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Sample records for french butane propane

  1. French butane propane committee. 2003 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2003 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  2. French butane propane committee. 2004 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2004 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  3. French butane propane committee. 2003 activity report; Comite Francais du Butane et du Propane. Rapport d'activite 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-01

    This activity report presents the 2003 status of the actions carried out by the French butane and propane committee (CFBP) for the development of the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry in France. While the past year has seen the butane, propane and LPG-fuel sales following the decay started 4 years ago, in 2004 the CFBP has reinforced its actions of public information about the LPG energy choice and has carried out several projects in order to improve the safety of LPG tanks and storage facilities, one of the first concern of LPG industry. (J.S.)

  4. French butane propane committee. 2004 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2004 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  5. French butane propane committee. 2003 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2003 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  6. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2006 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - share of LPG fuels in the French energy mix; 3 - improvement of energy efficiency in the residential sector; 4 - advantages of LPG fuels; 5 - safety aspects. (J.S.)

  7. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2005 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2005 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - information about the LPG fuels advantages; 3 - LPG market; 4 - CFBP's commitments for end-users, professionals and public authorities: energy efficiency improvement, environment protection, energy supply of French rural towns, safety improvements. (J.S.)

  8. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2015 activity report. Butane, propane, LPG - Immediately available solutions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    This document presents the 2015 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - 2015 LPG market; 2 - CFBP missions and 2015 highlights: promotion of LPG industry and uses, contribution to standards development, safety of industrial sites, promoting LPG specificities, safety of LPG transports and training, ensuring clients' installations safety, promoting LPG in the energy mix, promoting LPGc potential, public information

  9. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2006 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents the 2006 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - share of LPG fuels in the French energy mix; 3 - improvement of energy efficiency in the residential sector; 4 - advantages of LPG fuels; 5 - safety aspects. (J.S.)

  10. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2005 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents the 2005 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - information about the LPG fuels advantages; 3 - LPG market; 4 - CFBP's commitments for end-users, professionals and public authorities: energy efficiency improvement, environment protection, energy supply of French rural towns, safety improvements. (J.S.)

  11. Exports of propane and butanes, January-December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Tables are presented showing exports of propane and butane for each month of 1993. Comparisons with the same month in 1992 are included, as well as a running total. Export quantities are given in m 3 by region within Canada and for Canada as a whole, and as m 3 /d for Canada as a whole. Average export prices in Canadian cents per liter for the same seven regions and Canada as a whole are also given. Exports show a seasonal trend, with a low of 8,681 m 3 /d in May and a high of 18,565 m 3 in December for propane. Butane exports also show a seasonal trend with a low of 1,806 m 3 /d in June and a high of 9,306 m 3 /d in January. Propane prices ranged from 9.68 cents/l in December to 12.47 cents/l in February, compared to a range of 7.55 to 10.71 cents/l in 1992. Butane prices ranged from 9.22 cents/l in November to 12.38 cents/l in June, compared to a range of 10 to 12.78 cents/l in 1992. Total propane exports in 1993 were 4,761,795 m 3 (6.8% higher than in 1992) and total butane exports were 1,974,682 m 3 (13% lower than in 1992). 24 tabs

  12. Two cases of acute propane/butane poisoning in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Suadoni, Fabio; Pieroni, Ludovica; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lancia, Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Hydrocarbon inhalation is seldom chosen as a means to commit suicide. This practice is exclusively a prerogative of the prison population; it is, however, only exceptionally found in this environment. The two cases of lethal inhalation of propane/butane gas observed by us over a very short time occurred in this context. Toxicologic analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography (head space) and revealed a propane/butane mixture in all specimens (heart blood, bile, and urine) except vitreous humor. Although fatal arrhythmia posthydrocarbon gas abuse is well known, the concentrations of the two hydrocarbons were sufficient to induce death by asphyxiation and were distributed (fairly) homogeneously in all biological fluids and organs examined, a parameter permitting one to assume that death occurred within a relatively short period of time. The absence of finding in vitreous humor and the trace amount in urine suggests that both men died very quickly. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Theoretical investigation of adiabatic capillary tubes working with propane/n-butane/iso-butane blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatouh, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to predict the refrigerant flow characteristics in adiabatic capillary tubes using propane/n-butane/iso-butane mixtures as working fluids in a domestic refrigerator. This model is based on the mass, energy and momentum conservation equations for a homogeneous refrigerant flow under different inlet conditions, such as subcooled, saturated and two phase flow. The effects of the inlet pressure (8-16 bar), inlet vapor quality (0.001-15%), inlet subcooling degree (1-15 o C), mass flow rate (1-5 kg/h), propane mass fraction (0.5-0.7), capillary tube inner diameter (0.6-1.0 mm) and the tube surface roughness on the capillary tube length are predicted. The results showed that the present model predicts data that are very close to the available experimental data in the literature with an average error of 2.65%. The pressure of the hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) decreases, while its vapor quality, specific volume and Mach number increase along the capillary tube. Also, the results indicated that the capillary tube length is largely dependent on the capillary tube diameter. Other parameters such as mass flow rate, inlet pressure, subcooling degree (or quality) and relative roughness influence the capillary tube length in that order. The capillary tube length as a function of the significant parameters is presented in equation form. Also, capillary tube selection charts either to predict the mass flow rates of propane/n-butane/iso-butane mixtures through adiabatic capillary tubes or to select the capillary tube size according to the required applications are developed. The comparison between R12, R134a and the hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of propane/n-butane/iso-butane indicated that for a given mass flow rate, the pressure drop per unit length is about 4.13, 5.0 and 12.0 bar/m for R12, R134a and HCM, respectively. The ratios of the average mass flow rate of the HCM with a propane mass fraction of 0.6 to those of R12 and R134a are about

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming of propane and butane for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Xiaoti; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    /C) of 0.5–5 and O2/HC (hydrocarbon) ratio of 0–2.4. The simulations for the cracking and POX processes showed that olefins and acetylene can be easily generated through the cracking reactions and can be removed by adding an appropriate amount of oxygen. For SR and OSR of propane and butane, predicted...

  15. Assessment of propane/commercial butane mixtures as possible alternatives to R134a in domestic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatouh, M.; El Kafafy, M.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrocarbon mixtures as working fluids to replace R134a in domestic refrigerators has been evaluated through a simulation analysis in the present work. The performance characteristics of domestic refrigerators were predicted over a wide range of evaporation temperatures (-35 to -10 o C) and condensation temperatures (40-60 deg. C) for various working fluids such as R134a, propane, commercial butane and propane/iso-butane/n-butane mixtures with various propane mass fractions. The performance characteristics of the considered domestic refrigerator were identified by the coefficient of performance (COP), volumetric cooling capacity, cooling capacity, condenser capacity, input power to compressor, discharge temperature, pressure ratio and refrigerant mass flow rate. The results showed that pure propane could not be used as a drop in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators because of its high operating pressures and low COP. Commercial butane yields many desirable characteristics but requires a compressor change. The coefficient of performance of the domestic refrigerator using a ternary hydrocarbon mixture with propane mass fractions from 0.5 to 0.7 is higher than that of R134a. Comparison among the considered working fluids confirmed that the average refrigerant mass flow rate of the propoane/commercial butane mixture is 50% lower than that of R134a. Also, the results indicated that R134a and the propoane/commercial butane mixture with 60% propane mass concentration have approximately the same values of saturation pressure, compressor discharge temperature, condenser heat load, input power, cooling capacity and volumetric cooling capacity. However, the pressure ratio of the hydrocarbon mixture with 60% propane is lower than that of R134a by about 11.1%. Finally, the reported results confirmed that the propane/iso-butane/n-butane mixture with 60% propane is the best drop in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators under normal

  16. Ion composition of a propane-butane-air flame at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.B.; Fialkov, B.S.

    1985-06-01

    Ion types and distributions are determined experimentally for propane-butane-air flames with excess oxidizer coefficients of 0.7-1.2 in the pressure range 4-65 KPa. It is shown that nonthermal ionization occurs not only in the known chemiionization zone (which practically coincides with the chemiluminescence zone) but also in the mixture preparation zone. A general mechanism for ion formation in the flame is proposed. 42 references.

  17. Analysis of tank safety with propane-butane on LPG distribution station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysiak Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the risk of failure in the safety valve – tank with propane-butane (LPG system has been conducted. An uncontrolled outflow of liquid LPG, caused by a failure of the above mentioned system has been considered as a threat. The main research goal of the study is the hazardous analysis of propane-butane gas outflow for the safety valve – LPG tank system. The additional goal is the development of an useful method to fast identify the hazard of a mismatched safety valve. The results of the research analysis have confirmed that safety valves are basic protection of the installation (tank against failures that can lead to loss of life, material damage and further undesired costs of their unreliability. That is why a new, professional computer program has been created that allows for the selection of safety valves or for the verification of a safety valve selection in installations where any technical or technological changes have been made.

  18. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  19. Drop size distribution evolution after continuous or intermittent injection of butane or propane in a confined air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knubben, G.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Drop size distributions and velocities have been measured of n-butane and propane sprays, rapidly evaporating in air flowing at constant velocity, 15 m/s typically. The inlet air temperature has been found to be of main importance in the evaporation process. After a period of the order of the

  20. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  1. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  2. Simulations of Propane and Butane Gas Sensor Based on Pristine Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Haroon; Koel, Ants; Rang, Toomas

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade graphene and its derivatives have gained a remarkable place in research field. As silicon technology is approaching to its geometrical limits so there is a need of alternate that can replace it. Graphene has emerged as a potential candidate for future nano-electronics applications due to its exceptional and extraordinary chemical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties. Graphene based sensors have gained significance for a wide range of sensing applications like detection of biomolecules, chemicals and gas molecules. It can be easily used to make electrical contacts and manipulate them according to the requirements as compared to the other nanomaterials. The intention of the work presented in this article is to contribute in this field by simulating a novel and cheap graphene nanoribbon sensor for the household gas leakage detection. QuantumWise Atomistix (ATK) software is used for the simulations of propane and butane gas sensor. Projected device density of the states (PDDOS) and the transmission spectrum of the device in the proximity of gas molecules are calculated and discussed. The change in the electric current through the device in the presence of the gas molecules is used as a gas detection mechanism for the simulated sensor.

  3. Recreational inhalation of butane and propane in adolescents: Two forensic cases of accidental death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Luca; Amadasi, Alberto; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    The recreational use of inhalants is a fairly widespread habit among adolescents because of the ease of availability and methods of assumption. Their use is however not free of risks, both for direct toxicity on several target organs and for a mechanism of gas replacement with lack of oxygen. The first case concerns a 12-year-old boy who died suddenly after sniffing a mix of butane and propane contained in a can of air freshener. The second case concerns a 14-year-old boy who died by acute poisoning by the same mixture contained in a refill for lighters. High concentrations of the compounds were found in the tissues by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds found in tissues and biological fluids were perfectly compatible with those contained in the containers used for the inhalation. The mechanisms of death were therefore assessed in a combination of the direct toxicity of the compound and oxygen replacement, thus highlighting the crucial help that toxicological analyses can provide in such cases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Phase behaviour of heavy petroleum fractions in pure propane and n-butane and with methanol as co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, D.; Ndiaye, P.M.; Franceschi, Elton; Corazza, Marcos L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports phase equilibrium experimental results for heavy petroleum fractions in pure propane and n-butane as primary solvents and using methanol as co-solvent. Three kinds of oils were investigated from Marlim petroleum: a relatively light fraction coming from the first distillation of crude petroleum at atmospheric pressure (GOP - heavy gas oil of petroleum), the residue of such distillation (RAT) and the crude petroleum sample. Phase equilibrium measurements were performed in a high-pressure, variable-volume view cell, following the static synthetic method, over the temperature range of 323 K to 393 K, pressures up to 10 MPa and overall compositions of heavy component varying from 1 wt% to 40 wt%. Transition pressures for low methanol and oil concentrations were very close for GOP, RAT, and crude Marlim when using propane as the primary solvent. Close to propane critical temperature, two and three-phase transitions were observed for GOP and Marlim when methanol was increased. When n-butane was used as primary solvent, all transitions observed were of (vapour + liquid) type with transition pressure values smaller than those obtained for propane.

  5. Vapour pressure and excess Gibbs free energy of binary mixtures of hydrogen sulphide with ethane, propane, and n-butane at temperature of 182.33K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.Q.; Ferreira, A.G.M.; Fonseca, I.M.A.; Senra, A.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The vapour pressure of binary mixtures of hydrogen sulphide with ethane, propane, and n-butane was measured at T=182.33K covering most of the composition range. The excess Gibbs free energy of these mixtures has been derived from the measurements made. For the equimolar mixtures G m E (x 1 =0.5)=(835.5+/-5.8)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+C 2 H 6 ) (820.1+/-2.4)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+C 3 H 8 ), and (818.6+/-0.9)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+n-C 4 H 10 ). The binary mixtures of H 2 S with ethane and with propane exhibit azeotropes, but that with n-butane does not

  6. Quantification of the selective activation of C--H bonds in short chain alkanes: The reactivity of ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, and neopentane on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.F.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The initial probabilities of precursor-mediated, dissociative chemisorption of the saturated hydrocarbons 13 C-labeled ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, and neopentane on the close-packed Ir(111) surface have been measured. The selective activation of primary (1 degree), secondary (2 degree), and tertiary (3 degree) C--H bonds has been quantified by examining the reactivities of the selectively deuterated isotopomers of propane, C 3 H 8 , CH 3 CD 2 CH 3 , and C 3 D 8 , and of isobutane, (CH 3 ) 3 CH, (CH 3 ) 3 CD, and (CD 3 ) 3 CH. With respect to the bottom of the physically adsorbed well for each hydrocarbon, the apparent C--H bond activation energies have been found to be 10.4±0.3 kcal/mol (ethane), 11.4±0.3 kcal/mol (propane), 11.5±0.3 kcal/mol (n-butane), 11.3±0.3 kcal/mol (i-butane), and 11.3±0.3 kcal/mol (neopentane). For all the alkanes examined, the ratios of the preexponential factors of the rate coefficients of reaction and desorption are 1x10 -2 . The C--D bond activation energies are higher than the corresponding C--H bond activation energies by 480 cal/mol (ethane), 630 cal/mol (propane), and 660 cal/mol (i-butane). By analyzing the primary kinetic isotope effects for the selectively deuterated isotopomers of propane and isobutane, the 2 degree C--H bond activation energy is found to be 310±160 cal/mol less than the 1 degree C--H bond activation energy on this surface, and similarly, 3 degree C--H bond cleavage is less by 80±70 cal/mol. The quantification of the branching ratios within the C--H bond activation channel for propane and isobutane on this surface shows that the formation of 1 degree-alkyl intermediates is, in general, favored over the formation of either 2 degree- or 3 degree-alkyl intermediates. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Site-Specific Rate Constant Measurements for Primary and Secondary H- and D-Abstraction by OH Radicals: Propane and n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Nasir, Ehson F.; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific rate constants for hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) abstraction by hydroxyl (OH) radicals were determined experimentally by monitoring the reaction of OH with two normal and six deuterated alkanes. The studied alkanes include propane (C3H8), propane 2,2 D2 (CH 3CD2CH3), propane 1,1,1-3,3,3 D6 (CD 3CH2CD3), propane D8 (C3D 8), n-butane (n-C4H10), butane 2,2-3,3 D4 (CH3CD2CD2CH3), butane 1,1,1-4,4,4 D6 (CD3CH2CH2CD3), and butane D10 (C4D10). Rate constant measurements were carried out over 840-1470 K and 1.2-2.1 atm using a shock tube and OH laser absorption. Previous low-temperature data were combined with the current high-temperature measurements to generate three-parameter fits which were then used to determine the site-specific rate constants. Two primary (P1,H and P 1,D) and four secondary (S00,H, S00,D, S 01,H, and S01,D) H- and D-abstraction rate constants, in which the subscripts refer to the number of C atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor C atom, are obtained. The modified Arrhenius expressions for the six site-specific abstractions by OH radicals are P1,H = 1.90 × 10-18T2.00 exp(-340.87 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); P1,D= 2.72 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-895.57 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1317 K); S00,H = 4.40 × 10-18 T1.93 exp(121.50 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); S00,D = 1.45 × 10-20 T2.69 exp(282.36 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1341 K); S01,H = 4.65 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-236.98 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (235-1407 K); S01,D = 1.26 × 10-18 T2.07 exp(-77.00 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (294-1412 K). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Site-Specific Rate Constant Measurements for Primary and Secondary H- and D-Abstraction by OH Radicals: Propane and n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-07-03

    Site-specific rate constants for hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) abstraction by hydroxyl (OH) radicals were determined experimentally by monitoring the reaction of OH with two normal and six deuterated alkanes. The studied alkanes include propane (C3H8), propane 2,2 D2 (CH 3CD2CH3), propane 1,1,1-3,3,3 D6 (CD 3CH2CD3), propane D8 (C3D 8), n-butane (n-C4H10), butane 2,2-3,3 D4 (CH3CD2CD2CH3), butane 1,1,1-4,4,4 D6 (CD3CH2CH2CD3), and butane D10 (C4D10). Rate constant measurements were carried out over 840-1470 K and 1.2-2.1 atm using a shock tube and OH laser absorption. Previous low-temperature data were combined with the current high-temperature measurements to generate three-parameter fits which were then used to determine the site-specific rate constants. Two primary (P1,H and P 1,D) and four secondary (S00,H, S00,D, S 01,H, and S01,D) H- and D-abstraction rate constants, in which the subscripts refer to the number of C atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor C atom, are obtained. The modified Arrhenius expressions for the six site-specific abstractions by OH radicals are P1,H = 1.90 × 10-18T2.00 exp(-340.87 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); P1,D= 2.72 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-895.57 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1317 K); S00,H = 4.40 × 10-18 T1.93 exp(121.50 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); S00,D = 1.45 × 10-20 T2.69 exp(282.36 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1341 K); S01,H = 4.65 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-236.98 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (235-1407 K); S01,D = 1.26 × 10-18 T2.07 exp(-77.00 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (294-1412 K). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Phenomenological Study of Confined Criticality: Insights from the Capillary Condensation of Propane, n-Butane, and n-Pentane in Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Elizabeth; Tan, Sugata P; Piri, Mohammad; Chen, Jin-Hong

    2018-04-17

    We use the comparison of experimentally measured isotherms for propane, n-butane, and n-pentane in 2.90, 4.19, and 8.08 nm MCM-41 to show that the current model for the progression of capillary condensation may not hold true for chain molecules, such as normal alkanes. Until now, the capillary condensation of gases in unconnected, uniformly sized and shaped nanopores has been shown to progress in two distinct stages before ending in supercriticality of the confined fluid. First, at relatively low temperatures in isothermal measurements, the phase change is accompanied by hysteresis of adsorption and desorption. Second, as temperature increases, the hysteresis critical temperature is surpassed, and the phase change occurs reversibly. Although propane followed this progression, we observed a new progression for n-butane and n-pentane, in which hysteresis continues into the supercritical region of the confined fluid. We attribute this behavior to the molecular chain lengths of the adsorbates. Through further comparison of the adsorption, desorption, and critical properties of the adsorbates, we discovered new pressure phenomena of the confined supercritical fluids.

  10. Kinetics of phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of propan-1,3-diol and butan-1,4-diol by N-chlorosaccharin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic studies of N-chlorosaccharin (NCSA oxidation of propan-1,3-diol and butan-1,4-diol have been reported in presence of phophotungstic acid and in aqueous acetic acid medium. The reactions follow first-order in NCSA and one to zero order with respect to substrate and phosphotungstic acid. Increase in the concentration of added perchloric acid increases the rate of oxidation. A negative effect on the oxidation rate is observed for solvent whereas the ionic strength does not influence the rate of reaction. Addition of the reaction product, saccharin, exhibited retarding effect. Various activation parameters have been evaluated. The products of the reactions were identified as the corresponding aldehydes. A suitable scheme of mechanism consistent with the experimental results has been proposed.

  11. Phase equilibrium at high pressure of heavy oil fraction in propane and n-butane; Equilibrio de fases em alta pressao de fracoes pesadas do petroleo em propano e n-butano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canziani, Daniel B.; Ndiaye, Papa M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose V. de; Corazza, Marcos L. [Universidade Regional Integrada, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the biggest challenge of the oil industry is the preparation and adequacy of existing refineries for processing of heavy oil in large quantities. Specifically aims of this work is to measure phase equilibria date at high-pressure with systems involving GOP (Heavy Gasoil), RAT (Atmospheric Residue) and Marlim (crude oil) in n-butane and propane, using the static-synthetic method. The influence of the addition of methanol on the transition pressure is also investigated. With regard to tests made with the use of methanol as a co-solvent, those with higher levels of methanol (5% in mass fraction) had presented transition pressures a little higher than systems with 1% of methanol and systems without methanol. The systems without methanol showed similar pressures. All systems are PT diagrams of the type Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST). Among the solvents used the n-butane shown to be the most soluble for all solutes, in particular for the RAT. With the n-butane were observed only liquid-vapour equilibria, and with propane the liquid-liquid, liquid-liquid-vapour and liquid-liquid-fluid equilibria could be observed. The system Propane-5%Methanol-GOP presented liquid-liquid-vapour transitions, indicates be a diagram of the type V (according to the classification of van Konynenburg and Scott). (author)

  12. Speed of sound in saturated aliphatic alcohols (propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol) and alkanediols (ethane-1,2-diol, propane-1,2- and -1,3-diol) at temperature between 253.15 K and 353.15 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dávila, María J.; Gedanitz, Holger; Span, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Speed of sound measurements were made in aliphatic alcohols and alkanediols. • Speeds of sound were measured in a wide temperature and pressure range. • A pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor operating at 8 MHz was employed. • A double polynomial equation was used to fit the experimental speed of sound data. • The accurate results were compared with available literature sources. - Abstract: Speeds of sound have been measured in three saturated aliphatic alcohols (propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol) and three alkanediols (ethane-1,2-diol, propane-1,2- and -1,3-diol) in the temperature range from (253.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 30 MPa by use of a pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor operating at 8 MHz. The expanded overall uncertainties (k = 2) in the speed of sound measurements are estimated to be 0.013% for propan-2-ol, 0.019% for butan-2-ol, 0.01% for 2-methylpropan-1-ol, 0.009% for ethane-1,2-diol, 0.02% for propane-1,2-diol, and 0.07% for propane-1,3-diol. Experimental speeds of sound data were correlated with the temperature and pressure with an empirical double polynomial equation. Our results were also compared with the available literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

  13. n-Butane isomerization over acidic mordenite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asuquo, Raymond A.; Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, Gabriele; Mirth, G.C.; Lercher, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Conversion of n-butane was studied between 523 K and 623 K over acidic mordenites with SiO2/Al2O3 ratios between 10 and 20. The main products were iso-butane, propane, and pentane. The selectivity to olefins, methane, ethane, C6 paraffins, and aromatics was lower than 4 mol% under all reaction

  14. The butane as a component for the gasoline blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubica

    2002-01-01

    In OKTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje the production of butane as a pure component is based on a liquid phase and it is used for both TNG (propane-butane gas) and motor gasoline production with a quality that satisfy the standard. By using the butane as a gasoline component the quality of the MB-98 and BMB has been improved. The butane itself ensures octane improvement of the pool, by what the content of the lead additives or the octane of the main component - reformat decreases. Also, the butane addition decreases the density of the final products by what the financial effects have been improved. It is also interesting to explain the usage of butane for gasoline production concerning the new proposed standard. The paper presents the practical results, through tables and diagrams, of the butane usage as a component for gasoline production, as well as the butane influence to the quality of the produced gasoline. (Original)

  15. The (p, ρ, T, x) properties of (x1 propane + x2n-butane) with x1 (0.0000, 0.2729, 0.5021, and 0.7308) over the temperature range from (280 to 440) K at pressures from (1 to 200) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T, x) properties for (x 1 propane + x 2 n-butane) with x 1 = (0.0000, 0.2729, 0.5021, and 0.7308) in the compressed liquid phase were measured by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer over the temperature range from (280 to 440) K at pressures from (1 to 200) MPa. The mole fraction purities of the propane and n-butane used in the measurements were 0.9999 and 0.9997, respectively. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, density, and composition measurements have been estimated to be less than ±3 mK; 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa); 0.09%; and 4.4 . 10 -4 , respectively. In the region above 100 MPa at T = (280 and 440) K, the uncertainty in density measurements increases from 0.09% to 0.13% and 0.22%, respectively. Comparisons of the available equation of state with the present measurements are reported. On the basis of the present results, the excess molar volume v m E of the mixtures was calculated and illustrated as a function of temperature and pressure

  16. UOP Oleflex process for the dehydrogenation of propane and butanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, C.A. le; Wilcher, F P; Vora, B V; Pujado, P R [UOP, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1991-01-01

    Oleflex is based on two commercially successful UOP technologies: Pacol and CCR Platforming. The catalyst formulation was developed from the commercially proven Pacol catalyst system, and the reactor design and catalyst-regeneration section were developed from the widely accepted CCR Platforming unit designs. The Oleflex process offers the advantages of high yields, moderate capital costs, and low operating requirements. The process operates in a totally continuous mode, with uniform catalyst activity at all times and without changes in effluent composition or shutdowns for regenerations. The segregation of the reaction and the catalyst-regeneration sections allows each section to be operated under optimal conditions. In the current marketplace, great interest has been shown in the Oleflex process for the production of propylene and/or isobutylene. The propylene is typically used as the feed for a polypropylene unit, and the isobutylene is typically used for the production of MTBE. The updated information for propylene and MTBE production given in this paper shows that olefin complexes based on the Oleflex technology are economically attractive. (orig./EF).

  17. Butane/Propane. An economical and technical turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, G.

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the sales of all energies dropped. Even for the liquid fuel, its consumption came back under the level of three million tons. To fight this regression, liquid fuels producers innovate in the cisterns and the bottles and carry on their efforts in logistic matters. Hopes are allowed thanks to the new taxing and the demand increasing in the car industry, for liquid fuels. (A.L.B.)

  18. Etherify field butanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathy, P.R.; Suffridge, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on capital and operating cost considerations which can be reviewed, with technology alternatives and preferences, to develop investment analyses for large MTBE projects consisting of butane isomerization, isobutane dehydrogenation and isobutylene etherification. fuel oxygenates improve hydrocarbon burning efficiency of gasolines and reduce carbon monoxide emissions. They also help reduce atmospheric ozone resulting from gasoline evaporative emissions due to their lower volatility and atmospheric reactivity characteristics in comparison with hydrocarbon constituents of the refinery gasoline they replace. These polluted areas are also the country's population centers. Because of oxygenates' clean-burning properties, they are expected to play a significant role in U. S. gasoline blends. A significant role is also projected for the rest of the world, where clean burning high octane fuels will be needed

  19. Twiny pro: 5.1 kg of propane dressed in apple green; Twiny pro: 5.1 kg de propane en habillage vert pomme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    Designed for professional and outdoors uses, Twini Pro - the new Primagaz 5.1 kg propane cylinder - is a complement to the Twiny butane 6 kg cylinder was launched during the first week of March in some 2,500 outlets, before 5,000 and 7,000 points later

  20. Recreational use of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-04-01

    Propane is used in most remote locations in North America for heat, cooking, power, or light. The users include ski hills operators to fishing lodges owners. Three profiles are presented in this article. The Pawistik Lodge is located in northern Saskatchewan near the Manitoba border. This lodge accommodates anglers. Propane is used for heating, gas stoves, lighting, and to power a one-ton truck, while electricity is used for all other energy needs. At Banff National Park, the clean burning fuel of choice for hot water, heating, cooking, and refrigeration is propane. Every location west of the town of Banff is fueled by propane. It includes the Sunshine and Lake Louise ski resorts, the Lake Louise village, Johnston's Canyon, as well as other locations. Some of the cabins used by the Park wardens have been equipped with solar panels to supply the energy required for lighting, but stoves in those cabins are powered by propane. Park vehicles are powered by propane when possible, and some are powered by dual fuel, propane and gasoline. It is all part of the government's green plan. The entire Yoho National Park is also fueled by propane. Sun Peaks ski resort operates an elaborate grid system and a plant that vaporizes propane for distribution. The price increase for propane earlier in 2001 did not adversely affect the resort since it buys its propane in bulk (it uses approximately two million litres of propane each year). Propane fuels heating, hot water, and fireplaces. The outdoor swimming pool is heated using propane. It attempts to implement from the lessons learned at the successful Whistler/Blackcomb ski resort, also fueled by propane.

  1. Future butanes supply/demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper graphically depicts, through in-depth supply/demand analysis, how environmental regulations can be both bad and good for an industry. In the case of n-butane, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) summertime gasoline volatility regulations are a culprit - threatening to ultimately destroy refinery demand for the product as a gasoline blendstock. Waiting in the wings are environmental regulations that should eventually prove to be n-butane's savior. The regulations referred to here are the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990's mandate for motor fuel oxygenates. The negative impact of gasoline volatility regulations on U.S. n-butane demand and the positive impact that should come from the use of n-butane as a MTBE precursor are covered. Many variables exist which make studying the effects of these environmental regulations very difficult. Over the past three years RPC Group has conducted numerous studies on n-butane supply/demand, as impacted by both EPA gasoline volatility and fuel oxygenate regulations

  2. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the refiner may: (i) Blend the butane with conventional gasoline, or...

  3. Propane Canada: Propane Canada's Second Annual Auto Propane Conversion Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    A directory of companies engaged in automotive propane conversion in Alberta and British Columbia is provided. There are a total of eight entries : three in Calgary, one in Edmonton in Alberta and two in Burnaby, one in Dawson Creek and one in Fort St. John in British Columbia. Each entry provides information about the company, including name, address, phone and fax numbers, owner's or manager's name, conversion equipment brands used, number of bays, type of retail sales and accreditation

  4. An experimental propane bubble chamber; Sur une chambre a bulles experimentale a propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozinski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [French] Description d'une chambre a bulles a propane de 10 cm de diametre et de 5 cm de profondeur. La chambre, dont le corps est en acier inoxydable, est munie de deux fenetres en verre poli et trempe. La compression et la detente du propane sont effectuees, soit a l'aide d'un piston en contact direct avec le liquide, soit en faisant agir sur ce dernier un gaz comprime a travers une triple membrane de teflon-mylar-perbunan. On decrit les conditions generales, ainsi que les conditions optimales de fonctionnement de la chambre et l'on signale un certain nombre de resultats obtenus concernant, notamment, les essais de resistance a la rupture des fenetres et les mesures de dilatation thermique de compressibilite isotherme du propane utilise. (auteur)

  5. Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, S.; Mokhov, A. V.; Darmeveil, J. H.; Levinsky, H. B.

    Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios phi = 1.0 and phi = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC)

  6. 21 CFR 184.1165 - n-Butane and iso-butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1165 n-Butane and iso-butane. (a) n-Butane and iso..., odorless, flammable gases at normal temperatures and pressures. They are easily liquefied under pressure at...

  7. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bender

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  8. Propane: North American opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO 2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  9. Diffusion of n-butane/iso-butane mixtures in silicalite-1 investigated using infrared (IR) microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmelik, C.; Heinke, L.; van Baten, J.M.; Krishna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption and diffusion of n-butane/iso-butane mixtures in individual silicalite-1 crystals has been investigated using infrared (IR) microscopy. The equilibrium sorption isotherm for an equimolar gas phase mixture is calculated using Configurational Bias Monte-Carlo simulations. The comparison

  10. Experimental and modeling study of the oxidation of n- and iso-butanal

    KAUST Repository

    Veloo, Peter S.; Dagaut, P.; Togbé , Casimir; Dayma, Guillaume; Sarathy, Mani; Westbrook, Charles K.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the kinetics of large molecular weight aldehydes is essential in the context of both conventional and alternative fuels. For example, they are key intermediates formed during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons as well as during the high-temperature oxidation of oxygenated fuels such as alcohols. In this study, an experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of n-butanal (. n-butyraldehyde) and iso-butanal (. iso-butyraldehyde or 2-methylpropanal) oxidation kinetics was performed. Experiments were performed in a jet stirred reactor and in counterflow flames over a wide range of equivalence ratios, temperatures, and pressures. The jet stirred reactor was utilized to observe the evolution of stable intermediates and products for the oxidation of n- and iso-butanal at elevated pressures and low to intermediate temperatures. The counterflow configuration was utilized for the determination of laminar flame speeds. A detailed chemical kinetic interpretative model was developed and validated consisting of 244 species and 1198 reactions derived from a previous study of the oxidation of propanal (propionaldehyde). Extensive reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis was performed to provide detailed insight into the mechanisms governing low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature reactivity. The simulation results using the present model are in good agreement with the experimental laminar flame speeds and well within a factor of two of the speciation data obtained in the jet stirred reactor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Experimental and modeling study of the oxidation of n- and iso-butanal

    KAUST Repository

    Veloo, Peter S.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the kinetics of large molecular weight aldehydes is essential in the context of both conventional and alternative fuels. For example, they are key intermediates formed during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons as well as during the high-temperature oxidation of oxygenated fuels such as alcohols. In this study, an experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of n-butanal (. n-butyraldehyde) and iso-butanal (. iso-butyraldehyde or 2-methylpropanal) oxidation kinetics was performed. Experiments were performed in a jet stirred reactor and in counterflow flames over a wide range of equivalence ratios, temperatures, and pressures. The jet stirred reactor was utilized to observe the evolution of stable intermediates and products for the oxidation of n- and iso-butanal at elevated pressures and low to intermediate temperatures. The counterflow configuration was utilized for the determination of laminar flame speeds. A detailed chemical kinetic interpretative model was developed and validated consisting of 244 species and 1198 reactions derived from a previous study of the oxidation of propanal (propionaldehyde). Extensive reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis was performed to provide detailed insight into the mechanisms governing low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature reactivity. The simulation results using the present model are in good agreement with the experimental laminar flame speeds and well within a factor of two of the speciation data obtained in the jet stirred reactor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  12. High rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane, ethane and propane coupled to thiosulphate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Zuluaga, Diego A; Weijma, Jan; Timmers, Peer H A; Buisman, Cees J N

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction and the use of ethane and propane as electron donors by sulphate-reducing bacteria represent new opportunities for the treatment of streams contaminated with sulphur oxyanions. However, growth of microbial sulphate-reducing populations with methane, propane or butane is extremely slow, which hampers research and development of bioprocesses based on these conversions. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that the growth rate with possible alternative terminal electron acceptors such as thiosulphate and elemental sulphur may be higher, which would facilitate future research. Here, we investigate the use of these electron acceptors for oxidation of methane, ethane and propane, with marine sediment as inoculum. Mixed marine sediments originating from Aarhus Bay (Denmark) and Eckernförde Bay (Germany) were cultivated anaerobically at a pH between 7.2 and 7.8 and a temperature of 15 °C in the presence of methane, ethane and propane and various sulphur electron acceptors. The sulphide production rates in the conditions with methane, ethane and propane with sulphate were respectively 2.3, 2.2 and 1.8 μmol S L(-1) day(-1). For sulphur, no reduction was demonstrated. For thiosulphate, the sulphide production rates were up to 50 times higher compared to those of sulphate, with 86.2, 90.7 and 108.1 μmol S L(-1) day(-1) for methane, ethane and propane respectively. This sulphide production was partly due to disproportionation, 50 % for ethane but only 7 and 14 % for methane and propane respectively. The oxidation of the alkanes in the presence of thiosulphate was confirmed by carbon dioxide production. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of thiosulphate use as electron acceptor with ethane and propane as electron donors. Additionally, these results indicate that thiosulphate is a promising electron acceptor to increase start-up rates for sulphate-reducing bioprocesses coupled to short-chain alkane oxidation.

  13. Propane a whole new frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, providing electric power in rural areas in America was accomplished in a pre-determined manner. Electric cooperatives acted as distribution companies that maintained poles and wires, and ensured that the rural customer (home, business, etc.) always had power. Things are about to change, due to electricity market deregulation and the emergence of distributed generation. Electric cooperatives are adjusting by moving to propane. The challenges facing electric cooperatives are a bit daunting. The cooperatives were customer-service oriented strongly committed to their region, where the customer had no other purchasing option. The electric cooperatives seldom deviated from their cost plus pricing plan. Suddenly, with the prospect of marketing propane, a number of retailers are after the same customers. The emphasis is now on customer service and pricing plans. Payment options and other services must be offered in addition to fair pricing to gain or retain a slight advantage that might make the difference between survival and bankruptcy. Retailer must be careful not to speculate on the price of propane when devising their pricing plans. They must be aware of the supply plans. Reliability is also expected by the propane customers. Some of the tips offered: a proper understanding of the differences that underlay electricity and propane marketing, and react accordingly; use marketing to build propane relationships; offer the service to current electric members first; experience is vital in the field of propane; know your numbers; risk management and supply marketing are notions worth knowing; and finally know the competition

  14. Propane a whole new frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, T. [Propane Resources, Mission, KS (United States)

    2001-09-01

    In the past, providing electric power in rural areas in America was accomplished in a pre-determined manner. Electric cooperatives acted as distribution companies that maintained poles and wires, and ensured that the rural customer (home, business, etc.) always had power. Things are about to change, due to electricity market deregulation and the emergence of distributed generation. Electric cooperatives are adjusting by moving to propane. The challenges facing electric cooperatives are a bit daunting. The cooperatives were customer-service oriented strongly committed to their region, where the customer had no other purchasing option. The electric cooperatives seldom deviated from their cost plus pricing plan. Suddenly, with the prospect of marketing propane, a number of retailers are after the same customers. The emphasis is now on customer service and pricing plans. Payment options and other services must be offered in addition to fair pricing to gain or retain a slight advantage that might make the difference between survival and bankruptcy. Retailer must be careful not to speculate on the price of propane when devising their pricing plans. They must be aware of the supply plans. Reliability is also expected by the propane customers. Some of the tips offered: a proper understanding of the differences that underlay electricity and propane marketing, and react accordingly; use marketing to build propane relationships; offer the service to current electric members first; experience is vital in the field of propane; know your numbers; risk management and supply marketing are notions worth knowing; and finally know the competition.

  15. New perspectives on auto propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the high level of propane use in vehicles in North America (relative to the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol), the alternate-fuel research and development activities of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are focusing on methanol, CNG, and electric vehicles. If OEM indifference to propane continues, propane vehicles will continue to be available only in after-market conversions, denying propane the benefits of OEM mass-production economics, quality control, retail distribution, and other factors. Recent developments in auto propane are reported which should be considered by OEMs and policymakers to allow propane to enter the mass-scale motor vehicle market. Propane and the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mix used as a motor vehicle fuel are often regarded as just a byproduct of natural gas production and oil refining, giving the impression that propane/LPG will not be available in sufficient quantities to support a mass market. It is shown that LPG supply is market-responsive and that over 20 billion gal of new supply could be made available from North American sources by the year 2000 and over 27 billion gal by 2005, sufficient to supply 12.5% of the projected North American vehicle fleet in 2005. The new supply would come from incremental expansion of existing production, displacement of LPG from lower-value uses, and LPG synthesis. The environmental performance of propane/LPG engines is also compared to that of engines running on gasoline, natural gas, and methanol. Advantages of LPG over gasoline include lower carbon content and lower CO emissions, and advantages over CNG arise from the high greenhouse gas activity and long life of methane. 12 figs

  16. The butane condensed matter conformational problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.C.J.; de Lange, C.A.; Meerts, W.L.; Burnell, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    From the dipolar couplings of orientationally ordered n-butane obtained by NMR spectroscopy we have calculated conformer probabilities using the modified Chord (Cd) and Size-and-Shape (CI) models to estimate the conformational dependence of the order matrix. All calculation methods make use of

  17. Study of vanadium based mesoporous silicas for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulánek, R.; Kalužová, A.; Setnička, M.; Zukal, Arnošt; Čičmanec, P.; Mayerová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 1 (2012), s. 149-158 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/0196 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : vanadium * oxidative dehydrogenation * mesoporous silicas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  18. Single Component and Competitive Adsorption of Propane, Carbon Dioxide and Butane on Vycor Glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Marković, A.; Uchytil, Petr; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2008), s. 1586-1601 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : porous media * gases * adsorption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.884, year: 2008

  19. An experimental propane bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozinski, A.

    1957-01-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [fr

  20. Propane Canada's first ever auto propane conversion directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A directory of auto propane dealers in Alberta, British Columbia and Manitoba was presented. Dealers in Calgary, Edmonton, Burnaby, Dawson Creek and Winnipeg were listed along with their addresses, phone numbers, fax, and E-mail addresses. Some of the other information provided included accreditation, equipment used and manufacturer brands used by the dealers

  1. Shape-dependent plasma-catalytic activity of ZnO nanomaterials coated on porous ceramic membrane for oxidation of butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Gandhi, M; Mok, Young Sun

    2014-12-01

    In order to explore the effects of the shape of ZnO nanomaterials on the plasma-catalytic decomposition of butane and the distribution of byproducts, three types of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoparticles (NPs), nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs)) were prepared and coated on multi-channel porous alumina ceramic membrane. The structures and morphologies of the nanomaterials were confirmed by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The observed catalytic activity of ZnO in the oxidative decomposition of butane was strongly shape-dependent. It was found that the ZnO NWs exhibited higher catalytic activity than the other nanomaterials and could completely oxidize butane into carbon oxides (COx). When using the bare or ZnO NPs-coated ceramic membrane, several unwanted partial oxidation and decomposition products like acetaldehyde, acetylene, methane and propane were identified during the decomposition of butane. When the ZnO NWs- or ZnO NRs-coated membrane was used, however, the formation of such unwanted byproducts except methane was completely avoided, and full conversion into COx was achieved. Better carbon balance and COx selectivity were obtained with the ZnO NWs and NRs than with the NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Canadian propane industry by the numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts from the 1997 'Canadian Propane Industry Statistical Review in Brief' are provided to illustrate propane production, transportation, industrial, automotive, agricultural, residential, commercial and public administration uses. Of the 12.67 billion litres of propane produced in Canada in 1997, approximately 60 per cent was exported to the United States at an average export price of 14.17 cents per litre. Total value of propane exports to the United States in 1997 exceeded one billion dollars. Ninety-five per cent of all propane produced in Canada originated from gas plants in Alberta. Major refinery production, as well as use as petrochemical feedstock was in Ontario, Alberta and Quebec

  3. Challenges of MTBE development from field butanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, F.

    1991-01-01

    Tenneco Natural Gas Liquids has embarked on a new project to produce Methyl Teritiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) form butanes as have several others. The Clean Air Act will provide the impetus for even more of these plants in the future. In fact, butanes have the potential to go form a surplus product situation today to an important product in the near future. So what follows are our ideas about what the MTBE business looks like form the standpoint of a new producer getting things underway. This paper reports that there are roughly six areas where a potential producer of MTBE or Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for that matter, should have concern. Your planning department should be aware of a source of feedstocks; have adequate storage planned; understand the technology involved and its related cost; be forearmed with an idea of location and its specific market opportunities; be prepared for significant environmental evaluation along with necessary contingency plans; and most importantly display a high degree of optimism as to future markets so as to minimize all of the aforementioned concerns

  4. Advances in propane ammoxidation catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada Silvy, R.; Grange, P. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Univ. Cathologique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2003-09-01

    Comparison of the catalytic performance of different propane ammoxidation catalyst systems from the patent literature is established in order to identify the most promising formulation towards process commercialization scale. Vanadium aluminum oxynitride material shows the highest acrylonitrile production level per hour and per amount of catalyst with respect to conventional vanadium-molybdate and vanadium- antimonate mixed oxide propane ammoxidation systems. Acrylonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile production from propane ammoxidation is the key factor for obtaining competitive advantages over current propylene technology. (orig.)

  5. State heating oil and propane program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The following is a report of New Hampshire's participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

  6. 21 CFR 184.1655 - Propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1655 Propane. (a) Propane (empirical formula C3H8, CAS Reg. No. 74-98-6) is also known as dimethylmethane or propyl hydrid. It is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas at normal...

  7. Propane supply picture: North American perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the North American propane supply and demand situation. Propane has a distribution network in place and a well established market. North America is virtually self-sufficient in propane with a market of over 1,000,000 bbl/d. Approximately 80% of Canada's propane supply is produced at gas plants in western Canada as a byproduct of natural gas production. The expansion in natural gas markets will mean that propane supply will rise further, unlike crude oil. Canada's daily supply of nearly 160,000 bbl is used for heating (30%), transport (12%), petrochemicals (7.8%), and enhanced oil recovery (4.7%), with the remainder being exported. Propane surpluses are expected to grow, between 70,000 and 100,000 bbl/d in the next 5 years. Nearly 30% of North America's demand for propane is in the petrochemical industry, for which various other feedstocks can be substituted. An availability of over 400,000 bbl/d could fuel ca 5 million vehicles. Only natural gas has a comparable infrastructure and this suffers from high utilization pressure and poor energy density. Wholesale propane is now available at under 9 cents/liter, significantly below the projected ethanol price of 18 cents/liter, which excludes grain feedstock or capital cost. 8 refs., 6 figs

  8. Trapping dynamics of isobutane, n-butane, and neopentane on Pt(111): Effects of molecular weight and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.F.; Madix, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular adsorption dynamics of isobutane, n-butane, and neopentane on Pt(111) was investigated using supersonic molecular beam techniques and stochastic trajectory calculations. Using the united atom approach, a single, pairwise-additive Morse Potential for methyl (methylene)- plantinum interactions quantitatively simulates the dependence of the initial trapping probability, α, on the initial translational energy, E T , and angle of incidence, θ i , for each alkane. For both isobutane and n-butane, the dependence of α on E T and θ i best scales with E T cos 0.8 θ i , which is similar to that found previously for ethane and propane trapping on Pt(111). The initial trapping probability of neopentane exhibits a more pronounced dependence on θ i , which scales according to E T cos 1.3 θ i . The simulations suggest that the enhanced angular dependence of α for neopentane is related to its molecular weight. As the mass of the incident species is increased, momentum transfer to the surface becomes more efficient than the interconversion of incident parallel and normal momentum due to corrugation of the surface potential. The net effect is an increase in the trapping probability at glancing incidence compared to lighter molecules, and a resulting shift in the angular dependence of α towards normal energy scaling. The calculations also predict that collisional energy transfer to rotation is important in promoting adsorption. For each molecule, rotational excitation is determined to be the most effective energy transfer process that discriminates trapping from scattering. In addition, translational energy transfer to torsional vibration about the central C - C bond is highly efficient for n-butane, and greatly facilitates adsorption. Less excitation is predicted for C - C - C bending modes for all of these molecules. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. A propane price spike nails users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milke, M.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in price for propane was discussed. In 1993, propane cost about 5 cents per litre; by December 1996, the price has risen to 27 cents wholesale, while retail prices for auto propane reached 40 cents per litre. As a result, farmers and fleet operators are considering switching to an alternative energy supply. The five factors which may have played a role in the propane price spike were described. These included a cold winter which lowered inventories, a Pemex gas plant in Mexico which had been damaged by fire, forcing Mexico to import natural gas and natural gas liquids from the USA, the failure of propane distributors to restock during the summer months in the hope of lower prices, and increased cost of competing fuels in the face of increased demand. It was noted that these factors are transitory, which could mean better prices this summer

  10. Biotreatment of ammonia- and butanal-containing waste gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckhuysen, B; Vriens, L; Verachtert, H

    1994-10-01

    The biological removal of ammonia and butanal in contaminated air was investigated by using, respectively, a laboratory-scale filter and a scrubber-filter combination. It was shown that ammonia can be removed with an elimination efficiency of 83% at a volumetric load of 100 m3.m-2.h-1 with 4-16 ppm of ammonia. During the experiment percolates were analysed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and pH. It was found that the nitrification in the biofilter could deteriorate due to an inhibition of Nitrobacter species, when the free ammonia concentration was rising in the percolate. It should be easy to control such inhibition through periodic analysis of the liquid phase by using a filter-scrubber combination. Such a combination was studied for butanal removal. Butanal was removed with an elimination efficiency of 80% by a scrubber-filter combination at a volumetric load of 100 m3.m-2.h-1 and a high butanal input concentration. Mixing the filter material with CaCO3 and pH control of the liquid in the scrubber resulted in an increase of the elimination efficiency. These results, combined with previous results on the biofiltration of butanal and butyric acid, allow us to discuss the influence of odour compounds on the removal efficiency of such systems and methods for control. The results were used to construct a full-size system, which is described.

  11. Butane-1,4-diyl bis(pyridine-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Muthukumaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C16H16N2O4, lies about an inversion centre; the butane chain adopts an extended zigzag conformation. The dihedral angle between the pyridine ring and the adjacent COO group is 3.52 (s14°.

  12. Elimination of butanal from odorous air by a labscale biofilter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Vriens, L.; Verachtert, H.

    1991-01-01

    Butanal was chosen as a model compound for testing the performance of biofilters. It's a member of an important class of odour compounds released by waste water treatment plants of animal rendering and food processing industry. The influence of nutrient supplementation has been investigated using

  13. Biotreatment of ammonia and butanal containing waste gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Vriens, L.; Verachtert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract The biological removal of ammonia and butanal in contaminated air was investigated by using, respectively, a laboratory-scale filter and a scrubber-filter combination. It was shown that ammonia can be removed with an elimination efficiency of 83% at a volumetric load of 100 m3·m–2·h–1 with

  14. Isomerization of 2-phospha-4-silabicyclo[1.10]butane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.C.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lammertsma, K.

    2004-01-01

    In analogy with the valence isomerism of the hydrocarbons bicyclobutane, 1,3-butadiene and cyclobutene, the rearrangements for 2-phospha-4-sila- bicyclo[1.1.0]butane were studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory. The monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphasilete is shown to be the thermodynamically

  15. 75 FR 14131 - Effect on Propane Consumers of the Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market Changes and Federal Programs AGENCY... Education and Research Council (PERC), in conjunction with the cumulative effects of market changes and... requirements under the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 that established PERC and requires the...

  16. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states

  17. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  18. Butane isomer separation with composite zeolite MFI mebranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabánek, Pavel; Zikánová, Arlette; Bernauer, B.; Fíla, V.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 245, 1-3 (2009), s. 437-443 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1443; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : zeolite MFI * membranes * separation * butane isomers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.034, year: 2009

  19. Thermophilic archaea activate butane via alkyl-coenzyme M formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso-Pérez, Rafael; Wegener, Gunter; Knittel, Katrin; Widdel, Friedrich; Harding, Katie J; Krukenberg, Viola; Meier, Dimitri V; Richter, Michael; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Riedel, Dietmar; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Adrian, Lorenz; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J; Musat, Florin

    2016-11-17

    The anaerobic formation and oxidation of methane involve unique enzymatic mechanisms and cofactors, all of which are believed to be specific for C 1 -compounds. Here we show that an anaerobic thermophilic enrichment culture composed of dense consortia of archaea and bacteria apparently uses partly similar pathways to oxidize the C 4 hydrocarbon butane. The archaea, proposed genus 'Candidatus Syntrophoarchaeum', show the characteristic autofluorescence of methanogens, and contain highly expressed genes encoding enzymes similar to methyl-coenzyme M reductase. We detect butyl-coenzyme M, indicating archaeal butane activation analogous to the first step in anaerobic methane oxidation. In addition, Ca. Syntrophoarchaeum expresses the genes encoding β-oxidation enzymes, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and reversible C 1 methanogenesis enzymes. This allows for the complete oxidation of butane. Reducing equivalents are seemingly channelled to HotSeep-1, a thermophilic sulfate-reducing partner bacterium known from the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Genes encoding 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M reductase similar to those identifying Ca. Syntrophoarchaeum were repeatedly retrieved from marine subsurface sediments, suggesting that the presented activation mechanism is naturally widespread in the anaerobic oxidation of short-chain hydrocarbons.

  20. Case Study - Propane Bakery Delivery Step Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-04-01

    A switch to propane from diesel by a major Midwest bakery fleet showed promising results, including a significant displacement of petroleum, a drop in greenhouse gases and a fuel cost savings of seven cents per mile, according to a study recently completed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory for the Clean Cities program.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    established infrastructure. Therefore, fueling vehicles with propane is one way to diversify U.S . transportation fuels and increase the nation's energy security in the process. Vehicle and Infrastructure Safety Administration, the National Fire Protection Association (Code 58), and state agencies like the

  2. Thermodynamic properties of gaseous propane from model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fourth-order virial equation of state was combined with isotropic model potentials to predict accurate volumetric and caloric thermodynamic properties of propane in the gas phase. The parameters in the model were determined in a fit to speed-of-sound data alone; no other data were used. The approximation employed for ...

  3. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  4. Aromatization of propane over MFI-gallosilicates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayense, C.R.; vd Pol, A.J.H.P.; Hooff, van J.H.C.

    1991-01-01

    The results of propane aromatization over gallium containing HZSM-5 zeolites are described. Highly dispersed gallium in the zeolite (framework or extra-framework) was found to possess dehydrogenation activity, especially in the presence of strong Brønsted acid sites. The extra-framework gallium was

  5. Swap your propane cylinder with SWOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A very successful propane cylinder exchange program operated by South Western Ontario Propane (SWOP) Inc., was described. The company specializes in propane cylinder exchange and in the refurbishing and marketing of top quality domestic and commercial propane cylinders. The company, currently operating out of Bradford, Ontario, was started in 1991. It employs a staff of 25 in peak season. It has some 200 exchange outlets throughout Ontario and has accepted outdated tanks from as far west as Manitoba and as far east as Quebec. A typical transaction involves bringing an empty cylinder to the nearest SWOP location and exchanging it for a full SWOP cylinder. SWOP does about 50,000 to 60,000 exchanges a year. For the consumer, the program is said to be cheaper, safer and more convenient than getting refills. As far as dealers are concerned operating a SWOP exchange outlet can add extra profits, attract new customers, and build additional consumer loyalty without the need for extra staff or additional indoor space. SWOP delivers full cylinders to exchange outlets on a weekly basis when it also picks up the empty cylinders. At dealer locations, the cylinders (full or empty) are stored in company -designed vandal-proof metal cages. Major expansion of the network of outlets and the cylinder refurbishing and refilling facilities are planned for 1998

  6. Understanding of the structure activity relationship of PtPd bimetallic catalysts prepared by surface organometallic chemistry and ion exchange during the reaction of iso-butane with hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shareef, Reem A.; Harb, Moussab; Saih, Youssef; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Roldan, Manuel A.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Guyonnet, Elodie Bile; Candy, Jean-Pierre; Jan, Deng-Yang; Abdo, Suheil F.; Aguilar-Tapia, Antonio; Proux, Olivier; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Well-defined silica supported bimetallic catalysts Pt100-x Pdx were prepared by Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) and Ionic-Exchange (IE) methods. For all investigated catalysts, iso-butane reaction with hydrogen under differential conditions led to the formation of methane and propane, n-butane, and traces of iso-butylene. The total reaction rate decreased with increasing the Pd loading for both catalysts series as a result of decreasing turnover rate of both isomerization and hydrogenolysis. In the case of Pt100-x Pdx(SOMC) catalysts, the experimental results in combination with DFT calculations suggested a selective coverage of Pt (1 0 0) surface by agglomerated Pd atoms like “islands”, assuming that each metal roughly keeps its intrinsic catalytic properties with relatively small electron transfer from Pt to Pd in the case of Pt-rich sample and from Pd to Pt in the case of Pd-rich sample. For the PtPd catalysts prepared by IE, the catalytic behavior could be explained by the formation of a surface alloy between Pt and Pd in the case of Pd-rich sample and by the segregation of a small amount of Pd on the surface in the case of Pt-rich sample, as demonstrated by TEM, EXAFS and DFT. The catalytic results were explained by a structure activity relationship based on the proposed mechanism of CH bond and CC bond activation and cleavage for iso-butane hydrogenolysis, isomerization, cracking and dehydrogenation.

  7. Understanding of the structure activity relationship of PtPd bimetallic catalysts prepared by surface organometallic chemistry and ion exchange during the reaction of iso-butane with hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Reem Abdul aziz Hamed

    2018-04-25

    Well-defined silica supported bimetallic catalysts Pt100-x Pdx were prepared by Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) and Ionic-Exchange (IE) methods. For all investigated catalysts, iso-butane reaction with hydrogen under differential conditions led to the formation of methane and propane, n-butane, and traces of iso-butylene. The total reaction rate decreased with increasing the Pd loading for both catalysts series as a result of decreasing turnover rate of both isomerization and hydrogenolysis. In the case of Pt100-x Pdx(SOMC) catalysts, the experimental results in combination with DFT calculations suggested a selective coverage of Pt (1 0 0) surface by agglomerated Pd atoms like “islands”, assuming that each metal roughly keeps its intrinsic catalytic properties with relatively small electron transfer from Pt to Pd in the case of Pt-rich sample and from Pd to Pt in the case of Pd-rich sample. For the PtPd catalysts prepared by IE, the catalytic behavior could be explained by the formation of a surface alloy between Pt and Pd in the case of Pd-rich sample and by the segregation of a small amount of Pd on the surface in the case of Pt-rich sample, as demonstrated by TEM, EXAFS and DFT. The catalytic results were explained by a structure activity relationship based on the proposed mechanism of CH bond and CC bond activation and cleavage for iso-butane hydrogenolysis, isomerization, cracking and dehydrogenation.

  8. Propane hydrate nucleation: Experimental investigation and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    supersaturation region. The experiments showed that the gas dissolution rate rather than the induction time of propane hydrate is influenced by a change in agitation. This was especially valid at high stirring rates when the water surface was severely disturbed.Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP......) to the aqueous phase was found to reduce the gas dissolution rate slightly. However the induction times were prolonged quite substantially upon addition of PVP.The induction time data were correlated using a newly developed induction time model based on crystallization theory also capable of taking into account...... the presence of additives. In most cases reasonable agreement between the data and the model could be obtained. The results revealed that especially the effective surface energy between propane hydrate and water is likely to change when the stirring rate varies from very high to low. The prolongation...

  9. Statistical data on butane and kerosene in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives statistical, technical and economical informations on butane and kerosene used in West Africa in 1990. In a first part, informations on gas and gas using are given: market, energy efficiency, performance, safety, distribution, storage, transport and commercialization. Statistical data on petroleum and natural gas production or consumption are also described. Natural gas and petroleum reserves in Africa are also studied. In the second part, thirty country entries give an economic analysis of each african country. 21 figs., 19 tabs., 5 maps

  10. 2,3-Bis[(3-methylbiphenyl-4-ylimino]butane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C30H28N2, is a product of the condensation reaction of 2-methyl-4-phenylaniline and butane-2,3-dione. The molecule lies on a crystallographic inversion centre. The C=N bond has an E conformation. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings of the 4-phenyl-2-methylphenyl group is 29.19 (76°. The 1,4-diazabutadiene plane makes an angle of 70.1 (10° with the N-bonded methylphenyl ring and an angle of 81.08 (97° with the terminal phenyl group.

  11. Biotreatment of ammonia and butanal containing waste gases

    OpenAIRE

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Vriens, L.; Verachtert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract The biological removal of ammonia and butanal in contaminated air was investigated by using, respectively, a laboratory-scale filter and a scrubber-filter combination. It was shown that ammonia can be removed with an elimination efficiency of 83% at a volumetric load of 100 m3·m–2·h–1 with 4–16 ppm of ammonia. During the experiment percolates were analysed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and pH. It was found that the nitrification in the biofilter could deteriorate due to an inhibitio...

  12. Canwest propane: Canwest Propane's newest terminal delivers the winning conditions for B.C. market expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    Opening of a new propane terminal in Surrey, BC by Canwest Propane Ltd., is reported. The facility is the first rail terminal opened by Canwest, and is intended to serve the greater Vancouver area, Vancouver island and the US Northwest, specifically Washington State. The Surrey location allows the company to service its business by rail, the most efficient method of getting product to the Lower Mainland. The facility sits on 4.5 acres of land; a CN rail track runs alongside the site, where six 30,000 gallon storage tanks are located. About 60 million litres of propane is expected to be distributed from the terminal, with further expansion anticipated both on Vancouver Island and in the US Northwest. photos

  13. Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Secco, Andrea; Selim, Hatem; Ju, Yiguang; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass

  14. Nebraska residential propane survey, Winter 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyon, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes information on propane prices for the October 1991/March 1992 heating season in Nebraska. From October through March participating propane distributors were contacted twice monthly by the Nebraska Energy Office to obtain their current residential (retail) prices of propane. This information was faxed to the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) biweekly in report format as prepared by the PEDRO system

  15. Mechanism of influence water vapor on combustion characteristics of propane-air mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sachovskii, A. V.; Kozar, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of an experimental study of the effect of water vapor at the flame temperature. Propane-butane mixture with air is burning on a modified Bunsen burner. Steam temperature was varied from 180 to 260 degrees. Combustion parameters changed by steam temperature and its proportion in the mixture with the fuel. The fuel-air mixture is burned in the excess air ratio of 0.1. It has been established that the injection of steam changes the characteristics of combustion fuel-air mixture and increase the combustion temperature. The concentration of CO in the combustion products is substantially reduced. Raising the temperature in the combustion zone is associated with increased enthalpy of the fuel by the added steam enthalpy. Reducing the concentration of CO is caused by decrease in the average temperature in the combustion zone by applying steam. Concentration of active hydrogen radicals and oxygen increases in the combustion zone. That has a positive effect on the process of combustion.

  16. 77 FR 2293 - AmeriGas Propane, L.P., AmeriGas Propane, Inc., Energy Transfer Partners, L.P., and Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... consumers. AmeriGas is the second largest supplier and marketer of propane exchange cylinders. ETP GP is a... Express division. Heritage Propane Express is the third largest supplier and marketer of propane exchange... Propane Express played the role of a disruptive ``maverick,'' offering lower prices and better terms and...

  17. Pyrolytic carbon coatings for nuclear fuels from commercial butane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrazek, I.D.; Abdelhalim, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium dioxide and graphite semi-spherical particles (average diameter = 300 um) were coated with pyrolytic carbon at relatively low temperatures (800 to 1200 0 C). The spouting gas was a mixture of commercial butane and nitrogen. The hydrocarbon served as a source for carbon whereas nitrogenated as a diluent and a support for the bed. The total gas flow rate was 3.5 lit/min and the hydrocarbon content varied from 3 to 10%. Coating efficiencies ranging from 4 to 25 percent were obtained. The densities of the coatings varied from 1.25 g/cm 3 (which corresponds to coatings of laminar microstructures) and 1.82 g/cm 3 (which suggests the formation of isotropic coatings. Metallographic examination (using polarized light) of the pyrolytic carbon formed at the experimental conditions indicated the possibility of using the coatings for nuclear fuel applications

  18. Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2018-02-02

    Ignition in low temperature combustion engines is governed by a coupling between low-temperature oxidation kinetics and diffusive transport. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the coupled effects of heat release, low-temperature oxidation chemistry, and molecular transport in cool flames is imperative to the advancement of new combustion concepts. This study provides an understanding of the low temperature cool flame behavior of butane isomers in the counterflow configuration through the addition of ozone. The initiation and extinction limits of butane isomers’ cool flames have been investigated under a variety of strain rates. Results revealed that, with ozone addition, establishment of butane cool diffusion flames was successful at low and moderate strain rates. iso-Butane has lower reactivity than n-butane, as shown by higher fuel mole fractions needed for cool flame initiation and lower extinction strain rate limits. Ozone addition showed a significant influence on the initiation and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass spectrometer. Numerical simulations were performed using a detailed chemical kinetic model and molecular transport to simulate the extinction limits of the cool diffusion flames of the tested fuels. The model qualitatively captured experimental trends for both fuels and ozone levels, but over-predicted extinction limits of the flames. Reactions involving low-temperature species predominantly govern extinction limits of cool flames. The simulations were used to understand the effects of methyl branching on the behavior of n-butane and iso-butane cool diffusion flames.

  19. Selective oxidation of propane over cation exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on investigation of the fundamental knowledge on a new method for selective oxidation of propane with O2 at low temperature (< 100°C). The relation between propane catalytic selective oxidation and physicochemical properties of cation exchanged Y zeolite has been studied. An

  20. Low temperature complete combustion of dilute propane over Mn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    propane (0.9% propane in air) over Mn-doped ZrO2 (cubic) catalysts. ... vigorous stirring at 30°C and a pH of 8, washing (with deionised water) and drying ... crystalline phases by XRD (using a Holland–Phillips, PW/1730 X-ray generator with.

  1. Bronsted acid-functionalized choline chloride-butane sultone for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P PADMA PRIYA

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... Choline chloride and 1,4-butane sultone were combined to obtain a sulphonic acid-functionalized ..... Knifton J F and Sanderson J R 1990 Method for produc- ... alkenes via the Knoevenagel condensation Tetrahedron. Lett.

  2. Selective conversion of butane into liquid hydrocarbon fuels on alkane metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Szeto, Kaï Chung; Hardou, Lucie; Merle, Nicolas; Basset, Jean-Marie; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean; Papaioannou, Charalambos; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    We report a selective direct conversion of n-butane into higher molecular weight alkanes (C 5+) by alkane metathesis reaction catalysed by silica-alumina supported tungsten or tantalum hydrides at moderate temperature and pressure. The product

  3. Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan; Cha, Min; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed

  4. Butane and kerosene in data. 26 economical, technical and practical charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    1990-01-01

    Collecting available informations on the butane and kerosene connections in Western African sahelian countries, the aim of this report with its 26 dossiers is to present economical, technical and practical data concerning butane and kerosene present (1990) and potential consumption, utilization and prices, with the overall objective to reduce wood consumption for domestic use. Regional and national data are given and compared. Oil prices, production and consumption in Western Africa are also examined

  5. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  6. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  7. Proud past and a new tomorrow : propane excellence program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Propane Excellence Program is a voluntary effort by companies and individuals who produce and market propane or transport propane on behalf of propane producers and marketers. It is being organized by the industry to allow for the realization of the full potential of propane as a safe and environmentally appropriate fuel. The program represents a new way of doing business by encouraging an industry-wide commitment to quality and performance. In terms of products, the program covers propane and propane transporting, storing, consuming and servicing products and services. A Code of Practice is currently being drawn up, and members will be asked to commit to the Code and implement it through a Quality Management Program. An annual fee-for-service-based audit of performance is envisaged. Expected benefits of the program include better management of costs, incident and accident reduction, greater customer satisfaction, increased credibility with government and the public, and greater employee satisfaction. Implementation is planned for June 30, 1998

  8. Proud past and a new tomorrow : propane excellence program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Propane Excellence Program is a voluntary effort by companies and individuals who produce and market propane or transport propane on behalf of propane producers and marketers. It is being organized by the industry to allow for the realization of the full potential of propane as a safe and environmentally appropriate fuel. The program represents a new way of doing business by encouraging an industry-wide commitment to quality and performance. In terms of products, the program covers propane and propane transporting, storing, consuming and servicing products and services. A Code of Practice is currently being drawn up, and members will be asked to commit to the Code and implement it through a Quality Management Program. An annual fee-for-service-based audit of performance is envisaged. Expected benefits of the program include better management of costs, incident and accident reduction, greater customer satisfaction, increased credibility with government and the public, and greater employee satisfaction. Implementation is planned for June 30, 1998.

  9. Changes in Atmospheric Butanes and Pentanes and Their Isomeric Ratios in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossabi, Sam; Helmig, Detlev

    2018-04-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons have been used as tracers in research on emissions and atmospheric oxidation chemistry. This research investigates source region mixing ratio trends of the nonmethane hydrocarbons i-butane, n-butane, i-pentane, and n-pentane, and the (i/n) isomeric ratios of these compounds between 2001 and 2015. Data collected at Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations, mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in ozone nonattainment areas, and data collected at Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network sites within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration network, and analyzed at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado-Boulder, were examined. Among all considered species, linear regression analyses on concentration time series had negative slopes at 81% of sites, indicating predominantly declining butane and pentane atmospheric concentrations. Mostly negative slopes (78% of sites) were found for the (i/n) butane and pentane isomeric ratios, including all six and seven statistically significant (i/n) butane and pentane trends, respectively. Over the 15 year investigation period and averaged over all sites, total relative changes were 30 and 45% for the (i/n) ratios of butanes and pentanes, respectively, with a relative increase in the prominence of the n-isomers. Most likely causes include changing isomeric ratios in gasoline sector emissions, and increasing influence of oil and natural gas industry emissions. Changes in concentrations and isomeric ratios depend on proximity of contributing emission sources to measurement sites.

  10. Development of manufacturing of low dew-point mixed gas of butane-air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Hitoshi

    1988-09-10

    A dehumidifying plant was installed to supply high-quality dehumidified butane-air mixed gas aiming at saving the heat required for vaporizing liquid butane by the heat exchange with the potential heat of air as well as the dehumidification of the air used for the mixed gas by cooling with the vaporizing latent heat of liquid butane. The plant has been smoothly operated since August, 1987. Butane sent from the air-dehumidifier is completely vaporized by hot water in the vaporizer and the vaporized butane ejected by the Venturi mixer to mix with the dehumidified air. The gas production capacity is 3000Nm/sup 3//h and the treating capacities of butane and air are 661 and 2339 Nm/sup 3//h, respectively. The dew point of the mixed gas is 18/sup 0/C under 0.7kg/cm/sup 2/G at atmospheric temperature of 38/sup 0/C subject to the operation of the plant only in hot and humid summer. It was demonstrated that the plant is characterized by low construction and operating costs, low level of noise and stable heat value of the product gas. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  11. MTBE, the evolution of a commodity and its impact on US butanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, members of the gas processing and natural gas liquids communities have watched with eager anticipation the growth and development of methyl tertiary butyl ether. MTBE, as it is more commonly known, is a motor fuel oxygenate and octane enhancer. Not too long ago there were several butane-based MTBE plants in the engineering or construction phase and many more were on the drawing board. At one time the demand outlook for butanes that could potentially be consumed by existing and planned butane-based MTBE facilities exceeded 150,000 b/d. That outlook has been downgraded substantially over the past two years as technical and economic factors forced several companies to scrap their plans for worldscale butane-based MTBE plants. A look at the evolution of MTBE as a commodity may explain what has happened, and why demand for butanes by this market sector is no longer as promising as it was only two short years ago. This paper reviews first the impact that government regulations and legislation played in creating the need for MTBE. This will be followed by a discussion of how subsequent proposals and legislation have led to downward revisions in the US outlook for MTBE and butanes

  12. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  13. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  14. Combustion Characteristics of Butane Porous Burner for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the utilization of a porous burner for thermoelectric power generation. The porous burner was tested with butane gas using two sets of configurations: single layer porcelain and a stacked-up double layer alumina and porcelain. Six PbSnTe thermoelectric (TE modules with a total area of 54 cm2 were attached to the wall of the burner. Fins were also added to the cold side of the TE modules. Fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied between the blowoff and flashback limit and the corresponding temperature, current-voltage, and emissions were recorded. The stacked-up double layer negatively affected the combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.20 to 0.42, but single layer porcelain shows diminishing trend in the equivalence ratio of 0.60 to 0.90. The surface temperature of a stacked-up porous media is considerably higher than the single layer. Carbon monoxide emission is independent for both porous media configurations, but moderate reduction was recorded for single layer porcelain at lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. Nitrogen oxides is insensitive in the lean fuel-air equivalence ratio for both configurations, even though slight reduction was observed in the rich region for single layer porcelain. Power output was found to be highly dependent on the temperature gradient.

  15. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  16. C-H and C-C activation of n -butane with zirconium hydrides supported on SBA15 containing N-donor ligands: [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiX-)ZrH2], [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiX-)2ZrH], and[(≡SiN=)(≡SiX-)ZrH] (X = -NH-, -O-). A DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to elucidate the mechanism of n-butane hydrogenolysis (into propane, ethane, and methane) on well-defined zirconium hydrides supported on SBA15 coordinated to the surface via N-donor surface pincer ligands: [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiO-)ZrH2] (A), [(≡SiNH-)2ZrH2] (B), [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiO-) 2ZrH] (C), [(≡SiNH-)2(≡SiO-)ZrH] (D), [(≡SiN=)(≡Si-O-)ZrH] (E), and [(≡SiN=)(≡SiNH-)ZrH] (F). The roles of these hydrides have been investigated in C-H/C-C bond activation and cleavage. The dihydride A linked via a chelating [N,O] surface ligand was found to be more active than B, linked to the chelating [N,N] surface ligand. Moreover, the dihydride zirconium complexes are also more active than their corresponding monohydrides C-F. The C-C cleavage step occurs preferentially via β-alkyl transfer, which is the rate-limiting step in the alkane hydrogenolysis. The energetics of the comparative pathways over the potential energy surface diagram (PES) reveals the hydrogenolysis of n-butane into propane and ethane. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  17. Basic nuclear data and reactor shielding design formulaire PROPANE Do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiot, J.C.; Salvatores, M.; Trapp, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a calculational scheme - formulaire PROPANE - to calculate the deep neutron penetration in the fast reactor shield. The emphasis is put on the multigroup data and method approximations. The performances of this formulaire are presented

  18. Demonstration of a Fast, Precise Propane Measurement Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahniser, M. S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Nelson, D. D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Propane is one of the primary components of emissions from natural gas extraction and processing activities. In addition to being an air pollutant, its ratio to other hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane can serve as a "fingerprint" of a particular facility or process, aiding in identifying emission sources. Quantifying propane has typically required laboratory analysis of flask samples, resulting in low temporal resolution and making plume-based measurements infeasible. Here we demonstrate fast (1-second), high precision (infrared spectroscopy at 2967 wavenumbers. In addition, we explore the impact of nearby water and ethane absorption lines on the accuracy and precision of the propane measurement. Finally, we discuss development of a dual-laser instrument capable of simultaneous measurements of methane, ethane, and propane (the C1-C3 compounds), all within a small spatial package that can be easily deployed aboard a mobile platform.

  19. Extraction of butan-1-ol from water with ionic liquids at T = 308.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domańska, Urszula; Królikowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The LLE ternary phase diagrams with ionic liquids were measured. ► Separation of butan-1-ol/water system with tetracyanoborate-based ILs. ► Low solubility of water in [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] was observed. ► [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] is proposed for possible use in separation of butan-1-ol from aqueous phase. - Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel green solvents that can be proposed for removing butan-1-ol from the aqueous fermentation media. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data are presented for {ionic liquid (1) + butan-1-ol (2) + water (3)} at T = 308.15 K and ambient pressure to analyze the performance of the ionic liquid (IL) in the extraction of butan-1-ol from aqueous phase. The tetracyanoborate-based ILs have been studied: 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, ([HMIM][TCB]), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, ([DMIM][TCB]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetracyanoborate, ([P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB]). The results are discussed in terms of the selectivity and distribution ratio of separation of related systems. The complete miscibility in the binary liquid systems of butan-1-ol with all used ILs was observed. The imidazolium cation in comparison with phosphonium cation shows lower selectivity and distribution ratio. The IL with the longer alkyl chain at the cation shows higher selectivity and distribution ratio in this process. The non-random two liquid NRTL model was used successfully to correlate the experimental tie-lines and to calculate the phase composition error in mole fraction in the ternary systems. The average root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the phase composition was 0.0027. The data presented here indicates the usefulness of [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] as a solvent for the separation of butan-1-ol from water using solvent extraction. The density of [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] was measured as a function of temperature.

  20. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  1. Incineration of oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Experimental study and kinetic modeling of the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol in methane flames; Incineration de composes organiques volatils oxygenes. Etude experimentale et modelisation cinetique de l'oxydation de la methyl ethyl cetone, de l'acetate d'ethyle et du butan-2-ol dans des flammes de methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, V

    2000-12-01

    This work deals with the low pressure (0.05 atm) degradation of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs): methyl-ethyl-ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol, in premixed stoichiometric laminar methane flames seeded with 1 to 3% of each VOC. Molar fraction profiles of species have been obtained using microprobe sampling coupled with a gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy analysis. Temperature profiles have been obtained using the covered thermocouple technique in the presence of the microprobe. The addition of a VOC in the initial reagents mixture leads to an increase of the quantity of intermediate hydrocarbon compounds and in particular of some soot precursor species. The degradation of VOCs leads to the formation of oxygenated intermediates like methanol, dimethyl-ether, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone and vinyl acetate, the type of VOC having an effect on the quantities produced. The degradation of a VOC can lead to the formation of more toxic or polluting compounds (methyl vinyl ketone, acetic acid and acrolein) than the VOC itself. In the conditions of the study, the intermediate compounds are totally destructed inside the reactional area of the flame front and are no more present in the burnt gases. Sub-mechanisms of VOC oxidation have been developed using experimental observations and the most recent recommendations of the literature. These sub-mechanisms comprise 49 species involved in 241 elementary reactions. Their validation has been performed by comparing the experiment with the kinetic modeling on the molar fraction profiles of the detected species. Experimental data are well reproduced by the model for most species. The addition of a VOC inside the initial reagents mixture creates an important reactivity increase, in particular in the case of butan-2-ol seeded flames. The analysis of reactional ways has permitted to draw out the main reactions responsible for the degradation of the 3 VOCs and the ways of formation and consumption of the

  2. Detection of butane gas inhalation at 16days after hypoxic encephalopathy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takako; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Kento; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Saito, Takashi; Abe, Shuntaro; Nomura, Masakatsu; Kitagawa, Misa; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    In Japan, there are increasing reports of death by poisoning following butane abuse. To determine the specific cause of death in such cases, it is important to confirm the presence of fuel gas components in the body, although careful analysis is required because of their volatile properties. In most reported cases, the subject died suddenly during or immediately after butane aspiration. Thus, the butane concentration in the samples from the deceased should be relatively high. Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old man found with cardiopulmonary arrest, who then exhibited hypoxic encephalopathy for 16days in a hospital. At autopsy, we detected hypoxic encephalopathy, pneumonia, and ischemia-reperfusion injury of the myocardium, while the cause of cardiac arrest remained unclear. Toxicological analysis was then performed for fuel gas components in several specimens collected at autopsy. Results showed that n-butane and isobutane were detected in the adipose tissue at 16days after inhalation, indicating a role of butane gas inhalation as the cause of death. These data suggest that adipose tissue may be the most appropriate analysis sample to be collected at postmortem in cases where involvement of volatile and fat-soluble gas inhalation is suspected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  4. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  5. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  6. Easy to use plastic optical fiber-based biosensor for detection of butanal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    Full Text Available The final goal of this work is to achieve a selective detection of butanal by the realization of a simple, small-size and low cost experimental approach. To this end, a porcine odorant-binding protein was used in connection with surface plasmon resonance transduction in a plastic optical fiber tool for the selective detection of butanal by a competitive assay. This allows to reduce the cost and the size of the sensing device and it offers the possibility to design a "Lab-on-a-chip" platform. The obtained results showed that this system approach is able to selectively detect the presence of butanal in the concentration range from 20 μM to 1000 μM.

  7. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-​Butane: Activity and Kinetics Over VOx​/Al2O3 Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madaan, N.; Haufe, R.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of a VOx/Al2O3 catalyst for the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-​butane is investigated. The effects of reaction temp., oxygen to n-​butane ratio and GHSV on the catalytic performance are examd. and optimized. Interestingly, this simple catalyst gives good conversion and

  8. A Selected-Ion-Flow-Drift-Tube Study of Charge Transfer Processes between Atomic, Molecular, and Dimer Ion Projectiles and Polyatomic Molecules Ethane, Propane, and n-Butane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Praxmarer, C.; Hansel, A.; Lindinger, W.; Herman, Zdeněk

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (1998), s. 4246-4251 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/0351 Grant - others:FFWF(AT) P12429 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.147, year: 1998

  9. Removal of small hydrocarbons (ethane, propane, butane) from natural gas streams using the ionic 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Mota Martinez, M.T.; Berrouk, A.S.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    From our earlier work it was found that the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]) shows a very high carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility and a low methane (CH4) solubility, with the consequence that this ionic liquid has a high CO2/CH4

  10. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  11. Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asuquo, R.A.; Asuquo, R.A.; Mirth, G.C.; Mirth, G.C.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Lercher, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion ofn-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic

  12. Equilibrium studies on butane-1,4-diamine extraction with 4-nonylphenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, Agnieszka; Tansaz, Ashkan; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, André B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extraction of butane-1,4-diamine (BDA) from aqueous solutions with undiluted 4-nonylphenol (4NP) has been studied at three temperatures (298 K, 310 K and 323 K) in a batch system. A reactive extraction model based on mass action law was applied to describe the experimental data.

  13. Mechanism of n-butane hydrogenolysis promoted by Ta-hydrides supported on silica

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    (III)H is rapidly trapped by molecular hydrogen to form the more stable tris-hydride (≡ Si-O-) 2Ta(V)H3. Loading of n-butane to the Ta-center occurs through C-H activation concerted with elimination of molecular hydrogen (σ-bond metathesis). Once the Ta

  14. Structure-activity correlations for TON, FER and MOR in the hydroisomerization of n-butane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    n-Butane hydroconversion was studied over (Pt-loaded) molecular sieves with TON, FER, and MOR morphology. The conversion occurs via a complex interplay of mono- and bimolecular bifunctional acid mechanism and monofunctional platinum-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Hydroisomerization occurs bimolecularly

  15. Hydrogen/Denterium exchange during n.butane conversion on H-ZSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narbeshuber, T.; Narbeshuber, Thomas F.; Stockenhuber, Michael; Brait, Axel; Brait, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Steady-state isotope tracer studies and isotope transient response experiments ofn-butane conversion on H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 35) were carried out between 673 and 823 K. Among the three main reactions, the rate of H/D-exchange is at least one order of magnitude higher compared to the rates of cracking or

  16. Selective conversion of butane into liquid hydrocarbon fuels on alkane metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Szeto, Kaï Chung

    2012-01-01

    We report a selective direct conversion of n-butane into higher molecular weight alkanes (C 5+) by alkane metathesis reaction catalysed by silica-alumina supported tungsten or tantalum hydrides at moderate temperature and pressure. The product is unprecedented, asymmetrically distributed towards heavier alkanes. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  18. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  19. State heating oil and propane price survey: A review of Winter 1995/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Thirty heating oil dealers and fifteen propane dealers serving Massachusetts customers were surveyed on a bi-weekly basis to monitor heating oil and propane prices. Tables present high, low, and average price for heating oil and propane every two weeks from October 2nd to March 18th. The paper briefly discusses fuel shortages and weather

  20. Risk from transportation and handling of butane; Etude de cas: jusqu`ou quantifier les risques lies aux facteurs humains ? Application au transport routier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, B.; Celier, J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results and recommendations derived from a detailed assessment of a butane supply and butane transportation system. Based on a hazard and operability (HAZOP) study performed earlier, the need to undertake a more detailed assessment of the risks associated with the handling and transport of butane for the maleic anhydride (MAN) unit at a site was identified in order to ensure that all reasonable risk mitigation actions had been evaluated. Therefore, PLG initiated this study to quantify the likelihood and consequences of butane releases. The scope of the risk assessment includes all operations and activities with the handling and transport of butane, including: loading of butane trucks at the butane loading terminal; transport of butane by tank truck from the loading terminal to the plant site; unloading of the butane into the MAN unit storage sphere. Risks were quantified in terms of the likelihood of butane releases that could leas to a fire (pool or vapor cloud), an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE), or a boiling expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), and the consequences of such releases in terms of the potential impact on both plant workers and the general public who live or work near the butane loading terminal, the transport route, or the plant site. (author)

  1. Carbon nanotube synthesis from propane decomposition on a pre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was performed by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) of propane on Si(111) with a pre-treated Ni overlayer acting as a catalyst. Prior to the growth of CNTs, a thin film of Ni was deposited on Si(111) substrate by evaporation and heat treated at 900°C. The growth ...

  2. Experimental study and modelization of a propane storage tank depressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania

    1995-01-01

    The risks associated with the fast depressurization of propane storage tanks reveals the importance of the 'source term' determination. This term is directly linked, among others, to the characteristics of the jet developed downstream of the breach. The first aim of this work was to provide an original data bank concerning drop velocity and diameter distributions in a propane jet. For this purpose, a phase Doppler anemometer bas been implemented on an experimental set-up. Propane blowdowns have been performed with different breach sizes and several initial pressures in the storage tank. Drop diameter and velocity distributions have been investigated at different locations in the jet zone. These measurements exhibited the fragmentation and vaporisation trends in the jet. The second aim of this work concerned the 'source term'. lt required to study the coupling between the fluid behaviour inside the tank and the flow through the breach. This model took into account the phase exchange when flashing occurred in the tank. The flow at the breach was described with an homogeneous relaxation model. This coupled modelization has been successfully and exhaustively validated. lt originality lies on the application to propane flows. (author) [fr

  3. Propane Oxidation at High Pressure and Intermediate Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    Propane oxidation at intermediate temperatures (500—900 K) and high pressure (100 bar) has been characterized by conducting experiments in a laminar flow reactor over a wide range of stoichiometries. The onset of fuel oxidation was found to be 600—725 K, depending on mixture stoichiometry...

  4. Propylene/propane mixture adsorption on faujasite sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Miltenburg, A.; Gascon, J.; Zhu, W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of propylene and propane on zeolite NaX with and without a saturated (36 wt%) amount of CuCl have been investigated. The single component adsorption isotherms could be well described with a Dual-Site Langmuir model. The dispersion of CuCl results in a decrease of the maximum

  5. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  6. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  7. Giant Syncrude oilsand plant a prodigious user of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 13 per cent of Canada's petroleum requirements are met by the huge Syncrude plant in northern Alberta, the largest producer of crude from oilsands in the world and the largest source producer in Canada. The plant is located just north of Fort McMurray northeast of Edmonton. The operation of the plant relies in a very large part on the use of propane. Scattered on the site are 130 propane tanks. The pumphouse is equipped with four 1,000-gallon tanks, and the mobile Sundog heaters in the mine site are equipped with a number of 420-pound tanks that supply the required power. The yearly maintenance program requires the use of an additional 80 to 90 tanks that are brought on the site for that purpose. All told, two million litres of propane are used yearly at the plant. Heating the facilities and equipment is the main use for the propane. For example, heating the draglines (25-storey high and a bucket as large as a two-car garage) that scoop the oilsand and transport it for processing necessitate the use of several 20-pound and 40-pound propane-powered tiger torches. However, large trucks and shovels, part of an innovative transport system called hydro transport, will soon replace the draglines. This new method eliminates the need for draglines, bucket wheels, conveyer systems and conditioning tumblers by mixing the oilsand with water for transportation by pipeline. The first step of the extraction process, the conditioning, occurs in the pipeline. Upon reaching the extraction plant, the mixture is directed into the separation vessels. Without an increase in energy usage or carbon dioxide emissions, Syncrude is able to increase its extraction activity by switching to hydro transport. The requirement for propane is still present as the bottom of the slurry has to be heated for transport. Some basic facts concerning Syncrude and its operation were presented, as well as an overview of the oilsand business, its history and its financial results. For example

  8. Enhancement of LNG plant propane cycle through waste heat powered absorption cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.; Mortazavi, A.; Eveloy, V.; Al-Hashimi, S.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R.

    2012-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants utilizing sea water for process cooling, both the efficiency and production capacity of the propane cycle decrease with increasing sea water temperature. To address this issue, several propane cycle enhancement approaches are investigated in this study, which require minimal modification of the existing plant configuration. These approaches rely on the use of gas turbine waste heat powered water/lithium bromide absorption cooling to either (i) subcool propane after the propane cycle condenser, or (ii) reduce propane cycle condensing pressure through pre-cooling of condenser cooling water. In the second approach, two alternative methods of pre-cooling condenser cooling water are considered, which consist of an open sea water loop, and a closed fresh water loop. In addition for all cases, three candidate absorption chiller configurations are evaluated, namely single-effect, double-effect, and cascaded double- and single-effect chillers. The thermodynamic performance of each propane cycle enhancement scheme, integrated in an actual LNG plant in the Persian Gulf, is evaluated using actual plant operating data. Subcooling propane after the propane cycle condenser is found to improve propane cycle total coefficient of performance (COP T ) and cooling capacity by 13% and 23%, respectively. The necessary cooling load could be provided by either a single-effect, double-effect or cascaded and single- and double-effect absorption refrigeration cycle recovering waste heat from a single gas turbine operated at full load. Reducing propane condensing pressure using a closed fresh water condenser cooling loop is found result in propane cycle COP T and cooling capacity enhancements of 63% and 22%, respectively, but would require substantially higher capital investment than for propane subcooling, due to higher cooling load and thus higher waste heat requirements. Considering the present trend of short process enhancement payback periods in the

  9. Incineration of oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Experimental study and kinetic modeling of the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol in methane flames; Incineration de composes organiques volatils oxygenes. Etude experimentale et modelisation cinetique de l'oxydation de la methyl ethyl cetone, de l'acetate d'ethyle et du butan-2-ol dans des flammes de methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, V.

    2000-12-01

    This work deals with the low pressure (0.05 atm) degradation of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs): methyl-ethyl-ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol, in premixed stoichiometric laminar methane flames seeded with 1 to 3% of each VOC. Molar fraction profiles of species have been obtained using microprobe sampling coupled with a gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy analysis. Temperature profiles have been obtained using the covered thermocouple technique in the presence of the microprobe. The addition of a VOC in the initial reagents mixture leads to an increase of the quantity of intermediate hydrocarbon compounds and in particular of some soot precursor species. The degradation of VOCs leads to the formation of oxygenated intermediates like methanol, dimethyl-ether, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone and vinyl acetate, the type of VOC having an effect on the quantities produced. The degradation of a VOC can lead to the formation of more toxic or polluting compounds (methyl vinyl ketone, acetic acid and acrolein) than the VOC itself. In the conditions of the study, the intermediate compounds are totally destructed inside the reactional area of the flame front and are no more present in the burnt gases. Sub-mechanisms of VOC oxidation have been developed using experimental observations and the most recent recommendations of the literature. These sub-mechanisms comprise 49 species involved in 241 elementary reactions. Their validation has been performed by comparing the experiment with the kinetic modeling on the molar fraction profiles of the detected species. Experimental data are well reproduced by the model for most species. The addition of a VOC inside the initial reagents mixture creates an important reactivity increase, in particular in the case of butan-2-ol seeded flames. The analysis of reactional ways has permitted to draw out the main reactions responsible for the degradation of the 3 VOCs and the ways of formation and consumption of the

  10. Direct synthesis of iso-butane from synthesis gas or CO2 over CuZnZrAl/Pd-β hybrid catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congming Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various factors on the catalytic performance of iso-butane formation over CuZnZrAl/Pd-β hybrid catalyst via synthesis gas or CO2 hydrogenation has been deeply investigated in this work. It was interesting to note that the iso-butane/n-butane ratio value was much higher than that of thermodynamic equilibrium (about 1/1, whose value was directly related to the reaction condition using this hybrid catalyst. In order to further clearly clarify this finding, various experimental reaction factors were selected to investigate the formation of iso-butane. The results revealed that increasing temperature, H2/COx, CO2/COx, and/or Pd loading possessed an inhibiting effect on the iso-butane yield. High selectivity of iso-butane could be achieved by increasing the reaction pressure, W/F and the weight ratio of CuZnZrAl methanol catalyst to Pd-β catalyst. It is also noted that the addition of water seriously suppressed the reaction activity, resulting in the low ratio of iso-butane/n-butane. A possible reaction route was elucidated based on the latest results. This might shed light on the development of a high efficient catalyst for iso-butane production from synthesis gas or CO2 hydrogenation. Keywords: Iso-butane, Synthesis gas, CO2, CuZnZrAl/Pd-β hybrid catalyst

  11. Structure of deformable diatomic molecules: a modified n-butane liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seanea; Kim, Soonchul; Lee, Songhi

    2005-01-01

    The density functional approximation for polyatomic molecules, which is based on the bridge function of the intermolecular interaction, was developed and applied to investigate the thermodynamic and the structural properties of deformable diatomic molecules. The Percus trick was employed to calculate the uniform structure of modified n-butane. The calculated static correlation functions were used to predict the density behaviors of a modified n-butane liquid at liquid-solid interfaces. The theoretical results show that (i) at low densities, the hypernetted-chain (HNC) equation compares with the density functional approximation based on the bridge function and that (ii) the relative population between the gauche and the trans states strongly affects the liquid structure at liquid-solid interfaces.

  12. Activity of bimetallic catalysts (Pt + Me)/A12030 in butane hydrogenolysis and benzene hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkov, B.B.; Rubinov, A.Z.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluate the decomposing and hydrogenating activity of some Me/Al 2 0 3 0 and (Pt + Me)/Al 203 catalysis for the reactions of butane hydrogenolysis and conversion of benzene to cyclohexane. The temperature was 180-300 C for butane transformation and 150 C for benzene hydrogenation. During both reactions some initial decrease of catalytic activity which stabilized over 2-3 h was observed. The results show that roasting Re-containing reforming catalysts at fairly high temperatures (500-550 C) balances maximum hydrogenating and average splitting activities, thus guaranteeing high resistance to coke deposition while preserving the necessary selectivity. The decreased hydrogenating capacity of Ir/A1 2 0 3 0 and (Pt + Ir)/A1 23 0 catalysts after roasting at 500 C indicates insufficient thermal stability, which can be why renewing the initial activity of iridium containing forming catalysts by oxidating regeneration is difficult

  13. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Supported Chromium Oxide Catalysts: Reactivity Studies with Methanol and Butane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.

    1996-01-01

    The interactions of methanol and butane with supported chromium oxide catalysts under oxidizing and reducing conditions were studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy as a function of the specific oxide support (Al2O3, ZrO2, TiO2, SiO2, Nb2O5, 3% SiO2/TiO2, 3% TiO2/SiO2, and a physical mixture of SiO2

  14. The liquid phase oxidation of n-butane: a search for plausible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, C.C. [Celanese Ltd., TX (United States). Corpus Christi Technical Center

    1998-12-31

    This articles deals with an approach that has given some key information about the mechanisms of the liquid phase oxidation of butane to acetic acid. This procedure has been developed over the last 34 years; however, much of what will be discussed represents a synthesis of previous insights. Many of the observations are relatively recent and have not been previously published. In principle, this approach should be applicable to many oxidation processes. (orig.)

  15. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R.; Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system (γ-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  16. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Hense, Haiko [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system ({gamma}-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  17. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2017-03-21

    A six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the interaction of two rigid propane molecules was determined from supermolecular ab initio calculations up to the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations level of theory for 9452 configurations. An analytical site-site potential function with 14 sites per molecule was fitted to the calculated interaction energies. To validate the analytical PES, the second virial coefficient and the dilute gas shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of propane were computed. The dispersion part of the potential function was slightly adjusted such that quantitative agreement with the most accurate experimental data for the second virial coefficient at room temperature was achieved. The adjusted PES yields values for the three properties that are in very good agreement with the best experimental data at all temperatures.

  18. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  19. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. Development of producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point. Energy saving dewatering apparatus and 6A-Gas producing apparatus utilizing vaporization latent heat of butane and potential heat of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Jin; Okada, Hiroto; Taniue, Nobuo; Tanoue, Keiju; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Maekawa, Hisami; Murakami, Keiji

    1988-02-10

    A producing equipment of mixed butane-air with low dew point was developed. The dewatering was made during the period from the middle of May to the middle of October with high atmospheric humidity. The production capacity of the mixed gas is 3000 Nm/sup 3/ of 22% of butane and 78% of air per hour. The designed dew point is 18/sup 0/C or less under the pressure of 0.7 kg/cm/sup 2/G. The saturation temperature is 7.5/sup 0/C after the liquid butane is evacuated by a regulating valve. The air introduced into the dehumidifier through finned tubes is cooled to dewater based on those data. The partially vaporized butane is completely gasified by hot water in a vaporizer and mixed with the dewatered air by a venture mixer to produce the mixed butane-air. When the dewatering is incomplete, the spray nozzle must be just exchanged. The dew point of the produced gas was sufficiently below the designed value. The investment cost is low. The total operating cost is reduced by the remarkably decreased fuel cost though the power cost is increased. The noise level is low and the heat control is easy. (11 figs, 4 tabs, 1 photo)

  1. The LP [liquefied petroleum] gas industry and auto-propane: Toward an integrated North American strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtze, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    The auto propane industry began in Canada in the 1980s as a result of government policies favoring alternate fuels. Total propane demand is ca 4.1 billion liters, with over 30% of this demand in the automotive fuel market. This market is concentrated in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta. The total number of propane-powered vehicles in Canada is ca 140,000, the number of propane service stations is over 5,000, and there are ca 850 shops where automobiles can be converted to run on propane. The number of conversions was 15,000 in 1992, down from nearly 23,000 in 1991. The cost of conversion ranges from $1,500 to $2,000. The advantages of propane over gasoline is lower emissions, notably in cold weather, and good performance. To maintain propane's environmental advantage, initiatives are being led by the Canadian Auto Propane Council to develop a multifaceted technical strategy. This strategy includes cooperation with the auto industry to encourage original equipment manufacture of a propane car, participation in gaseous and liquid fuel injection projects designed to permit vehicle conversion, introduction of a stand-alone automatic stop fill valve to eliminate emissions in the filling process, and research on conversion of medium- and heavy-duty engines. Cooperation with the industry in the USA is also recommended

  2. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  3. Ozone Activated Cool Diffusion Flames of Butane Isomers in a Counterflow Facility

    KAUST Repository

    Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz

    2017-04-01

    Proceeding from the aim to reduce global pollution emissions from the continuous burning of hydrocarbons stimulated by increasing energy demand, more efficient and ultra-low emissions’ combustion concepts such as the homogenous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) have been developed. These new engines rely on the low temperature chemistry (LTC) combustion concept. A detailed investigation of the properties of cool flames, governed by LTC, is essential for the design of these new engines. The primary goal of this work was to build a fundamental counterflow experiment for cool flames studies in a diffusive system, to better understand combustion in LTC engines. The project was intended to provide a basic understanding of the low-temperature reactivity and cool flames properties of butane isomers under atmospheric pressure conditions. This was achieved by establishing self-sustaining cool flames through a novel technique of ozone addition to an oxygen stream in a non-premixed counterflow model. The ignition and extinction limits of butane isomers’ cool flames have been investigated under a variety of strain rates. Results revealed that establishment of cool flames are favored at lower strain rates. Iso-butane was less reactive than n-butane by showing higher ignition and extinction limits. Ozone addition showed a significant influence on cool flame ignition and sustenance; it was found that increasing ozone concentration in the oxidizer stream dramatically increased the reactivity of both fuels. Results showed increased fuel reactivity as the temperature of the fuel stream outlet increased. 4 A numerical analysis was performed to simulate ignition and extinction of the cool flame in diffusive systems. The results revealed that ignition and extinction limits of cool flames are predominantly governed by LTC. The model qualitatively captured experimental trends for both fuels; however, it overpredicted both ignition and extinction limits under all strain rates

  4. Viscosities of binary mixtures of toluene with butan-1-ol and 2-methylpropan-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE DUMITRESCU

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The viscosities of binary liquid mixtures of toluene with butan-1-ol and 2-methylpropan-2-ol have been determined at 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K over the whole concentration range. The Hind, Grunberg–Nissan, Wijk, Auslander and McAllister models were used to calculate the viscosity coefficients and these were compared with the experimental data for the mixtures. Excess viscosities were also calculated and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. Various thermodynamic properties of viscous flow activation were determined and their variations with composition are discussed.

  5. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    OpenAIRE

    Bender,J. P.; Junges,A.; Franceschi,E.; Corazza,F. C.; Dariva,C.; Oliveira,J. Vladimir; Corazza,M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (L...

  6. Molecular dynamics studies of the melting of butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on the basal-plane surface of graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Newton, J. C.; Taub, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of molecular steric properties on the melting of quasi-two-dimensional solids is investigated by comparing results of molecular dynamics simulations of the melting of butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on the basal-plane surface of graphite. These molecules differ only in their length......, being members of the n-alkane series [CH3(CH2)n−2CH3] where n=4 for butane and n=6 for hexane. The simulations employ a skeletal model, which does not include the hydrogen atoms explicitly, to represent the intermolecular and molecule–substrate interactions. Nearest-neighbor intramolecular bonds...... are fixed in length, but the molecular flexibility is preserved by allowing the bend and dihedral torsion angles to vary. The simulations show a qualitatively different melting behavior for the butane and hexane monolayers consistent with neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. The melting of the low...

  7. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  8. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  9. Propan-1-ol Oxidation Reaction on Au/TiO2 Catalysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... a decomposition pathway, producing CO2 and H2O. However, the presence of gold ... complete oxidation reaction of propan-1-ol on the catalysts. Keywords: Gold Catalysis ... flowed at a rate of 30 mL min-1. Propan- o-l was.

  10. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  11. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide based ionic liquids + butan-1-ol + water}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał; Gawkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 ionic liquid + butanol + water systems. • The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase diagrams is discussed. • Influence of IL structure on S and β for butanol/water separation is discussed. - Abstract: Ternary (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria for 3 systems containing bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquids (1-buthyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide, {1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluorylsulfonyl)-amide) + butan-1-ol + water} have been determined at T = 298.15 K. The selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated for investigated systems and compared with literature data for other systems containing ionic liquids. In each system total solubility of butan-1-ol and low solubility of water in the ionic liquid is observed. The experimental results have been correlated using NRTL model. The influence of the structure of ionic liquid on phase equilibria, selectivity and solute distribution ratio is shortly discussed.

  12. Isotopic study on mechanism for skeletal isomerization of n-butane over solid acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tetsuo; Okuhara, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for skeletal isomerization of n-butane over typical strong solid acids were investigated by using 1,4- 13 C 2 -n-butane. We used FI MASS for the analysis of 13 C distribution to get the parent pattern. 13 C-distribution of isobutane formed at 423 K over SO 3 2- /ZrO 2 (SZ) and Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PW 12 O 40 (Cs2.5) were close to binomial distributions, indicating that the isomerization proceeded mainly via a bimolecular mechanism on these catalysts. On the other hand, at 523 K over Cs2.5, the isotopic distribution pattern in isobutane was quite different from the binomial one; the fraction of 13 C 2 -isobutane was much greater than the binomial distribution. This result demonstrates that an intramolecular (monomolecular) rearrangement became significant at 523 K over Cs2.5. The contribution of monomolecular pathway was higher on Cs2.5 than on SZ. We presumed that the contribution of mechanism is related to the acidic property and the dehydrogenation ability of the catalyst. (S.Y.)

  13. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  14. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  15. Radiolytic oxidation of propane: computer modeling of the reaction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Hanrahan, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of gaseous propane under gamma radiolysis was studied at 100 torr pressure and 25 o C, at oxygen pressures from 1 to 15 torr. Major oxygen-containing products and their G-values with 10% added oxygen are as follows: acetone, 0.98; i-propyl alcohol, 0.86; propionaldehyde, 0.43; n-propyl alcohol, 0.11; acrolein, 0.14; and allyl alcohol, 0.038. The formation of major oxygen-containing products was explained on the basis that the alkyl radicals combine with molecular oxygen to give peroxyl radicals; the peroxyl radicals react with one another to give alkoxyl radicals, which in turn react with one another to form carbonyl compounds and alcohols. The reaction scheme for the formation of major products was examined using computer modeling based on a mechanism involving 28 reactions. Yields could be brought into agreement with the data within experimental error in nearly all cases. (author)

  16. Adsorption and separation of propane and propylene by porous hexacyanometallates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autie-Castro, G.; Autie, M.; Reguera, E.; Moreno-Tost, R.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.; Jimenez-Lopez, A.; Santamaria-Gonzalez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The separation capability for mixtures of propane and propylene by porous frameworks representatives of transition metal hexacyanometallates was studied from adsorption data under equilibrium conditions at 273.15 K and from inverse gas chromatography profiles at different column temperatures. Samples of two porous solids were considered; Cd 3 [Co(CN) 6 ] 2 , which is representative of Prussian blue analogues (cubic structure) with a porous framework related to vacancies for building block, and Zn 3 [Co(CN) 6 ] 2 (rhombohedral phase) where the porous framework results from the tetrahedral coordination for the Zn atoms. The two materials were found to be able for the mixtures separation, with the highest separation ability for the rhombohedral phase under equilibrium conditions but, in dynamic conditions the cubic one shown a better separation, which was ascribed to a kinetic contribution related to a smaller windows size.

  17. Polymeric membranes containing silver salts for propylene/propane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Pollo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures is one of the most important processes of the chemical industry. This separation is typically carried out by distillation, which is an energy and capital intensive process. One promising alternative is the use of facilitated transport membranes, which contain specific carrier agents in the polymer matrix that interact reversibly with the double bond in the olefin molecule, promoting the simultaneous increase of its permeability and selectivity. In this study, polyurethane (PU membranes were prepared using two different silver salts (triflate and hexafluorantimonate. The membranes were structurally characterized and their performance for the separation of propylene/propane mixtures was evaluated. The results of the characterization analyses indicated that the triflate salt was the most efficient carrier agent. The membranes containing this salt showed the best performance, reaching an ideal selectivity of 10 and propylene permeability of 188 Barrer.

  18. Adsorption and separation of propane and propylene by porous hexacyanometallates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autie-Castro, G. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Autie, M. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Centro de Ingenieria y Proyectos (CIPRO), ISPJAE, La Habana (Cuba); Reguera, E., E-mail: ereguera@yahoo.com [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Unidad Legaria, Mexico DF (Mexico); Moreno-Tost, R.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.; Jimenez-Lopez, A.; Santamaria-Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The separation capability for mixtures of propane and propylene by porous frameworks representatives of transition metal hexacyanometallates was studied from adsorption data under equilibrium conditions at 273.15 K and from inverse gas chromatography profiles at different column temperatures. Samples of two porous solids were considered; Cd{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}, which is representative of Prussian blue analogues (cubic structure) with a porous framework related to vacancies for building block, and Zn{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} (rhombohedral phase) where the porous framework results from the tetrahedral coordination for the Zn atoms. The two materials were found to be able for the mixtures separation, with the highest separation ability for the rhombohedral phase under equilibrium conditions but, in dynamic conditions the cubic one shown a better separation, which was ascribed to a kinetic contribution related to a smaller windows size.

  19. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  20. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    The (p, {rho}, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK {<=} (T - T{sub c}) {<=} 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m{sup -3} {<=} ({rho} - {rho}{sub c}) {<=} 6 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T{sub c}, {rho}{sub c}, and p{sub c} was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  1. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T.; Uematsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK ≤ (T - T c ) ≤ 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m -3 ≤ (ρ - ρ c ) ≤ 6 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T c , ρ c , and p c was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  2. Samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalyst for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hua-Yi; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Xin-Hua; Li, Jian-Hui; Yang, Mei-Hua; Huang, Chuan-Jing; Weng, Wei-Zheng; Wan, Hui-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of a small amount of Sm into VPO catalyst brought about great changes in its physicochemical properties such as surface area, surface morphology, phase composition and redox property, thus leading to a higher catalytic performance in the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, as compared to the undoped VPO catalyst. - Highlights: • The addition of Sm leads to great changes in the structure of VPO catalyst. • Sm improves performance of VPO for oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. • Catalytic performance is closely related to structure of VPO catalyst. - Abstract: A series of samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalysts were prepared and studied in selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The catalytic evaluation showed that Sm modification significantly increased the overall n-butane conversion and intrinsic activity. N 2 -adsorption, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, EPR and H 2 -TPR techniques were used to investigate the intrinsic difference among these catalysts. The results revealed that the addition of Sm to VPO catalyst can increase the surface area of the catalyst, lead to a significant change in catalyst morphology from plate-like structure into rosette-shape clusters, and largely promote the formation of (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . All of these were related to the different catalytic performance of Sm-doped and undoped VPO catalysts. The roles of the different VOPO 4 phases and the influence of Sm were also described and discussed

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of direct internal reforming of methane and butane in proton and oxygen conducting fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Geerlings, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a thermodynamic analysis of direct internal reforming fuel cells, based on either a proton conducting fuel cell (FC-H+) or an oxygen ion conducting fuel cell (FC-O2-). We analyze the option of methane as fuel as well as butane. The model self-consistently combines all chemical

  4. Oxidation and combustion of fuel-rich N-butane-oxygen mixture in a standard 20-liter explosion vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolov, S.M.; Basevich, V.Y.; Smetanyuk, V.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Pasman, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on forced ignition of extremely fuel-rich n-butane-oxygen mixture with the equivalence ratio of 23 in the standard 20-liter spherical vessel at elevated initial pressure (4.1 bar) and temperature (500 K) reveal the nonmonotonic influence of the forced ignition delay time on the maximum

  5. Adsorption of n-butane on graphene/Ru(0001)—A molecular beam scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivapragasam, Nilushni; Nayakasinghe, Mindika T.; Burghaus, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.burghaus@ndsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Adsorption kinetics/dynamics of n-butane on graphene, physical vapor deposited on Ru(0001) (hereafter G/Ru), and bare Ru(0001) (hereafter Ru) are discussed. The chemical activity of the supported-graphene as well as the support was probed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (adsorption kinetics). In addition and to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, molecular beam scattering data of larger molecules were collected for graphene (probing the adsorption dynamics). Furthermore, samples were inspected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. At the measuring conditions used here, n-butane adsorption kinetics/dynamics are molecular and nonactivated. Binding energies of butane on Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “kinetically transparent.” Initial adsorption probabilities, S{sub 0}, of n-butane decrease with increasing impact energy (0.76–1.72 eV) and are adsorption temperature independent for both Ru and G/Ru, again consistent with molecular adsorption. Also, S{sub 0} of Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “dynamically transparent.” Coverage dependent adsorption probabilities indicate precursor effects for graphene/Ru.

  6. Dehydroisomerization of n-butane over Pt-ZSMMMm5(I): effect of the metal loading and acid site concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirngruber, G.D.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dehydroisomerization of n-butane to isobutene over Pt–ZSM5 catalysts with a high Si/Al ratio was studied. The catalytic activity increases with increasing metal loading. Butenes formed via dehydrogenation over the metallic particles are converted to isobutene over the Brønsted acid sites. The

  7. Valence isomerization of 2-phospha-4-silabicyclo[1.1.0]butane: a high-level ab initio study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.C.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lammertsma, K.

    2006-01-01

    The rearrangements for 2-phospha-4-silabicyclo[1.1.0]butane, analogous to the valence isomerization of the hydrocarbons bicyclobutane, 1,3-butadiene, and cyclobutene, were studied at the (U)QCISD(T)/ 6-311+G**//(U)QCISD/6-31G* level of theory. The monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphasiletes are shown

  8. Adsorption of n-butane on graphene/Ru(0001)—A molecular beam scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapragasam, Nilushni; Nayakasinghe, Mindika T.; Burghaus, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption kinetics/dynamics of n-butane on graphene, physical vapor deposited on Ru(0001) (hereafter G/Ru), and bare Ru(0001) (hereafter Ru) are discussed. The chemical activity of the supported-graphene as well as the support was probed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (adsorption kinetics). In addition and to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, molecular beam scattering data of larger molecules were collected for graphene (probing the adsorption dynamics). Furthermore, samples were inspected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. At the measuring conditions used here, n-butane adsorption kinetics/dynamics are molecular and nonactivated. Binding energies of butane on Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “kinetically transparent.” Initial adsorption probabilities, S 0 , of n-butane decrease with increasing impact energy (0.76–1.72 eV) and are adsorption temperature independent for both Ru and G/Ru, again consistent with molecular adsorption. Also, S 0 of Ru and G/Ru are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, G/Ru is “dynamically transparent.” Coverage dependent adsorption probabilities indicate precursor effects for graphene/Ru.

  9. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, G.J.; Mamora, D.D. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory experiments have been conducted at Texas A and M University to examine the use of steam additives such as propane, methane and nitrogen to improve the production of heavy oils and increase steam recovery efficiency. In particular, the use of steam-propane injection for heavy Hamaca crude oil with API gravity of 9.3 and viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50 degrees C was examined. Experimental runs involved the injection of steam or propane into injection cells at a constant rate, temperature and cell outlet pressure. The experimental results suggest that the use of steam-propane injection may translate to reduction of fuel costs for field injections. Initially, propane-steam injection resulted in a two-month oil production acceleration compared to pure steam injection. A significant gain in discounted revenue and savings in steam injection costs could be realized. The study also showed the oil product rate peak with steam-propane injection was much higher than that with pure steam injection. The oil production acceleration increases with increasing propane content. Oil recovery at the end of a five-year forecast period increases by 6.7 per cent of original oil in place (OOIP) compared to 2.3 per cent OOIP with pure steam injection. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 28 figs.

  10. LPGs in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006 year, the French committee of butane and propane (CFBP) went on with mobilizing and sustaining the LPG industry companies in their actions for improving and valorizing the energy efficiency of butane, propane, and LPG fuels. These efforts were carried out in a context of general decay of energy consumption in France and in particular for LPG. The publication of the 2006 activity report of CFBP is a good opportunity to make a status of the development of this industry. (J.S.)

  11. Poly[triaqua(μ-butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylatodicadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Yan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title CdII coordination polymer, [Cd2(C8H6O8(H2O3]n, contains two crystallographically independent CdII cations, one-half each of two independent anionic butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylate units (L and three water molecules. Both anionic units lie on inversion centers. One of the CdII ions is six-coordinated by four carboxylate O atoms from four L anions and two water O atoms in a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The other CdII ion is eight-coordinated by seven carboxylate O atoms from four L anions and one water O atom. The anionic units bridge neighboring CdII centers, forming a three-dimensional framework. O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the water molecules and carboxylate O atoms further stabilize the structure.

  12. The pseudohydrogen bond structures between 2-F-epoxy-butane and three kinds of bimolecular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanzhi; Yuan Kun; Lu Lingling; Zhu Yuancheng; Dong Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The weak intermolecular interactions between 2-F-epoxy-butane and Iminazole, Thiazole and Oxazole were theoretically discussed by using density functional B3LYP (Becke, three-parameter, Lee- Yang-Parr)/6-311++G ** and HF (Hartree Fock)/6-311++G ** methods. The results showed that both the N…H conventional hydrogen bond and C-F…H-C pseudohydrogen bond (PHB) structures are coexisting in the three complexes. The weak intermolecular interactions energies indicate the relative stabilities of the three complexes are proportionable. The calculated results showed that the stretch vibrational frequency of C-H bond (electronic acceptor) presents blue shift, but that of C-F bond, which is intensely related to F group (electronic donor), presents red shift. Electron density topological properties demonstrates that the covalent and ionic characteristics of the C-F…H-C pseudohydrogen bond are proportional to that of convention hydrogen bond. (authors)

  13. Bronchospasm and anaphylactic shock following lidocaine aerosol inhalation in a patient with butane inhalation lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Young; Park, Kyong Ah; Yeo, So-Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hee; Goong, Hyeun-Jeong; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2011-10-01

    Allergic reactions to local anesthetics are very rare and represent inhalation lung injury due to butane gas fuel. On the fifth day, he developed an asthmatic attack and anaphylactic shock immediately after lidocaine aerosol administration to prepare for bronchoscopy to confirm an acute inhalational lung injury diagnosis. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed immediately after respiratory arrest, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit intubated and on a ventilator. He was extubated safely on the third post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation day. These observations suggest that aerosol lidocaine anesthesia may cause airway narrowing and anaphylactic shock. Practitioners should be aware of this potential complication. We report on this case with a brief review of the literature.

  14. SnO2 quantum dots with rapid butane detection at lower ppm-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pan; Dong, Chengjun; Jiang, Ming; Shen, Yuanyuan; Tao, You; Wang, Yude

    2018-04-01

    SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized by a facile approach employing benzyl alcohol and ammonium hydroxide at lower temperature of 130 °C. It is revealed that the SnO2 QDs is about 3 nm in size to form clusters. The gas sensor based on SnO2 QDs shows a high potential for detecting low-ppm-level butane at 400 °C, exhibiting a high sensitivity, short response and rapid recovery time, and effective selectivity. The sensing mechanism is understood in terms of adsorbed oxygen species. Significantly, the excellent sensing performance is attributed to the smaller size of SnO2 and larger surface area (204.85 m2/g).

  15. Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-07-26

    Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed particles in a fuel stream using continuous-wave (CW) Argon-ion laser. Velocity fields were also quantified with particle mage velocimetry (PIV) system having kHz repetition rate. The results showed that the dynamic motion of negative buoyance induced vortices near the nozzle exit was coupled strongly with a flame flickering instability. Typically during the flame flickering, the negative buoyant vortices oscillated at the flickering frequency. The vortices were distorted by the flickering motion and exhibited complicated transient vortical patterns, such as tilting and stretching. Numerical simulations were also implemented based on an open source C++ package, LaminarSMOKE, for further validations.

  16. Butane-1,4-diammonium bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghadermazi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C4H14N2[Cu(C7H3NO42]·3H2O or (bdaH2[Cu(pydc2]·3H2O (where bda is butane-1,4-diamine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, the CuII atom is coordinated by four O atoms [Cu—O = 2.0557 (16–2.3194 (16 Å] and two N atoms [Cu—N = 1.9185 (18 and 1.9638 (18 Å] from two chelating rings of the pydc2− anions, which act as tridentate ligands. The geometry of the resulting CuN2O4 coordination can be described as distorted octahedral. The the two pydc2− fragments are almost perpendicular to one another [77.51 (11°]. To balance the charges, two centrosymmetric protonated butane-1,4-diammonium, (bdaH22+ cations are present. In the crystal structure, extensive O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds [D...A = 2.720 (2–3.446 (3 Å], ion pairing, C—O...π [O...π = 3.099 (2 Å] and π–π stacking interactions between the pydc2− rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5334 (15 Å] contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  17. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  18. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  19. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  20. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Scott; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane

  1. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. According to program instructions and at the discretion of the USDOE, we conducted four additional propane surveys on January 11 and 25, and April 5 and 19, 1993. The heating oil surveys began on October 5, 1992 and ended on March 15, 1993. The propane surveys began on October 5, 1992 and ended on April 19, 1993. We submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates

  2. Iowa state heating oil and propane program: 1996--1997 winter heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the Iowa State Heating Oil and Propane Program is to develop a state-level, company-specific data collection effort so that retail price information on fuel oil and propane is collected by the staff of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources during the winter heating season. The second objective is to provide specific volume and retail price information to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration on No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semi-monthly basis. This report summarizes the results of the residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) price survey over the 1996--1997 winter heating season in Iowa. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources conducted the survey under a cooperative financial assistance grant with the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA)

  3. Desorption of acetone from alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolite after propane selective oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Mojet, Barbara; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    The desorption of products from a series of alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolites after room-temperature propane selective oxidation was investigated by in situ infrared and mass spectroscopy. The intermediate product, isopropylhydroperoxide (IHP), did not desorb during

  4. Effective separation of propylene/propane binary mixtures by ZIF-8 membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang; Li, Tao; Lestari, Gabriella; Lai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    The separation of propylene/propane mixtures is one of the most important but challenging processes in the petrochemical industry. A novel zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) membrane prepared by a facile hydrothermal seeded growth method showed

  5. Performance of 6FDA–6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses the challenges faced by previous researchers with 6FDA-6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations due to plasticization. A study of film annealing temperature is reported to optimize plasticization suppression in elevated

  6. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  7. Mutagenic activity of halogenated propanes and propenes: effect of bromine and chlorine positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låg, M; Omichinski, J G; Dybing, E; Nelson, S D; Søderlund, E J

    1994-10-01

    A series of halogenated propanes and propenes were studied for mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in the absence or presence of NADPH plus liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats as an exogenous metabolism system. The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the halogenated propane 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) has previously been studied in our laboratories. These studies showed that metabolic activation of DBCP was required to exert its detrimental effects. All of the trihalogenated propane analogues were mutagenic when the microsomal activation system was included. The highest mutagenic activity was obtained with 1,2,3-tribromopropane, with approximately 50-fold higher activity than the least mutagenic trihalogenated propane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The order of mutagenicity was as follows: 1,2,3-tribromopropane > or = 1,2-dibromo- 3-chloropropane > 1,3-dibromo-2-chloropropane > or = 1,3-dichloro-2-bromopropane > 1-bromo-2,3-dichloropropane > 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Compared to DBCP, the dihalogenated propanes were substantially less mutagenic. Only 1,2-dibromopropane was mutagenic and its mutagenic potential was approximately 1/30 of that of DBCP. In contrast to DBCP, 1,2-dibromopropane showed similar mutagenic activity with and without the addition of an activation system. The halogenated propenes 2,3-dibromopropene and 2-bromo-3-chloropropene were mutagenic to the bacteria both in the absence and presence of the activation system, whereas 2,3-dichloropropene did not show any mutagenic effect. The large differences in mutagenic potential between the various halogenated propanes and propenes are proposed to be due to the formation of different possible proximate and ultimate mutagenic metabolites resulting from the microsomal metabolism of the various halogenated propanes and propenes, and to differences in the rate of formation of the metabolites. Pathways are proposed for the formation of genotoxic metabolites of di- and trihalogenated

  8. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-12

    School districts across the country are under pressure to reduce their cost of operations and ensure their budgets are spent wisely. School bus fleets operate more than 675,000 buses in the United States, and many school districts have found the answer to their budget woes in the form of propane, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Propane is a reliable, domestic fuel, and it's used in approximately 2% of school buses nationwide.

  9. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  10. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  11. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  12. Theoretical Study of Palladium Membrane Reactor Performance During Propane Dehydrogenation Using CFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ghasemzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2D-axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD model to investigate the performance Pd membrane reactor (MR during propane dehydrogenation process for hydrogen production. The proposed CFD model provided the local information of temperature and component concentration for the driving force analysis. After investigation of mesh independency of CFD model, the validation of CFD model results was carried out by other modeling data and a good agreement between CFD model results and theoretical data was achieved. Indeed, in the present model, a tubular reactor with length of 150 mm was considered, in which the Pt-Sn-K/Al2O3 as catalyst were filled in reaction zone. Hence, the effects of the important operating parameter (reaction temperature on the performances of membrane reactor (MR were studied in terms of propane conversion and hydrogen yield. The CFD results showed that the suggested MR system during propane dehydrogenation reaction presents higher performance with respect to once obtained in the conventional reactor (CR. In particular, by applying Pd membrane, was found that propane conversion can be increased from 41% to 49%. Moreover, the highest value of propane conversion (X = 91% was reached in case of Pd-Ag MR. It was also established that the feed flow rate of the MR is to be the one of the most important factors defining efficiency of the propane dehydrogenation process.

  13. Novel Acetone Metabolism in a Propane-Utilizing Bacterium, Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the propane-utilizing bacterium Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, propane was shown to be oxidized to 2-propanol and then further oxidized to acetone. In this study, the subsequent metabolism of acetone was studied. Acetone-induced proteins were found in extracts of cells induced by acetone, and a gene cluster designated acmAB was cloned on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of acetone-induced proteins. The acmA and acmB genes encode a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) and esterase, respectively. The BVMO encoded by acmA was purified from acetone-induced cells of Gordonia sp. strain TY-5 and characterized. The BVMO exhibited NADPH-dependent oxidation activity for linear ketones (C3 to C10) and cyclic ketones (C4 to C8). Escherichia coli expressing the acmA gene oxidized acetone to methyl acetate, and E. coli expressing the acmB gene hydrolyzed methyl acetate. Northern blot analyses revealed that polycistronic transcription of the acmAB gene cluster was induced by propane, 2-propanol, and acetone. These results indicate that the acmAB gene products play an important role in the metabolism of acetone derived from propane oxidation and clarify the propane metabolism pathway of strain TY-5 (propane → 2-propanol → acetone → methyl acetate → acetic acid + methanol). This paper provides the first evidence for BVMO-dependent acetone metabolism. PMID:17071761

  14. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  15. Radiolytic oxidation of propane: Computer modeling of the reaction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash K.; Hanrahan, Robert J.

    The oxidation of gaseous propane under gamma radiolysis was studied at 100 torr pressure and 25°C, at oxygen pressures from 1 to 15 torr. Major oxygen-containing products and their G-values with 10% added oxygen are as follows: acetone, 0.98; i-propyl alcohol, 0.86; propionaldehyde, 0.43; n-propyl alcohol, 0.11; acrolein, 0.14; and allyl alcohol, 0.038. Minor products include i-butyl alcohol, t-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, and i-amyl alcohol. Small yields of i-hexyl alcohol and n-hexyl alcohol were also observed. There was no apparent difference in the G-values at pressures of 50, 100 and 150 torr. When the oxygen concentration was decreased below 5%, the yields of acetone, i-propyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol increased, the propionaldehyde yield decreased, and the yields of other products remained constant. The formation of major oxygen-containing products was explained on the basis that the alkyl radicals combine with molecular oxygen to give peroxyl radicals; the peroxyl radicals react with one another to give alkoxyl radicals, which in turn react with one another to form carbonyl compounds and alcohols. The reaction scheme for the formation of major products was examined using computer modeling based on a mechanism involving 28 reactions. Yields could be brought into agreement with the data within experimental error in nearly all cases.

  16. Environmental hazards due to rupture of a liquefied propane pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, O.A.; El-Sheikh, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental leakages of liquefied propane from high-pressure pipelines may occur despite the use of sophisticated safety equipment and following strict monitoring procedures. Environmental impact of steady and transient leakages were considered from toxicity and flammability viewpoints for two specific scenarios of full pipe ruptures. For each case, calculated mass flow rate, velocity, and temperature of leaking gas were utilized in an EPA-based dispersion model to predict the ground level concentration profiles in the downwind and crosswind directions. For the specific pipeline conditions considered here, the first scenario of a nonjet release (a cloud) produced steady toxic and flammable zones which were about 20 times bigger than those produced in the transient case. The second scenario of a free vertical jet resulted in the formation of a flammable vertical plume, while at ground level it did not produce flammable nor toxic zones. A parametric study of the first scenario confirmed the expected effects of both the gas release time and the atmospheric stability on the size of the dangerous zones. Within the typical range, the wind speed was found to have opposite effects for steady and transient releases. For a steady release, the dangerous zone was wider for slower winds and vice versa for a transient case. Moreover, the size of the dangerous zone was found to be an exponential function of the pipe diameter, while the effect of the initial pipe pressure was insignificant

  17. Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.

  18. Study of propane partial oxidation on vanadium-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komashko, G.A.; Khalamejda, S.V.; Zazhigalov, V.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    The present results indicate that maximum selectivity to acrylic acid can be reached over V-P-Zr-O catalysts. When the hydrocarbon concentration is 5.1 vol.% the selectivity is about 30% at quite high paraffin conversion. Conclusively, some explanations to the observed facts can be given. The V-P-O catalyst promotion with lanthanum by means of mechanochemical treatment is distinguished by the additive uniform spreading all over the matrix surface. Such twophase system is highly active in propane conversion (lanthanum oxide) and further oxidation of the desired products. The similar properties are attributed to V-P-Bi-La-O catalyst. Bismuth, tellurium and zirconium additives having clearly defined acidic properties provoke the surface acidity strengthening and make easier desorption of the acidic product (acrylic acid) from the surface lowering its further oxidation. Additionally, since bismuth and zirconium are able to form phosphates and, according to, to create space limitations for the paraffin molecule movement out of the active group boundaries, this can be one more support in favour of the selectivity increase. With this point of view very interesting results were obtained. It has been shown that the more limited the size of the vanadium unit, the higher the selectivity is. Monoclinic phase AV{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 10} which consists in clusters of four vanadium atoms is sensibly more reactive than the orthorhombic phase consists in V{sub {infinity}} infinite chains. (orig.)

  19. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  20. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  1. Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the melting transition in butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, K.W.; Wu, Z.; Dai, P.

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion near the melting transition of monolayers of flexible rod-shaped molecules. The experiments were conducted on butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed...... comparison with experiment, quasielastic spectra calculated from the MD simulations were analyzed using the same models and fitting algorithms as for the neutron spectra. This combination of techniques gives a microscopic picture of the melting process in these two monolayers which is consistent with earlier...... neutron diffraction experiments. Butane melts abruptly to a liquid phase where the molecules in the trans conformation translationally diffuse while rotating about their center of mass. In the case of the hexane monolayer, the MD simulations show that the appearance of quasielastic scattering below T...

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, Madina R.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding Yushin

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11 C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [ 11 C]toluene to include [ 11 C]acetone and [ 11 C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [ 11 C]toluene and [ 11 C]acetone were administered intravenously and [ 11 C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [ 11 C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

  3. Biocatalytic hydroxylation of n-butane with in situ cofactor regeneration at low temperature and under normal pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Staudt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydroxylation of n-alkanes, which proceeds in the presence of a P450-monooxygenase advantageously at temperatures significantly below room temperature, is described. In addition, an enzymatic hydroxylation of the “liquid gas” n-butane with in situ cofactor regeneration, which does not require high-pressure conditions, was developed. The resulting 2-butanol was obtained as the only regioisomer, at a product concentration of 0.16 g/L.

  4. Monolayer behaviour of chiral compounds at the air-water interface: 4-hexadecyloxy-butane-1,2-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietz, R.; Rettig, W.; Brezesinski, G.

    1996-01-01

    Monolayers of the pure S-enantiomer (x(S) = 1) and of two mixtures x(S) = 0.75 and x(S) = 0.5 (racemate) of 4-hexadecyloxy-butane-1,2-diol (C16H33-O-CH2-CH2-CHOH-CH2OH) (HOBD) have been studied at the air-water interface by thermodynamic measurements, fluorescence microscopy and X-ray diffraction...

  5. Fundamental Studies of Butane Oxidation over Model-Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts: Molecular Structure-Reactivity Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.; Sundaresan, S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride was investigated over a series of model-supported vanadia catalysts where the vanadia phase was present as a two-dimensional metal oxide overlayer on the different oxide supports (TiO2, ZrO2, CeO2, Nb2O5, Al2O3, and SiO2). No correlation was found

  6. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of the {1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600)} system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jihoon; Lee, Gangwon; Lee, Yong-Jin; Kim, Hwayong

    2007-01-01

    Binary (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data were obtained for the {1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) + n-butane (HC-600)} system at temperatures from 313.15 K to 363.15 K. These experiments were carried out with a circulating-type apparatus with on-line gas chromatography. The experimental data were correlated well by Peng-Robinson equation of state using the Wong-Sandler mixing rules. This system shows positive azeotropic phase behaviour

  7. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  8. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  9. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  10. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  11. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  12. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  13. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  14. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  15. Vibration analysis of the synchronous motor of a propane compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, D.; Rangel Junior, J. de S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: diananogueira@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br; Moreira, R.G. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Cabiunas, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ricgmoreira@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims at describing the Analysis of a synchronous electric motor which presented high vibration levels (shaft displacement and bearing housing vibration) during the commissioning process, as well as propose the best practices for the solution of vibration problems in similar situations. This motor belongs to the propane centrifugal compressor installed at a Gas Compression Station. The methodology used in this study conducted an investigation of the problems presented in the motor through the execution of many types of tests and the analysis of the results. The main evaluations were performed, such as the vibration analysis and the rotor dynamic analysis. The electric motor was shipped back to the manufacturer's shop, where the manufacturer made certain modifications to the motor structure so as to improve the structure stiffness, such as the improvement of the support and the increase of the thickness of the structural plates. In addition to that, the dynamic balancing of the rotating set was checked. Finally, the excitation at a critical speed close to the rated speed was found after Rotor Dynamics Analysis was performed again, because of the increase in bearing clearances. The bearing shells were replaced so as to increase the separation margin between these frequencies. In order to verify the final condition of the motor, the manufacturer repeated the standard tests - FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests) - according to internal procedure and international standards. As a result of this work, it was possible to conclude that there was a significant increase in the vibration levels due to unbalance conditions. It was also possible to conclude that there are close relationships between high vibration levels and unbalance conditions, as well as between high vibration levels and the stiffness of the system and its support. Certain points of attention related to the manufacturing process of the motor compressor are described at the end of this paper, based

  16. Conversion of n-Butane to iso-Butene on Gallium/HZSM-5 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Gheno

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of n-butane to iso-butene on gallium/HZSM-5 catalysts at 350ºC and WHSV=2.5h8-1 was studied. The catalysts were prepared by ion exchange from a Ga(NO32 solution and further submitted to calcination in air at 530ºC. TEM analysis with an EDAX detector and TPR-H2 data showed that after calcination the Ga species were present mainly as Ga2O3, which are reduced to Ga2O at temperatures near 610ºC. The specific acid activity (SAA of the catalysts increased with the increase in aluminum content in the zeolite, and for a fixed Si/Al ratio, the SAA increased with Ga content. Values for specific hydro/dehydrogenation activity (SH/DHA were significantly higher than those for SAA, indicating that the catalytic process is controlled by the kinetics on acid sites. Moreover, the production of iso-butene with a selectivity higher than 25% was a evidence that in gallium/HZSM-5-based catalysts the rate of the hydrogenation reaction is lower than that of the dehydrogenation reaction; this behavior confirmed the dehydrogenation nature of gallium species, thereby showing great promise for iso-butene production.

  17. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  18. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  20. Mechanism of n-butane hydrogenolysis promoted by Ta-hydrides supported on silica

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad

    2014-06-06

    The mechanism of hydrogenolysis of alkanes, promoted by Ta-hydrides supported on silica via 2 ≡ Si-O- bonds, has been studied with a density functional theory (DFT) approach. Our study suggests that the initial monohydride (≡ Si-O-)2Ta(III)H is rapidly trapped by molecular hydrogen to form the more stable tris-hydride (≡ Si-O-) 2Ta(V)H3. Loading of n-butane to the Ta-center occurs through C-H activation concerted with elimination of molecular hydrogen (σ-bond metathesis). Once the Ta-alkyl species is formed, the C-C activation step corresponds to a β-alkyl transfer to the metal with elimination of an olefin. According to these calculations, an α-alkyl transfer to the metal to form a Ta-carbene species is of higher energy. The olefins formed during the C-C activation step can be rapidly hydrogenated by both mono- and tris-Ta-hydride species, making the overall process of alkane cracking thermodynamically favored. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Thermodynamic calculation of simultaneous reactions of n-butane isomerization and isobutane alkylation with ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batyrshin, N.N.; Beresneva, L.D.; Sidorov, V.A.

    1981-08-01

    Industrial production of ethylene alkylate has gained further development in connection with worldwide ecological problems and the planned changeover of automobile transport to unleaded gasolines, but the scale of production is still substantially less than that of sulfuric acid or hydrogen fluoride alkylates. This is due both to the instability of market prices for ethylene and the shortage of isobutane - a raw material for these large-tonnage production processes and for the synthetic rubber industry. The latter difficulty can be overcome by combining processes of isomerization of n-butane and alkylation of the resultant isobutane with ethylene in a single reaction unit. The possibility of combining these reactions using AlCl/sub 3/-based catalysts has been pointed out previously but in the literature there are no theoretical developments of technology or thermodynamic substantiation of a combined process. We have made a thermodynamic calculation of the consecutive (series-parallel) reactions of isomerization and alkylation with the goal of determining suitable technological conditions for carrying them out simultaneously and establishing the expected equilibrium yields of target products and the compositions of the reaction mixture.

  2. Benchmarking Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Data: A Case Study of the Butane Conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Dóra; Nagy, Balázs; Csontos, József; Császár, Attila G; Tasi, Gyula

    2012-02-14

    Due to its crucial importance, numerous studies have been conducted to determine the enthalpy difference between the conformers of butane. However, it is shown here that the most reliable experimental values are biased due to the statistical model utilized during the evaluation of the raw experimental data. In this study, using the appropriate statistical model, both the experimental expectation values and the associated uncertainties are revised. For the 133-196 and 223-297 K temperature ranges, 668 ± 20 and 653 ± 125 cal mol(-1), respectively, are recommended as reference values. Furthermore, to show that present-day quantum chemistry is a favorable alternative to experimental techniques in the determination of enthalpy differences of conformers, a focal-point analysis, based on coupled-cluster electronic structure computations, has been performed that included contributions of up to perturbative quadruple excitations as well as small correction terms beyond the Born-Oppenheimer and nonrelativistic approximations. For the 133-196 and 223-297 K temperature ranges, in exceptional agreement with the corresponding revised experimental data, our computations yielded 668 ± 3 and 650 ± 6 cal mol(-1), respectively. The most reliable enthalpy difference values for 0 and 298.15 K are also provided by the computational approach, 680.9 ± 2.5 and 647.4 ± 7.0 cal mol(-1), respectively.

  3. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  4. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  5. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  6. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  7. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  8. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  9. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  10. No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBrien, J.

    1995-05-01

    During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER's use of the data

  11. Potassium effects on kinetics of propane oxydehydrogenation on vanadia-titania catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, R.; Samson, K.

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODH) over V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 and V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 doped with K was carried out by measuring conversions and selectiveness for various feed compositions, contact times and temperatures. The results obtained for both catalysts were interpreted on the basis of the mechanism, in which propene is formed through Eley-Rideal sequence of steps, i.e. without participation of the adsorbed propane species. Kinetic constants (activation energies, pre-exponential factors) for the model of ODH reaction of propane on these catalysts, obtained on the basis of steady-state results, are given. Addition of K to vanadia-titania catalysts leads to decrease of total combustion of propane and consecutive combustion of propene. It has been found that the direct propane total oxidation is 5 - 9 times lower than that of the consecutive propene oxidation and is almost temperature independent for potassium doped catalyst, whereas it quickly decreases with temperature for a non-doped catalyst. Secondly, the addition of K to a vanadia-titania catalyst decreases the activation energies for propene formation (k 1 ), parallel formation of CO x (k 3 ) and reoxidation of the catalyst (k os ). Potassium exhibits a stronger inhibitory effect on the secondary propene combustion, what reflects the lower activity of V 5+ cations modified by the strongly basic alkali oxide species. (author)

  12. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-01-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor's Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold

  13. Microwave Spectrum and Structure of the Methane-Propane Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen I.; Lin, Wei; Arsenault, Eric A.; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Novick, Stewart E.

    2017-06-01

    Methane is exceptional in its solid-phase orientational disorder that persists down to 24 K. Only below that temperature does the structure become partially ordered, and full crystallinity requires even lower temperatures and high pressures. Not surprisingly, methane appears to freely rotate in most van der Waals complexes, although two notable exceptions are CH_4-HF and CH_4-C_5H_5N. Of interest to us is how alkane interactions affect the methane rotation. Except for CH_4-CH_4, rotationally-resolved spectra of alkane-alkane complexes have not been studied. To fill this void, we present the microwave spectrum of CH_4-C_3H_8 which is the smallest alkane complex with a practical dipole moment. The microwave spectrum of CH_4-C_3H_8 was measured using the Fourier Transform microwave spectrometer at Wesleyan University. In the region between 7100 and 25300 MHz, we observed approximately 70 transitions that could plausibly be attributed to the CH_4-C_3H_8 complex (requiring high power and the proper mixture of gases). Of these, 16 were assigned to the A-state (lowest internal rotor state of methane) and four to the F-state. The A-state transitions were fitted with a Watson Hamiltonian using nine spectroscopic constants of which A = 7553.8144(97) MHz, B = 2483.9183(35) MHz, and C = 2041.8630(21) MHz. The A rotational constant is only 1.5 MHz higher than that of Ar-C_3H_8 and, since the a-axis of the complex passes approximately through the centers of mass of the subunits, this indicates a similar relative orientation. Thus, we find that the CH_4 is located above the plane of the propane. The center-of-mass separation of the subunits in CH_4-C_3H_8 is calculated to be 3.993 Å, 0.16 Å longer than the Ar-C_3H_8 distance of 3.825 Å, a reasonable difference considering the larger van der Waals radius of CH_4. The four F-state lines, which were about twice as strong as the A-state lines, could be fitted to A, B, and C rotational constants, and further analysis is in progress.

  14. Production acceleration and injectivity enhancement using steam-propane injection for Hamaca extra-heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, J. A.; Mamora, D. D. [Texas A and M University, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The possibility of enhanced recovery in the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, the world's largest known hydrocarbon deposit, by using propane as a steam additive, is discussed. In a laboratory study the steam-propane injection accelerated the start of oil production by 21 per cent, compared to production with steam alone. The experiments illustrated that the inclusion of even small amounts of propane has considerable beneficial effect on the rate of bitumen production. Even though total bitumen recovery and ultimate residual oil saturation did not change, the acceleration of bitumen recovery is considered to have a significant impact on the net present value of the recovery process. 17 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  15. Differential Thermal Analysis and Dielectric Studies on 2-Methyl-2-Nitro-Propane under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsing, D.; Jenau, M.; Reuter, J.; Würflinger, A.; Tamarit, J. Li.

    1995-05-01

    Differential thermal analysis and dielectric studies under pressures up to 300 MPa and temperatures of about 200 to 350 K have been performed on 2-methyl-2-nitro-propane (TBN). TBN displays an orientationally disordered phase (ODIC), solid I, and two non-plastic phases, solids II and III. The coexistence region of the plastic phase I increases with increasing pressure, whereas the low-temperature phase II apparently vanishes at a triple point I, II, III, above 300 MPa. The static permittivity increases on freezing, characterizing the solid I as an ODIC phase. In the frame of the Kirkwood-Onsager-Fröhlich theory the g-factor is about unity, discounting specific dielectric correlations. The dielectric behaviour of TBN is similar to previously studied related compounds, such as 2-chloro-2-methyl-propane or 2-brome- 2-methyl-propane

  16. Effective separation of propylene/propane binary mixtures by ZIF-8 membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2012-02-01

    The separation of propylene/propane mixtures is one of the most important but challenging processes in the petrochemical industry. A novel zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) membrane prepared by a facile hydrothermal seeded growth method showed excellent separation performances for a wide range of propylene/propane mixtures. The membrane showed a permeability of propylene up to 200. barrers and a propylene to propane separation factor up to 50 at optimal separation conditions, well surpassing the "upper-bound trade-off" lines of existing polymer and carbon membranes. The experimental data also showed that the membranes had excellent reproducibility, long-term stability and thermal stability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1993--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted twelve price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. According to program instructions and at the discretion of the USDOE, we conducted three additional propane surveys on January 31 and February 14 and 28, 1994. The surveys began on October 4, 1993 and ended on March 21, 1994. We submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates

  18. Dissociation behavior of pellet shaped mixed gas hydrate samples that contain propane as a guest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Taro; Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Komai, Takeshi; Haneda, Hironori; Yoon, Ji-Ho; Ohga, Kotaro

    2006-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of mixed gas hydrates that contain propane as a guest molecule have been investigated. The mixed gas hydrates used in this work were artificially prepared using the binary gas mixture of methane-propane and the ternary gas mixture of methane-ethane-propane. The crystal structures and the guest compositions of the mixed hydrates were clearly identified by using Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The dissociation rates of the gas hydrates observed under several isothermal and isobaric conditions were discussed with an analytical model. The isobaric conditions were achieved by pressurizing with mixed gases using buffer cylinders, which had similar compositions to those of the initial gases used for synthesizing each hydrate sample. Interestingly, the calculated result agreed well with the experimentally observed results only when the composition of the vapor phase was assumed to be identical with that of the hydrate phase instead of the bulk (equilibrium) gas composition

  19. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  20. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  1. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  2. LPG fuels in France in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This short note gives a statement of the sales of butane, propane and LPG fuels in France during the year 1997. Details are given for conditioned butane and propane products, cylinders and fixed reservoirs. (J.S.)

  3. Canada's future role as a propane supplier for the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.B.; Zittlau, W.T.

    In Canada, the fall of world crude oil prices that took hold at the beginning of 1986 coincided with the early stages of a long awaited program to dismantle the federal and provincial governments' regulatory framework for the industry. The momentum to deregulate has continued with the industry's support and most recently was manifested by the signing of The Canada-US Free Trade Agreement. Canada has historically been the major supplier of imported propane to the US market. This paper presents one producer and marketer's appraisal of the role Canada is likely to play in meeting US propane shortfalls through the 1990s. Canadian natural gas production will expand considerably during the 1990s to meet a modest expandion of domestic demand and in response to the growing opportunities of the US export market. Current forecasts suggest that gas exports to the US will increase from just under the 1 Tcf level achieved in 1987 to the 1.8 Tcf range by 1995/2000, thus pushing total sales of Canadian gas to 4.3 Tcf by 2000. The other factor to be considered when forecasting propane production from natural gas streams is the liquids content of the gas. Canadian end-use markets for propane are similar to those in the US: residential and commercial space heating, crop drying, specialty industrial applications, transportations and petrochemicals. In addition, over the next five years growing volumes are expected to be used in miscible flood projects. The petrochemical sector accounts for the balance of final consumption of propane in Canada. Based on the foregoing supply/demand analysis the authors see Canadian propane surpluses growing from an estimated 50 thousand b/d achieved in 1987 to nearly 65 thousand b/d in the early 1990s.

  4. How propane supply and demand in North America affects prices in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.

    2000-01-01

    Total North American demand for propane in 1999 was estimated at 1,700 MBPD, of which 1,300 MBPD represents demand by the United States. World-wide demand is about 3,500 MBPD, Europe and the Mid East combined, and Asia, each accounting for 800 to 850 MBPD. The United States is able to supply about 1,000 MBPD of its own demand ; the rest comes from imports. Total imports make up about 12 per cent of the U.S. supply; in 1999 just over 80 per cent, or about 120 MBPD of the imported propane came from Canada. The volume of export from Canada to the United states is expected to rise to about 170 MBPD, or 86 per cent of the total domestic supply shortfall in 2000. Prices at Edmonton ranged between 35 cents per gallon in Jan 1997, to about 42 cents per gallon in January 2000; during much of this period (from July 1997 to July 1999) the price was below 30 cents per gallon and as low as about 15 cents per gallon in January 1999. The price differential between Edmonton and Conway (the receiving point in the United States) was an average of 6 cents (US) per gallon. Total U.S. propane inventories during the same period and propane inventories against heating degree days and Conway propane prices are also shown in graphic form. The various graphs illustrate that in general, the price of propane at any given time is heavily influenced by the price of crude oil, however, in the short term competing fuels, weather conditions and inventory levels also play a part in determining prices. With regard to the future, a bullish outlook envisages flat to current prices, whereas a bearish outlook forecasts lower prices due to softening of the world economy, high U.S. and Canadian inventories, and the possibility of another warm winter. 18 viewgraphs

  5. Associations between butane hash oil use and cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H

    2017-10-01

    High-potency cannabis concentrates are increasingly popular in the United States, and there is concern that use of high-potency cannabis might increase risk for cannabis-related problems. However, little is known about the potential negative consequences of concentrate use. This study reports on associations between past-year use of a high-potency cannabis concentrate, known as butane hash oil (BHO), and cannabis-related problems. A sample of 821 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who had used cannabis in the past year (33%, n=273) completed questions about their cannabis use, including their use of BHO and cannabis-related problems in eight domains: physical dependence, impaired control, academic-occupational problems, social-interpersonal problems, self-care problems, self-perception, risk behavior, and blackouts. Approximately 44% (n=121) of past-year cannabis users had used BHO in the past year. More frequent BHO use was associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.8, pcannabis-related academic/occupational problems (RR=1.5, p=0.004), poor self-care (RR=1.3, p=0.002), and cannabis-related risk behavior (RR=1.2, p=0.001). After accounting for sociodemographic factors, age of onset of cannabis use, sensation seeking, overall frequency of cannabis use, and frequency of other substance use, BHO use was still associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.2, p=0.014). BHO use is associated with greater physiological dependence on cannabis, even after accounting for potential confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if cannabis users with higher levels of physiological dependence seek out BHO and/or if BHO use increases risk for physiological dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  7. A Study on the Kinetics of Propane-Activated Carbon: Theory and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar bin

    2013-08-01

    Experimental kinetics results of propane in Maxsorb III activated carbon is obtained at temperatures of 10°C and 30°C, and pressures up to 800kPa using a magnetic suspension balance. A multi-gradient linear driving force (LDF) approximation is used for adsorbate uptake as a function of time. The LDF mass-transfer-rate coefficients were thus determined. Using this approach, the experimentally derived LDF coefficients based on independently measured kinetic parameters for propane in the activated-carbon bed agree very well with experimental results. The computational efficiency is gained by adopting this extended LDF model. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  8. A Study on the Kinetics of Propane-Activated Carbon: Theory and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar bin; Loh, Wai Soong; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    Experimental kinetics results of propane in Maxsorb III activated carbon is obtained at temperatures of 10°C and 30°C, and pressures up to 800kPa using a magnetic suspension balance. A multi-gradient linear driving force (LDF) approximation is used for adsorbate uptake as a function of time. The LDF mass-transfer-rate coefficients were thus determined. Using this approach, the experimentally derived LDF coefficients based on independently measured kinetic parameters for propane in the activated-carbon bed agree very well with experimental results. The computational efficiency is gained by adopting this extended LDF model. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  9. State heating oil and propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Board of Public Utilities (BPU), Division of Energy Planning and Conservation participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, they conducted twelve price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary price information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. The surveys began on October 3, 1994 and ended on March 20, 1995. The authors submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates

  10. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1995--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This reports documents the 1995-1996 United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to monitor No. 2 heating oil and propane prices. Data reported encompass states that are heavily dependent on these products. Twelve surveys were conducted semimonthly to obtain the necessary price information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers. Surveys began on October 2, 1995 and ended on March 18, 1996. Responses were analyzed to avoid questionable prices. Tables and graphs included in the report reflect the general activity of the prices furnished during the surveys. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Field Demonstration of Propane Biosparging for In Situ Remediation of NNitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater. Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    fluidization pump, an influent distribution system and effluent/ biomass collection system, two biomass separators, 7,100 lbs of carbon media (coconut shell ...ratio of oxygen (O2) to propane (C3H8) for complete oxidation of propane to carbon dioxide (CO2; not accounting for microbial biomass incorporation

  12. Experimental analysis of the performance of an air-water heat pump designed for R22 working with propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, P.G.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.

    2001-01-01

    After describing the technical characteristics of a heat pump designed for R22, the changes necessary to fit the use of propane and the experimental set-up, in this article the research program on propane as refrigerant is presented, together with the experimental results of the chiller performance with R22 and R290 in cooling mode [it

  13. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  14. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  15. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  16. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  17. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  18. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  19. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  20. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid–1,10-phenanthroline–water (1/2/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-lin Zhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C12H8N2·C8H10O8·2H2O, contains one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule, one half-molecule of butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BTC and a water molecule, with the complete tetra-acid generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.672 (2 and 3.708 (2 Å form an extensive three-dimensional network, which consolidates the crystal packing.

  1. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  2. Conversion of chlorinated propanes by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing soluble methane monooxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T.; Janssen, D.B.

    Chlorinated propanes are important pollutants that may show persistent behaviour in the environment. The biotransformation of 1-chloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane was studied using resting cell suspensions of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing

  3. Speed of sound as a function of temperature and pressure for propane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, Francisco; Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New speed of sound data for six propane derivatives is reported. • Temperature and pressure ranges: (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa. • Data are compared with those available for other propane derivatives. • Temperature and pressure dependencies of sound speed are analyzed. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the temperature and pressure intervals (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa was measured for nitropropane, propionitrile, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, propylamine and propionic acid. An apparatus based on the acoustic wave time of flight determination, with a fully automatized temperature and pressure control, was used to this aim. The speed of sound derivatives against temperature and pressure, as well as the nonlinear acoustic coefficient was obtained from experimental values. The results are analyzed and compared with previously reported data for other propane derivatives: propane, 1-propanol, propanone, d-propanone, and several fluoropropanes. All obtained magnitudes are rationalized basing on the physicochemical properties of these fluids. Nearness to critical point and molar mass are revealed as key factors as regards the speed of sound behavior against temperature and pressure.

  4. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of elevated pressure on ethane and propane flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goswami, M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Konnov, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Laminar burning velocities, SL, of ethane + air and propane + air flames within an equivalence ratio range between 0.8 and 1.3 were determined at atmospheric and elevated pressures up to 4 atm. Measurements were performed in non-stretched flames, stabilized on a perforated plate burner at adiabatic

  5. State heating oil and propane program: 1995-96 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor's Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1995/96 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. EIA provides ECS with a list of oil and propane retailers that serve customers in New Hampshire. In turn ECS conduct phone surveys twice per month from October through March to determine the average retail price for each fuel. Data collected by ECS is entered into the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO) and transmitted via modem to EIA. The results of the state retail price surveys along with wholesale prices, supply, production and stock levels for oil, and propane are published by EIA in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Data is also published electronically via the internet or through the Electronic Publication System

  6. Oxidative conversion of propane over lithium-promoted magnesia catalyst. I. Kinetics and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveles, L.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative conversion of lower alkanes over lithium-promoted magnesia catalysts offers a viable alternative for propene and ethene production. The catalytic performance of propane oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking shows yields up to 50% of olefin (propene and ethene). The reaction kinetics were

  7. Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane with K-MoO3/MgAl2O4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with potassium addition due to interaction with MoO3 sites. For this reason total ... in recent years.1–3 In ODH of propane reaction, there ... heptamolybdate (Merck), dissolved in water and Mg- .... Alkali metal promotion slows down the reduc-.

  8. Treatment of nuclear waste solutions using a new class of extractants: pentaalkyl propane diamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of bifunctional extractants pentaalkyl propane diamides is studied in order to extract trivalent cations (Am 3+ , Cm 3+ ...) and other actinides contained in waste solutions of nuclear industry. These solvents are completely incinerable and don't produce harmfull degradation products. Their main chemicals properties are reviewed. The results of a mixer-settler battery experiment are given

  9. Propan-1-ol Oxidation Reaction on Au/TiO 2 Catalysts | Nuhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was further investigated using Pulse Flow reactor, TPFRP, TPD, and XRD,. The adsorption of propan-1-ol over TiO2 (P25) indicated a full monolayer with much of it in a dissociated state, forming propoxy group on the cationic site and hydroxyl group at anions. The propoxy is relatively stable until about 250oC, at which ...

  10. Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, Stig B.; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas; Pisso, Ignacio; Schwietzke, Stefan; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Helmig, Detlev; Reimann, Stefan; Sauvage, Stéphane; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Read, Katie A.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Punjabi, Shalini; Wallasch, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Ethane and propane are the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. However, their emissions, atmospheric distribution, and trends in their atmospheric concentrations are insufficiently understood. Atmospheric model simulations using standard community emission inventories do not reproduce available measurements in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we show that observations of pre-industrial and present-day ethane and propane can be reproduced in simulations with a detailed atmospheric chemistry transport model, provided that natural geologic emissions are taken into account and anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions are assumed to be two to three times higher than is indicated in current inventories. Accounting for these enhanced ethane and propane emissions results in simulated surface ozone concentrations that are 5-13% higher than previously assumed in some polluted regions in Asia. The improved correspondence with observed ethane and propane in model simulations with greater emissions suggests that the level of fossil (geologic + fossil fuel) methane emissions in current inventories may need re-evaluation.

  11. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  12. Isothermal vapour-liquid equilibria data of methanol + propan-2-OL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methylpropan-2-ol binary mixtures are investigated at 333.15k, using gas chromatographic technique. ... The y-x plots reveals that the mixtures methanol + propan-2-ol and methanol +2-methylpropan-2-ol deviate strongly from ideal solution behaviour.

  13. Operando Spectroscopy of the Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Propanal over Solid Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-giménez, Ana M.; Ruiz-martínez, Javier; Puértolas, Begoña; Pérez-ramírez, Javier; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-phase aldol condensation of propanal, taken as model for the aldehyde components in bio-oils, has been studied with a combined operando set-up allowing to perform FT-IR & UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with on-line mass spectrometry (MS). The selected solid base catalysts, a

  14. Oxidative Dehydrogenation and Ammoxidation of Ethane and Propane over Pentasil Ring Co-zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulánek, R.; Novoveská, K.; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 235, - (2002), s. 181-191 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/D073; GA ČR GA104/00/0640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : ethane * propane * ammoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.915, year: 2002

  15. Growth potential in gas plant ethane production and the impact on propane import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In varying degrees in most ethylene plants, ethane and propane are used interchangeably as feedstocks. During the next five years, several new ethylene plants will be built in the Gulf Coast area. Most of these plants will be based on LPG feedstocks and will have some flexibility to operate with ethane and propane feedstocks. The completion of new ethylene plants will increase feedstock demand for ethane by 65--90 Mbpd by 1998 and by an additional 50--80 Mbpd by 2000. Thus, the availability of ethane will have a significant impact on Gulf Coast waterborne propane import requirements. Sustained growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability will effectively minimize waterborne propane import requirements for the next five to ten years. Petral Worldwide's approach to feedstock supply analysis highlights investment opportunities in domestic supply sources. Projects of these types will also limit a growth dependence on NGL feedstock supplies from politically unstable supply sources in North Africa and the Middle East. This paper examines the potential for growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability and the impact on Gulf Coast feedstock markets

  16. AC Response to Humidity and Propane of Sprayed Fe-Zn Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro AVILA-GARCÍA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron-zinc oxide films with different Zn contents were ultrasonically sprayed on glass substrates and inter-digital gold electrodes were evaporated upon them. Films were deposited from solutions containing 2, 10 and 30 at. % Zn. Hematite, amorphous and Franklinite structures turned out, respectively. They were assessed as humidity and propane detectors under alternating-current conditions for frequencies from 1 to 105 Hz and temperatures 30 and 250 oC. Their impedances in dry air, humid air and humid air plus propane were determined from voltage measurements with a Lock-In amplifier. Sensitivities to humidity (53 % RH. and 189, 500 and 786 ppm of propane from the response of the resistance, reactance and also the total impedance were determined as functions of frequency. The maximum sensitivity to humidity ranges from 24 % up to 308 %. For propane, the maximum sensitivity ranges from 45 % up to 711 %. The largest sensitivity values correspond in all cases to reactance. From the dynamical response, the response and recovery times are determined, along with the concentration-dependence of the sensitivity. The sensing mechanisms are commented.

  17. Experimental study of adiabatic cellular premixed flames of methane (ethane, propane) + oxygen + carbon dioxide mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnov, A.A.; Dyakov, I.V.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of adiabatic cellular flames of CH4 + O2 + CO2, C2H6 + O2 + CO2, and C3H8 + O2 + CO2 are presented. Visual and photographic observations of the flames were performed to quantify their cellular structure. Non-stretched flames of methane and propane were stabilized at atmospheric

  18. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    traps for the consumer market , which utilize the combustion of propane to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and other attractants. While these...Z. Abramsky, B.P. Kotler , R.S. Ostfeld, I.Yarom, and A.Warburg. 2003a. Anthropogenic disturbances enhance occurrence of cutaneous

  19. Development of packed bed membrane reactor for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotanjac, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a reactor concept for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane was studied. First a literature survey was performed, to investigate which are the best catalyst systems and best operating conditions that result in the largest propylene yield. In the kinetic study of ODHP over a

  20. Stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts GaSb/sub 19/O/sub x/, GaSb/sub 3/Ni/sub 1.5/0/sub x/, and GaSb/sub 2.5/Ni/sub 1.5/PW/sub 0//sub 0.25/O/sub x/ was studied at 450/sup 0/ and 550/sup 0/C by introducing alternating pulses of 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/helium (to reduce the steady-state catalytic surface) and 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/1.86Vertical Bar3< oxygen/helium mixtures into a fluidized-bed catalytic reactor. Over all the catalysts studied, the rates of acrylonitrile formation during the two types of pulses were very similar, but carbon dioxide was formed much faster during the reducing pulses, particularly at 450/sup 0/C. These findings suggested that acrylonitrile is formed by a stepwise redox mechanism involving consecutive interaction of propane and ammonia with the surface oxygen of the catalysts and oxidation of the reduced catalyst surface by gas-phase oxygen. The formation of carbon dioxide proceeds by both stepwise and associative mechanisms, the latter being more important at higher temperatures. The results are similar to published results for ammoxidation of propylene and olefins.

  1. Zinc-substituted ZIF-67 nanocrystals and polycrystalline membranes for propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chongqing

    2016-09-09

    Continuous ZIF-67 polycrystalline membranes with effective propylene/propane separation performances were successfully fabricated through the incorporation of zinc ions into the ZIF-67 framework. The separation factor increases from 1.4 for the pure ZIF-67 membrane to 50.5 for the 90% zinc-substituted ZIF-67 membrane.

  2. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  3. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  4. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  5. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  6. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  7. Methane, Ethane, and Propane Sensor for Real-time Leak Detection and Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscioli, Joseph R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, Scott [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Nelson, David D. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Yacovitch, Tara [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The Phase I effort demonstrated the technical viability of a fast, sensitive, mobile hydrocarbon monitor. The instrument will enable the oil and gas industry, researchers, and regulators to rapidly identify and chemically profile leaks from facilities. This capability will allow operators to quickly narrow down and mitigate probable leaking equipment, minimizing product loss and penalties due to regulatory non-compliance. During the initial development phase, we demonstrated operation of a prototype monitor that is capable of measuring methane, ethane, and propane at sub-part-per-billion sensitivities in 1 second, using direct absorption infrared spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first instrument capable of fast propane measurements at atmospheric concentrations. In addition, the electrical requirements of the monitor have been reduced from the 1,200 W typical of a spectrometer, to <500 W, making it capable of being powered by a passenger vehicle, and easily deployed by the industry. The prototype monitor leverages recent advances in laser technology, using high-efficiency interband cascade lasers to access the 3 μm region of the mid-infrared, where the methane, ethane, and propane absorptions are strongest. Combined with established spectrometer technology, we have achieved precisions below 200 ppt for each compound. This allows the monitor to measure fast plumes from oil and gas facilities, as well as ambient background concentrations (typical ambient levels are 2 ppm, 1.5 ppb, and 0.7 ppb for methane, ethane and propane, respectively). Increases in instrument operating pressure were studied in order to allow for a smaller 125 W pump to be used, and passive cooling was explored to reduce the cooling load by almost 90% relative to active (refrigerated) cooling. In addition, the simulated infrared absorption profiles of ethane and propane were modified to minimize crosstalk between species, achieving <1% crosstalk between ethane and propane. Finally, a

  8. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  9. Membrane Modeling, Simulation and Optimization for Propylene/Propane Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    , product purity and the recovery ratio. These findings were utilized to develop simple and accurate empirical correlations to predict the attainability behavior in real membranes, which showed good agreement with experimental and simulation results for various applications. Furthermore, the attainability of the most promising two and three-stage membrane systems are discussed by considering the complete well mixed assumption. The same behaviors that describe single-stage attainability are also recognized for multiple-stages. This discussion leads to a major discovery regarding the nature of the relationship between the attainability parameters in a multiple-stage membrane system with that of a single-stage system. Study of the economics of the multiple-stage membrane process for propylene/propane separation identifies the technology as a potential alternative to the conventional distillation process, even at the existing membrane performance, but conditionally at low to moderate membrane cost and sufficient durability. To study the energy efficiency of membrane retrofitting to an existing distillation process, a shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane and distillation processes. It was discovered that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage, when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help to reduce the energy consumption; the higher the membrane selectivity the lower the energy requirement. The energy conservation is further improved as the pressure ratio increases. At the third stage, when both the selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit, resulting in a significant reduction in energy consumption

  10. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshid M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the AuHAuCl4-Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst.

  11. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  12. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  13. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  14. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  15. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  16. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  17. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  18. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  19. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  20. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  1. Diffusion of n-Butane, Isobutane and Ethane in a MFI-Zeolite Membrane Investigated by Gas Permeation and ZLC Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiang, M.; Eic, M.; Miachon, S.; Dalmon, J. A.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2001), s. 287-295 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040901 Grant - others:NATO Linkage Grant(XE) LG974432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : butane * isobutane and ethane * ZLC technique Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2001

  2. Selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride under oxygen-deficient conditions over V-P-O mixed oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.; Bruggink, A.A.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride over V-P-O mixed oxides was studied under oxygen deficient conditions. The mixed oxides were prepared with P/V atomic ratios ranging from 0.7 to 1.0. Catalysts with P/V <1.0 did not show any selectivity to maleic anhydride formation, regardless

  3. Using ethane and butane as probes to the molecular structure of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl] imide ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Pison, Laure; Pensado, Alfonso S; Pádua, Agilio A H

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the solubility and the thermodynamic properties of solvation, between 298 and 343 K and at pressures close to atmospheric, of ethane and n-butane in several ionic liquids based on the bis[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl]imide anion and on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [CnC1Im] [NTf2], with alkyl side-chains varying from two to ten carbon atoms. The solubility of butane is circa one order of magnitude larger than that of ethane with mole fractions as high as 0.15 in [C10C1Im][NTf2] at 300 K. The solubilities of both n-butane and ethane gases are higher for ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains. The behaviour encountered is explained by the preferential solvation of the gases in the non-polar domains of the solvents, the larger solubility of n-butane being attributed to the dispersive contributions to the interaction energy. The rise in solubility with increasing size of the alkyl-side chain is explained by a more favourable entropy of solvation in the ionic liquids with larger cations. These conclusions are corroborated by molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  4. Low temperature catalytic combustion of propane over Pt-based catalyst with inverse opal microstructure in microchannel reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, G.; Zapf, R.; Kolb, G.A.; Men, Y.; Hessel, V.; Löwe, H.; Ye, J.; Zentel, R.

    2007-01-01

    novel Pt-based catalyst with highly regular, periodic inverse opal microstructure was fabricated in a microchannel reactor, and catalytic testing revealed excellent conversion and stable activity for propane combustion at low temperatures

  5. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-21

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  6. Role of LPG as an energy substitute in Algeria; Role des G.P.L. comme energie de substitution en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukadoum, Abdelhamid; Houghlaouene, Samir

    2010-09-15

    Algeria is a leader country in LPG industry. The availability of resources and the upstream production development efforts have oriented the large energy choices in terms of domestic market need satisfaction. LPG (propane and butane) plays a massive role in the change towards clean energy (case of LPG versus gas) and towards more practical energy (i.e. the case of bulk propane versus the packed butane, or versus natural gas). [French] L'Algerie est un pays leader dans l'industrie des GPL. La disponibilite des ressources et les efforts de developpement de la production en amont ont oriente les grands choix energetiques en matiere de satisfaction des besoins du marche domestique. En effet, les GPL (propane et butane) jouent un role majeur dans la substitution vers les sources d'energie propres (cas du GPL/C par rapport aux essences) et vers des energies plus commodes (par exemple le cas du propane vrac par rapport au butane conditionne, voire par rapport au gaz naturel).

  7. Site-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Propane: Mass spectrometric methods, equilibrium temperature dependence, and kinetics of exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Ponton, C.; Kitchen, N.; Lloyd, M. K.; Lawson, M.; Formolo, M. J.; Eiler, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Intramolecular isotope ordering can constrain temperatures of synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and/or source substrates of organic compounds. Here we explore site-specific hydrogen isotope variations of propane. Statistical thermodynamic models predict that at equilibrium methylene hydrogen (-CH2-) in propane will be 10's of per mil higher in D/H ratio than methyl hydrogen (-CH3) at geologically relevant temperatures, and that this difference is highly temperature dependent ( 0.5-1 ‰/°C). Chemical-kinetic controls on site-specific D/H in propane could constrain the mechanisms, conditions and extents of propane synthesis or destruction. We have developed a method for measuring the difference in D/H ratio between methylene and methyl hydrogen in propane by gas source mass spectrometry. The data were measured using the Thermo Fisher Double Focusing Sector high resolution mass spectrometer (DFS), and involve comparison of the D/H ratios of molecular ion (C3H8+) and the ethyl fragmental ion (C2H5+). We demonstrate the accuracy and precision of this method through analysis of D-labeled and independently analyzed propanes. In the exchange experiments, propane was heated (100-200 oC) either alone or in the presence of D-enriched water (δD=1,1419 ‰ SMOW), with or without one of several potentially catalytic substrates for hours to weeks. Propane was found to exchange hydrogen with water vigorously at 200 °C in the presence of metal catalysts. In the presence of Ni catalyst, methylene hydrogen exchanges 2.5 times faster than methyl hydrogen. Hydrogen exchange in the presence of Pd catalyst is more effective and can equilibrate hydrogen isotope distribution on propane on the order of 7 days. Isotopic exchange in the presence of natural materials have also been tested, but is only measurable in the methylene group at 200 °C. High catalytic activity of Pd permits attainment of a bracketed, time-invariant equilibrium state that we use to calibrate the site

  8. Influence of promoters and oxidants on propane dehydrogenation over chromium-oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Shaporeva, N.Yu.; Trushin, D.V.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2010-12-30

    Possibilities for increasing the efficiency of supported on SiO{sub 2} chromium-oxide catalysts in propane oxidative dehydrogenation in CO{sub 2} presence are investigated: the introduction of Li, Na, K, Ca in catalysts and the addition of O{sub 2} in the reaction mixture. It was been found that the positive role of K - the increase of the selectivity to propene and stability of catalysts at long-duration tests - appeared at the relation of Cr:K=20. It was shown that the presence of little amount of O{sub 2} (2%) in the reaction mixtures of propane and carbon dioxide resulted in the increase of propene yield and catalyst stability. (orig.)

  9. High-Flux Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes for Propylene/Propane Separation by Postsynthetic Linker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Joo; Kwon, Hyuk Taek; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2018-01-02

    While zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-8, membranes show impressive propylene/propane separation, their throughput needs to be greatly improved for practical applications. A method is described that drastically reduces the effective thickness of ZIF-8 membranes, thereby substantially improving their propylene permeance (that is, flux). The new strategy is based on a controlled single-crystal to single-crystal linker exchange of 2-methylimidazole in ZIF-8 membrane grains with 2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde (ZIF-90 linker), thereby enlarging the effective aperture size of ZIF-8. The linker-exchanged ZIF-8 membranes showed a drastic increase in propylene permeance by about four times, with a negligible loss in propylene/propane separation factor when compared to as-prepared membranes. The linker-exchange effect depends on the membrane synthesis method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Observation of propane cluster size distributions during nucleation and growth in a Laval expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, Jorge J.; Chakrabarty, Satrajit; Schläppi, Bernhard; Signorell, Ruth [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-07

    We report on molecular-level studies of the condensation of propane gas and propane/ethane gas mixtures in the uniform (constant pressure and temperature) postnozzle flow of Laval expansions using soft single-photon ionization by vacuum ultraviolet light and mass spectrometric detection. The whole process, from the nucleation to the growth to molecular aggregates of sizes of several nanometers (∼5 nm), can be monitored at the molecular level with high time-resolution (∼3 μs) for a broad range of pressures and temperatures. For each time, pressure, and temperature, a whole mass spectrum is recorded, which allows one to determine the critical cluster size range for nucleation as well as the kinetics and mechanisms of cluster-size specific growth. The detailed information about the size, composition, and population of individual molecular clusters upon condensation provides unique experimental data for comparison with future molecular-level simulations.

  11. Distribution and origin of dissolved methane, ethane and propane in shallow groundwater of Lower Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloemer, S.; Elbracht, J.; Blumenberg, M.; Illing, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    More than 90% of Germany's domestic natural gas production and reserves are located in Lower Saxony, North Germany. Recently, research has been intensified with respect to unconventional shale gas, revealing a large additional resource potential in northern Germany. However, many concerns arise within the general public and government/political institutions over potential groundwater contamination from additional gas wells through hydraulic fracturing operations. In order to determine the naturally occurring background methane concentrations, ∼1000 groundwater wells, covering ∼48 000 km 2 , have been sampled and subsequently analyzed for dissolved methane, ethane and propane and the isotopic composition of methane (δ 13 C). Dissolved methane concentrations cover a range of ∼7 orders of magnitude between the limit of quantification at ∼20 nl/l and 60 ml/l. The majority of groundwater wells exhibit low concentrations (<1 μl/l), a small number of samples (65) reveal concentration in the range >10 ml/l. In 27% of all samples ethane and in 8% ethane and propane was detected. The median concentration of both components is generally very low (ethane 50 nl/l, propane 23 nl/l). Concentrations reveal a bimodal distribution of the dissolved gas, which might mirror a regional trend due to different hydrogeological settings. The isotopic composition of methane is normally distributed (mean ∼ −70‰ vs PDB), but shows a large variation between −110‰ and +20‰. Samples with δ 13 C values lower than −55‰ vs PDB (66%) are indicative for methanogenic biogenic processes. 5% of the samples are unusually enriched in 13 C (≥25‰ vs PDB) and can best be explained by microbial methane oxidation. According to a standard diagnostic diagram based on methane δ 13 C values and the ratio of methane over the sum over ethane plus propane (“Bernard”-diagram) less than 4% of the samples plot into the diagnostic field of typical thermogenic natural

  12. Method to obtain carbon nano-onions by pyrolisys of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Tomas; Rincon-Arevalo, Pedro; Campos-Martin, Gemma

    2013-11-01

    We present a new and simple method for carbon nano-onions (CNOs) production which is based on the pyrolysis of Propane. CNOs are originated in a laminar premixed Propane/Oxygen flame of approximately 1.8 of stoichiometric coefficient. The stream of gasses resulting from the combustion drives the carbon particles towards the aluminium surface on which nano-onions are deposited and collected. The structure and size of the deposited carbon onion on the metal wall are characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy technique (HRTEM). The experimental images show the presence of two different types of CNOs. The first particles have diameters in the range of 18-25 nm and the second ones around 10 nm.

  13. Computational fluid dynamic on the temperature simulation of air preheat effect combustion in propane turbulent flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwina; Yunardi; Bindar, Yazid

    2018-04-01

    this paper presents results obtained from the application of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.3 to modelling of temperature in propane flames with and without air preheat. The study focuses to investigate the effect of air preheat temperature on the temperature of the flame. A standard k-ε model and Eddy Dissipation model are utilized to represent the flow field and combustion of the flame being investigated, respectively. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data of propane flame taken from literature. The results of the study show that a combination of the standard k-ε turbulence model and eddy dissipation model is capable of producing reasonable predictions of temperature, particularly in axial profile of all three flames. Both experimental works and numerical simulation showed that increasing the temperature of the combustion air significantly increases the flame temperature.

  14. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs

  15. Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Near-Critical Propane Fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Agblevor, Foster A.

    2016-08-01

    Bio-oils produced by thermal process are promising sources of sustainable, low greenhouse gas alternative fuels. These thermal processes are also well suited to decentralized energy production due to low capital and operating costs. Algae feedstocks for bio-oil production are of particular interest, due in part to their high-energy growth yields. Further, algae can be grown in non-arable areas in fresh, brackish, salt water, or even waste water. Unfortunately, bio-oils produced by thermal processes present significant stability challenges. These oils have complex chemical compositions, are viscous, reactive, and thermally unstable. Further, the components within the oils are difficult to separate by fractional distillation. By far, the most effective separation and stabilization method has been solvent extraction. However, liquid phase extraction processes pose two main obstacles to commercialization; they require a significant amount of energy to remove and recover the solvent from the product, and they have a propensity for the solvent to become contaminated with minerals from the char and ash present in the original bio-oil. Separation and fractionation of thermally produced bio-oils using supercritical fluids (SCF) offers the advantages of liquid solvent extraction while drastically reducing energy demands and the predisposition to carry over solids into the extracted phase. SCFs are dense fluids with liquid-like solvent properties and gas-like transport properties. Further, SCF density and solvent strength can be tuned with minor adjustments in pressure, co-solvent addition, or gas anti-solvent addition. Catalytic pyrolysis oils were produced from Scenedesmus dimorphus algae using a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst. Bio-oil produced from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) was separated using critical fluids. Propane extraction was performed at 65 °C at a fluid reduced pressure of 2.0 (85 bar) using an eight to one solvent to feed ratio by weight. Extraction of

  16. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-08-20

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

  17. The flame structure in round and plane propane microjet combustion in a transverse acoustic field at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Grek, G. R.; Katasonov, M. M.; Korobeinichev, O. P.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Shmakov, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The results of experimental studies of the structure and features of flame evolution under propane combustion in round and plane microjet flows at low Reynolds numbers in a transverse acoustic field are discussed in this paper. The specific features of flame evolution under these conditions are shown. Based on the new information obtained on free microjet evolution, new phenomena in flame evolution in a transverse acoustic field with round and plane propane microjet combustion are discovered and explained.

  18. Electrochemical promotion of propane oxidation on Pt deposited on a dense β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eTsampas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of electrochemical catalyst based on a Pt porous catalyst film deposited on a β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor was developed and evaluated during propane oxidation. It was observed that upon anodic polarization, the rate of propane combustion was significantly electropromoted up to 400%. Moreover, for the first time, exponential increase of the catalytic rate was evidenced during galvanostatic transient experiment in excellent agreement with EPOC equation.

  19. Conversion of chlorinated propanes by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing soluble methane monooxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, T.; Janssen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Chlorinated propanes are important pollutants that may show persistent behaviour in the environment. The biotransformation of 1-chloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane was studied using resting cell suspensions of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing soluble methane monooxygenase. The transformation followed first-order kinetics. The rate constants were in the order 1-chloropropane > 1,3-dichloropropane > 1,2-dichloropropane > 1,2,3-trichloropr...

  20. Dehydrogenation of propane in the presence of carbon dioxide over chromium and gallium oxides catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V.; Menshova, M.V.; Kunusova, R.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Effective chromium and gallium oxides supported catalysts were prepared and tested in longduration experiments for propane dehydrogenation in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The optimal concentrations of active metals were found. It was shown that the activity, selectivity and stability of chromium oxides catalysts were higher than these parameters for gallium ones. Mechanism of propane oxidative dehydrogenation was studied over both catalysts using unstationary and spectroscopic methods. The employment of these methods allowed to establish the differences in process mechanism. It was shown that surface hydroxides took participation in propene formation over Cr-catalysts and hydrides - over Ga-ones. Propane and carbon dioxide participated in the reaction from the adsorbed state over both catalysts but they were differed by the adsorption capacity of the reaction components: CO2 was tied more firmly than C{sub 3}H{sub 6} over both catalysts, CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} were tied more strongly with Cr-catalysts than with Ga-ones. It was shown that CO{sub 2} took active participation in reverse watergas shift reaction and in oxidation of catalyst surface over chromium oxides catalysts. The main role of CO{sub 2} in propane dehydrogenation over gallium catalysts consisted in a decrease of coke formation. Step-schemes of propene and cracking products formation were proposed on the basis of literature and obtained data: via the redox mechanism over Cr-catalysts and through a heterolytic dissociation reaction pathway over Ga-ones. (orig.)

  1. The preparation of 3-aminoxy-1-amino[1,1'-3H2]propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaskie, M.C.; Scholtz, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    3-Aminoxy-1-aminopropane (APA) has previously been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the polyamine biosynthesis enzymes ornithine decarboxylase, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, and spermidine synthase. Little information is known, however, regarding its mechanism of action, binding site mode(s), or cellular distribution. This report presents a relatively simple three step synthesis of 3-aminoxy-1-amino[1,1'- 3 H 2 ]propane via the catalytic tritiation of 3-aminoxypropionitrile hydrochloride. (author)

  2. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  3. Isolation and characterisation of an unexpected byproduct in the regioselective butane diacetal protection of α-methyl galactopyranoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Clément Q; Kuppala, Ramakrishna; Light, Mark; Linclau, Bruno

    2018-01-02

    The regioselective protection of both methyl galactopyranoside anomers at the 2 and 3-positions as the butane diacetal (BDA) is well known. Here we describe the formation of an unexpected byproduct, which mainly occurs when α-methyl galactopyranoside is reacted with 2,3-butanedione under BF 3 •OEt 2 catalysis. The structure of the byproduct, which did not arise from anomerisation to the β-anomer or from BDA formation at the galactopyranoside 3,4-positions, was elucidated by NMR and X-ray crystallographic analysis, and proved to be the expected BDA protected galactopyranoside, but in which the stereochemistry of both its BDA acetal centres are inverted. Interestingly, the conformation of the resulting six-membered BDA ring was distorted to a skew boat conformation in order to maintain anomeric stabilisation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Temperature-field measurements of a premixed butane/air circular impinging-flame using reference-beam interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, J.A.; Leung, C.W.; Wong, W.O.; Probert, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Reference-beam interferometry (RBI) was applied to study the axisymmetric temperature fields of a small-scale, low Reynolds-number, low-pressure and fuel-rich premixed butane/air circular-flame jet, when it was impinging vertically upwards onto a horizontal copper plate. By maintaining a Reynolds number, Re, of 500 and an equivalence ratio, φ, of 1.8, interferograms of the impinging-flame jet were obtained for various nozzle-to-plate-distances. Temperature fields of the flame were then determined using the inverse Abel transformation from the obtained interferograms. Temperatures at several locations were measured experimentally with a T-type thermocouple: they were used as a reference to help in the determination as well as the validation. In the present study, a non-contact method has been successfully developed to measure the temperature fields of a circular impinging gas-fired flame jet

  5. The relative reactivities of ethane, ethane-d6, n-butane and neopentane towards 'hot' tritium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urch, D.S.; Welch, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    The reactions of recoil tritium with ethane-butane, and ethane-neopentane mixtures have been studied in the presence and absence of helium moderator. It is shown that the larger molecules are labelled by recoil atoms of a higher mean energy than those which label ethane. It is also shown that hydrogen atoms at CH 2 sites are replaced by higher energy tritium atoms than those at CH 3 sites. An analogy is drawn with the abstraction reaction and a simple unified model for high-energy recoil tritium reactions at a C-H site is proposed. The more complex the other groups attached to the carbon the greater the mean energy of the recoil atoms reacting with the C-H bond. Experiments with ethane-d 6 established that the primary isotope effect for abstraction is comparable to that for displacement with a value of 1.25 approximately 1.30. (orig.) [de

  6. Improved performance of Nb-doped vanadyl pyrophosphate, catalyst for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavarelli, G.; Caldarelli, A.; Cavani, F. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale ' Toso Montanari' ; Cortelli, C.; Luciani, S. [Polynt SpA, Scanzorosciate (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    We report here about an investigation on the role of Nb{sup 5+} when used as a promoter for vanadyl pyrophosphate, catalyst for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The effect of Nb was very complex, a function of both its amount and the reaction temperature used. The optimal catalytic behavior was shown for very low Nb contents, i.e., for a V/Nb atomic ratio as low as 150. The main role of Nb was that of accelerating the formation of a limited amount of {gamma}-VOPO{sub 4} on the surface of vanadyl pyrophosphate, by accelerating the oxidation of V{sup 4+} into V{sup 5+} under reaction conditions. (orig.)

  7. Selective bio-oxidation of propane to acetone using methane-oxidizing Methylomonas sp. DH-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Dong Hoon; Nguyen, Thu Thi; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2017-07-01

    Propane is the major component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Nowadays, the use of LPG is decreasing, and thus utilization of propane as a chemical feedstock is in need of development. An efficient biological conversion of propane to acetone using a methanotrophic whole cell as the biocatalyst was proposed and investigated. A bio-oxidation pathway of propane to acetone in Methylomonas sp. DH-1 was analyzed by gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing. Propane was oxidized to 2-propanol by particulate methane monooxygenase and subsequently to acetone by methanol dehydrogenases. Methylomonas sp. DH-1 was deficient in acetone-converting enzymes and thus accumulated acetone in the absence of any enzyme inhibition. The maximum accumulation, average productivity and specific productivity of acetone were 16.62 mM, 0.678 mM/h and 0.141 mmol/g cell/h, respectively, under the optimized conditions. Our study demonstrates a novel method for the bioconversion of propane to acetone using methanotrophs under mild reaction condition.

  8. Properties of flames propagating in rich propane-air mixtures at microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Pu, Y. K.; Jia, F.; Jarosinski, J.

    Under normal gravity conditions it was found that the rich flammability limits for propane-air mixture are 9 2 C 3 H 8 equivalence ratio phi 2 42 for upward and 6 3 C 3 H 8 phi 1 60 for downward propagating flames An extremely large concentration gap exists between these two limits which is attributed to the influence of buoyancy and preferential diffusion in the mixture The present study enables a better understanding of flame behaviors in rich propane-air mixtures through microgravity experiments in which flame propagation can be examined in the absence of buoyancy The experiments were carried out in a cubic closed vessel of 80 mm inner length made of quartz glass A high-speed camera recorded flame propagation in the combustion vessel while the pressure history was measured by a transducer to indicate corresponding changes in heat release rate and the temperature development was measured by a thermocouple During the microgravity experiments the vessel was located inside a drop tower assembly The experimental data were compared with similar experiments conducted under normal gravity The flame characteristics were investigated for mixture concentrations between 6 5 C 3 H 8 and 9 2 C 3 H 8 Reliable data related to laminar burning velocity and flame thickness were obtained Some new details of the flame propagation near rich flammability limits were deduced Comparative experiments revealed the influence of gravity on combustion processes of rich propane-air

  9. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics of Propane Hydrates in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Ru Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of both pure propane hydrates and the mixtures of hydrates and quartz sands were investigated by combustion experiments. The flame propagation, flame appearance, burning time and temperature in different hydrate layers were studied. For pure propane hydrate combustion, the initial flame falls in the “premixed” category. The flame propagates very rapidly, mainly as a result of burnt gas expansion. The flame finally self-extinguishes with some proportion of hydrates remaining unburned. For the hydrate-sand mixture combustion, the flame takes the form of many tiny discontinuous flames appearing and disappearing at different locations. The burn lasts for a much shorter amount of time than pure hydrate combustion. High porosity and high hydrate saturation is beneficial to the combustion. The hydrate combustion is the combustion of propane gas resulting from the dissociation of the hydrates. In both combustion test scenarios, the hydrate-dissociated water plays a key role in the fire extinction, because it is the main resistance that restrains the heat transfer from the flame to the hydrates and that prevents the hydrate-dissociated gas from releasing into the combustion zone.

  10. Saturated liquid densities of propane at T = (280 to 365) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Saturated liquid densities for propane were obtained by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer at T = (280, 300, 320, 340, 360, and 365) K. The mol-fraction purity of the propane used in the measurements was 0.99997. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, and density measurements were estimated to be less than ±3 mK, 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), and ±0.09%, respectively. For the determination of the saturation boundary at each temperature for propane, we measured the density data at intervals of about 20 kPa very close to the saturation boundary. After such measurements had been completed, the saturated liquid density data at each temperature were determined as the intersection between the isotherm and our previously determined vapour pressure value. The discrepancies between the three series in the present measurements, in which different sample fillings were used, were also confirmed to be sufficiently lower than the experimental uncertainty. The saturated liquid density correlation was also provided for the systematic comparisons between the present measurements and the literature data

  11. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995-1996 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan's Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply

  12. Effect of support on the activity of MoVCeZr catalyst for propane ammoxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita Ramli; Farinaa Md Jamil; Ishak Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide catalysts based on Mo-V have been known as the most active and selective in the ammoxidation of propane to ACN. A series of MoVCeZr (5 % wt/ wt) supported with MOR, TiO 2 and MgO have been prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method for propane ammoxidation reaction to ACN. The catalyst was calcined in a two step calcination process in static air between 350 - 600 degree Celsius for 10 hour. The surface area and pore size of these catalysts were measured using physical adsorption of nitrogen following Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET) equation. The textural and morphological of these catalysts were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The activities of all catalysts were tested using a fixed-bed reactor with online gas chromatography (GC) at 420 degree Celsius and atmospheric pressure in the presence of 0.5 ml catalyst with composition consisting of 5.8:7:17.4 (propane: ammonia: air) and helium as carrier to give a total flow of 120 ml. Result shows that MoVCeZr support gives a better conversion due to the surface area and pore size characteristic of the catalyst. (author)

  13. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  15. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  17. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  18. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  19. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  20. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  1. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  2. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  3. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  4. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  5. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, 'bulk' isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  6. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael; Eilers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, ‘bulk’ isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  7. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  8. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  9. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  10. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  11. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  12. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  13. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  14. Oxygen-assisted conversion of propane over metal and metal oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laate, Leiv

    2002-07-01

    An experimental set-up has been build and applied in activity/selectivity studies of the oxygen-assisted conversion of propane over metals and metal oxide catalysts. The apparatus has been used in order to achieve an improved understanding of the reactions between alkanes/alkenes and oxygen. Processes that have been studied arc the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over a VMgO catalyst and the selective combustion of hydrogen in the presence of hydrocarbons over Pt-based catalysts and metal oxide catalysts. From the experiments, the following conclusions are drawn: A study of the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over a vanadium-magnesium-oxide catalyst confirmed that the main problem with this system is the lack of selectivity due to complete combustion. Selectivity to propene up to about 60% was obtained at 10% conversion at 500{sup o}C, but the selectivity decreased with increasing conversion. No oxygenates were detected, the only by- products were CO and CO{sub 2}. The selectivity to propene is a strong function of the conversion of propane. The reaction rate of propane was found to be 1.0 {+-} 0.1 order in propane and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 order in oxygen. The kinetic results are in agreement with a Mars van Krevelen mechanism with the activation of the hydrocarbons as the slow step. The rate of propene oxidation to CO{sub 2} was studied and found to be significantly higher than that of propane. Another possible process involves the simultaneous equilibrium dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes and combustion of the hydrogen formed to shift the equilibrium dehydrogenation reaction further to the product alkenes. A study of the selective combustion of hydrogen in the presence of propane/propene was found to be possible under certain reaction conditions over some metal oxide catalysts. In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}, unsupported Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZSM-5 show the ability to combust hydrogen in a gas mixture with propane and oxygen with good selectivity. Bi{sub 2

  15. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  16. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  17. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  18. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  19. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  20. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  1. A coordination polymer of CdII with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate and 1,4-bis[1-(2-pyridylmethylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ping Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title CdII coordination polymer, catena-poly[[{1,4-bis[1-(2-pyridylmethylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butane}cadmium(II]-μ-benzene-1,3-dicarboxylato], [Cd(C8H4O4(C30H28N6]n, was obtained by reaction of CdCO3, benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2btc and 1,4-bis[1-(2-pyridylmethylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butane (L. The CdII cation is six-coordinated by an N2O4-donor set. L acts as a bidentate ligand and btc anions link CdII centers into a chain propagating parallel to [010].

  2. Solubility and thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Siddiqui, Nasir A; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-12-01

    The solubilities of bioactive compound vanillin were measured in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at T=(298-318)K and p=0.1 MPa. The experimental solubility of crystalline vanillin was determined and correlated with calculated solubility. The results showed good correlation of experimental solubilities of crystalline vanillin with calculated ones. The mole fraction solubility of crystalline vanillin was recorded highest in pure propane-1,2-diol (7.06×10(-2) at 298 K) and lowest in pure water (1.25×10(-3) at 298 K) over the entire temperature range investigated. Thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures was evaluated by Van't Hoff and Krug analysis. The results showed an endothermic, spontaneous and an entropy-driven dissolution of crystalline vanillin in all propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures. Based on solubility data of this work, vanillin has been considered as soluble in water and freely soluble in propane-1,2-diol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Update from the Analysis of High Resolution Propane Spectra and the Interpretation of Titan's Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavans, V.; Nixon, C.; Hewagama, T.; Jennings, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Titan has an extremely thick atmosphere dominated by nitrogen, but includes a range of trace species such as hydrocarbons and nitriles. One such hydrocarbon is propane (C3H8). Propane has 21 active IR bands covering broad regions of the mid-infrared. Therefore, its ubiquitous signature may potentially mask weaker signatures of other undetected species with important roles in Titan's chemistry. Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Titan's atmosphere hint at the presence of such molecules. Unfortunately, C3H8 line atlases for the vibration bands V(sub 8), V(sub 21), V(sub 20), and V(sub 7) (869, 922, 1054, and 1157 per centimeter, respectively) are not currently available for subtracting the C3H8 signal to reveal, or constrain, the signature of underlying chemical species. Using spectra previously obtained by Jennings, D. E., et al. at the McMath-Pierce FTIR at Kitt Peak, AZ, as the source and automated analysis utilities developed for this application, we are compiling an atlas of spectroscopic parameters for propane that characterize the ro-vibrational transitions in the above bands. In this paper, we will discuss our efforts for inspecting and fitting the aforementioned bands, present updated results for spectroscopic parameters including absolute line intensities and transition frequencies in HITRAN and GEISA formats, and show how these optical constants will be used in searching for other trace chemical species in Titan's atmosphere. Our line atlas for the V(sub 21) band contains a total number of 2971 lines. The band integrated strength calculated for the V(sub 21) band is 1.003 per centimeter per (centimeter-atm).

  4. Effect of pressure on the transfer functions of premixed methane and propane swirl flames

    KAUST Repository

    Di Sabatino, Francesco

    2018-04-24

    This paper reports on the effect of pressure on the response of methane–air and propane–air swirl flames to acoustic excitation of the flow. These effects are analyzed on the basis of the flame transfer function (FTF) formalism, experimentally determined from velocity and global OH* chemiluminescence measurements at pressures up to 5 bar. In parallel, phase-locked images of OH* chemiluminescence are collected and analyzed in order to determine the associated flame dynamics. Flame transfer functions and visual flame dynamics at atmospheric pressure are found to be similar to previous studies with comparable experimental conditions. Regardless of pressure, propane flames exhibit a much larger FTF gain than methane flames. For both fuels, the effect of pressure primarily is to modify the gain response at the local maximum of the FTF, at a Strouhal number around 0.5 (176 Hz). For methane flames, this gain maximum increases monotonically with pressure, while for propane flames it increases from 1 to 3 bar and decreases from 3 to 5 bar. At this frequency and regardless of pressure, the flame motion is driven by flame vortex roll-up, suggesting that pressure affects the FTF by modifying the interaction of the flame with the vortex detached from the injector rim during a forcing period. The complex heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and combustion coupling in this configuration does not allow keeping the vortex properties constant when pressure is increased. However, the different trends of the FTF gain observed for methane and propane fuels with increasing pressure imply that intrinsic flame properties and fuel chemistry, and their variation with pressure, play an important role in controlling the response of these flames to acoustic forcing.

  5. Negative ion formation in dissociative electron attachment to selected halogen derivatives of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszczewska, W.; Kocísek, J.; Skalný, J.; Matejcík, V.; Matejcík, S.

    2008-11-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to halogenated derivatives of propane: 1-bromo-3-chloropropane, 2-bromo-1-chloropropane, 3-bromo-1,1,1-trichloropropane and 1,3-dibromo-1,1-difluoropropane was studied in the gas phase at ambient temperature using a high resolution crossed electron/molecule beams technique. The negative ions formed via DEA reaction were identified using mass spectrometric technique and the anion yields were measured in the electron energy range from 0 to 10 eV. The absolute partial cross sections for DEA to the molecules were estimated using the relative flow technique.

  6. Cationic Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and Dioleoyloxytrimethylammonium Propane Lipid Bilayers: Atomistic Insight for Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, W.; Gurtovenko, A. A.; Vattulainen, I.

    2012-01-01

    We performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers consisting of a mixture of cationic dioleoyloxytrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and zwitterionic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids at different DOTAP fractions. Our primary focus was the specific effects...... of unsaturated lipid chains on structural and dynamic properties of mixed cationic bilayers. The bilayer area, as well as the ordering of lipid tails, shows a pronounced nonmonotonic behavior when TAP lipid fraction increases. The minimum in area (maximum in ordering) was observed for a bilayer with TAP fraction...... lipids, which were found to form PC-PC and PC-TAP pairs, and the formation of lipid clusters....

  7. High Resolution Spectra of Carbon Monoxide, Propane and Ammonia for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher Andrew

    Spectroscopy is a critical tool for analyzing atmospheric data. Identification of atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure and the existence and concentrations of constituent gases via remote sensing techniques are only possible with spectroscopic data. These form the basis of model atmospheres which may be compared to observations to determine such parameters. To this end, this dissertation explores the spectroscopy of three molecules: ammonia, propane and carbon monoxide. Infrared spectra have been recorded for ammonia in the region 2400-9000 cm-1. These spectra were recorded at elevated temperatures (from 293-973 K) using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). Comparison between the spectra recorded at different temperatures yielded experimental lower state energies. These spectra resulted in the measurement of roughly 30000 lines and about 3000 quantum assignments. In addition spectra of propane were recorded at elevated temperatures (296-700 K) using an FTS. Atmospheres with high temperatures require molecular data at appropriate conditions. This dissertation describes collection of such data and the potential application to atmospheres in our solar system, such as auroral regions in Jupiter, to those of planets orbiting around other stars and cool sub-stellar objects known as brown dwarfs. The spectra of propane and ammonia provide the highest resolution and most complete experimental study of these gases in their respective spectral regions at elevated temperatures. Detection of ammonia in an exoplanet or detection of propane in the atmosphere of Jupiter will most likely rely on the work presented here. The best laboratory that we have to study atmospheres is our own planet. The same techniques that are applied to these alien atmospheres originated on Earth. As such it is appropriate to discuss remote sensing of our own atmosphere. This idea is explored through analysis of spectroscopic data recorded by an FTS on the Atmospheric Chemistry

  8. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  9. Select Components and Finish System Design of a Window Air Conditioner with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report describes the technical targets for developing a high efficiency window air conditioner (WAC) using propane (R-290). The baseline unit selected for this activity is a GE R-410A WAC. We established collaboration with a Chinese rotary compressor manufacturer, to select an R-290 compressor. We first modelled and calibrated the WAC system model using R-410A. Next, we applied the calibrated system model to design the R-290 WAC, and decided the strategies to reduce the system charge below 260 grams and achieve the capacity and efficiency targets.

  10. Pyrolysis of propane under vacuum carburizing conditions. An experimental and modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.U.; Bajohr, S.; Buchholz, D.; Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle, Engler Bunte Ring 1, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Minh, H.D.; Norinaga, K.; Janardhanan, V.M.; Tischer, S.; Deutschmann, O. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Propane has been pyrolyzed in a flow reactor system at different temperatures ranging from 640 C to 1010 C and at 8 mbar of partial pressure which are typical vacuum carburizing conditions for steel. Nitrogen was used as a carrier gas. The products of pyrolysis were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. The reactor was numerically simulated by 1D and 2D flow models coupled to a detailed gas phase reaction mechanism. The gas atmosphere composition has been predicted under the conditions of vacuum carburizing of steel. (author)

  11. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  12. Kinetic laws of deep oxidations of n-butane and carbon monoxide at presence Cu-Cr-Co/Al2O3/Al-frame catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradova, P.A; Djafarova, S.A; Seyfullayeva, Z.M; Efendiyev, M.R; Litvishkov, Yu. N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The results of research laws of reaction of deep oxidation of n-butane and carbon monoxide in the presence of Cu-Cr-Co/AL 2 O 3 /Al-frame catalysts are sited, with the purpose of acknowledgement of stated before assumptions on the physic oxidation-reduction mechanism of observable transformations. It is established, that dependence of an output of carbon monoxide on a degree of transformation of n-butane in an area of its relatively values, has extreme character that is typical for formation and an expenditure of intermediate products under the consecutive circuit. In area of low transformations of hydrocarbon CO and CO 2 are formed by parallel way. The generalized physic circuit of the postulated mechanism of joint transformation of n-butane and CO on three independent reactionary routes and kinetic model of process corresponding to it is offered. With use of settlement methods of optimization the estimation of parameters of the offered kinetic model has been out

  13. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  14. Nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst GaSbNiPOx (1:3:1.5:1 atomic ratios of the elements) was studied by comparing the rate of this reaction at 550/sup 0/C and 5Vertical Bar3< by vol propane/6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/18.6Vertical Bar3< oxygen/70.4Vertical Bar3< helium reactant mixture with that of isobutane ammoxidation to methacrylonitrile under the same conditions, at low (Vertical Bar3; 20Vertical Bar3<) conversions that prevent secondary oxidation of the products. Both the over-all hydrocarbon conversion rate and that of nitrile formation were higher for propane, suggesting that the reactions proceed via the respective carbanions (probably primary carbanions), rather than carbocations or uncharged radicals.

  15. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  16. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  17. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  18. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  19. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  20. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  1. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  2. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  3. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  4. An Experimental Measurement on Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Length of Iso-Butane-Air Mixtures at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Alaeldeen Altag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, experimental investigation on laminar combustion of iso-butane-air mixtures was conducted in constant volume explosion vessel. The experiments were conducted at wide range of equivalence ratios ranging between Ф = 0.6 and 1.4 and atmospheric pressure of 0.1 MPa and ambient temperature of 303K. Using spherically expanding flame method, flame parameters including stretched, unstretched flame propagation speeds, laminar burning velocities and Markstein length were calculated. For laminar burning velocities the method of error bars of 95% confidence level was applied. In addition, values of Markstein lengths were measured in wide range of equivalence ratios to study the influence of stretch rate on flame instability and burning velocity. It was found that the stretched flame speed and laminar burning velocities increased with equivalence ratios and the peak value was obtained at equivalence ratio of Ф = 1.1. The Markstein length decreased with the increases in equivalence ratios, which indicates that the diffusion thermal flame instability increased at high equivalence ratios in richer mixture side. However, the total deviations in the laminar burning velocities have discrepancies of 1.2-2.9% for all investigated mixtures.

  5. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2010-12-01

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800. K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. © 2010 The Combustion Institute.

  6. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  7. Performance of 6FDA–6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita

    2010-12-01

    This work addresses the challenges faced by previous researchers with 6FDA-6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations due to plasticization. A study of film annealing temperature is reported to optimize plasticization suppression in elevated temperature permeation on properly annealed dense films made with high molecular weight polymer. A detailed analysis of pure and mixed gas results using different permeability models is shown in this work. The annealing effects in terms of plasticization suppression and permeability and selectivity changes are discussed in detail. According to our best knowledge, this is for the first time plasticization suppression for propylene/propane has been reported with any polyimide dense film membrane. Results of pure gas sorption experiments using a pressure decay method with un-annealed and annealed films are discussed and used to analyze the permeation data using the dual-mode model. Mixed gas permeation results also are explained with dual mode and bulk flow transport models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Stability and Behaviors of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen Micro Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takamitsu; Kinoshita, Koichiro; Kitamura, Hideki; Tanigawa, Ryoichi

    The flame stability limits essentially define the fundamental operation of the combustion system. Recently the micro diffusion flame has been remarked. The critical conditions of the flame stability limit are highly dependent on nozzle diameter, species of fuel and so on. The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen is formed by using the micro-scale nozzle of which inner diameter is less than 1mm. The configurations and behaviors of the flame are observed directly and visualized by the high speed video camera The criteria of stability limits are proposed for the micro diffusion flame. The objectives of the present study are to get further understanding of lifting/blow-off for the micro diffusion flame. The results obtained are as follows. (1) The behaviors of the flames are classified into some regions for each diffusion flame. (2) The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane cannot be sustained, when the nozzle diameter is less than 0.14 mm. (3) The diffusion flame cannot be sustained below the critical fuel flow rate. (4) The minimum flow which is formed does not depends on the average jet velocity, but on the fuel flow rate. (5) the micro flame is laminar. The flame length is decided by fuel flow rate.

  9. Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process for dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosjorde, A.; Kjelstrup, S.; Johannessen, E.; Hansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    We minimize the total entropy production of a process designed for dehydrogenation of propane. The process consists of 21 units, including a plug-flow reactor, a partial condenser, two tray distillation columns and a handful of heat exchangers and compressors. The units were modeled in a manner that made them relatively insensitive to changes in the molar flow rates, to make the optimization more flexible. The operating conditions, as well as to some degree the design of selected units, which minimized the total entropy production of the process, were found. The most important variables were the amount of recycled propane and propylene, conversion and selectivity in the reactor, as well as the number of tubes in the reactor. The optimal conversion, selectivity and recycle flows were results of a very clear trade-off among the entropy produced in the reactor, the partial condenser and the two distillation columns. Although several simplifying assumptions were made for computational reasons, this shows for the first time that it is also meaningful to use the entropy production as an objective function in chemical engineering process optimization studies

  10. Evolution of charged species in propane/air flames: mass-spectrometric analysis and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J M; Agneray, A; Jaffrezic, X; Bellenoue, M; Labuda, S; Leys, C; Chernukho, A P; Migoun, A N; Cenian, A; Savel'ev, A M; Titova, N S; Starik, A M

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and modelling studies of ion formation during combustion of propane/air mixtures are presented. The positive and negative ions mass/charge spectra in propane/air stoichiometric flame at atmospheric pressure are recorded in the range from 0 to 512 atomic mass units. The C 2 H 3 O + and HCO 2 - ions are found to be the most abundant ionic species in the flame front region. By increasing the distance from the flame front the ion composition changes significantly. In the burnt gas region the H 3 O + , NO + , CO 3 - , HCO 3 - ions are found to be the major charged species. To explain the experimental results the extended kinetic model describing the ion formation in flame and in the extraction system of the mass-spectrometer as well as ion-soot interaction is developed. It is shown that the ionic clusters, which are observed experimentally, form during the adiabatic expansion in the extraction system, and the presence of soot particles may change the total positive and negative ion concentrations in the gas phase

  11. Measurement of the burning velocity of propane-air mixtures using soap bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1988-12-20

    By filling a soap bubble with propane-air mixture of spacified equivalence ratio and by igniting it at the center, the flame propagation velocity was measured applying multiplex exposure Schlieren method. And the flow velocity of the unburnt propane-air mixture was also measured by a hot-wire anemometer. From the differences of the above two velocities, the burning velocity was obtained. The values of the burning velocity agreed well with the highly accurate results of usual measurements. The maximum value of the burning velocity, which exists at an equivalence ratio of 1.1, was 50cm/s. This value agreed well with the theoretical calculation result on the on-dimensional flame by Warnatz. The burning velocity in the range of from 0.7 to 1.5 equivalence ratios decreases symmetrically with the maximum value at the center. The velocity decrease in the excessive concentration range of fuel is only a little and converges between 7 and 10 cm/s. To evade the influence of the flame-front instability, measurements were done from 2 to 5cm from the ignition center. Thus accurate values were obtained. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Double perovskites La2MMnO6 as catalyst for propane combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Tasca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structural, spectroscopic and morphological characterization; as well as the evaluation of the catalytic properties, of a family of oxides La2MMnO6, with M = Co, Ni and Cu are presented in this work. The materials were obtained by solid state reaction and through citrate route. The structure was determined by X-ray diffraction and a correlation was found between the crystal cell parameters and the M(II cation sizes, as a consequence of MO6 and MnO6 octahedral ordering. According to infrared spectroscospic characterization of the materials prepared by citrate route, a diminution of the M4+-O bond strength was observed, according with M(II sizes, in the sequence: Cu > Ni > Co. More labile O species should be present in La2CoMnO6-CIT. The electron microscopy morphology of this oxide confirmed the presence of agglomerated tiny particles. The presence of nanometic crystallites was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The catalytic tests, using propane as reaction test, were carried out in a fixed bed micro reactor, coupled with an “on line” chromatograph. The materials obtained by citrate route, despite M(II cations, are better suited for propane combustion and the catalyst La2CoMnO6 is the most active of the investigated series with T90 ∼ 500 °C.

  13. Effect of an alternating electric field on the polluting emission from propane flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukradiga, I.; Turlajs, D.; Purmals, M.; Barmina, I.; Zake, M.

    2001-12-01

    The experimental investigations of the AC field effect on the propane combustion and processes that cause the formation of polluting emissions (NO_x, CO, CO_2) are performed. The AC-enhanced variations of the temperature and composition of polluting emissions are studied for the fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions of the flame core. The results show that the AC field-enhanced mixing of the fuel-rich core with the surrounding air coflow enhances the propane combustion with increase in the mass fraction of NO_x and CO_2 in the products. The reverse field effect on the composition of polluting emissions is observed under the fuel-lean conditions in the flame core. The field-enhanced CO_2 destruction is registered when the applied voltage increase. The destruction of CO_2 leads to a correlating increase in the mass fraction of CO in the products and enhances the process of NO_x formation within the limit of the fuel lean and low temperature combustion. Figs 11, Refs 18.

  14. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  15. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  16. A packed bed membrane reactor for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane on a Ga2O3 / MoO3 based catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotanjac, Ž.S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane has been studied over a Ga2O3/MoO3 based catalyst. Using a differentially operated packed bed reactor with premixed oxygen and propane feed, the kinetic parameters for the main reaction and the consecutive and parallel reactions were experimentally determined. It

  17. Effects of Bronsted acidity in the mechanism of selective oxidation of propane to acetone on CaY zeolite at room temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Mojet, Barbara; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2005-01-01

    The importance of Brønsted acid sites for partial oxidation of propane to acetone in CaY was investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy. With an increasing number of protons in Ca-Y, Volcano plots were observed for (1) amount of adsorbed propane; (2) initial acetone formation rate; (3) total amount

  18. Recovery Act: Demonstration of a SOFC Generator Fueled by Propane to Provide Electrical Power to Real World Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessette, Norman [Acumentrics Corporation, Westwood, MA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this project provided with funds through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was to demonstrate a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator capable of operation on propane fuel to improve efficiency and reduce emissions over commercially available portable generators. The key objectives can be summarized as: Development of two portable electrical generators in the 1-3kW range utilizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and propane fuel; The development and demonstration of a proof-of-concept electro-mechanical propane fuel interface that provides a user friendly capability for managing propane fuel; The deployment and use of the fuel cell portable generators to power media production equipment over the course of several months at multiple NASCAR automobile racing events; The deployment and use of the fuel cell portable generators at scheduled events by first responders (police, fire) of the City of Folsom California; and Capturing data with regard to the systems’ ability to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Targets and evaluating the ease of use and potential barriers to further adoption of the systems.

  19. Oxidation of propane with oxygen, nitrous oxide and oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture over Co- and Fe-zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novoveská, K.; Bulánek, R.; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 100, 3-4 (2005), s. 315-319 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/1120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : propene * propane oxidation * nitrous oxide * Fe-ZSM-5 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2005

  20. Enhancing aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dibromoethane in groundwater using ethane or propane and inorganic nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Paul B; Streger, Sheryl H; Begley, James F

    2015-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide; EDB) is a probable human carcinogen that was previously used as both a soil fumigant and a scavenger in leaded gasoline. EDB has been observed to persist in soils and groundwater, particularly under oxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate options to enhance the aerobic degradation of EDB in groundwater, with a particular focus on possible in situ remediation strategies. Propane gas and ethane gas were observed to significantly stimulate the biodegradation of EDB in microcosms constructed with aquifer solids and groundwater from the FS-12 EDB plume at Joint Base Cape Cod (Cape Cod, MA), but only after inorganic nutrients were added. Ethene gas was also effective, but rates were appreciably slower than for ethane and propane. EDB was reduced to ethane gas and inorganic nutrients. An enrichment culture (BE-3R) that grew on ethane or propane gas but not EDB was obtained from the site materials. The degradation of EDB by this culture was inhibited by acetylene gas, suggesting that degradation is catalyzed by a monooxygenase enzyme. The BE-3R culture was also observed to biodegrade 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), a compound commonly used in conjunction with EDB as a lead scavenger in gasoline. The data suggest that addition of ethane or propane gas with inorganic nutrients may be a viable option to enhance degradation of EDB in groundwater aquifers to below current state or federal MCL values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amine modified polyethylenes, prepared in near critical propane, as adhesion promoting agents in multilayered HDPE/PET films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, de J.M.; Scheltus, M.; Koning, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    High d. polyethylene (HDPE) grafted with 0.13, 0.40 and 1.04 wt% maleic anhydride (abbreviation PEMA) was modified with an excess of a variety of diamines in near crit. propane. The resulting amic acid groups were quant. imidized to the corresponding imide (PEMI) in the melt. Increasing the

  2. 40 CFR 721.8145 - Propane,1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propane,1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-. 721.8145 Section 721.8145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified § 721...

  3. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg -1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g -1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g -1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg -1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O 2 kg -1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A metal-organic framework-based splitter for separating propylene from propane

    KAUST Repository

    Cadiau, Amandine

    2016-07-07

    The chemical industry is dependent on the olefin/paraffin separation, which is mainly accomplished by using energy-intensive processes. We report the use of reticular chemistry for the fabrication of a chemically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework (MOF) material (NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, also referred to as KAUST-7). The bridging of Ni(II)-pyrazine square-grid layers with (NbOF5)2- pillars afforded the construction of a three-dimensional MOF, enclosing a periodic array of fluoride anions in contracted square-shaped channels. The judiciously selected bulkier (NbOF5)2- caused the looked-for hindrance of the previously free-rotating pyrazine moieties, delimiting the pore system and dictating the pore aperture size and its maximum opening. The restricted MOF window resulted in the selective molecular exclusion of propane from propylene at atmospheric pressure, as evidenced through multiple cyclic mixed-gas adsorption and calorimetric studies.

  5. Structure of alumina supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin; Jensen, Anker Degn; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2013-01-01

    .%. The catalysts were subsequently characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, UV–vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as measurement of the catalytic performance. The catalysts had specific surface areas from 143 to 169 m2/g corresponding to average......A series of five vanadia on alumina catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) using vanadium(III)acetylacetonate and aluminium(III)acetylacetonate dissolved in toluene as precursors. The vanadium loading was 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10wt...... X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy showed that the vanadia can be reduced when operating at low oxygen concentrations. The catalyst performance was determined in fixed bed reactors with an inlet gas composition of C3H8/O2/N2=5/25/70. The main products were propene, CO and CO2...

  6. Study on nitrogen diluted propane-air premixed flames at elevated pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Chenglong; Zheng Jianjun [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Zuohua, E-mail: zhhuang@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Using a high pressure constant volume combustion vessel, the propagation and morphology of spark-ignited outwardly expanding nitrogen diluted propane-air flames were imaged and recorded by schlieren photography and high-speed digital camera. The unstretched laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were subsequently determined over wide range of initial temperatures, initial pressures and nitrogen dilution ratios. Two recently developed mechanisms were used to predict the reference laminar burning velocity. The results show that the measured unstretched laminar burning velocities agree well with those in the literature and the computationally predicted results. The flame images show that the diffusional-thermal instability is promoted as the mixture becomes richer, and the hydrodynamic instability is increased with the increase of the initial pressure and it is decreased with the increase of dilution ratio. The normalized laminar burning velocities show a linear correlation with respect to the dilution ratio, indicating that the effect of nitrogen dilution is more obvious at higher pressures.

  7. Effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in horizontal circular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianto, S.; Pamitran, A. S.; Nasruddin, Alhamid, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Due to its friendly effect on the environment, natural refrigerants could be the best alternative refrigerant to replace conventional refrigerants. The present study was devoted to the effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in a horizontal circular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm. The experiments were conditioned with 4 to 10 °C for saturation temperature, 9 to 20 kW/m2 for heat flux, and 250 to 380 kg/m2s for mass flux. It is shown here that increased heat flux may result in increasing vapor superficial velocity, and then increasing pressure drop. The present experimental results were evaluated with some existing correlations of pressure drop. The best prediction was evaluated by Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) with MARD 25.7%. In order to observe the experimental flow pattern, the present results were also mapped on the Wang flow pattern map.

  8. Active catalytic sites in the ammoxidation of propane and propene over V-Sb-O catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, S.A.; Zanthoff, H.W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The ammoxidation of propane over VSb{sub y}O{sub x} catalysts (y=1, 2, 5) was investigated with respect to the role of different oxygen species in the selective and non selective reaction steps using transient experiments in the Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor. Only lattice oxygen is involved in the oxidation reactions. Using isotopic labelled oxygen it is shown that two different active sites exist on the surface. On site A, which can be reoxidized faster by gas phase oxygen compared to site B, mainly CO is formed. On site B CO{sub 2} and acrolein as well as NO and N{sub 2}O in the presence of ammonia in the feed gas are formed and reoxidation mainly occurs with bulk lattice oxygen. (orig.)

  9. State heating oil and propane program (SHOPP). Final report, 1995/96 - Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Kentucky's second year of participation in SHOPP was successful. The survey started with a sample group of fifty (50), with forty-nine (49) actually participating. Survey participants were contacted by telephone each reporting period from October to March. Some companies reported supply problems, due to allocation, resulting in having to go greater distances to obtain the propane they needed and some reported only being supplied a portion of what they wanted. Most companies did not experience allocation or supply problems. The winter was colder and longer than usual. Wholesale prices did increase. However, most suppliers tried to keep prices down. There were a few reports of problems delivering to customers due to an abnormal amount of snow in eastern Kentucky

  10. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  11. [Smog chamber simulation of ozone formation from atmospheric photooxidation of propane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-hua; Mo, Chuang-rong; Xu, Yong-fu; Jia, Long

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric photochemical reactions of propane and NO, were simulated with a self-made smog chamber. The effects of relative humidity (RH) and [C3H8]0/[NOx]0 ratio on ozone formation were studied. The results showed that both the maximum ozone concentration and the maximum value of incremental reactivity (IRmax) of propane decreased linearly with increasing RH. Under lower RH conditions, the occurrence time of peak ozone concentration was about 22 h after the beginning of reaction, and IRmax varied from 0.0231 to 0.0391, while under higher RH conditions the occurrence time of peak ozone concentration was 16 h, and IRmax ranged from 0.0172 to 0.0320. During the 20 h of reaction, within the first 12 h RH did not significantly affect the yield of acetone, whereas after 12 h the lower RH condition could lead to relatively greater amount of acetone. During the first 4-20 h of experiments, acetone concentrations ranged from 153 x 10(-9) to 364 x 10(-9) at 17% RH and from 167 x 10(-9) to 302 x 10(-9) at 62% RH, respectively. Maximum ozone concentrations decreased with increasing [C3H8]0/[NOx]0 ratio and a better negative linear relationship between them was obtained under the lower RH conditions. The smog chamber data and the results from simulation of the C3H8-NOx reactions using the sub-mechanism of MCM were compared, and a significant deviation was found between these two results.

  12. Comparative study on hydrogenation of propanal on Ni(111) and Cu(111) from density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Wei, E-mail: weian@sues.edu.cn; Men, Yong; Wang, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation of propanal is kinetically much faster on Ni(111) than Cu(111). • Hydroxyl route is prefered over alkoxy route on Ni(111). • Alkoxy route is prefered over hydroxyl route on Cu(111). • Activation barrier for hydrogenation of carbonyl is lowered by H-tunneling effect. • η{sup 2}(C,O)-adsorption mode is beneficial for hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of aldehyde. - Abstract: Using propanal as a probe molecule, we have comparatively investigated hydrogenation of carbonyl (C=O) in short carbon-chain aldehyde on Ni(111) and Cu(111) by means of periodic density functional theory. Our focus is in particular on the differentiation of reaction route in sequential hydrogenation on Ni(111) and Cu(111) following Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. Strong binding with alkoxy intermediates has great impact on altering reaction pathways on the two surfaces, where hydroxyl route via 1-hydroxyl propyl intermediate is dominant on Ni(111), but alkoxy route via propoxyl intermediate is more likely on Cu(111) due to a higher activiation barrier of initial hydrogenation in hydroxyl route. In comparison, hydrogenation of carbonyl on Ni(111) is kinetically much faster than that on Cu(111) as a result of much lower activation barrier in rate-determining step (i.e., 13.2 vs 26.8 kcal/mol) of most favorable reaction pathways. Furthermore, the discrepancy in calculated and experimental barriers can be well explained by using the concept of H-tunneling effect on bond forming with H atoms during sequential hydrogenation. The different features of electronic structure exhibited by the two metal surfaces provide insight into their catalytic behaviors.

  13. Stability and catalytic performance of vanadia supported on nanostructured titania catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kootenaei, A.H. Shahbazi; Towfighi, J.; Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadia supported on titanate nanotube shows enhanced dispersion of vanadia. • Deactivatoin during propane ODH related to the rutile development. • Titanate nanotube transfers to anatase due to calcinations and presence of vanadia. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the simple hydrothermal method and investigated as support for V 2 O 5 catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODP). The structures of pristine nanotubes as well as the prepared catalysts were investigated by XRD, Raman, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM, EDS, BET, and XPS techniques. The characterization of the as-synthesized nanotubes showed the synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanotube. The incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to prepare VTNT-x (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.% vanadia supported on nanotube) together with VTi5 (5 wt.% vanadia supported on Degussa P25). The anatase phase was developed in VTNT-x catalysts upon calcination along with specific surface area loss. Higher vanadia loading resulted in the lowering of support capacity in maintaining vanadia in dispersed state such that eventually crystalline vanadia appeared. The measured catalyst activity demonstrates that in spite of major support surface area loss in VTNT-5 catalyst, the propylene yield is superior in comparison with VTi5 catalyst. The catalyst activity can be correlated with maximum reduction temperature. Deactivation of VTi5 and VTNT-5 as well as VTNT-15 were studied for 3,000 min time-on-stream. It was found that the activity of VTNT-5 catalyst remain unchanged while a decline in catalytic activity observed in VTi5 and VTNT-15 catalysts. The development of rutile was considered as being a major element in the deactivation of the investigated catalysts which is influenced by the presence of vanadium and reaction atmosphere

  14. Stability and catalytic performance of vanadia supported on nanostructured titania catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kootenaei, A.H. Shahbazi [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Towfighi, J., E-mail: towfighi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Laboratory, Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Vanadia supported on titanate nanotube shows enhanced dispersion of vanadia. • Deactivatoin during propane ODH related to the rutile development. • Titanate nanotube transfers to anatase due to calcinations and presence of vanadia. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the simple hydrothermal method and investigated as support for V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODP). The structures of pristine nanotubes as well as the prepared catalysts were investigated by XRD, Raman, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM, EDS, BET, and XPS techniques. The characterization of the as-synthesized nanotubes showed the synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanotube. The incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to prepare VTNT-x (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.% vanadia supported on nanotube) together with VTi5 (5 wt.% vanadia supported on Degussa P25). The anatase phase was developed in VTNT-x catalysts upon calcination along with specific surface area loss. Higher vanadia loading resulted in the lowering of support capacity in maintaining vanadia in dispersed state such that eventually crystalline vanadia appeared. The measured catalyst activity demonstrates that in spite of major support surface area loss in VTNT-5 catalyst, the propylene yield is superior in comparison with VTi5 catalyst. The catalyst activity can be correlated with maximum reduction temperature. Deactivation of VTi5 and VTNT-5 as well as VTNT-15 were studied for 3,000 min time-on-stream. It was found that the activity of VTNT-5 catalyst remain unchanged while a decline in catalytic activity observed in VTi5 and VTNT-15 catalysts. The development of rutile was considered as being a major element in the deactivation of the investigated catalysts which is influenced by the presence of vanadium and reaction atmosphere.

  15. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  16. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  17. Poly[[[diaquacobalt(II]-bis[μ2-1,1′-(butane-1,4-diyldiimidazole-κ2N3:N3′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Co(C10H14N42(H2O2](NO32}n, the CoII ion lies on an inversion center and is six-coordinated in an octahedral environment by four N atoms from four different 1,1′-butane-1,4-diyldiimidazole ligands and two O atoms from the two water molecules. The CoII atoms are bridged by ligands, generating a two-dimensional (4,4-network. Adjacent fishnet planes are linked to the nitrate anions via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  18. 4,6-Dibromo-N-{3-[(4,6-dibromo-2,3-dimethylphenylimino]butan-2-ylidene}-2,3-dimethylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H20Br4N2, is a product of the condensation reaction of 4,6-dibromo-2,3-dimethylaniline and butane-2,3-dione. The molecule has a center of symmetry at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the 1,4-diazabutadiene plane is 78.3 (2°. Niether hydrogen bonding nor aromatic stacking is observed in the crystal structure.

  19. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  20. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  1. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  2. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  3. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  4. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  5. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  6. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  7. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  8. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  9. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  10. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  11. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  12. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  13. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  14. Sorption Hysteresis of Light Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide in Shale and Kerogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huangjing

    2017-11-20

    We present adsorption and desorption isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane as well as carbon dioxide for two shales and isolated kerogens determined by a gravimetric method. The sorption measurements of two shales were performed at three different temperatures, 308.15, 323.15, and 338.15 K. For the isolated kerogens, the measurements were conducted at 338.15 K. Methane and ethane sorption isotherms were measured to 35 bar. Carbon dioxide sorption isotherms were studied to 30 bar. Due to the low vapor pressure at room temperature, the sorption isotherms of propane, n-butane and iso-butane were measured to 8, 2, and 2 bar, respectively. The adsorptions of propane, n-butane, and iso-butane were much higher than methane at the highest pressures where the measurements were conducted. The adsorption of n-butane was 10 times higher than methane by mole at 2 bar, followed by iso-butane and propane. Our data show significant adsorption hysteresis in ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane. The most pronounced hysteresis was found in n-butane and iso-butane. Significant hysteresis is attributed to the reversible structural changes of kerogens. Dissolution of adsorbates into organic matter may also affect the hysteresis. This is the first report of propane and butane sorption isotherms in shales.

  15. Sorption Hysteresis of Light Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide in Shale and Kerogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huangjing; Lai, Zhiping; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    We present adsorption and desorption isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane as well as carbon dioxide for two shales and isolated kerogens determined by a gravimetric method. The sorption measurements of two shales were performed at three different temperatures, 308.15, 323.15, and 338.15 K. For the isolated kerogens, the measurements were conducted at 338.15 K. Methane and ethane sorption isotherms were measured to 35 bar. Carbon dioxide sorption isotherms were studied to 30 bar. Due to the low vapor pressure at room temperature, the sorption isotherms of propane, n-butane and iso-butane were measured to 8, 2, and 2 bar, respectively. The adsorptions of propane, n-butane, and iso-butane were much higher than methane at the highest pressures where the measurements were conducted. The adsorption of n-butane was 10 times higher than methane by mole at 2 bar, followed by iso-butane and propane. Our data show significant adsorption hysteresis in ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane. The most pronounced hysteresis was found in n-butane and iso-butane. Significant hysteresis is attributed to the reversible structural changes of kerogens. Dissolution of adsorbates into organic matter may also affect the hysteresis. This is the first report of propane and butane sorption isotherms in shales.

  16. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  17. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  18. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  19. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  20. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Decomposition Studies of Cr(III, Mn(II and Fe(III Complexes of N, N '-Bis[1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethylene]butane-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad M. Alex

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A bidentate Schiff base ligand namely, N,N'-bis-1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethylene]butane-1,4-diamine was synthesised by condensing piperonal (3,4-dioxymethylenebenzaldehyde with butane-1,4-diamine. Cr(III, Mn(II, Fe(III complexes of this chelating ligand were synthesised using acetates, chlorides, bromides, nitrates and perchlorates of these metals. The ligand and the complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, UV-Vis and IR spectra, conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The thermograms of three complexes were analysed and the kinetic parameters for the different stages of decompositions were determined.

  2. Addressing the selectivity issue of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film iso-butane sensors: Conductance transients and principal component analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Majumder, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Iso-butane (i-C4H10) is one of the major components of liquefied petroleum gas which is used as fuel in domestic and industrial applications. Developing chemi-resistive selective i-C4H10 thin film sensors remains a major challenge. Two strategies were undertaken to differentiate carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and iso-butane gases from the measured conductance transients of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin films. Following the first strategy, the response and recovery transients of conductances in these gas environments are fitted using the Langmuir adsorption kinetic model to estimate the heat of adsorption, response time constant, and activation energies for adsorption (response) and desorption (recovery). Although these test gases have seemingly different vapor densities, molecular diameters, and reactivities, analyzing the estimated heat of adsorption and activation energies (for both adsorption and desorption), we could not differentiate these gases unequivocally. However, we have found that the lower the vapor density, the faster the response time irrespective of the test gas concentration. As a second strategy, we demonstrated that feature extraction of conductance transients (using fast Fourier transformation) in conjunction with the pattern recognition algorithm (principal component analysis) is more fruitful to address the cross-sensitivity of Co doped ZnO thin film sensors. We have found that although the dispersion among different concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide could not be avoided, each of these three gases forms distinct clusters in the plot of principal component 2 versus 1 and therefore could easily be differentiated.

  3. (p, ρ, T) Properties for n-butane in the temperature range from 280 K to 380 K at pressures up to 200 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2007-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) properties for n-butane in the compressed liquid phase were measured by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer in the temperature range from 280 K to 380 K at pressures up to 200 MPa. The mole fraction purity of the n-butane used in the measurements was 0.9997. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, and density measurements have been estimated to be less than ±3 mK; 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa); and 0.09%, respectively. In the region above100 MPa at T = 280 K and T = 440 K, the uncertainty in density measurements increases from 0.09% to 0.13% and 0.22%, respectively. Eight (p, ρ, T) measurements at the same temperatures and pressures as the literature values have been conducted for comparisons. In addition, comparisons of the available equations of state with the present measurements are reported

  4. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  5. The Fabrication of Ga2O3/ZSM-5 Hollow Fibers for Efficient Catalytic Conversion of n-Butane into Light Olefins and Aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dehydrogenation component of Ga2O3 was introduced into ZSM-5 nanocrystals to prepare Ga2O3/ZSM-5 hollow fiber-based bifunctional catalysts. The physicochemical features of as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, BET, SEM, STEM, NH3-TPD, etc., and their performances for the catalytic conversion of n-butane to produce light olefins and aromatics were investigated. The results indicated that a very small amount of gallium can cause a marked enhancement in the catalytic activity of ZSM-5 because of the synergistic effect of the dehydrogenation and aromatization properties of Ga2O3 and the cracking function of ZSM-5. Compared with Ga2O3/ZSM-5 nanoparticles, the unique hierarchical macro-meso-microporosity of the as-prepared hollow fibers can effectively enlarge the bifunctionality by enhancing the accessibility of active sites and the diffusion. Consequently, Ga2O3/ZSM-5 hollow fibers show excellent catalytic conversion of n-butane, with the highest yield of light olefins plus aromatics at 600 °C by 87.6%, which is 56.3%, 24.6%, and 13.3% higher than that of ZSM-5, ZSM-5 zeolite fibers, and Ga2O3/ZSM-5, respectively.

  6. Zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes and methods of making and using same for separation of c2- and c3+ hydrocarbons and separation of propylene and propane mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2012-12-06

    Certain embodiments are directed to processes for fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes. These ZIF membranes can be used in separating C2-hydrocarbons from C3+ hydrocarbons and propylene/propane mixtures.

  7. Zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes and methods of making and using same for separation of c2- and c3+ hydrocarbons and separation of propylene and propane mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping; Pan, Yichang

    2012-01-01

    Certain embodiments are directed to processes for fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes. These ZIF membranes can be used in separating C2-hydrocarbons from C3+ hydrocarbons and propylene/propane mixtures.

  8. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael P.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Welz, Oliver; Huang, Haifeng; Antonov, Ivan O.; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Zádor, Judit; Taatjes, Craig A.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-07-16

    We have developed a multi-scale approach (Burke, M. P.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B. Proc. Combust. Inst. 2013, 34, 547–555.) to kinetic model formulation that directly incorporates elementary kinetic theories as a means to provide reliable, physics-based extrapolation to unexplored conditions. Here, we extend and generalize the multi-scale modeling strategy to treat systems of considerable complexity – involving multi-well reactions, potentially missing reactions, non-statistical product branching ratios, and non-Boltzmann (i.e. non-thermal) reactant distributions. The methodology is demonstrated here for a subsystem of low-temperature propane oxidation, as a representative system for low-temperature fuel oxidation. A multi-scale model is assembled and informed by a wide variety of targets that include ab initio calculations of molecular properties, rate constant measurements of isolated reactions, and complex systems measurements. Active model parameters are chosen to accommodate both “parametric” and “structural” uncertainties. Theoretical parameters (e.g. barrier heights) are included as active model parameters to account for parametric uncertainties in the theoretical treatment; experimental parameters (e.g. initial temperatures) are included to account for parametric uncertainties in the physical models of the experiments. RMG software is used to assess potential structural uncertainties due to missing reactions. Additionally, branching ratios among product channels are included as active model parameters to account for structural uncertainties related to difficulties in modeling sequences of multiple chemically activated steps. The approach is demonstrated here for interpreting time-resolved measurements of OH, HO2, n-propyl, i-propyl, propene, oxetane, and methyloxirane from photolysis-initiated low-temperature oxidation of propane at pressures from 4 to 60 Torr and temperatures from 300 to 700 K. In particular, the multi-scale informed

  9. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  10. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  11. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  12. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  13. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  14. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  15. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  16. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  17. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  18. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  19. The worldwide market will not be short of LPG fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of an internal note of the French Butane and Propane Committee (CFBP) about the perspectives of the worldwide market of LPG fuels. The conclusion of this study is that the market will not be short of LPG, in particular the French market and the automotive fuels. The consumption of LPG fuels for vehicles in France is growing up rapidly (about 100% in 1997 with respect to 1996: 90000 t consumed in 1997 by 70000 vehicles) and the resource remains important and can reach 3 millions of tons per year. (J.S.)

  20. Oxidation of Propane with Oxygen and/or Nitrous Oxide over Fe-ZSM-5 with Low Iron Concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulánek, R.; Wichterlová, Blanka; Novoveská, K.; Kreibich, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2004), s. 13-22 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/1120; GA AV ČR IAA4040007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Fe-MFI * N2O * propane oxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.378, year: 2004

  1. Identification of Novel Methane-, Ethane-, and Propane-Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps by Stable Isotope Probing ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Molly C.; Valentine, David L.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2010-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps supply oil and gas to microorganisms in sediments and overlying water. We used stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify aerobic bacteria oxidizing gaseous hydrocarbons in surface sediment from the Coal Oil Point seep field located offshore of Santa Barbara, California. After incubating sediment with 13C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we confirmed the incorporation of 13C into fatty acids and DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes in 13C-DNA revealed groups of microbes not previously thought to contribute to methane, ethane, or propane oxidation. First, 13C methane was primarily assimilated by Gammaproteobacteria species from the family Methylococcaceae, Gammaproteobacteria related to Methylophaga, and Betaproteobacteria from the family Methylophilaceae. Species of the latter two genera have not been previously shown to oxidize methane and may have been cross-feeding on methanol, but species of both genera were heavily labeled after just 3 days. pmoA sequences were affiliated with species of Methylococcaceae, but most were not closely related to cultured methanotrophs. Second, 13C ethane was consumed by members of a novel group of Methylococcaceae. Growth with ethane as the major carbon source has not previously been observed in members of the Methylococcaceae; a highly divergent pmoA-like gene detected in the 13C-labeled DNA may encode an ethane monooxygenase. Third, 13C propane was consumed by members of a group of unclassified Gammaproteobacteria species not previously linked to propane oxidation. This study identifies several bacterial lineages as participants in the oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons in marine seeps and supports the idea of an alternate function for some pmoA-like genes. PMID:20675448

  2. Identification of novel methane-, ethane-, and propane-oxidizing bacteria at marine hydrocarbon seeps by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L; Sessions, Alex L

    2010-10-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps supply oil and gas to microorganisms in sediments and overlying water. We used stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify aerobic bacteria oxidizing gaseous hydrocarbons in surface sediment from the Coal Oil Point seep field located offshore of Santa Barbara, California. After incubating sediment with (13)C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we confirmed the incorporation of (13)C into fatty acids and DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes in (13)C-DNA revealed groups of microbes not previously thought to contribute to methane, ethane, or propane oxidation. First, (13)C methane was primarily assimilated by Gammaproteobacteria species from the family Methylococcaceae, Gammaproteobacteria related to Methylophaga, and Betaproteobacteria from the family Methylophilaceae. Species of the latter two genera have not been previously shown to oxidize methane and may have been cross-feeding on methanol, but species of both genera were heavily labeled after just 3 days. pmoA sequences were affiliated with species of Methylococcaceae, but most were not closely related to cultured methanotrophs. Second, (13)C ethane was consumed by members of a novel group of Methylococcaceae. Growth with ethane as the major carbon source has not previously been observed in members of the Methylococcaceae; a highly divergent pmoA-like gene detected in the (13)C-labeled DNA may encode an ethane monooxygenase. Third, (13)C propane was consumed by members of a group of unclassified Gammaproteobacteria species not previously linked to propane oxidation. This study identifies several bacterial lineages as participants in the oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons in marine seeps and supports the idea of an alternate function for some pmoA-like genes.

  3. Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structures of Mononuclear Complexes of 1,3-Bis(8-quinolyloxy)propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mandhary, M.R.; Steel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The preparations and X-ray crystal structures of the first transition metal complexes of 1,3-bis(8-quinolyloxy)propane are described. The ligand acts as a trans-chelating N,N'-bidentate ligand in the three-coordinate silver nitrate complex and four-coordinate copper chloride complex, but as an N,O,O',N'-tetradentate ligand in the octahedral nickel chloride complex. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Australia

  4. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  5. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  6. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  7. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  8. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  9. Adsorption and reaction of propanal, 2-propenol and 1-propanol on Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Luis E.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2008-07-01

    The hydrogenation of acrolein (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd CH dbnd O) can lead to the formation of three hydrogenation products, 2-propenol (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd CH 2sbnd OH), propanal (CH 3sbnd CH 2sbnd CH dbnd O), and 1-propanol (CH 3sbnd CH 2sbnd CH 2sbnd OH). In the current study the adsorption and reaction of these three molecules were investigated on Ni/Pt(111) surfaces to understand the different hydrogenation pathways of acrolein, using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). TPD experiments showed that 2-propenol underwent isomerization toward propanal on Pt(111) and the Pt sbnd Ni sbnd Pt(111) bimetallic surface, with a dominant decarbonylation pathway on the Pt(111) surface. A self-hydrogenation (disproportionation) pathway toward 1-propanol was observed on the Ni(111) film, however, the decarbonylation pathway was found to be the most dominant on this surface. Unlike 2-propenol, propanal did not undergo isomerization or self-hydrogenation pathways on any of the surfaces, with the dominant pathway being primarily the decarbonylation on Pt(111) and Ni(111). In contrast, 1-propanol underwent mainly molecular desorption from all three surfaces. These results provided additional understanding of previous studies of hydrogenation pathways of acrolein on the Ni/Pt(111) surfaces.

  10. New polyamides based on 1,3-bis(4-carboxy phenoxy propane and hydantoin derivatives: synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Six new polyamides 5a-f containing flexible trimethylene segments in the main chain were synthesized through the direct polycondensation reaction of 1,3-bis(4-carboxy phenoxy propane 3 with six derivatives of hydantoins 5a-f in a medium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, triphenyl phosphite, calcium chloride and pyridine. The polycondensation reaction produced a series of novel polyamides in high yield with inherent viscosities between 0.30-0.47 dL/g. The resulted polymers were fully characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility tests and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Thermal properties of these polymers were investigated by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential thermal gravimetry (DTG. The glass-transition temperatures of these polyamides were recorded between 130 and 155 oC by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the 5% weight loss temperatures were ranging from 325 to 415 oC under nitrogen. 1,3-bis(4-Carboxy phenoxy propane 3 was prepared from the reaction of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid 1 with 1,3-dibromo propane 2 in the presence of NaOH solution.

  11. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys

  12. Effects of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase and Cl component on dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Changcheng; Ma, Aizeng; Rong, Junfeng; Da, Zhijian, E-mail: dazhijianripp@163.com; Zheng, Aiguo; Qin, Ling

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Comparative study of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase on dehydrogenation of propane was implemented. • Pore structures and acid properties of Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are correlated to the activities. • Pt-θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with abundant Cl content shows the highest activity and stability. - Abstract: The effects of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, γ- and θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Cl component on the performances of Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the dehydrogenation of propane were investigated in this work. The catalysts were systematically characterized by various techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), temperature-programmed desorption with ammonia as probe molecules (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). The characterizations and catalytic results show that: (i) the pore structures and acid properties of the two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases can change the quantity, location and property of the carbon deposition, (ii) the existence of Cl plays a significant role on the agglomeration of Pt particles and carbon deposition, which further influence the catalytic performances of Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with different support phases for propane dehydrogenation.

  13. Reduced Mechanism Approach of Modeling Premixed Propane-Air Mixture using Ansys Fluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Odetunde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In computational analysis of combustion, reduced mechanisms are often used in place of detailed kinetic chemistry because the computational costs of including all the species in the reactor model are always prohibitively high; for this reason, many different reduced mechanisms have been developed for hydrocarbon oxidation. In this study we employed ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD package, (hereinafter referred to as Fluent to analyze propane oxidation mechanism in a conical reactor. The model employed for this work is based on the results of Westbrook and Dryer [15]. This simplified model consists of 5 chemical reactions and 12 species, namely, C3H8, CO2, CO, H2O, NO, O2, O, H, N, OH, N2 and H2. The computed mass fractions of the species, C3H8, CO2, CO and H2O were found to be in qualitative agreement with measured values presented in [26]. The results of the present study show that the bulk of the turbulent kinetic was produced in the inlet jet. The turbulent viscosity was found to be an excellent ”mixer” of the species. The computed results of y* were found to confirm that the use of the law-of-the-wall functions was valid and it also showed that the computational mesh used was adequate for resolving the flow dynamics in the near wall region.

  14. Solubility of Methane, Ethane, and Propane in Pure Water Using New Binary Interaction Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Behrouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solubility of hydrocarbons in water is important due to ecological concerns and new restrictions on the existence of organic pollutants in water streams. Also, the creation of a thermodynamic model has required an advanced study of the phase equilibrium between water (as a basis for the widest spread muds and amines and gas hydrocarbon phases in wide temperature and pressure ranges. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop semi-empirical correlations, charts, or thermodynamic models for estimating the solubility of hydrocarbons in liquid water. In this work, a thermodynamic model based on Mathias modification of Sova-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equation of state is suggested using classical mixing rules with new binary interaction parameters which were used for two-component systems of hydrocarbons and water. Finally, the model results and their deviations in comparison with the experimental data are presented; these deviations were equal to 5.27, 6.06, and 4.1% for methane, ethane, and propane respectively.

  15. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  16. PENINGKATAN KINERJA PERSEDIAAN PRODUK DI PT. PROPAN RAYA I.C.C SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tejo Prakoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is an internal process that is essential for the company's operations, especially in the field of industrial paints. Many types, colors and sizes of packaging paint often urged companies to hoard supplies. Nevertheless the possibility of failing to meet customer demand still occur, either due to exhaustion of stock, delivery delays, or for any other reason. Finished product inventory control in a way or innovative method must be developed to reduce excess inventory so as to minimize storage costs and to meet customer needs optimally. Use the ABC method and modifications VEN can be an alternative in inventory control application based on the classification of products and level of service companies. With a combination of ABC-VEN method, it will obtain 9 grade product inventory to the value of each service level that has been adjusted so that it can help determine the optimal inventory control policies for the company. From the research, suggested inventory control policy indicates that the inventory turnover rate suggested an average 3.14 times per year is the number of days supply of inventory was 76 days.This means that the inventory control policy suggested, PT. Propan Raya I.C.C can improve inventory performance by increasing the speed of inventory turnover amounted to 60.2% and increase the efficiency of the number of days supply of inventory by 37.7% of the current inventory.

  17. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from LPG (Propane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, P.; Czernichowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Small and medium size reformers that run on widely available Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, containing mostly the propane) can provide Synthesis Gas (or Hydrogen extracted from it) to some Fuel Cell powered cars, boats, homes, farms etc. reducing therefore costs of the pure Hydrogen distribution. We contribute to such idea realization through our simply, plasma-assisted reformer avoiding a need of poison resistant catalysts or prior LPG desulfurizer. In fact, any level of sulphur in LPG is accepted for our non-catalytic reformer based on high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc). The discharges catalytically assist the exothermic partial oxidation process. Electric power assistance is less than 2% of the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of produced SynGas. Recycling such a small portion of the energy is therefore an acceptable compromise. The unique oxidant source is air. This contribution presents our expanded tests with commercial LPG in a 1-L reactor working at atmospheric pressure. At a 0.1 kW electric power assistance we produce a Nitrogen-diluted SynGas containing up to 45% of H 2 +CO at the output flow rate corresponding up to 2.7 m 3 (n)/h of pure H 2 +CO mixture that is equivalent to LHV output power of 8.6 kW. The LPG is totally reformed at more than 70% energetic efficiency and at the total absence of soot. (author)

  18. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.

    2015-05-09

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  19. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  20. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.; KC, Utsav; Varghese, P.L.; Barlow, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.