assuring an adequate supply of electricity through cross-border cooperation and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to support cooperation and discussion of the long-term sufficiency of the electricity trading system between Canada and the United States. It discusses the integrated electricity market including details on exports and imports of electricity, major transmission interconnections, the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market and electricity generation statistics by fuel source. The paper also discusses several areas of cooperation and presents several recommendations including: greater dialogue on regional supply requirements; mandatory reliability standards; coordinated regulatory approaches to new cross-border transmission; the role of emerging generation and transmission technologies; opportunities to exchange experience and learning on demand-side measures; coordinated strategies to manage greenhouse gas and other air pollutants; and, critical infrastructure protection. The paper concludes that the integration between Canada and the United States will only increase as energy demand and trade continue to grow, making close cooperation between the two countries a necessity. 6 figs

  8. Issues in the determination of the optimal portfolio of electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, Emily A.; Lon Carlson, J.; Loomis, David

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a growing amount of attention has been focused on the need to develop a cost-effective portfolio of electricity supply options that provides society with a measure of protection from such factors as fuel price volatility and supply interruptions. A number of strategies, including portfolio theory, real options theory, and different measures of diversity have been suggested. In this paper we begin by first considering how we might characterize an optimal portfolio of supply options and identify a number of constraints that must be satisfied as part of the optimization process. We then review the strengths and limitations of each approach listed above. The results of our review lead us to conclude that, of the strategies we consider, using the concept of diversity to assess the viability of an electricity supply portfolio is most appropriate. We then provide an example of how a particular measure of diversity, the Shannon-Weiner Index, can be used to assess the diversity of the electricity supply portfolio in the state of Illinois, the region served by the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), and the continental United States.

  9. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  10. Expanding electricity capacity in Thailand to meet the twin challenges of supply security and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Limmeechokchai, Bundit

    2008-01-01

    Rapid growth in electricity demand in Thailand is a major challenge for electric utilities trying to ensure adequate supply. Continued reliance on natural gas for power supply makes the supply mix non-diversified and exposes the country to supply risks while a diversification to other fossil fuels imposes additional environmental burdens. To find an acceptable solution to this twin challenge, this paper assesses four scenarios of electricity capacity expansion planning for Thailand for the period between 2011 and 2025 under two different assumptions of fuel prices to reflect the case of international high oil price affecting cost of fuels for power generation in Thailand. It is found that the lowest environmental emissions are obtained from the scenario where power generation is highly dominated by natural gas. In contrast, the least cost electricity generation is achieved from the case if nuclear power plant is added into the Thai power system. Reliance on natural gas for power generation increases the spending on gas purchase as a share of the gross domestic product (GDP) - between 2.38% and 3.61% of (GDP). In addition, fuel import dependence, particularly for natural gas and coal, increases exposing the country to possible price volatility. (author)

  11. Electricity supply and demand scenarios for the Southern African power pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spalding-Fecher, R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents long-term electricity supply and demand scenarios for the twelve countries in the Southern African Power Pool, based on detailed bottom-up demand analysis for all countries and a set of internally consistent development scenarios...

  12. EQUATIONS OF ELECTRIC MOTOR POWER SUPPLY UNIT DISSYMMETRY UNDER PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Tchaban

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a formula is introduced for calculating electric motor supply unit voltage under feeding by a common transformer in the condition of a phase short-circuit in one of the motors. The formula is used in every time step of electromechanical state equations integration.

  13. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  14. A bargaining model of regulated markets' integration with an application to electricity supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jingyuan; Smeers, Y.; Canon, E.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated market organized by regulated electric utilities is modelled. It is assumed that, given a price vector for the exchange of electricity between each pair of neighboring utilities, utilities independently maximize their own domestic social welfare subject to the zero profit constraint. An equilibrium price vector for exchanges among utilities is defined as the one which clears the exchanges for all pair of business partners. A single piecewise linear model is formulated for computing market equilibria. The model is used to simulate the electricity supply market organized by 11 western European countries

  15. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  16. Update of the Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of February 10, 2000, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Public Authorities, establishes every two years a multi-annual forecast report on the balance of electricity supply and demand in France, known as 'Generation Adequacy Report'. The last Generation Adequacy Report, looking ahead up to 2025, was published in July 2009. It concluded that security of supply in France was reasonably ensured through 2013. It also warned that supply might fall short of demand by 2015, considering: i) decommissioning of numerous old plants that are not in compliance with environment standards established in the 'Large Combustion Plants' Directive, and ii) a slow-down in commissioning of new plants, due to the recent tendency of producers to postpone go ahead decisions in the wake of the economic and financial crisis. Decree No. 2006-1170 issued on September 20, 2006, requires that an annual update of this forecast be prepared over the next five years. Thus, the main purpose of the present update is to verify the ability of the power system in continental France, operating in close interaction with neighbouring systems, to properly satisfy demand through 2015. This update incorporates supplementary information obtained during the course of last year: - With regard to consumption, forecasts are based on actual consumption figures for 2009. Statistical data over one more year-long period are available on many consumption drivers, such as new building and housing units, along with actual electrical space heating and the sales of many electric appliances. More accurate data from the macro-economic outlook on the recovery from the present crisis were also made available. Such information is helpful in determining the most relevant and probable scenario amongst the set of scenarios developed in the 2009 Generation Adequacy Report. - With regard to generating capacity, the most probable trajectory

  17. A supply function model for representing the strategic bidding of the producers in constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Lu, Wene; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. (author)

  18. Design study of electrical power supply system for tokamak fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Design study of the electrical power supply system for a 2000MWt Tokamak-type fusion reactor has been carried out. The purposes are to reveal and study problems in the system, leading to a plan of the research and development. Performed were study of the electrical power supply system and design of superconducting inductive energy storages and power switches. In study of the system, specification and capability of various power supplies for the fusion power reactor and design of the total system with its components were investigated. For the superconducting inductive energy storages, material choice, design calculation, and structural design were conducted, giving the size, weight and performance. For thyristor switches, circuit design in the parallel / series connection of element valves and cooling design were studied, providing the size and weight. (auth.)

  19. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  20. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  1. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  2. Opportunities to improve the private capital in Brazilian electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.A. de.

    1993-08-01

    The Brazilian electricity supply industry has passed substantial changes in the last fifty years. In the 50's was almost completely controlled by foreign companies. In the 70's, it turned to be almost exclusively ruled by Federal and State Enterprises. In the 80's the electricity supply sector started a financial and institutional crises. Some changes, already in course, indicate new changes of it for the next years. This study give emphasis to: the reasons that lead to a fast and well succeeded State intervention in the post-war; the multiple reasons of the recent crisis in sector, trying to insert it in the general context of the country; the alternative that have being formulated to overcome the obstacles created by the crisis; and the main factors for an efficient re-structure of the Brazilian electricity sector for the next years, included privatisation. (author)

  3. Analysis of electricity supply-demand balance scenarios for the winter of 2013-2014. A satisfactory situation, with a moderate risk of supply disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2013-2014

  4. Analysis of electricity supply-demand balance scenarios for the winter of 2012-2013. A satisfactory situation, with a moderate risk of supply disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2012-2013

  5. Forecast analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance in France during the summer of 2008. Supply-demand balance analysis during the summer of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the summer of 2008

  6. Modeling a clean energy standard for electricity: Policy design implications for emissions, supply, prices, and regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Anthony; Palmer, Karen; Woerman, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The electricity sector is responsible for roughly 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and a reduction in CO 2 emissions from electricity generation is an important component of the U.S. strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Toward that goal, several proposals for a clean energy standard (CES) have been put forth, including one espoused by the Obama administration that calls for 80% clean electricity by 2035 phased in from current levels of roughly 40%. This paper looks at the effects of such a policy on CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector, the mix of technologies used to supply electricity, electricity prices, and regional flows of clean energy credits. The CES leads to a 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions between 2013 and 2035 and results in dramatic reductions in generation from conventional coal. The policy also results in fairly modest increases on national electricity prices, but this masks a wide variety of effects across regions. - Highlights: ► We model a clean energy standard (CES) for electricity at 80% by 2035. ► We analyze effects on CO 2 emissions, investment, prices, and credit trading. ► 80% CES leads to 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions by 2035. ► Modest national average electricity price increase masks regional heterogeneity

  7. Households' willingness to pay for safeguarding security of natural gas supply in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damigos, D.; Tourkolias, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a major issue for all EU Member States due to Europe's increasing dependence on imported fossil-fuel sources and the continuous rise in energy demand. The latter is of particular importance in electricity sector given the continuously increasing use of gas for electricity generation. In order to properly tackle with the problem, concerted actions are required by the EU Member States in several levels, i.e. legislative, political, etc. Nevertheless, these actions will come at an additional cost paid by the society either through increased electricity bills or through public financing for energy security investments. Thus, such policies should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. Towards this direction, it may be necessary to take into account non-market costs and benefits, i.e. the value that consumers place on interruptions avoided. In order to explore households' perceptions and willingness to pay for securing gas supply for electricity production, an empirical study was conducted by means of the contingent valuation method. The results indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium on their electricity bills in order to internalize the external costs of electricity production, in terms of energy security, which are caused from imported fuels. (author)

  8. Increasing the reliability of electric energy supply to consumers in ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, Ioan; Hanes, Marian . E-mail electrica@romag.ro

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This work aims at achieving an analysis of time evolution of the status of electrical installations, their performances and reliability, at describing the refurbishment measures adopted, at assessing the efficiency of these measures and also to suggest solutions for improving the reliability in the electric energy supply of ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant. The analysis started from the original design, the manner the electrical installations were mounted, the technological level of this equipment and gives an evaluation of the deficiencies and the evolution of incidents occurred during the operation period. On the basis of the experience gathered one advances new items for equipment renewing and refurbishment of electric installations which together with the existing ones would ensure an electric energy supply more secure and efficient, leading directly to a more safe and efficient operation of the ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant. In this work the incidents of electric energy nature which occurred are analyzed, the equipment which generated events identified and measures to solve these problems proposed

  9. The electricity supply industry in England and Wales. Medium term development plan 1986-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The main objective of the Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales is to develop and maintain electricity supplies to meet customers' needs as cheaply as possible. Over the medium term, 1986 - 1993, the goal is to reduce the real average price per kWh sold, whilst maintaining high standards of service and meeting financial obligations. The strategy set out comprises reducing controllable costs per kWh sold to 1992/3, pursuing a vigorous and selective marketing strategy so that an expected sales increase of 10% is achieved, securing a long term supply of coal at minimum cost by developing the commercial relationship with British Coal, increasing the proportion of electrical energy supplied by nuclear energy to 25% by 1992/3 and being environmentally concerned. The introduction outlines the medium term business, energy and economic environment, financial targets and price prospects. Plans to support the strategy outlined are presented. Each section sets out the objectives and the plans to achieve these. The strategy for new power stations is to develop fossil-fueled and nuclear as well as to develop alternative technologies. (UK)

  10. Electricity supply and demand analysis in electric system of Uruguay 2000-2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article is about the following topics: energy analysis, production and use, supply and demand, energy consumption evolution, energy sources, energy demand by economic sector between years 2000-2007, energy range, energy growing rate, demanding maximum power, growing maximum rate, exported and imported energy.

  11. Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings over the next 5 yr, consideration has been given to competing sources of labor demands, including nuclear energy research and development activities, nuclear defense, and the total US economy, and to the likely supply of new graduates. In particular, over the last 3 yr, the number of degrees awarded and enrollments in nuclear engineering programs have declined 12 and 14%, respectively, and in health physics programs, 5 and 14%, respectively. For health physics and nuclear engineers, tight labor market conditions (i.e. labor supplies and demand balanced at relatively high salaries) are expected over the next 5 yr because of declining enrollments and slowly growing employment levels plus job replacement needs. The commercial nuclear power field is expected to face tight labor markets for electrical and materials engineers because of strong competing demands in the economy. Other engineering occupations are likely to have adequate supplies for the nuclear power field but at salaries that continue to be relatively higher than salaries for other professional occupations

  12. Supply amount and marginal price of renewable electricity under the renewables portfolio standard in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Kenichiro; Asano, Hiroshi [Central Research institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Socio-economic Research Center

    2006-10-15

    The Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in Japan requires that approximately 1.35% of each retail supplier's electricity sales in FY2010 come from renewable energy sources (RES), for example, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydropower. To help retail suppliers and renewable generators develop effective strategies, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the impact of this measure. We assume the supply conditions for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) based on regional resource endowments, and we derive the cost-effective compositions of renewable portfolios, RES-E certificate prices, and additional costs to retail suppliers. The future prospects of RES-E are assessed based on technology, region, and year up to FY2010. The analysis reveals that wind power and biomass power generated from municipal waste will provide the majority of the total supply of RES-E under the RPS. It also indicates that the marginal price of RES-E certificates will be approximately 5.8 JPY/kWh (5.2 USc/kWh) in FY2010, in the case wherein the marginal price of electricity is assumed to be 4 JPY/kWh (3.6 USc/kWh). In order to elaborate on this further, sensitivity analyses for some parameters of RES and the price of electricity are provided. The dynamic supply curves of RES-E certificates are also indicated. (author)

  13. Supply amount and marginal price of renewable electricity under the renewables portfolio standard in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Kenichiro; Asano, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in Japan requires that approximately 1.35% of each retail supplier's electricity sales in FY2010 come from renewable energy sources (RES), for example, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydropower. To help retail suppliers and renewable generators develop effective strategies, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the impact of this measure. We assume the supply conditions for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) based on regional resource endowments, and we derive the cost-effective compositions of renewable portfolios, RES-E certificate prices, and additional costs to retail suppliers. The future prospects of RES-E are assessed based on technology, region, and year up to FY2010. The analysis reveals that wind power and biomass power generated from municipal waste will provide the majority of the total supply of RES-E under the RPS. It also indicates that the marginal price of RES-E certificates will be approximately 5.8 JPY/kWh (5.2 USc/kWh) in FY2010, in the case wherein the marginal price of electricity is assumed to be 4 JPY/kWh (3.6 USc/kWh). In order to elaborate on this further, sensitivity analyses for some parameters of RES and the price of electricity are provided. The dynamic supply curves of RES-E certificates are also indicated

  14. ILK statement on sustainability - evaluation of nuclear energy and other electricity supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The electricity utility sector is of central importance for economic growth and societal development. While numerous societal and economic benefits arise from electricity consumption, its production can also have impacts which may not be fully and unanimously reconciled with the concept of sustainability. Consideration of sustainability issues plays an increasingly important role in decisions affecting the current and future energy supply. Judgements on the sustainability of specific electricity supply options are, however, mostly made in an ad hoc manner, and are susceptible to bias and arbitrariness. The German Federal Government singles out nuclear energy in particular as not sustainable for the future and considers it in a fundamentally critical manner separately from the other options. The ILK's opinion is that all options of interest, including nuclear, need to be evaluated in a comparative perspective based on a systematic and comprehensive approach. Therefore, the ILK considered it worthwhile to investigate this matter in more detail and express its views in the form of the present statement. The ILK statement on sustainability takes into consideration the most relevant international and national developments. These form the background and input for the establishment of ILK's position. A limited scope comparative study on the sustainability of different electricity supply technologies under German conditions was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in order to demonstrate the applicability of a systematic approach and generate reasonably consistent results from which robust conclusions can be derived. (orig.) [de

  15. Supply amount and marginal price of renewable electricity under the renewables portfolio standard in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Kenichiro; Asano, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in Japan requires that approximately 1.35% of each retail supplier's electricity sales in FY2010 come from renewable energy sources (RES), for example, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydropower. To help retail suppliers and renewable generators develop effective strategies, this study provides a quantitative analysis of the impact of this measure. We assume the supply conditions for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) based on regional resource endowments, and we derive the cost-effective compositions of renewable portfolios, RES-E certificate prices, and additional costs to retail suppliers. The future prospects of RES-E are assessed based on technology, region, and year up to FY2010. The analysis reveals that wind power and biomass power generated from municipal waste will provide the majority of the total supply of RES-E under the RPS. It also indicates that the marginal price of RES-E certificates will be approximately 5.8 JPY/kWh (5.2 USc/kWh) in FY2010, in the case wherein the marginal price of electricity is assumed to be 4 JPY/kWh (3.6 USc/kWh). In order to elaborate on this further, sensitivity analyses for some parameters of RES and the price of electricity are provided. The dynamic supply curves of RES-E certificates are also indicated. (author)

  16. Advanced marine reactor MRX and application to nuclear barge supplying electricity and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Odano, Naoteru; Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Fukuhara, Yoshifumi; Ochiai, Masa-aki

    2000-01-01

    The basic design concept of an advanced marine reactor MRX has been established with adoption of several new technologies. The MRX is an integral-type PWR with 100 MWt aimed basically for use of ship propulsion. Adoption of a water-filled containment together with the integral type reactor makes the reactor light-weight and compact greatly. A engineered safety system is a simplified passive system, function of which is confirmed by the safety analysis. The MRX can be applied to an energy supply system of electricity and heat co-generation by installing it on a barge. Concept of a nuclear barge with the MRX of 334 MWt output is presented for use of supplying electricity, fresh water and hot water. Combined system of electric generation and desalination with the RO process can deliver variable output of electricity and fresh water according a demand. Latent heat of the exhausted steam from the turbine can be used effectively to raise the temperature of cold water as heat supply. (author)

  17. Life cycle analysis of energy supply infrastructure for conventional and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Alexandre; Alexandra Silva, Carla; Costa Neto, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Electric drive vehicle technologies are being considered as possible solutions to mitigate environmental problems and fossil fuels dependence. Several studies have used life cycle analysis technique, to assess energy use and CO 2 emissions, addressing fuels Well-to-Wheel life cycle or vehicle's materials Cradle-to-Grave. However, none has considered the required infrastructures for fuel supply. This study presents a methodology to evaluate energy use and CO 2 emissions from construction, maintenance and decommissioning of support infrastructures for electricity and fossil fuel supply of vehicles applied to Portugal case study. Using Global Warming Potential and Cumulative Energy Demand, three light-duty vehicle technologies were considered: Gasoline, Diesel and Electric. For fossil fuels, the extraction well, platform, refinery and refuelling stations were considered. For the Electric Vehicle, the Portuguese 2010 electric mix, grid and the foreseen charging point's network were studied. Obtained values were 0.6–1.5 gCO 2eq /km and 0.03–0.07 MJ eq /km for gasoline, 0.6–1.6 gCO 2eq /km and 0.02–0.06 MJ eq /km for diesel, 3.7–8.5 gCO 2eq /km and 0.06–0.17 MJ eq /km for EV. Monte Carlo technique was used for uncertainty analysis. We concluded that EV supply infrastructures are more carbon and energetic intensive. Contribution in overall vehicle LCA does not exceed 8%. - Highlights: ► ISO 14040 was applied to evaluate fuel supply infrastructures of ICE and EV. ► CED and GWP are used to assess the impact on WTW and CTG stages. ► EV chargers rate and ICE stations' lifetime influence uncertainty the most. ► EV facilities are more carbon and energetic intense than conventional fuels. ► Contribution of infrastructures in overall vehicle LCA does not exceed 8%.

  18. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliotis, Constantinos; Taibi, Emanuele; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Bazilian, Morgan; Welsch, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  19. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czisch, G.; Giebel, G.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  20. A Fuzzy Linear Programming Model for Improving Productivity of Electrical Energy in Potable Water Supply Facilities (Case study: Sistan Water Supply Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Baradaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important operational issues in urban drinking water production and distribution systems is to assign a plan for running hours of water supplying electric pumps. The cost of consuming electricity in these pumps allocates most of water and wastewater companies operational costs to itself which is dependent to their running hours. In this paper, meanwhile having a field study in Sistan rural water and wastewater company, the constraints for specifying electric pumps operational time in water supplying resources such as restrictions in fulfilling demand, supply potable water with suitable quality and uselessness of electric pumps have been identified. Due to uncertainty and fuzziness of the constraints, a linear programming model with fuzzy restrictions for determining electric pumps running hours per day is submitted with the aim to minimize electricity consumption and cost. After collecting and using required data for model, it proved that using the proposed model could reduce the costs of electrical energy and increase productivity up to 23 percent per month. The proposed mathematical fuzzy programming is able to specify electric pumps scheduling plan for water supply resources with the aim to reduce the costs of consuming energy.

  1. Decentralized supply of electricity is a favorable development. Analysis of system options and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, A.; Ros, J.; De Boer-Meulman, P.; In 't Groen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Decentralised electricity systems can provide a significant contribution to the development of environment-friendly techniques such as solar power and electric vehicles. However, there are also some obstacles and uncertainties. Not only does the balancing of supply and demand constitute an important challenge; the development of smart grids is also crucial to the improvement of reliability and system efficiency of the decentralized grids. Especially the distribution of investment costs is a decisive factor for the success rate of decentralized electricity systems. What is more, it is still uncertain whether an extensive decentralized system would have a higher score in cleanliness, affordability and reliability than a future central system. The system variants can be distinguished based on the deployment of six possible energy technologies for the future: PV (solar power), micro-CHP, small-scale wind energy in the built environment (urban wind), heat pumps, electric vehicles and air-conditioning. [nl

  2. A design of electric power supply system for gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harno Garnito; Enggar; Harjani; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihaharjo

    2010-01-01

    Reliability of electrical power system in Irradiator system is absolutely necessary during the life cycle. Electrical energy is used as the main supporting element for both Irradiator operation of mechanical system, lighting, as well as for instrumentation and control systems. The reliability of electrical power system in the system can be achieved by paying attention Irradiator safety, simplicity of operation, ease of maintenance and possible future development. Distribution network of the most commonly used is the Radial network system, for the simple and in accordance with the criteria demanded by a distribution system. In addition to the network system, to get the reliability of electric power supply system is the selection of equipment/materials that meet the standards, and the installation of which provide facilities for maintenance and repairs. (author)

  3. The changing role of the State in the expansion of electricity supply in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, Carlos; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J.; Barroso, Luiz A.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the history of the electricity industry, regulatory reform has been driven by the pursuit of tools able to create conditions that would favour infrastructure investment and, generally, to surmount the obstacles that hinder system expansion. This article addresses the interaction between regulatory schemes and electric power generation investment, with a review of the changing role of the State in the expansion of electricity supply in Latin America. It contains a critical assessment of changes in the regulatory framework since the outset of electric power market reform, describing the successive approaches to regulation adopted in the last three decades. The aim of this analysis is to help identify the key factors underlying the evolution of energy policies and to contribute to the formulation of a prospective view of the direction this evolution may reasonably be expected to take. (author)

  4. Use of small reactors as an alternative to supply electricity to Baja California Sur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Portes, E.; Ramirez, J. R.; Ortega, G.

    2016-09-01

    The state of Baja California Sur (Mexico) does not form part of the national interconnected electrical system of the country, reason why is local its electrical power supply; one of the alternatives to cover future demands is the use of gas-based combined cycles, which presents the additional problem of including a high price for gas transportation in its costs. In order to reduce total costs, including investment, fuels and operation and maintenance in the operation of the Baja California Sur state electricity system in the coming years, mainly due to the estimated natural gas cost order of $11.50 dollars per million BTU, a proposal is presented to reduce the costs of the electrical system by replacing the necessary combined cycles with the new Small Modular Reactor type nuclear reactors, this alternative is economically competitive. (Author)

  5. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility; Sicherheit der Elektrizitaetsversorgung. Das Spannungsfeld von Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  6. Solar electricity: An effective asset to supply urban loads in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Fabien Chidanand; Gopalan, Sundararaman

    2018-04-01

    While human population has been multiplied by four in the last hundred years, the world energy consumption was multiplied by ten. The common method of using fossil fuels to provide energy and electricity has dangerously disturbed nature's and climate's balance. It has become urgent and crucial to find sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to preserve a livable environment with unpolluted air and water. Renewable energy is the unique eco-friendly opportunity known today. The main challenge of using renewable energy is to ensure the constant balance of electricity demand and generation on the electrical grid. This paper investigates whether the solar electricity generation is correlated with the urban electricity consumption in hot climates. The solar generation and total consumption have been compared for three cities in Florida. The hourly solar generation has been found to be highly correlated with the consumption that occurs 6 h later, while the monthly solar generation is correlated with the monthly energy consumption. Producing 30% of the electricity using solar energy has been found to compensate partly for the monthly variation in the urban electricity demand. In addition, if 30% of the world electricity is produced using solar, global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 11.7% (14.6% for India). Thus, generating 30% solar electricity represents a valuable asset for urban areas situated in hot climates, reducing the need for electrical operating reserve, providing local supply with minimal transmission losses, but above all reducing the need for fossil fuel electricity and reducing global CO2 emission.

  7. Visible technologies, invisible organisations: An empirical study of public beliefs about electricity supply networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala

    2010-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions in the energy system poses significant challenges to electricity transmission and distribution networks. Whilst these challenges are as much social as economic or technical, to date few research studies have investigated public beliefs about electricity supply networks. This research aimed to address this gap by means of a nationally representative study of UK adults (n=1041), probing beliefs about how electricity reaches the home, responsibility for electricity supply, associations with the words 'National Grid', as well as beliefs about the planning of new infrastructure. Findings suggest that electricity networks are represented predominantly in terms of technologies rather than organisations, specifically in terms of familiar, visible components such as cables or wires, rather than more systemic concepts such as networks. Transmission and distribution network operators were largely invisible to members of the public. In terms of planning new lines, most respondents assumed that government ministers were involved in decision-making, while local residents were widely perceived to have little influence; moreover, there was strong public support for placing new power lines underground, regardless of the cost. In conclusion, organisational invisibility, coupled with low expectations of participatory involvement, could provoke public opposition and delay siting new network infrastructure.

  8. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, R.; Hope, C.

    2006-01-01

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. A Bayesian inference approach to unveil supply curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitridati, Lesia Marie-Jeanne Mariane; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    in the literature on modeling this uncertainty. In this study we introduce a Bayesian inference approach to reveal the aggregate supply curve in a day-ahead electricity market. The proposed algorithm relies on Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Sequential Monte Carlo methods. The major appeal of this approach......With increased competition in wholesale electricity markets, the need for new decision-making tools for strategic producers has arisen. Optimal bidding strategies have traditionally been modeled as stochastic profit maximization problems. However, for producers with non-negligible market power...

  10. Policies and strategies for meeting emission abatement targets in the UK electricity supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyte, W S [Powergen, Solihull (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    A new electricity industry structure was created in the UK on 31 March 1990 and this was launched into the private sector during 1990/91. This structure differs considerably from the public corporations that preceeded it. Public awareness of the environment has grown during this period and the newly privatised electricity supply industry is having to implement new pollution controls. Legislation increasingly comes from the European Commission and is interpreted by HM Inspectorate of Pollution having regard to Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC). Issues of particular importance include acid rain, and global warming - especially CO{sub 2} reduction. 3 figs.

  11. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  12. Generation adequacy report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2012 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After an introduction presenting the objective of this report and the method used for the forecasts, this document proposes, first, an analysis of the medium-term evolution of: 1 - electricity consumption (past trends, medium-term perspectives, medium-term consumption scenarios); 2 - electricity supply (nuclear production, centralised and decentralised production from fossil-fueled power plants, hydro-power, wind-power and photovoltaic production, peak-load management); 3 - supply and demand balance (probabilistic approach, reference scenario, scenario sensitivity with respect to the demand). Then it presents the long-term determining factors (socio-economic context, energy efficiency, energy mix, interconnected grids development) and the long-term prospective scenarios (medium- and strong-consumption, new-mix, low growth). Finally, a summary and a comparison with the 2011 report is made

  13. Electricity supply for remote places in the Danube Delta using non-conventional sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaides, E.P.

    1993-06-01

    The results of the theoretical studies and experiments performed by the author during the last years, the testing of the technical solutions based on PV and wind turbines, are the premises which allow the start of a new project regarding the electricity supply for remote places in the Danube Delta using non-conventional sources of energy. The aim of the project is to supply electricity to remote places such as: schools, medical centers, telecommunications, data logging equipment for floods preventing. The technical solutions envisage the design of a hybrid systems based on PVs and WTs. The paper emphasizes the elements of progress, the general concept of the design and is looking forward to raise the interest of other research teams which might take part into such project. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  15. Rotational hysteresis and eddy current losses in electrical motor stators under non-conventional supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottauscio, Oriano.; Canova, Aldo; Chiampi, Mario; Repetto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic analysis of stators of electrical motors is performed through an innovative 2D finite element formulation that takes into account the effects of eddy currents within the laminations by means of a generalized constitutive relationship also including vector hysteresis. This approach is applied to a deep estimation of magnetic flux distribution and magnetic losses in stator of induction motors supplied by high-frequency sinusoidal or six-step voltage sources

  16. Environmental implications of decarbonising electricity supply in large economies: The case of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo-Castelazo, Edgar; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle impacts of decarbonising electricity supply in Mexico estimated. • Eleven scenarios considered to 2050 with different technologies and GHG targets. • Continuing with business as usual would double current life cycle GHG emissions. • Life cycle impacts can be reduced by 80% with increased renewables, nuclear and CCS. • Demand reduction important but on its own cannot help achieve Mexican GHG targets. - Abstract: Driven by the security of supply and climate change concerns, decarbonisation of energy supply has become a priority for many countries. This study focuses on Mexico, the world’s 14th largest economy, and considers the environmental implications of decarbonising its electricity supply. Eleven scenarios are considered for the year 2050 with different technology mixes and GHG reduction targets, ranging from stabilisation at the year 2000 level to a reduction of 60–85%. Unlike most energy scenario analyses which focus mainly on direct CO 2 or GHG emissions, this paper presents the full life cycle impacts of electricity generation in 2050 considering ten environmental impacts which, in addition to global warming, include resource and ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, summer smog, human and eco-toxicity. The results indicate that continuing with business as usual (BAU) would double the current life cycle GHG emissions, even if annual electricity demand growth was reduced to 2.25% from the current 2.8%. Switching from the current fossil fuel mix to a higher contribution of renewables (55–86%) and nuclear power (up to 30%) would lead to a significant reduction of all ten life cycle impacts compared to the current situation and up to an 80% reduction compared to BAU

  17. Generation adequacy report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2015 edition + executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    France's new energy transition law for green growth takes effect in 2015, and it will support RTE in its task of assessing and analysing security of electricity supply. Indeed, RTE is required by law to periodically publish Generation Adequacy Reports on the balance between electricity supply and demand. This year's report will be used in security of supply analyses conducted as part of the planning of the next multi-annual energy program. Another highlight of 2015 is the operational implementation of the capacity mechanism. Electricity suppliers now have to contribute to security of supply in proportion to their customers' consumption via a new obligation-based system. The 2015 Generation Adequacy Report was prepared within this context. The supply-demand balance outlook is considerably better over the entire medium-term horizon than in the 2014 Generation Adequacy Report. This is a result of generators' recent decisions to keep oil-fired and combined-cycle gas plants in the market. Included in the possible courses of action RTE identified in its previous Generation Adequacy Report, these decisions were taken just as the capacity mechanism was being implemented operationally. A downward revision of demand assumptions has also improved the security of supply outlook. The 2015 Generation Adequacy Report paints a much more favourable picture of the supply-demand balance over the next five years than the previous edition. Significant margins are foreseen during the next two winters. This year's Generation Adequacy Report also includes detailed assumptions about the evolution of the European mix, which will play an increasingly important role in guaranteeing security of supply in France. Indeed, interconnections will help reduce the shortfall risk by 8 to 10 GW over the next five winters. Lastly, a new chapter about flexibility requirements and the variability of residual demand associated with the growing share of renewable generation in the

  18. The integrated North American electricity market : a bi-national model for securing a reliable supply of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2004-03-01

    The 50 million people who experienced the power blackout on August 14, 2003 in southern Ontario and the U.S. Midwest and Northeast understood how vital electricity is in our day-to-day lives, but they also saw the resiliency of the North American electricity system. More than 65 per cent of the power generation was restored to service within 12 hours and no damage was caused to the generation or transmission facilities. Although the interconnected North American electricity system is among the most reliable in the world, it is threatened by an aging infrastructure, lack of new generation and transmission to meet demand, and growing regulatory pressures. This report suggests that any measures that respond to the threat of ongoing reliability should be bi-national in scope due to the interconnected nature of the system. Currently, the market, regulatory and administrative systems are different in each country. The full engagement and cooperation of both Canada and the United States is important to ensure future cross-border trade and power reliability. The Canadian Electricity Association proposes the following 7 measures: (1) support an open debate on all the supply options available to meet growing power demands, (2) promote bi-national cooperation in the construction of new transmission capacity to ensure a reliable continental electricity system, (3) examine opportunities for bi-national cooperation for investment in advanced transmission technologies and transmission research and development, (4) promote new generation technology and demand-side measures to relieve existing transmission constraints and reduce the need for new transmission facilities, (5) endorse a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the electricity industry, (6) coordinate measures to promote critical infrastructure protection, and (7) harmonize U.S. and Canadian efforts to streamline or clarify regulation of electricity

  19. Reliability of supply in competitive electricity markets: The Nordic electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the current regulation and performance of the network utilities with respect to the reliability of supply across Europe in general indicates wide variation. On the regional level the situation in the Nordic market is no exception. Can the variation in reliability of supply in Nordic region be explained by differences in regulatory frameworks in the Nordic countries and is it possible to draw any best practice lessons for other countries and regions? The Norwegian regulation and performance with respect to reliability criterion is encouraging, however it must be emphasized that the Norwegian experience with reliability regulation in its current form covers a period of 3 years, a period that is too short to evaluate the Norwegian model. A closer examination of the Norwegian model reveals dynamic trade off in reliability performance, which if permanent may endanger the reliability of supply in the long-run. Last, but not the least important is the criterion that choice of regulation should be based on a careful social cost-benefit analysis of the regulatory model where both cost incurred by the regulatory agencies and the compliance costs incurred by the regulated utilities are included. A preliminary analysis of regulatory agencies in the Nordic market indicates that Norwegian model of network regulation is quite resource incentive. While it is premature to draw conclusions about the national regulatory mechanisms, the Nordic cross border regulation through voluntary arrangements under the auspices of NORDEL provides a good example of an arrangement that is useful when implementation of a formal regulatory regime across different jurisdiction is not possible

  20. The Study for Optimizing of the Electricity Power Supply in Central Java Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdinie, Sc S; Sudi-Ariyanto; Edi-Sartono; Suprapto; Nuryanti

    2004-01-01

    Electricity planning includes identification of electricity generation potential and problem where solution are being planned through the annual program. Due to correlation between electricity growth and economic growth, the sensitivity study for Central Java province has been done using three scenarios of annual electricity growth, i.e.: 6.7 %, 8 % and 10 % within the study period of 2003-2020. The tool used in this sensitivity study is WASP IV. From result the calculation gives total installed capacity in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 3960 MW, 5500 MW and 8620 MW respectively. Total produced energy in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 32301 G Wh, 39619 G Wh and 54374 G Wh. For total fuel required. Coal still predominate in all scenarios, followed by HSD and Gas. According to this study, Nuclear power plant can be introduced in 2020 for scenario of 8 % growth and 2017 for that of 10 % growth. WASP is utilized for projecting electricity supply. (author)

  1. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Adequacy of supply standards for the electricity market: from obligations to informal market signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werven, Michiel J.N. van; Nooij, Michiel de; Scheepers, Martin J.J.

    2005-06-01

    The adequacy of supply standard is ultimately based on a loss of load probability in combination with assumptions about the extent to which the national system can count on assistance of adjoining electricity supply systems during times of shortages. It can be used to calculate the required generation capacity in an ex-ante market analysis using different future scenarios. This standard in combination with monitoring of (future) market developments on the basis of several market indicators, can give a signal to market participants with respect to the expected adequacy of supply in the longer term. Market participants are informed about the actual and expected future status of adequacy of supply in the market. It is, however, very important that the assessment and the resulting signal should not be used by the government to intervene in the market, but only to improve market transparency and assist producers, suppliers, and consumers in their decisions towards an effective and efficient response on long-term market developments. Specific policy measures based on the monitoring results could provoke strategic behaviour of market participants. The signalising standard might be a powerful instrument in helping to solve the generation adequacy problem. This solution can be seen as a compromise between options that fully rely on an optimal response by the free electricity market and options where governments take the full responsibility

  3. Evaluation of Control and Protection System for Loss of Electrical Power Supply System of Water-Cooling Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Djen Djen; Setyono; Jambiar, Riswan; Rozali, Bang; Setyo P, Dwi; Tjahyono, Hendro

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of control and protection system for loss of electrical power supply system of water-cooled nuclear power plant has been done. The loss of electrical power supply. The accident covered the loss of external electrical load and loss of ac power to the station auxiliaries. It is analysed by studying and observing the mechanism of electrical power system and mechanism of related control and protection system. The are two condition used in the evaluation i e without turbine trip and with turbine trip. From the evaluation it is concluded that the control and protection system can handled the failure caused by the loss of electrical power system

  4. The potential contribution of renewable energy to electricity supply in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnatheer, Othman

    2005-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has enormous oil resources. At the same time, the Kingdom has other resources, notably solar energy that may figure in future supplies of electricity. In the past several years, considerable operational experience has been gained throughout the world in the implementation of renewable energy systems of types that would be relevant to the Kingdom. This paper reviews the nature of this experience and applies it in a quantitative assessment of the costs, savings, and environmental benefits of renewable energy conducted as a part of an electric utility integrated resource planning (IRP) project in the Kingdom. Integrated resource planning is an approach that systematically evaluates potential electricity supply and demand-side resources with the aim of developing a plan that provides energy services to customers at the least societal cost. The analysis summarized in this paper has shown that, when some of the non-market benefits of renewable energy are also included in the assessment of their overall costs and benefits, a supply expansion plan that includes wind and solar resources can provide energy services for the Kingdom at a lower societal cost than a 'Business-as-usual' plan utilizing only fossil-fueled generating resources

  5. Modeling sustainable long-term electricity supply-demand in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Nadia S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is one of the first detailed and complete representation of the African power system. • It models, within LEAP, possible future paths for the regional power systems. • All the end-users and supply side activities and actors are considered. • Three scenarios are examined: the baseline, the renewable energy, and the energy efficiency. • The energy efficiency scenario has allowed to draw a sustainable pathway for electrification. - Abstract: This paper develops a scenario-based model to identify and provide an array of electricity demand in Africa, and to derive them from the African power system of development. A system-based approach is performed by applying the scenario methodology developed by Schwartz in the context of the energy-economic modeling platform ‘Long-range Energy Alternative Planning’. Four scenarios are investigated. The Business as Usual scenario (BAU) replicates the regional and national Master Plans. The renewable-promotion scenario increases the share of renewable energy in the electricity mix. The demand and supply side efficiency scenarios investigate the impact of energy efficiency measures on the power system. The results show an increase in electricity demand by 4% by 2040, supply shortages and high emissions of Greenhouse Gases. Contrary to expectations, the renewable energy scenario did not emerge as the best solution to a sustainable electrification of the region. The energy efficiency scenarios have allowed us to draw a sustainable pathway for electrification.

  6. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  7. Impact Of Secondary-Primary Pumps Operating Sequence On The Electrical Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Rusdiyanto; Kiswanto

    2001-01-01

    The operating procedure of the reactor cooling system has decided that the primary cooling pump should be operated before secondary cooling pump as known primary-secondary pumps operating sequence. This decision is based on consideration that starting current of the primary pump is higher than secondary pump. Therefore, the primary-secondary pumps operating sequence can avoid the power supply system failure. However, this operating procedure has to take a consequence that in case of primary pump failure, the shutdown time period of the reaktor to be longer caused to re operate the primary pump has required that the running secondary pump should be shutted off. To solve this problem, an impact analysis of the secondary-primary pumps operating sequence on the electric power supply system was carried out to identify the revision possibility of the cooling pump operating procedure. The analysis by discussion of the measuring results of the secondary and primary pump starting current related to another electrical loads has been measured. From discussion it can be concluded that secondary-primary pumps operating sequence has no impact to failure in electric power supply system

  8. A look forward to the competitive landscape of Ontario's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The government of Ontario is a shareholder in Ontario Hydro and is responsible for ensuring that the public receives electricity service at the lowest, most prudent price. The current monopoly arrangement provides Ontario with a revenue stream that is predictable and amenable to control. However, the emerging restructuring of Ontario's electricity supply system will be strongly dependent on the direction determined by government policy. Other factors that will have significant influence on developments will be the restructuring initiatives outside the province, and the attractiveness of the electricity sector to investors. In November 1997, Ontario released a white paper by the Minister of Energy, Science and Technology, entitled 'Direction for change'. This document is a preliminary statement of potential policy regarding electricity restructuring in Ontario. Some of the key elements of the White Paper were: (1) the creation of a competitive market in the year 2000 for both wholesale and retail customers, (2) separating monopoly operations from competitive business activities throughout the electricity sector, (3) expanding the role on the Ontario Energy Board to give it regulatory power over the electricity sector, and (4) introducing measures to ensure environmental protection. Three other relevant reports were also released in December 1997: (1) Report of the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Nuclear Affairs, (2) Ontario Energy Board Advisory Report on Legislative Change Requirements for Natural Gas Deregulation, and (3) Report of the Toronto Transition Team. The government policy indicated by these various reports appear to represent a careful balance of many conflicting interests and obligations. According to expert observers, the emerging policy appears to have the necessary technical, financial and political support to ensure a successful competitive electricity supply system in Ontario. 4 refs

  9. The Impact of Intermittent Renewable Production and Market Coupling on the Convergence of French and German Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Le Pen, Yannick; Phan, Sebastien; Boureau, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    constitutes such an event. However, also wind production is highly auto-correlated and tends to have a significant impact during a limited number of hours during the year. When the production of variable renewables with low variable costs is high, German exports tend to saturate interconnections thus causing price convergence to cease and French-German electricity prices to diverge. The primary objective of this article is to assess the impact of electricity production from variable renewables on the differential of French and German day-ahead electricity prices on the basis of five years of hourly price data in the EPEX Spot day-ahead market as well as hourly data of nuclear, wind and solar production. In addition, this article explores also the continuing impact of market coupling by confronting this empirical assessment of the Franco-German day-ahead market in the presence of the existing market coupling with a counter-factual scenario that assesses the evolution of the spread between French and German electricity prices with the observed levels of renewable production but under the assumption of the absence of market-coupling. By determining the difference in consumer surplus between the observed and the counter-factual scenario we measure in fact the benefit of market coupling and are able to show that market coupling mechanism mitigated the negative impact of the massive build-up on renewable capacity in Germany on price spreads and consumer surplus since 2011. This article thus assesses both the impact of both, electricity production by variable renewable energies and of market coupling on price spreads, consumer surplus and welfare. The structure of the article is as follow. Section 2 provides some general background and a review of the literature. Section 3 presents a number of descriptive statistics about the evolution of the French-German price spread before and after market coupling. Section 4 presents the available data and introduces the ELIX concept. Section 5

  10. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  11. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Richard Barney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  12. The Use of Statistically Based Rolling Supply Curves for Electricity Market Analysis: A Preliminary Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Larson, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ben [U.S. Department of Energy; Spitsen, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-03-27

    In light of the changing electricity resource mixes across the United States, an important question in electricity modeling is how additions and retirements of generation, including additions in variable renewable energy (VRE) generation could impact markets by changing hourly wholesale energy prices. Instead of using resource-intensive production cost models (PCMs) or building and using simple generator supply curves, this analysis uses a 'top-down' approach based on regression analysis of hourly historical energy and load data to estimate the impact of supply changes on wholesale electricity prices, provided the changes are not so substantial that they fundamentally alter the market and dispatch-order driven behavior of non-retiring units. The rolling supply curve (RSC) method used in this report estimates the shape of the supply curve that fits historical hourly price and load data for given time intervals, such as two-weeks, and then repeats this on a rolling basis through the year. These supply curves can then be modified on an hourly basis to reflect the impact of generation retirements or additions, including VRE and then reapplied to the same load data to estimate the change in hourly electricity price. The choice of duration over which these RSCs are estimated has a significant impact on goodness of fit. For example, in PJM in 2015, moving from fitting one curve per year to 26 rolling two-week supply curves improves the standard error of the regression from 16 dollars/MWh to 6 dollars/MWh and the R-squared of the estimate from 0.48 to 0.76. We illustrate the potential use and value of the RSC method by estimating wholesale price effects under various generator retirement and addition scenarios, and we discuss potential limits of the technique, some of which are inherent. The ability to do this type of analysis is important to a wide range of market participants and other stakeholders, and it may have a role in complementing use of or providing

  13. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  14. Clean coal technology choices relating to the future supply and demand of electricity in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The finalization of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has catalysed a high degree of debate and interest in the future of coal-fired power generation. Fossil fuel combustion is responsible for a significant percentage of pollutants emitted globally, and coal will continue to play a major role in the energy portfolios of many countries. This is particularly true for developing countries. This fact has resulted in a major focus on technologies which improve the efficiency of coal combustion and conversion to electrical energy, as well as technologies which directly of indirectly reduce overall emissions. The issues around clean coal technologies (CCT) and their evolution, development and uptake in both developed and developing countries are complex. This paper addresses these issues in a Southern African context, viewed from the policy perspective of developing countries and presented in a framework of electricity supply and demand considerations in the region. The principal climate change policy elements proposed for South Africa are presented in the context of the current electricity supply and demand situation in the region. These are presented in the context of Eskom's Integrated Electricity Planning (IEP) process including the environmental considerations inherent in decision-making processes. The potential future of the CCT, barriers to their introduction and potential measures to facilitate their accelerated adoption are discussed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Electric system management through hydrogen production - A market driven approach in the French context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Dautremont, S.; Thais, F.; Louyrette, J.; Martin, J.; Albou, S.; Barbieri, G.; Collignon, N.; Bourasseau, C.; Salasc, B.; Valentin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon transportation, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a development is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors among which methanol production. Methanol can be produced by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen, hence facilitating carbon dioxide emission mitigation while providing a beneficial tool to manage the electric system, if hydrogen is produced by alkaline electrolysis operated in a variable way driven by the spot and balancing electricity markets. Such a concept is promoted by the VItESSE project (Industrial and Energy value of CO 2 through Efficient use of CO 2 -free electricity - Electricity Network System Control and Electricity Storage). Through the proposed market driven approach, hydrogen production offers a possibility to help managing the electric system, together with an opportunity to reduce hydrogen production costs. (authors)

  16. Ending address at the congress of the french gas association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an abstract of the subjects discussed during the congress of the french gas association. It concerns the gas market opening effects on the gas industry, the new regulations in this process of liberalization. Another part is devoted to the Government energy policy in the domain of the energy supply, the greenhouse effect gases fight, the electric power production non concerned by the renewable energies and the competitiveness of the french enterprises in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Security of supply on the electricity market. Report of a working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The shift from a regulated electricity market to open competitive electricity markets has been fast in Finland. Finland together with Sweden, Norway and partly also Denmark form a common market area where the internal trade in electricity has markedly increased. Partly as a result of this, the share of net import in our electricity consumption has increased. The low price level on the Nordic market has contributed to an increased import of electricity to Finland. The generally clearly increased production of hydroelectric power together with the functioning principles of the Nordic electricity exchange have lead to a situation where the competitive position of indigenous electricity, especially that from condensing power, has become more difficult. In Finland, several condensing power plants have, accordingly, been closed and the trend seems to continue. Similar development has taken place also in Sweden and Denmark. In the current market situation, the decisions upon investment in the construction of new power plants have further been postponed until later. Because the economic interest of the market players in maintaining slow reserve capacity has been reduced in the current market situation, there is concern whether the market is able to guarantee the security of electricity supply in all circumstances with varying demand taking also account of possible long-term malfunction of power plants or disturbances in the import of electricity or gas. Sweden and Norway are besides Finland net importers of electricity in normal hydrological years. Of the Nordic countries, only Denmark is able to balance the Nordic demand for electricity in case of a poor hydrological year. The price level on the electricity market is expected to remain low still for years. Building new capacity during the coming few years seems unlikely in all Nordic countries. The increased consumption of electricity as a result of economic growth and the reduction in capacity will however lead to a

  18. Mortality in the cohort of nuclear workers of the French electricity company: 1968-2003 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Hubert, D.; Garcier, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Background: We conducted a mortality study on a cohort of French nuclear workers employed at Electricite de France (EDF). A first mortality analysis relied on the period 1968-1994. Present results consider an updated mortality analysis including 9 additional years of follow-up and rely on the period 1968-2003. Methods: The cohort includes 22,393 workers, 96% of them are males. Employment data were updated using Personnel EDF file. Vital status was ascertained using the French National Registry of individual identification, and further completed using EDF personnel and pension files. Causes of death were obtained through the National file of causes of death. The observed mortality was compared with national rates by indirect standardisation and expressed by Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMR). All causes, all cancers and external causes SMRs were detailed according to sex, age and calendar year. Variations according to date of entry into cohort, duration of employment and socio-economic status (SES) were studied. Comparison with the earlier follow-up is presented. Results: At the present study end point (31/12/2003), 74% of workers are still in active service. Only 0.3% of workers are lost to follow up. The total number of person-years is nearly 450,000. Causes were ascertained for 96 % of deaths. The total number of deaths is 874: 307 are cancer deaths, including 16 leukaemia. SMRs for all causes of death and all cancers show a significant deficit compared to the French national mortality. Significant variations of all causes and all cancers SMRs according to SES were observed. No significant excess compared to French national mortality was observed for any of the 30 different cancer sites studied. Borderline significant excess were observed however for pancreatic, pleural, kidney and brain cancer. SMR for leukaemia is equal to unity. Conclusion: There is a clear evidence for an effect of selection of healthy individuals into the workforce. Although 9

  19. Security of supply in liberated electricity markets - key issues and experiences in OECD countries (work in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridbaek, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    Security of supply of electricity could in principle refer to any parts of the value chain from fuel input to delivery of electricity to the final costumer with the expected quality. Concerns about security of supply are usually focused on three aspects: Timely and adequate supply of the input fuel for electricity generation is a prerequisite - security of energy supply. There has to be timely and adequate infrastructure in place to transform the input fuel into electricity and transport it to the final costumer - adequacy of generation and transmission capacity. Finally, it is an operational challenge to make the electricity system work and deliver at the expected quality - secure operation of the electricity system. Security of supply becomes relevant in a policy context from concerns about market failures in any parts of the value chain or, indeed, from the perspective that policy will set the framework for markets to serve as an instrument to secure the supply. This paper discusses some of the experiences with security of supply concerns and market failures in these three basic segments of the value chain; fuel input, adequate generation and transmission capacity and secure operation of the system, with an emphasis on the role of the market to serve as an efficient instrument. In the aftermath of the large black outs of electricity systems in North America, Italy and Sweden/Denmark IEA initiated a project on 'Transmission Reliability and Power System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets'. The results of this work will be published towards the end of 2005. After a decade with liberalised electricity markets in some pioneer regions, IEA now also finds it timely to analyse some of the lessons in a forthcoming publication. Recent and ongoing IEA-work thereby covers all the main aspects of security of supply. This paper summarises the key findings and messages, with a focus on the work in progress on lessons from liberalisation

  20. Sustainability Of Electricity Supply Technologies under German Conditions: A Comparative Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Burgherr, P.; Schenler, W.; Bauer, C.

    2004-12-01

    On behalf of the International Committee on Nuclear Technology (ILK) the Paul Scherrer Institut carried out a comparative study addressing the sustainability of electricity supply technologies operating under German-specific conditions. The general objective of this analysis was to provide a support for the formulation of ILK position on the sustainability of various electricity supply technologies, with special emphasis on nuclear energy. The evaluation covers selected current fossil, nuclear and renewable technologies, which are representative for the average conditions in Germany. Two methods of indicator aggregation were employed, i.e. estimation of total (internal and extemal) costs and Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Use of MCDA is motivated by acknowledgement of the role of value judgements in decision-making. Both total costs and MCDA-based technology-specific total scores are useful comparative indicators of sustainability. Sustainability perspective implies a balanced (equal) importance assignment to economic, ecological and social aspects. In summary, this study provides a framework for systematic evaluation of sustainability of energy systems. Refinements of the methodology and specific indicators are feasible. Options for future applications include direct involvement of stakeholders, and evaluations of future technologies and of supply scenarios combining the various candidate technologies. Tools supporting such analyses have been developed by PSI and can be adjusted to the needs of country-specific applications. (author)

  1. A demand/supply and price outlook for electricity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined electricity pricing issues for both the immediate future as well as over the long term. The near term outlook resources for the summer of 2004 were reviewed. Intermediate critical supply and demand issues were projected with consideration given to the return of the Pickering A plant and coal phase out. In the long term, it was considered that pricing and demand would reflect conservation issues and demand side response, as well as the timing of Requests For Proposals (RFPs) and the phase out of coal-fired capacity. The impact of the coal phase-out in Ontario was examined, with particular reference to timing and market structure implications. Potential conservation impacts were presented and projected Ontario supply/demand balances were evaluated. The challenges facing the new market structure include pricing dynamics and a reliance on RFPs. The significance of specifying diversity objectives was also discussed. It was concluded that the Ontario Ministry of Energy should play a role in establishing targets for conservation, renewable energy and the overall supply of electricity. Rigorous analysis is necessary before specifying targets in terms of hydroelectric and nuclear generation as opposed to non-fossil generation. tabs., figs

  2. Markov switching of the electricity supply curve and power prices dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Carlo; Cananà, Lucianna

    2012-02-01

    Regime-switching models seem to well capture the main features of power prices behavior in deregulated markets. In a recent paper, we have proposed an equilibrium methodology to derive electricity prices dynamics from the interplay between supply and demand in a stochastic environment. In particular, assuming that the supply function is described by a power law where the exponent is a two-state strictly positive Markov process, we derived a regime switching dynamics of power prices in which regime switches are induced by transitions between Markov states. In this paper, we provide a dynamical model to describe the random behavior of power prices where the only non-Brownian component of the motion is endogenously introduced by Markov transitions in the exponent of the electricity supply curve. In this context, the stochastic process driving the switching mechanism becomes observable, and we will show that the non-Brownian component of the dynamics induced by transitions from Markov states is responsible for jumps and spikes of very high magnitude. The empirical analysis performed on three Australian markets confirms that the proposed approach seems quite flexible and capable of incorporating the main features of power prices time-series, thus reproducing the first four moments of log-returns empirical distributions in a satisfactory way.

  3. Policies and means to assess and improve service quality in electricity supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Noferi, P.L.; Sani, G.

    1992-03-01

    Quality of electricity supply to users consists of a series of characteristics of the voltage at the points of delivery. This report shows how service quality, in the past basically related to the tolerance of voltage and frequency with respect to the nominal value, as well as, to the continuity of supply, is nowadays assessed also in relation to other aspects, generally referred to as disturbances. Short interruptions, voltage dips, transient overvoltages, harmonics and flicker are mainly taken into consideration. A description is given of the approach adopted by ENEL (the Italian Electricity Board) in order to evaluate and, if required, improve the quality of service, based upon the acquisition of data related to faults, interruptions and disturbances. These data are processed in order to obtain significant indices on the state of the network and on the effectiveness of the actions which can be implemented. Finally, the measures which may lead to an improvement in the quality of service are identified, and potential advantages, in terms of the reduction of non-supplied energy and number of faults, of adopting appropriate automatic devices and optimizing maintenance work on some distribution networks are illustrated

  4. Electricity and long term supply security. Search for power market respectful legal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Pignon, V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, also published in 'ISMEA Economie et Societe' Journal (Energy series 2006, no.10), deals with theoretical aspects of long term electricity supply security. Market prices and contractual arrangements on the physical and financial electricity markets do not allow to create sufficient incentives to invest in adequate capacity for guaranteeing the appropriate level of supply in every circumstance. The long term security of supply by capacity adequacy must be conceptualized as a collective good. Alternative solutions to reach capacity adequacy which have been adopted in different markets are successively considered: public procurement of strategic reserves, capacity payment, capacity obligation with exchangeable rights. Each one presents theoretical limits and practical drawbacks when implemented in complex markets. That brings out the interest of mechanism of centralized auctions for forward capacity contracts (or reliability options); it combines controls by quantity and by price while stabilizing investment in peak power plants and is compatible with energy and reserves markets, that is not the case of the three other instruments. (authors)

  5. Optimal grid design and logistic planning for wind and biomass based renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Atif; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the grid design and optimal allocation of wind and biomass resources for renewable electricity supply chains under uncertainties is studied. Due to wind intermittency, generation of wind electricity is not uniform and cannot be counted on to be readily available to meet the demand. Biomass represents a type of stored energy and is the only renewable resource that can be used for producing biofuels and generating electricity whenever required. However, amount of biomass resources are finite and might not be sufficient to meet the demand for electricity and biofuels. Potential of wind and biomass resources is therefore jointly analyzed for electricity generation. Policies are proposed and evaluated for optimal allocation of finite biomass resources for electricity generation. A stochastic programming model is proposed that optimally balances the electricity demand across the available supply from wind and biomass resources under uncertainties in wind speed and electricity sale price. A case study set in the American Midwest is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by determining the optimal decisions for generation and transmission of renewable electricity. Sensitivity analysis shows that level of subsidy for renewable electricity production has a major impact on the decisions. - Highlights: • Stochastic optimization model for wind/biomass renewable electricity supply chain. • Multiple uncertainties in wind speeds and electricity sale price. • Proposed stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model under uncertainties. • Uncertainty affects grid connectivity and allocation of power generation capacity. • Location of wind farms is found to be insensitive to the stochastic environment

  6. US electric industry response to carbon constraint: a life-cycle assessment of supply side alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Denholm, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the boundaries of electric industry fuel switching in response to US carbon constraints. A ternary model quantifies how supply side compliance alternatives would change under increasingly stringent climate policies and continued growth in electricity use. Under the White House Climate Change Initiative, greenhouse gas emissions may increase and little or no change in fuel-mix is necessary. As expected, the more significant carbon reductions proposed under the Kyoto Protocol (1990--7% levels) and Climate Stewardship Act (CSA) (1990 levels) require an increase of some combination of renewable, nuclear, or natural gas generated electricity. The current trend of natural gas power plant construction warrants the investigation of this technology as a sustainable carbon-mitigating measure. A detailed life-cycle assessment shows that significant greenhouse gas emissions occur upstream of the natural gas power plant, primarily during fuel-cycle operations. Accounting for the entire life-cycle increases the base emission rate for combined-cycle natural gas power by 22%. Two carbon-mitigating strategies are tested using life-cycle emission rates developed for US electricity generation. Relying solely on new natural gas plants for CSA compliance would require a 600% increase in natural gas generated electricity and almost complete displacement of coal from the fuel mix. In contrast, a 240% increase in nuclear or renewable resources meets the same target with minimal coal displacement. This study further demonstrates how neglecting life-cycle emissions, in particular those occurring upstream of the natural gas power plant, may cause erroneous assessment of supply side compliance alternatives

  7. Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.

  8. Environment protection in the electric power supply of China. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Naihu; Chen Heng

    1994-01-01

    In the course of its reformatory opening policy during the last years, the economy of China has developed very rapidly. However, this strong economic growth led to serious deficits in the electric power supply. The growth rate of the gross national product was generally higher than that of electric power production during this period. Great efforts were made in China to solve this problem. Numerous new thermal power plants were constructed. These were exclusively fueled by coal, as gas and oil production is limited in China and these raw materials are exported or used by the industry. In the past the spheres of energy politics and ecopolitics in China were largely separate. Increasing pressure from within, as a consequence of growing pollution, and demands from outside to comply with international pollutant emission standards are leading to an integration of environment protection in China's energy policies. The present article describes how China copes with the contradicting demands of its economic plight and environment protection and how it is responding to international demands. Besides this it relates the situation of and future prospects for environment protection in China's electric power supply. (orig.) [de

  9. Impact of innovation programs on development of energy system: Case of Iranian electricity-supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Ehsan; Saboohi, Yadollah; Ghofrani, Mohammad B.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents further experiments with an extended version of a comprehensive model for assessment of energy technologies and research and development (R and D) planning to evaluate the impact of innovation programs on development of Iranian electricity-supply system. This analytical instrument is a model of energy R and D resource allocation with an explicit perspective of developing countries which has been linked to a bottom-up energy-systems model. Three emerging electricity generation technologies of solar PV, wind turbine and gas fuel cell are considered in the model and the impact of innovation programs on cost-reducing innovation for them is examined. The main results provided by the modeling approach include optimal allocation of R and D resources, induced capacity expansion policies to guarantee the effectiveness of R and D activities, competitive cost of emerging technologies, impact of innovation programs on optimal structure of electricity-supply system and benefits of innovation programs in the long-run.

  10. Policy and network regulation for the integration of distribution generation and renewables for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-08-01

    This study has analysed the existing policy and regulation aimed at the integration of an increased share of Distributed Generation (DG) in electricity supply systems in the European Union. It illustrates the state of the art and progress in the development of support mechanisms and network regulation for large-scale integration of DG. Through a benchmark study a systematic comparison has been made of different DG support schemes and distribution network regulation in EU Member States to a predefined standard, the level playing field. This level playing field has been defined as the situation where energy markets, policy and regulation provide neutral incentives to central versus distributed generation, which results in an economically more efficient electricity supply to the consumer. In current regulation and policy a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy support systems in a number of countries, the medium to long term targets and the ideal situation described according to the level playing field objective. Policies towards DG and RES are now mainly aimed at removing short-term barriers, increasing the production share of DG/RES, but often ignoring the more complex barriers of integrating DG/RES that is created by the economic network regulation in current electricity markets

  11. Safety aspects of electric energy production and supplies in conditions of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sip, M.; Danilak, M. et al.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with safety aspects of electric energy production and supplies in conditions of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. Some terrorist attack and accidents are presented. Four video-sequences are included

  12. Bio-energies usages in electricity generation utility means through a modeling approach: an application to the French case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cadre, Elodie; Lantz, Frederic; Farnoosh, Arash

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of renewable energies target and CO 2 emissions trading systems make the investment decision more difficult and add an additional flow of expenditure for electricity producers. This challenge represents a double advantage for biomass, which is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, whose use in thermal coal can now reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Whereas renewable energy sources (RES-E) are now supported by various economic tools such as feed-in tariffs and call for tender, the use of biomass is also enhanced by the CO 2 emission price. However, the price evolution of emission allowance is uncertain. Taking into account these incentives, the scope of this work is to study the penetration of green electricity production from biomass and its impacts on the future electricity generation mix for France incorporating different scenarios of emission allowance prices. While the use of the power plant is organized according to their growing running costs in the short-term approach, in the long- term approach capacity expansion planning should be determined by using several optimization methods. So, we develop a model based on a linear dynamic programming approach for supporting the electricity generation management in which renewable energies, climate and energy policies are modeled. We apply the model to the French power market under consideration of the neighboring countries. We present the results of the initialization and the electricity price and production tests. Then the expected demands of fuel over 2020 are presented for di rent CO 2 prices as an example to illustrate how the model can be put to use in different contexts. (authors)

  13. Technical and economic studies of small reactors for supply of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.

    1977-02-01

    Several years ago conventional opinion held that nuclear power plants must be very large to be competitive with fossil fuels. This situation has changed markedly in most countries within recent years, as oil and gas supplies have become more scarce and costly. Studies have been carried out for several nuclear steam supply systems in the small and intermediate size range. Detail studies are reported of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG), a 365 MW(th) pressurized water reactor being developed by Babcock and Wilcox, as applied to industrial energy needs. Both conventional and barge-mounted nuclear steam supply systems are considered. Conceptual studies have been started of pressurized and boiling water reactors in the range of 1000 MW(th), which are envisioned for utility operation for supply of electric power and steam. Design studies of a 500 MW(th) high temperature reactor are also reported. The small reactors are expected to have higher unit costs than the large commercial plants, but to have compensating advantages in higher plant availability, shorter construction schedule, and greater siting flexibility. Studies are also reported of power cycle parameters and cost allocations for extraction of steam from steam turbine plants. This steam could be used for industrial energy, district heating, or desalination

  14. Technical and economic studies of small reactors for supply of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several years ago conventional opinion held that nuclear power plants must be very large to be competitive with fossil fuels. This situation has changed markedly in most countries within recent years, as oil and gas supplies have become more scarce and costly. Studies have been carried out of several nuclear steam supply systems in the small and intermediate size range. Detail studies are reported of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG), a 313 MW(t) pressurized water reactor being developed by Babcock and Wilcox, as applied to industrial energy needs. Both conventional and barge-mounted nuclear steam supply systems are considered. Conceptual studies have been started of pressurized and boiling water reactors in the range of 1000 MW(t), which are envisioned for utility operation for supply of electric power and steam. Design studies of a 500 MW(t) high temperature reactor are also reported. The small reactors are expected to have higher unit costs than the large commercial plants, but to have compensating advantages in higher plant availability, shorter construction schedule and greater siting flexibility. Studies are also reported of power cycle parameters and cost allocations for extraction of steam from steam turbine plants. This steam could be used for industrial energy, district heating or desalination

  15. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  16. Technical and economic studies of small reactors for supply of electricity and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several years ago conventional opinion held that nuclear power plants must be very large to be competitive with fossil fuels. This situation has changed markedly in most countries within recent years, as oil and gas supplies have become more scarce and costly. Studies have been carried out of several nuclear steam supply systems in the small and intermediate size range. Detail studies are reported of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG), a 313MW(th) pressurized water reactor being developed by Babcock and Wilcox, as applied to industrial energy needs. Both conventional and barge-mounted nuclear steam supply systems are considered. Conceptual studies have been started of pressurized and boiling water reactors in the range of 1000MW(th), which are envisioned for utility operation for supply of electric power and steam. Design studies of a 500MW(th) high temperature reactor are also reported. The small reactors are expected to have higher unit costs than the large commercial plants, but to have compensating advantages in higher plant availability, shorter construction schedule and greater siting flexibility. Studies are also reported of power cycle parameters and cost allocations for extraction of steam from steam turbine plants. This steam could be used for industrial energy, district heating or desalination. (author)

  17. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  18. Increasing the reliability of electricity supply of industrial enterprises for the account of application of a quick-running redundant power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vertugin A.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks to be performed when organizing the operation of the energy system is to ensure high-quality and uninterrupted power supply to consumers. Dips, interruptions and voltage surges of the electrical network are the most common causes of malfunctions in industrial plants and damage to household equipment, causing significant economic damage to both consumers and electricity suppliers.

  19. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Taliotis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  20. Stability of electric characteristics of solar cells for continuous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells working in hostile working conditions. Examined cells, produced by different innovative procedures, are available in the market. The goal was to investigate stability of electric characteristics of solar cells, which are used today in photovoltaic solar modules for charging rechargeable batteries which, coupled with batteries, supply various electronic systems such as radio repeaters on mountains tops, airplanes, mobile communication stations and other remote facilities. Charging of rechargeable batteries requires up to 25 % higher voltage compared to nominal output voltage of the battery. This paper presents results of research of solar cells, which also apply to cases in which continuous power supply is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 171007

  1. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  2. The electricity supply-demand balance for the winter of 2014-2015. Press kit - November 7, 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2014-2015

  3. Summer 2011 forecast analysis. Forecast analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance in France for the summer of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the summer of 2011

  4. The Green Stamp in Power Supply Contracts - A proposal for the Brazilian Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrocio, Joao Paulo

    2010-09-15

    The insertion of a certification mechanism for discriminatory energy supply contracts aiming to make it possible to contract exclusively clean and renewable energy is presented. With the increasing interest for sustainability and carbon emissions reduction, there's a growing demand for clean energy reflected in people's choices for cleaner products. Electricity in a power grid, however, is result of a set of sources or plants, and its operation or dispatch. A proposal for clean energy contracts is presented, providing the market and the clients with the ability to choose to buy exclusively renewable energy through the grid.

  5. The effects of competitive electricity supply in the UK on metering equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, A.

    1996-01-01

    Requirements for metering of competitive supply, following privatisation of the UK Electricity Industry in 1989, have driven the design of metering equipment in a way which was not foreseen at that time. Metering equipment used for implementing the competitive market so far has been designed to new uniform national specifications and has used commercially available communications systems to automatically collect data. In order to implement full competition down to the domestic level as from 1998, a new approach is thought to be necessary. The major influences on meter design, equipment now being used, are described, future equipment and communications options, are considered. (author)

  6. A feasible reform for the electricity supply industry in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.; Wang, J.H.; Engriwan, W.; Lo, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    With the current scheme of control regulation for the Hong Kong electricity supply industry expiring in 2008, the Government has sent out a consultation paper seeking views from the general public on its reform and possible future development. This paper investigates the characteristics of the current agreement and the rationale for feasible reform of the Hong Kong ESI. It leads to a discussion on a proposed feasible reform using performance-based regulation approach modeling and the associated implementation issues related to price capping, risk analysis, performance indices, quality monitoring and governance

  7. Supply adequacy in electricity markets based on hydro systems-the Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz da Silva, Edson

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the practical perspective for introducing the deregulation model in systems with a strong predominance of hydroelectric generation, such as the Brazilian electricity system. In order to do this, the article describes the process of establishing short-term prices in systems with such characteristics, concluding that this economic signal is inefficient for stimulating a sustained generation expansion. As a result of this analysis, the article proposes, as a regulatory policy, a competitive process of energy contracting that favors the making of decisions with long-term horizons, ensuring the adequacy of supply, and, additionally, permitting a satisfactory management of market risk by generation and distribution companies. (author)

  8. Effect of a pulsed power supply on the spectral and electrical characteristics of HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chammam, Abdeljelil; Elloumi, Hatem; Mrabet, Brahim; Charrada, Kamel; Stambouli, Mongi; Damelincourt, Jean Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed power operated high intensity discharges (HIDs). This investigation is related to the application of a pulsed power supply for pile driving of HID lamps. Specifically, we are interested in controlling the spectral response radiation of visible and ultraviolet (UV) lines for tertiary treatment of water using UV radiation. Simulations based on a physical model of the lamps were conducted. These results relate to the radial temperature, line intensity and electrical properties (voltage, power and conductivity). Good agreement has been found between the results of the simulations and the experimental findings

  9. Expert systems for analysis and management assistance of nuclear reactor electrical power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Souchet, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical power supplies of nuclear plants are very complex systems. They are studied in many ways: failure consequences, probabilistic risk assessement, failure diagnosis, corrective actions in case of incident ... Knowledge base technology (expert systems) is very suited to solve these problems. A common structural representation can generate specific functional representations; thus we get coherency and easy evolution. This paper shows a two facet methodology: the plant description (both static and dynamic) and reasoning about it. Current applications are developed for pressurized water reactors and gas cooled reactors, using the SPIRAL expert system shell buil at CEA [fr

  10. The electricity supply industry in Germany: market power or power of the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.; Keller, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the electricity supply industry in Germany, which was liberalized in April 1998. Noticeable aspects are the eligibility of all end-users, the lack of constraints on the vertical industry structure and the option for negotiated third party access. There is no sector-specific regulation. This paper argues that the vertically integrated firms concentrate on excessive network access charges, whereas the stages generation and retail appear to be relatively competitive. Empirical evidence suggests that in Germany network access charges make up a significantly higher share of end-user prices than in the UK, which is used as regulation-benchmark. (author)

  11. Tariffs on power supply and prices of electricity per 1st January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The document gives a survey of the most usual types of tariffs connected with the Danish electric-power distribution companies and the prices, valid per January 1st, 1994, set by individual companies and also the cost to consumers of connection to the supply network. A survey of prices set by power plant administrators with regard to the distribution companies is also included in addition to a summary of the modes of calculation in connection with wind turbines not owned by the electricity companies and descriptions of models for calculations related to decentral and industrial plants. Local conditions such as structure, economy etc. must be taken into consideration when comparing prices set by companies in several different areas. (AB)

  12. A Comparative Study of Power Supply Architectures In Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Bryan

    Wireless inductive power transfer is a transformational and disruptive technology that enables the reliable and efficient transfer of electrical power over large air gaps for a host of unique applications. One such application that is now gaining much momentum worldwide is the wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis examines two of the primary power supply topologies being predominantly used for EV charging, namely the SLC and the LCL resonant full bridge inverter topologies. The study of both of these topologies is presented in the context of designing a 3 kW, primary side controlled, wireless EV charger with nominal operating parameters of 30 kHz centre frequency and range of coupling in the neighborhood of .18-.26. A comparison of both topologies is made in terms of their complexity, cost, efficiency, and power quality. The aim of the study is to determine which topology is better for wireless EV charging.

  13. Natural graphite demand and supply - Implications for electric vehicle battery requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald W.; Virta, Robert L.; Mahdavi, Mahbood; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Fortier, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been promoted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lessen U.S. dependence on petroleum for transportation. Growth in U.S. sales of electric vehicles has been hindered by technical difficulties and the high cost of the lithium-ion batteries used to power many electric vehicles (more than 50% of the vehicle cost). Groundbreaking has begun for a lithium-ion battery factory in Nevada that, at capacity, could manufacture enough batteries to power 500,000 electric vehicles of various types and provide economies of scale to reduce the cost of batteries. Currently, primary synthetic graphite derived from petroleum coke is used in the anode of most lithium-ion batteries. An alternate may be the use of natural flake graphite, which would result in estimated graphite cost reductions of more than US$400 per vehicle at 2013 prices. Most natural flake graphite is sourced from China, the world's leading graphite producer. Sourcing natural flake graphite from deposits in North America could reduce raw material transportation costs and, given China's growing internal demand for flake graphite for its industries and ongoing environmental, labor, and mining issues, may ensure a more reliable and environmentally conscious supply of graphite. North America has flake graphite resources, and Canada is currently a producer, but most new mining projects in the United States require more than 10 yr to reach production, and demand could exceed supplies of flake graphite. Natural flake graphite may serve only to supplement synthetic graphite, at least for the short-term outlook.

  14. Combined installation of electric and heat supply for climatic conditions of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisi, Osama Al; Sidenkov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    Electricity, heating and cooling are the three main components that make up the energy consumption base in residential, commercial and public buildings around the world. Demand for energy and fuel costs are constantly growing. Combined cooling, heating and power generation or trigeneration can be a promising solution to such a problem, providing an efficient, reliable, flexible, competitive and less harmful alternative to existing heat and cold supply systems. In this paper, scheme of the tri-generation plant on non-aqueous working substances is considered as an installation of a locally centralized electro-heat and cold supply of a typical residential house in a hot climate. The scheme of the combined installation of electro-heat (cold) supply consisted of the vapor power plant and heat pump system on low-boiling working substance for local consumers under the climatic conditions of Iraq is presented. The possibility of using different working substances in the thermodynamic cycles of these units, which will provide better efficiency of such tri-generation systems is shown. The calculations of steam turbine cycles and heat pump part on the selected working substances are conducted. It is proposed to use heat exchangers of plate type as the main exchangers in the combined processing. The developed method of thermal-hydraulic calculation of heat exchangers implemented in MathCad, which allows to evaluate the efficiency of plants of this type using the ε - NTU method. For the selected working substances of the steam part the optimal temperature of heat supply to the steam generator is determined. The results of thermodynamic and technical-economic analysis of the application of various working substances in the “organic” Rankine cycle of the steam turbine unit and the heat pump system of the heat and cold supply system are presented.

  15. Consequences and Policy Implications for Society, of Disturbances in Electricity Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooij, Michiel de; Bijvoet, Carlijn; Koopmans, Carl

    2005-06-01

    In this paper the welfare costs of a supply interruption are estimated using the production function approach. The main findings are as follows. First, the costs vary much between sectors, regions and over the week. The damage of an interruption on Sundays at daytime is about 10 percent of the damage during weekdays. Second, welfare losses of households are as important as the lost value added in firms. On weekdays during the day the value added of firms is larger than the value of lost leisure, while in the evening the cost of supply interruption is largest for households. Households should therefore get adequate attention in decisions about supply security. Within businesses, an interruption leads to far larger damage in the service sector than in manufacturing. Third, the welfare costs of supply interruptions strongly depend on how scarce electricity and scarce investments are allocated across sectors or regions. One way to minimize the total cost is to invest relatively much in the four largest cities of the Netherlands. Fourth, high prices causing welfare transfers are not a social cost: the gain of the suppliers of electricity equals the additional cost for the buyers of electricity. However, the transfers can be so large that they become important in policy. These high prices are related to problems with production, while there the price will (most likely) not rise due to a failure in the network. Fifth, the cost of an interruption is far larger than the value of the electricity not delivered. The costs of a one hour interruption are about Euro 159 million (during the week on daytime), while the money paid for the electricity used during that period would be only Euro 3 million. Sixth, decisions on investments in networks and production, and the (possible) rationing of scarce electricity should be made while taking the economic effects into account. Giving households and the service sector priority over manufacturing reduces the damage of interruptions

  16. ANN-based wavelet analysis for predicting electrical signal from photovoltaic power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Medea Univ., Medea (Algeria). Inst. of Science Engineering, Dept. of Electronics

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to predict different electrical signals from a photovoltaic power supply system (PVPS) using an artificial neural networks (ANN) with wavelet analysis. It involved the creation of a database of electrical signals (PV-generator current, voltage, battery current voltage, regulator current and voltage) obtained from an experimental PVPS system installed in the south of Algeria. The potential applications were for sizing and analyzing the performance of PVPS systems; control of maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to deliver the maximum energy from the PV-array; prediction of the optimal configuration (PV-array and battery sizing) of PVPS systems; expert configuration of PV-systems; faults diagnosis; supervision; and, control and monitoring. First, based on the wavelet analysis each electrical signal was mapped in several time frequency domains. The PV-system was then divided into 3-subsystems corresponding to ANN-PV generator model, ANN-battery model, and ANN-regulator model. An example of day-by-day prediction for each electrical signal was presented. The results of the proposed approach were in good agreement with experimental results. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed approach was more satisfactory when only ANN was used. It was concluded that this methodology offers the possibility of developing a new expert configuration of PVPS by implementing the soft computing ANN-wavelet program with a digital signal processing (DSP) circuit. 26 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Xiaoyu, Yan; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO 2,e )/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO 2,e /MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO 2,e /MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. (author)

  18. A hybrid PV-battery/diesel electricity supply on Peucang island: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Günther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies are currently under a dynamic cost development. This case holds especially for solar technology that has reached price levels that were unimaginable until a short time ago. It also holds for battery technologies the application of which is related to the increasing usage of photovoltaic energy converters and the growing interest in electric vehicles. With the decreasing prices more and more possible application cases of renewable energy technologies become economically viable. A case study was done for a location on a small island located on the west tip of Java. The levelized electricity cost of a hybrid electricity supply system composed of a solar generator and battery in combination with the existing diesel generators was compared to the electricity generation cost of the existing system. Two different battery options were taken into account, lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The results of this study can give a rough orientation also for other locations with similar characteristics.

  19. Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xiaoyu, Yan [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiliang [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO{sub 2,e})/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO{sub 2,e}/MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO{sub 2,e}/MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. (author)

  20. Social Corporate Responsibility regarding Household Consumer Satisfaction with the Electric Power Supply Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Georgescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the practical manifestation of corporate social responsibility towards consumers is highly important to the socio-economic reality in Romania. The present paper is the result of an investigation carried out in this field and it is distinguished by two aspects. The first aspect is its target audience used for research - household consumers of electricity, who can be called "vulnerable", captive consumers. The second aspect is the specificity of the electricity market. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between corporate social responsibility, instantiated by the quality of services provided by S.C. Electrica S.A. – Electrica Distribution and Supply South Transylvania and the consumers' loyalty towards the company, in case other electricity suppliers emerge. A subsidiary aspect was the generation of a database having an impact on customer retention. We have carried out some quantitative research, based on the survey method, having a sample of 521 household consumers from the Mures County. The study we carried out proves that consumer satisfaction, their degree of satisfaction under different aspects, is a way of gaining their trust on this particular market. Those consumers with a higher degree of trust in the company are more loyal. This will result in reducing migration to another electricity supplier, in the future, when all household consumers become eligible.

  1. Aspirations and expectations: public views on electricity supply in Ontario, Canada. Paper no. IGEC-1-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: irowland@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Parker, P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: pparker@fes.uwaterloo.ca

    2005-07-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that electricity is a key public policy issue. No longer the domain of monopoly players shielded from public scrutiny, the growing restructuring of electricity supply systems around the world has increased public involvement in electricity decisions. Accordingly, it is becoming more and more important for policy-makers to have a clear understanding of their citizens' priorities regarding electricity supply issues. This paper examines public attitudes in a major Canadian metropolitan area (Waterloo Region) by analysing the results of over 1,000 surveys on a range of energy and environment issues. Regarding the present arrangements for electricity supply in Ontario, most respondents were not able to identify the resource most used (nuclear power), but instead thought that the resource that has the longest history in the province's electricity system (hydropower) dominated the supply system. Regarding future resource options, while respondents clearly expressed their preference for green electricity, particularly the so-called 'new' renewables (solar and wind power), respondents also felt that the prospects for more traditional resources - particularly, nuclear, hydropower and natural gas - remained higher. Further analyses reveal that two demographic factors (gender and age) and three attitudinal factors (perceived consumer effectiveness, liberalism and ecological concern) help predict those likely to be more optimistic and/or enthusiastic about green electricity. While the empirical material in this paper is taken from the Canadian province of Ontario, key conclusions and broader lessons are more widely applicable. Every community undergoing electricity restructuring of any kind is forced to consider public views to a greater extent. Indeed, prospects for greater use of green electricity in electricity supply systems are contingent upon a greater understanding of citizen views of the same. (author)

  2. Aspirations and expectations: public views on electricity supply in Ontario, Canada. Paper no. IGEC-1-038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.; Parker, P.

    2005-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that electricity is a key public policy issue. No longer the domain of monopoly players shielded from public scrutiny, the growing restructuring of electricity supply systems around the world has increased public involvement in electricity decisions. Accordingly, it is becoming more and more important for policy-makers to have a clear understanding of their citizens' priorities regarding electricity supply issues. This paper examines public attitudes in a major Canadian metropolitan area (Waterloo Region) by analysing the results of over 1,000 surveys on a range of energy and environment issues. Regarding the present arrangements for electricity supply in Ontario, most respondents were not able to identify the resource most used (nuclear power), but instead thought that the resource that has the longest history in the province's electricity system (hydropower) dominated the supply system. Regarding future resource options, while respondents clearly expressed their preference for green electricity, particularly the so-called 'new' renewables (solar and wind power), respondents also felt that the prospects for more traditional resources - particularly, nuclear, hydropower and natural gas - remained higher. Further analyses reveal that two demographic factors (gender and age) and three attitudinal factors (perceived consumer effectiveness, liberalism and ecological concern) help predict those likely to be more optimistic and/or enthusiastic about green electricity. While the empirical material in this paper is taken from the Canadian province of Ontario, key conclusions and broader lessons are more widely applicable. Every community undergoing electricity restructuring of any kind is forced to consider public views to a greater extent. Indeed, prospects for greater use of green electricity in electricity supply systems are contingent upon a greater understanding of citizen views of the same. (author)

  3. Ecology, Economy and Security of Supply of the Dutch Electricity Supply System : A Scenario Based Future Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rödel, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch electricity sector has been transformed into a liberalized international energy market. Market players are free to choose from various electricity generation options when replacing or expanding production capacity. However, choices that are made now will influence emissions (ecology),

  4. SAInt – A novel quasi-dynamic model for assessing security of supply in coupled gas and electricity transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Cakir Erdener, Burcin; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into existing electric power systems is connected with an increased interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks. To analyse this interdependence and its impact on security of supply, we developed a novel quasi-dynamic

  5. Seventh report of the ten on the Swiss electrical economy: endangered supply in the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The seventh report of the ten major companies in the Swiss electric industry is discussed. The report predicts that, even with the addition of the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station, there will be a deficit in the supply of electricity compared with demand of some 4 milliards kWh by the winter of 2004/2005

  6. Climate Change Impacts on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States: A Multi-Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper compares the climate change impacts on U.S. electricity demand and supply from three models: the Integrated Planning Model (IPM), the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, and GCAM. Rising temperatures cause an appreciable net increase in electricity demand....

  7. Terms of transactions monitoring on the French wholesale electricity and gas markets. Public consultation. Synthesis of contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In its communication dated 16 April 2008, CRE published its practical methods used to monitor transactions concluded on the French electricity and gas markets. CRE invited any companies to comment on the practical arrangements of such monitoring activities. The monitoring system described by CRE is divided into two steps. In the first step, CRE wants to be able to request any information concerning transactions for physical delivery concluded after 1 January 2007. CRE will make an initial request that will focus on: - for electricity: transactions concluded in 2007 on yearly products for delivery in 2008 and 2009, base-load and peak-load; - for gas: transactions concluded in 2007 on seasonal and yearly products for delivery in 2008 and 2009, base-load and peak-load. The second step, based on feedback received, will see CRE liaise with market players and consider the possibility of setting up systematic procedures to gather transactions data. A final decision will be made by the end of 2008. 17 contributors responded to the public consultation. The remarks made on the practical methods used to gather data can be summarized along the following themes: Preamble: the monitoring principle; Theme 1: scope of transactions monitoring; Theme 2: content and format of requested data; Theme 3: procedures, transmission deadlines and confidentiality issues; Theme 4: stage II of systematic data gathering

  8. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 5, analysis and appraisal of Swiss electricity supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rits, V.; Kirchner, A.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews various possibilities for meeting future electricity demands in Switzerland. The effects of these options on total economic costs, the environment and security of supply are described and discussed. The study was carried out quantitatively for the most part and then supplemented in a qualitative manner. The methodical approach to this comprehensive study is discussed. The present situation is noted and possible options for the period up to 2050 are discussed. Electricity supplies from hydropower, nuclear energy, fossil-powered generation and combined heat and power are looked at, as is energy from waste incineration plants and renewable sources of energy. Four energy scenarios are discussed, including the variants 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. For certain scenarios, sub-variants are presented and discussed. The scenarios and their variants are then compared with respect to their costs, options for covering possible shortages, technological potentials, emissions, wastes and the need for imports. The authors present their conclusions. The report is completed with an appendix

  9. Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters and Power Supplies for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Thomas M.

    1994-07-01

    Development of D+3He Fusion Electric Thrusters (FET) and Power Supplies (FPS) should occur at a lunar base because of the following: availability of helium-3, a vacuum better than on Earth, low K in shade reachable by radiant cooling, supply of ``high temp'' superconducting ceramic-metals, and a low G environment. The early FET will be much smaller than an Apollo engine, with specific impulse of 10,000-100,000-s. Solar power and low G will aid early development. To counter the effect of low G on humans, centrifuges will be employed for sleeping and resting. Work will be done by telerobotic view control. The FPS will be of comparable size, and will generate power mainly by having replaceable rectennas, resonant to the fusion synchrotron radiation. FPSs are used for house keeping power and initiating superconduction. Spaceships will carry up to ten FETs and two FPSs. In addition to fusion fuel, the FET will inject H or Li low mass propellant into the fusion chamber. Developing an FET would be difficult on Earth. FET spaceships will park between missions in L1, and an FET Bus will fetch humans/supplies from Moon and Earth. Someday FETs, with rocket assist, will lift spaceships from Earth, and make space travel to planets far cheaper, faster, and safer, than at present. Too long a delay due to the space station, or the huge cost of getting into space by current means, will damage the morale of the space program.

  10. Security of supply in competitive electricity markets: The Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in the absence of a complete set of markets or under conditions of monopoly and imperfect competition, optimal provision of quality can not be taken for granted. Market set in the restructured electricity markets is not complete, physical networks per definition are natural monopolies, market-power issues are yet to be resolved, not all the services supplied through the restructured frameworks are private goods and risk of government intervention is high during the times when market prices signal shortages. Sole reliance on the energy-only markets for optimal provision of security of supply under such conditions is mistaken. On the other hand, centralization of decisions for provision of reserve capacity, such as the gas-reserve capacity proposal in the Norwegian system is not an efficient substitute for missing or imperfect markets. The solution lies in the design of permanent market-mechanisms that enhance the ability of energy-only markets to handle the medium and long-term security of supply. A carefully designed reserve energy certificates mechanism is a viable alternative in this context. (Author)

  11. Report of the French Energy Regulator on electricity interconnection management and use in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report aims at, first, evaluating the congestion management methods in force at interconnected power systems managed by the French transmission system operator RTE as required by article 1.10 of the guidelines of 1228/2003 European regulation which foresees that: 'the national regulation authorities regularly evaluates the congestion management methods, in particular by controlling the respect of rules and principles established by the European regulation, and of trends, modalities and conditions fixed by the regulation authorities according to the above principles and rules'. It aims also at sharing the opinions of the commission of energy regulation (CRE) with other European regulating authorities and with all stakeholders involved in the domestic power market, about the management and use of European power interconnections in 2006. Content: 1 - 2005-2006, the turning point for congestion management; 2 - consequences of 2055-2006 changes in interconnections with Germany, Belgium, Spain and Italy; 3 - further improvements still required: allocation system, capacity bids, short-term trades, capacity management in compliance with European law; 4 - conclusion: an indispensable regional approach. (J.S.)

  12. New remuneration models for electricity supply from autoproducers: Cost-orientated, including capacity charge, on a private-enterprise basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zybell, G.

    1995-01-01

    Co-operation between industrial autoproducers and the public utilities has a long tradition in Germany. This is particularly the case in combined heat and power generation. In 1993 electricity supplied by third parties contributed with approximately 14% to electricity demand coverage. This is (as in Italy) the next highest proportion in the EU. In 1994 the industry's associations -BDI, VIK and VDEW - agreed upon new remuneration models for electricity supplied by combined heat and power stations and plants on the basis of renewable energies. Additionally, principles agreed upon in 1979 were further developed. (orig.) [de

  13. Wind blows where (and when) it wants: an analysis of the French electricity production, September-December 2010 - preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document analyses the set of data published on the RTE web site and concerning the electricity production and consumption in France from September to December 2010. Having a closer look to the wind energy production, it notably shows that, as expected, all steerable means of production play a coordinated role in covering the required power needs. The analysis of the wind energy power shows a 23 pc average efficiency which is associated to the strong fluctuations which are typical for this type of intermittent production. It notices that time and energy distributions of wind energy power supplied to the network are not related to increased electricity needs during this autumn period which is marked by several cold waves

  14. Electric power balance sheet 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2013: stabilisation of the electricity consumption in France, high level of hydropower generation, fast evolution of the European power network, electricity markets in a transition situation, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  15. Electric power supply I. AC systems, performance, economics. 3. rev. ed.; Elektrische Energieversorgung I. Drehstromsysteme, Leistungen, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, Gerhard [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Since the beginning of its large-scale use, the electrical energy holds a key position in the process of sustainable energy development. The engineer now works with computers to the greatest possible extent. However, the results using powerful hardware and software are of little value when the specialist cannot interpret these results and implement these results in decisions. From this perspective, the author of the book under consideration reports on the fundamental aspects of the electrical energy supply. Thus, the main topics of this book are: (1) Construction of electric power supply systems; (2) Fundamentals of alternating current technology; (3) Transformations for three-phase systems; (4) Performance in electric power systems; (5) Economic power supply.

  16. Energy supply and urban planning projects: Analysing tensions around district heating provision in a French eco-district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillet, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of energy supply choices, this article explores the way in which energy priorities and their climate-related features are incorporated into urban public policy. These choices must take account of different factors, as is the case with district heating, which is justified as a vehicle of renewable energy while subject to pressure in eco-districts because its techno-economic balances are destabilised by falls in demand. Our study focuses particularly on the city of Metz (France), which has chosen district heating as the primary source for provision for the municipal area and for its first eco-district. We analyse the tensions within these choices, with particular attention to the way in which they are negotiated inside municipal departments and with the local energy operator. This enables us to explore the tensions in defining the scale that governs decisions and the linkages between energy-related and urban priorities. - Highlights: • Analyses of tensions in the choice of energy supplies for eco-districts. •District heating networks can be vehicles of renewable energy. • District heating networks are threatened by drops in energy consumption. • Energy supply issues oppose urban planning and energy policy in municipal departments. • Technical and financial adjustments can be made by the municipality to justify its energy choices

  17. DAMES. A datafile for the macro-emissions of the Dutch electricity supply in 1995, 1998, 2010, 2020, and 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijsen, A.; Spakman, J.

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the datafile DAMES (Dutch abbreviation for Database Macro-emissions of the Electricity Sector). DAMES offers an overall view of the Netherlands' electricity supply and it's attendant emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2. It incorporates results from different sources: (1) monitoring reports on production and emissions from central power plants, (2) an electricity supply model for future years and (3) a database with actual and future emission factors. In DAMES, the electricity supply has been divided into contributions from: central production (electricity produced by companies producing electricity as core business), decentralized production (electricity produced by companies producing electricity as by-product) and the import balance. Within these three 'subsectors', DAMES calculates production and emissions on the level of installation types. For combined heat and power production (CHP-installations), DAMES allocates a distinct fraction of the total emissions to the produced electricity. DAMES calculates aggregated emissions per kWh, an indicator that is often used in calculations on effectiveness measures. Furthermore, DAMES has an advantage over previous used instruments that it gives an integral overview of the effect of the fuel-mix, CHP, imports and the part of sustainable energy sources. DAMES has been applied on the years 1995/1998 and the future years 2010, 2020 and 2030. For the future years, prognoses have been used from two different scenarios of the CPB (Dutch Central Planning Bureau). These scenarios are called Global Competition and European Coordination. 18 refs

  18. Issues - III. Renewable energies and financial issues - The organisation of a renewable energy sector: the supply in wood-fuel in Auvergne; profitable ecology: which incentive financial and tax tools in favour of renewable energies?; the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production: a precarious support mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, Laurence; Taverne, Marie; Guerra, Fabien; Rouge, Sandra; Gelas, Helene

    2012-01-01

    A first article reports the results of an investigation of the organisation of wood-fuel supply in the French region of Auvergne (presentation of the supply chain analysis, use of the transaction cost theory, factors affecting organisational choices within supply chains). The second article presents and comments the various incentive financial and tax measures in favour of renewable energies (State tax incentives for companies and for individuals, local incentives, and financial incentives). The third article outlines the precarious legal character of the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production, as well as the precarious will of the Government regarding this mandatory purchase

  19. The French market of electrical equipment and installation. Control over energy consumption, environmental law and new markets to be conquered draw perspectives for the sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at identifying the size and dynamics of the French industry of electrical equipment and installation, at comparing financial performance of equipment manufacturers and of installation major companies, at analysing strategies developed by operators to take benefit of growth opportunities in the field of energy efficiency, at identifying new markets to be conquered, and at anticipating capitalistic evolutions. Fifteen companies are presented and analysed within this perspective: ABB, Alstom, Areva, ETDE, General Electric, GDF Suez, the Energy pole of Eiffage, Legrand, Nexans, Rexel, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Sonepar, Spie, and Vinci Energies

  20. Analysis on the Electric Power Supply - Demand Measures of Japan in 2011 Summer after Earthquake and Tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Chang, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Only 12 of 54 nuclear reactors are in operation as of September 1, 2011 in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami in Japan. The share of nuclear power in the nation's installation capacity fell to about 14% in August from about 30% before March 11, 2011. Government or many of research institutes estimated that the power supply system in Japan would fall to the minus reserve margin, if the nuclear power stations could not be restarted as scheduled. However, the current situation of power supply system in Japan is less severe than expected before, because the power companies and public have engaged in various diligent efforts to boost supply capacity or reduce demand in response to the electric power crisis. This paper aims to analyze the how much Japan electric power supply system depends on the nuclear power, what kinds of countermeasures of electric power supply-demand are taken by electricity companies in summer time to avoid the blackouts and why the saving electricity in Japan could be possible unlike Korea. Insights from this paper would be taken into account in the long term energy planning, even though the further study in depth should be followed

  1. The long-term forecast of Pakistan's electricity supply and demand: An application of long range energy alternatives planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perwez, Usama; Sohail, Ahmed; Hassan, Syed Fahad; Zia, Usman

    2015-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of electricity demand and supply has assumed significant importance in fundamental research to provide sustainable solutions to the electricity issues. In this article, we provide an overview of structure of electric power sector of Pakistan and a summary of historical electricity demand & supply data, current status of divergent set of energy policies as a framework for development and application of a LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternate Planning) model of Pakistan's electric power sector. Pakistan's LEAP model is used to analyze the supply policy selections and demand assumptions for future power generation system on the basis of economics, technicality and implicit environmental implications. Three scenarios are enacted over the study period (2011–2030) which include BAU (Business-As-Usual), NC (New Coal) & GF (Green Future). The results of these scenarios are compared in terms of projected electricity demand & supply, net present cost analysis (discount rate at 4%, 7% and 10%) and GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reductions, along with sensitivity analysis to study the effect of varying parameters on total cost. A concluding section illustrates the policy implications of model for futuristic power generation and environmental policies in Pakistan. - Highlights: • Pakistan-specific electricity demand model is presented. • None of the scenarios exceeded the price of 12 US Cents/kWh. • By 2030, fuel cost is the most dominant factor to influence electricity per unit cost. • By 2030, CO_2 emissions per unit electricity will increase significantly in coal scenario relative to others. • By 2030, the penetration of renewable energy and conservation policies can save 70.6 tWh electricity.

  2. Seismic assessment of air-cooled type emergency electric power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    JNES initiated seismic assessment programs to develop seismic review criterions for the air-cooled system (diesel generator, gas turbine generator), which will be newly installed for enhancing the diversity of emergency electric power supply system. Five principal subjects are involved in the programs: two subjects for fiscal 2011 and three ones for fiscal 2012 and 2013. The summary of outcomes is as follows: 1) Past capacity test data and related technical issues (2011). Seismic capacity data obtained from past seismic shaking tests were investigated. 2) Test programs based on the investigation of system specification (2011). Design specifications for the air-cooled system were investigated. 3) Large Air Fin Cooler (AFC) one unit model seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. AFC one unit model seismic capacity tests were conducted and quantitative seismic capacities were evaluated. (author)

  3. Seismic assessment of air-cooled type emergency electric power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    JNES initiated seismic assessment programs to develop seismic review criterions for the air-cooled system (diesel generator, gas turbine generator), which will be newly installed for enhancing the diversity of emergency electric power supply system. Five principal subjects are involved in the programs: two subjects for fiscal 2011 and three ones for fiscal 2012 and 2013. The summary of outcomes is as follows: 1) Past capacity test data and related technical issues (2011). Seismic capacity data obtained from past seismic shaking tests were investigated. 2) Test programs based on the investigation of system specification (2011). Design specifications for the air-cooled system were investigated. 3) Large Air Fin Cooler (AFC) one unit model seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. AFC one unit model seismic capacity tests were conducted and quantitative seismic capacities were evaluated. (author)

  4. Optimal Willingness to Supply Wholesale Electricity Under Asymmetric Linearized Marginal Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hudgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis derives the profit-maximizing willingness to supply functions for single-plant and multi-plant wholesale electricity suppliers that all incur linear marginal costs. The optimal strategy must result in linear residual demand functions in the absence of capacity constraints. This necessarily leads to a linear pricing rule structure that can be used by firm managers to construct their offer curves and to serve as a benchmark to evaluate firm profit-maximizing behavior. The procedure derives the cost functions and the residual demand curves for merged or multi-plant generators, and uses these to construct the individual generator plant offer curves for a multi-plant firm.

  5. Reliability evaluation of the power supply of an electrical power net for safety-relevant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro D.; Kassakian, John G.; Schindall, Joel E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a methodology for the dependability analysis of new automotive safety-relevant systems. With the introduction of safety-relevant electronic systems in cars, it is necessary to carry out a thorough dependability analysis of those systems to fully understand and quantify the failure mechanisms in order to improve the design. Several system level FMEAs are used to identify the different failure modes of the system and, a Markov model is constructed to quantify their probability of occurrence. A new power net architecture with application to new safety-relevant automotive systems, such as Steer-by-Wire or Brake-by-Wire, is used as a case study. For these safety-relevant loads, loss of electric power supply means loss of control of the vehicle. It is, therefore, necessary and critical to develop a highly dependable power net to ensure power to these loads under all circumstances

  6. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  7. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  8. Funding and organisation of emergency preparedness in telecommunications and electrical power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    #Latin Capital Letter O With Stroke#stby, Eirik; Hagen, Janne Merete; Nystuen, Kjell Olav

    2000-01-15

    A series of two joint projects between the Directorate for Civil Defence and Emergency Planning and FFI have as main objectives to identify critical vulnerabilities in the national Telecommunications and Electrical Power Supply infrastructures. These objectives include to clarify consequences of service outages, and to evaluate various efforts to reduce the vulnerabilities and the consequences. This report presents the results of a study on the following subjects with respect to emergency preparedness within the two sectors: Legislation and organisation, Historical funding, Discussion of future models for funding. The study concludes that fundings for emergency preparedness have been reduced during the last years. This is worrying in relation to the fact that these infrastructures are increasing vulnerable, and are natural targets for incidents in peacetime as well as in war. The funding models ought to be reviewed in accordance to the ongoing transitions in market and technical developments. (author)

  9. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  10. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, Jean-Pierre

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development

  11. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland. In some cases additional storage would allow mitigating negative impacts of climate change. In one of the tested cases the decrease in inflows is such that the reservoir will not fill up in the future; this reservoir will become a priority location for pumping capacity increase, for short-term or seasonal storage of excess solar/wind energy. Considering that the present average rate of glacier mass loss at the country scale is equivalent to the Grande Dixence reservoir per year (the largest Swiss reservoir, approx. 380 hm3), increasing artificial water storage might become mandatory to maintain the same level of security electricity supply in the future.

  12. Adapting electricity markets to decarbonisation and security of supply objectives: Toward a hybrid regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Finon, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The policy objectives of decarbonisation of the electricity sector whilst maintaining security of supply have led to a new wave of market reforms in many jurisdictions which liberalised their industry. There is a wide range of models under this new hybrid regime which essentially combine the energy market with planning and long-term risk transfer arrangements. This paper takes an institutionalist approach in terms of modularity of the market design, and reviews the issues with the standard historical market model which led to the introduction of additional long term “modules”. We then study the interactions between the existing and new “modules” and identify ways in which the initial market modules can be improved to address inconsistencies with the new modules. We conclude by discussing the conditions under which the various changes in market architectures could converge toward a hybrid regime structured around a “two step competition”, with a “competition for the market” via the auctioning of long-term contracts to support investment, followed by “competition in the market” for short term system optimisation via the energy market. - Highlights: • The policy objectives of decarbonisation of the electricity sector whilst maintaining security of supply have led to a new wave of markets reforms. • Emergence of a hybrid regime combining the energy market with planning and long-term risk transfer arrangements. • Wide diversity of models in hybrid regimes, but some common fundamental features. • Replacement of the coordination function of energy prices for investment by some form of planning followed by long-term contracts. • Discussion of the conditions for possible convergence toward a “two step competition” regime.

  13. Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: → The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. → Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. → The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. → The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

  14. CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant): probabilistic safety study. Electric power supply. Events sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, N.

    1987-01-01

    The plant response to the occurrence of the starting event 'total loss of electric power supply to class IV and class III' is analyzed. This involves the study of automatical actions of safety and process systems as well as the operator actions. The probabilistic evaluation of starting event frequency is performed through fault-tree techniques. The frequency of occurrence 'loss of electric power supply to class IV (λIV = 0.56/year) and the probability of failure to demand of 'reserve' generating groups (Pd III 6.79 x 10 -3 ) contribute to the mentioned frequency. As soon as the starting event occurs, the reactor power must be reduced to 0%, the fuel must be cooled through the thermo siphon and decay heat has to be removed. The events sequence analysis leads to the conclusion that the non shutting down of the reactor with any of the shutdown systems is 'incredible' (10 -6 /year). In all cases the fuel is cooled by building the thermo siphon except when a substantial inventory loss exist due to a closure failure of some valve of pressure and inventory control system. The order of magnitude of the failure of decay heat removal through the steam generators is 4 x 10 -4 . This removal would be assured by the emergency water system. Therefore, the frequency of the sequence of possible core meltdown, when the reactor does not shut down is: λ = 5 x 10 -9 /year and for the failure of heat removal: λ = 2 x 10 -6 /year. (Author)

  15. Models of supply function equilibrium with applications to the electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromi, J. Daniel

    Electricity market design requires tools that result in a better understanding of incentives of generators and consumers. Chapter 1 and 2 provide tools and applications of these tools to analyze incentive problems in electricity markets. In chapter 1, models of supply function equilibrium (SFE) with asymmetric bidders are studied. I prove the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium in an asymmetric SFE model. In addition, I propose a simple algorithm to calculate numerically the unique equilibrium. As an application, a model of investment decisions is considered that uses the asymmetric SFE as an input. In this model, firms can invest in different technologies, each characterized by distinct variable and fixed costs. In chapter 2, option contracts are introduced to a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. The uniqueness of the equilibrium in the spot market is established. Comparative statics results on the effect of option contracts on the equilibrium price are presented. A multi-stage game where option contracts are traded before the spot market stage is considered. When contracts are optimally procured by a central authority, the selected profile of option contracts is such that the spot market price equals marginal cost for any load level resulting in a significant reduction in cost. If load serving entities (LSEs) are price takers, in equilibrium, there is no trade of option contracts. Even when LSEs have market power, the central authority's solution cannot be implemented in equilibrium. In chapter 3, we consider a game in which a buyer must repeatedly procure an input from a set of firms. In our model, the buyer is able to sign long term contracts that establish the likelihood with which the next period contract is awarded to an entrant or the incumbent. We find that the buyer finds it optimal to favor the incumbent, this generates more intense competition between suppliers. In a two period model we are able to completely characterize the optimal mechanism.

  16. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas; Ouverture des marches energetiques: consequences sur les missions de service public et de securite d'approvisionnement pour l'electricite et le gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear refinery - advanced energy complex for electricity generation, clean fuel production, and heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In planning for increased U.S. energy users' demand after the year 2000 there are essentially four salient vectors: (1) reduced reliance on imported crude oil; (2) provide a secure supply with stable economics; (3) supply system must be in concert with improved environment goals; and (4) maximum use to be made of indigenous resources. For the last decade of this century the aforementioned will likely be met by increasing utilization of natural gas. Early in the next century, however, in the U.S. and the newly industrializing nations, the ever increasing energy demand will only be met by the combined use of uranium and coal. The proposed nuclear refinery concept is an advanced energy complex that has at its focal point an advanced modular helium reactor (MHR). This nuclear facility, together with a coal feedstock, could contribute towards meeting the needs of the four major energy sectors in the U.S., namely electricity, transportation, industrial heating and chemical feedstock, and space and water heating. Such a nuclear/coal synergistic system would be in concert with improved air quality goals. This paper discusses the major features and multifaceted operation of a nuclear refinery concept, and identifies the enabling technologies needed for such an energy complex to become a reality early in the 21st century. (Author)

  18. Reliability Indicators of Urban Electric Network Schemes for Supply of Second and Third Category Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers two schemes of the urban distributive electric network for supply of the second and third category consumers for whom indicators of reliability have been determined.As for a network scheme of the 2nd category it has been determined that while installing low-oil and vacuum switches at a distributive point the most remote transformer substation has the highest non-availability  factor which is higher of the corresponding non-availability  factor of the nearest transformer substation by 1,21–1,23 fold  accordingly.As for a network scheme of the 3rd category consumers it has been obtained the data that reliability of consumers receiving supply from bus-bars of transformer substations with 0,38 kW voltage changes  significantly (by 1,2–1,9-fold while changing a breakpoint of the network with 10 kW voltage.

  19. A new algorithm to compute conjectured supply function equilibrium in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Cristian A.; Villar, Jose; Campos, Fco Alberto; Rodriguez, M. Angel

    2011-01-01

    Several types of market equilibria approaches, such as Cournot, Conjectural Variation (CVE), Supply Function (SFE) or Conjectured Supply Function (CSFE) have been used to model electricity markets for the medium and long term. Among them, CSFE has been proposed as a generalization of the classic Cournot. It computes the equilibrium considering the reaction of the competitors against changes in their strategy, combining several characteristics of both CVE and SFE. Unlike linear SFE approaches, strategies are linearized only at the equilibrium point, using their first-order Taylor approximation. But to solve CSFE, the slope or the intercept of the linear approximations must be given, which has been proved to be very restrictive. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute CSFE. Unlike previous approaches, the main contribution is that the competitors' strategies for each generator are initially unknown (both slope and intercept) and endogenously computed by this new iterative algorithm. To show the applicability of the proposed approach, it has been applied to several case examples where its qualitative behavior has been analyzed in detail. (author)

  20. An autonomous nuclear power plant with integrated nuclear steam supply system designed for electric power and heat supply in remote areas with difficult access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Grechko, G.I.; Lapin, B.D.; Ulasevich, V.K.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains basic conceptual principles used to develop the technical assignment for an autonomous nuclear power plant with integrated nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) designed to provide heat and electricity for areas which are remote with difficult access. The paper also describes technical procedures and equipment, NPP thermal hydraulic flow chart, steam generator design, safety aspects as well as operational and maintenance procedures. (author)

  1. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success; Rapport au Premier Ministre. Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J L

    1999-12-31

    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  2. Review of electricity supply failures and plant improvements over 25 years operation of the Harwell materials test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the on-site electrical power sources is described, operational experience is reported and shortcomings are identified. Disturbances in the external power supplies to the reactors are listed for the past 25 years and failure probabilities are derived from this historical data. The 132 kV overhead supply to the Harwell site is identified as the source of nearly 90% of the disturbances. (author)

  3. Review of electricity supply failures and plant improvements over 25 years operation of the Harwell materials test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D. J. [UKAEA Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1986-02-15

    The evolution of the on-site electrical power sources is described, operational experience is reported and shortcomings are identified. Disturbances in the external power supplies to the reactors are listed for the past 25 years and failure probabilities are derived from this historical data. The 132 kV overhead supply to the Harwell site is identified as the source of nearly 90% of the disturbances. (author)

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of connection boxes for electrical racks for the LHC magnets

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 1670 connection boxes for two different types of electrical racks for the LHC magnets. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an ex-works contract with CRAWFORD, HANSFORD & KIMBER (GB), for the supply of 1670 connection boxes for a total amount of 473 774 pounds sterling (1 080 442 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  5. When do firms generate? Evidence on in-house electricity supply in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbuks, J.; Foster, V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the underlying causes and costs of own generation of electric power in Africa. Rigorous empirical analysis of 8483 currently operating firms in 25 African countries shows that the prevalence of own generation would remain high (at around 20%) even if power supplies were perfectly reliable, suggesting that other factors such as firms' size, emergency back-up and export regulations play a critical role in the decision to own a generator. The costs of own-generation are about three times as high as the price of purchasing (subsidized) electricity from the public grid. However, because these generators only operate a small fraction of the time, they do not greatly affect the overall average cost of power to industry. The benefits of generator ownership are also substantial. Firms with their own generators report a value of lost load of less than US$50 per hour, compared with more than US$150 per hour for those without. Nevertheless, when costs and benefits are considered side by side, the balance is not found to be significantly positive. (author)

  6. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi Tak

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future

  7. Aspirations of Jordanians to use nuclear energy for electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jaowny, W.; Al-mur, A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the continuous efforts that exerted by the concerned authorities in Jordan for discovering and local source of energy yet it is still very limited, moreover, what is already known such as oil shale is still not economical to be utilized in the near future. And in light of the continuous increase in energy demand, Jordan looked for the study of different alternatives to cover its electrical energy, one of which is the electrical interconnection where the chance will be available for building big and highly economical stations such as nuclear to operate within the interconnected network and supply the requesting areas with minimum cost. And with the continuous expectations in the increase of oil prices all indications lead for the entry in nuclear energy. In this field Jordan had taken different actions to prepare itself for the use of nuclear energy where, a nuclear energy department was established and issued different laws related to the use of this energy, beside defining planned steps which include developing existing projects and activities, putting plans to establish national research center and develop experience and local industry to be ready for the future management of nuclear power station. (author)

  8. Effect of global warming on willingness to pay for uninterrupted electricity supply in European nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jed; Moeltner, Klaus; Reichl, Johannes; Schmidthaler, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Predicted changes in temperature and other weather events may damage the electricity grid and cause power outages. Understanding the costs of power outages and how these costs change over time with global warming can inform outage-mitigation-investment decisions. Here we show that across 19 EU nations the value of uninterrupted electricity supply is strongly related to local temperatures, and will increase as the climate warms. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of data from a choice experiment and respondent-specific temperature measures reveals estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid an hour of power outage between €0.32 and €1.86 per household. WTP varies on the basis of season and is heterogeneous between European nations. Winter outages currently cause larger per household welfare losses than summer outages per hour of outage. However, this dynamic will begin to shift under plausible future climates, with summer outages becoming substantially more costly and winter outages becoming slightly less costly on a per-household, per-hour basis.

  9. Electric Power Self-Supply Module for WSN Sensor Node Based on MEMS Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an electric power self-supply module for the wireless sensor network (WSN sensor node. The module includes an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester based on micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS technology and a processing circuit. The vibration energy harvester presented in this paper is fabricated by an integrated microfabrication process and consists of four similar and relatively independent beam vibration elements. The main functions of the processing circuit are to convert the output of the harvester from unstable alternating current (AC to stable direct current (DC, charge the super capacitor, and ensure the stable output of the super capacitor. The preliminary test results of the harvester chip show that the chip can output discontinuous pulse voltage, and the range of the voltage value is from tens to hundreds of millivolts in the vibration frequency range of 10–90 Hz. The maximum value that can be reached is 563 mV (at the vibration frequency of 18 Hz. The results of the test show that the harvester can output a relatively high voltage, which can meet the general electric power demand of a WSN sensor node.

  10. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future. (author)

  11. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  12. Grid-connected solar electricity in France : the example of Martinique, a French overseas department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melle, Y. [Tenesol (France)

    2006-07-01

    Tenesol has specialized in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy since 1983 with experience in grid connections, professional applications, decentralized rural electrification and solar pumping. The company's operations include the manufacture of solar panels, system design and turnkey installations backed by a comprehensive after sales service through a global network of subsidiaries. Half of Tenesol's group shareholdings belong to Electricite de France and half belong to Total. The 2 specialized subsidiaries of Tenesol are Tenesa Manufacturing and Tenesol Technologies. This presentation focused Tenesol's operations in Martinique and its financial environment of grid-connected photovoltaics. It presented Tenesol's approach for technical and economic validation of roof suitability in terms of the disc orientation of PV panels. The key figures of installing a 300 square metre 40 kWp PV system were presented along with photographs of installations in Martinique. The installations have a total installed capacity of 2.5 MWp and an annual solar electricity production of 3,375,000 kWhs, resulting in a reduction of 3,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually. figs.

  13. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  14. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  15. The possibilities are very limited - The supply of electricity in Switzerland cannot be guaranteed in the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the various factors influencing the security of supply of electricity in Switzerland. The author briefly reviews the present-day situation with power being produced by hydroelectric and nuclear power stations. Five possible options for action for ensuring electricity supply in the future are proposed: The increased import of power from neighbouring countries is looked at, the replacement or refurbishment of existing nuclear plant is considered, as is the augmentation and replacement of hydropower installations. A fourth option - the building of gas-fired, combined-cycle plant is discussed, as is the possibility of using renewable forms of energy such as solar, wind and geothermal energy

  16. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic (PV) and wave power into a Danish reference energy system. The possibility of integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply is expressed in terms of the ability to avoid...... ancillary services are needed in order to secure the electricity supply system. The idea is to benefit from the different patterns in the fluctuations of different renewable sources. And the purpose is to identify optimal mixtures from a technical point of view. The optimal mixture seems to be when onshore...... wind power produces approximately 50% of the total electricity production from RES. Meanwhile, the mixture between PV and wave power seems to depend on the total amount of electricity production from RES. When the total RES input is below 20% of demand, PV should cover 40% and wave power only 10%. When...

  17. The Economic Benefits of Generation Revenue Assessment in Pool-Based Market Model for Restructured Electricity Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiron Zuraidah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electricity supply industry had undergo deregulation and restructuring toward becoming a more transparent and competitive electricity market environment. The pool market model is amongst the most preferred electricity market model. Even though it is a safe option to be more competitive and transparent electricity supply industry, there are issues on the welfare of the generators involved. This paper addresses the pricing issue in the pool market by extending the capacity payment mechanism in the single auction power pool. In the proposed model, the approach of minimum capacity payment involving the efficiency of the generators is introduced. A case study is conducted to illustrate the proposed model. An economic analysis is performed to highlight the merits of the proposed model with the pure pool in term of generation revenue.

  18. Decarbonising electricity supply: Is climate change mitigation going to be carried out at the expense of other environmental impacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumpis, Victor; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2015-01-01

    As nations face the need to decarbonise their energy supply, there is a risk that attention will be focused solely on carbon and climate change, potentially at the expense of other environmental impacts. To explore the trade-offs between climate change mitigation and other environmental impacts, this work focuses on electricity and considers a number of scenarios up to 2070 in a UK context with different carbon reduction targets and electricity demand to estimate the related life cycle enviro...

  19. Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Changes in Policies and Regulations for Electricity and Town Gas Supply Industries (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, a series of changes were made to policies and regulations governing electricity and town gas supply industries in Japan. To evaluate how such regulatory changes, channeled through the behavior of power/gas companies, have affected the economic welfare of the electricity and town gas markets, it is necessary to first quantitatively analyze how the power/gas companies reacted to the regulatory changes in terms of management behavior. Specifically, it must be examined what decision...

  20. Electric power supply in the 21st century. Proceedings. 2. rev. ed.; Stromversorgung des 21. Jahrhunderts. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The proceedings include contributions to the following topics: The role of energy in the future society; efficiency enhancement by electric power; electromobility and power industry - future prospects of energy suppliers; better place - marketing model for electromobility; electric heating systems - techniques, efficiency and potentials; energy saving by smart metering; development of the electricity demand in Germany until 2050; energy supply concepts in the frame of IEKP; future of fossil duels in electricity generation; future of nuclear power in Europe; power-heat cogeneration for local heat and long-distance heat; micro CHP and virtual power plants; renewable energy - new challenges for transport and storage; possible development of the power generation system until 2050; electricity and electricity industry - how to improve the image? energy and climate policy consulting - experiences and expectations.