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Sample records for freedom oif-oef post

  1. Multiple traumatic limb loss: a comparison of Vietnam veterans to OIF/OEF servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; McFarland, Lynne V; Smith, Douglas G; Esquenazi, Alberto; Blake, Donna Jo; Reiber, Gayle E

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-limb loss due to war-theater injuries results in a unique group of servicemembers requiring intensive rehabilitation and diverse prosthetic devices. This article compares the Vietnam and the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) groups with war-theater-associated multiple-limb loss to document significant changes in health status, prosthetic-device use, and long-term prognosis. During 2007 and 2008, a national survey queried 73 Vietnam veterans and 61 OIF/OEF servicemembers sustaining multiple-limb loss. Average years since limb loss are 39 for Vietnam veterans and 3 for OIF/OEF servicemembers. Self-rated health status was excellent or very good in 38.9% of the Vietnam group and 60.7% of the OIF/OEF group (p = 0.01). More of the OIF/OEF group than the Vietnam group reported performing high-impact aerobic activities, 18% versus 3% (p = 0.005). The OIF/OEF group currently uses more diverse prosthetic-device types than the Vietnam group. Based on Vietnam veterans' 39-year experience, the long-term prognosis for OIF/OEF servicemembers with multiple-limb loss is an active, fulfilling life. The healthcare team caring for these patients should carefully address proper prosthesis fit and maintenance of good health and function.

  2. Multiple traumatic limb loss: A comparison of Vietnam veterans to OIF/OEF servicemembers

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle E. Reiber, MPH, PhD; Donna Jo Blake, MD; Alberto Esquenazi, MD; Douglas G. Smith, MD; Paul J. Dougherty, MD; Lynne V. McFarland, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-limb loss due to war-theater injuries results in a unique group of servicemembers requiring intensiverehabilitation and diverse prosthetic devices. This article compares the Vietnam and the Operation Iraqi Freedom/OperationEnduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) groups with war-theater-associated multiple-limb loss to document significant changes in health status, prosthetic-device use, and long-term prognosis.During 2007 and 2008, a national survey queried 73 Vietnamveterans and 61 OIF/OEF servi...

  3. Peer Support, Self-efficacy, and Combat-related Trauma Symptoms among Returning OIF/OEF Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of PTSD and other combat-related trauma symptoms among more than 2 million veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan suggests that many will experience psychological challenges in adjusting to civilian life. However, the literature is sparse about this new group of veterans. This study examined the relationships between peer support, self-efficacy, and PTSD symptoms among 216 OIF/OEF veterans who had attended 1 of 1...

  4. Peer Support, Self-efficacy, and Combat-related Trauma Symptoms among Returning OIF/OEF Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann MacEachron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of PTSD and other combat-related trauma symptoms among more than 2 million veterans returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF in Afghanistan suggests that many will experience psychological challenges in adjusting to civilian life. However, the literature is sparse about this new group of veterans. This study examined the relationships between peer support, self-efficacy, and PTSD symptoms among 216 OIF/OEF veterans who had attended 1 of 17 Vets4Vets peer support weekend retreats. Vets4Vets is a national grassroots program whose mission is to improve the psychological well-being of returning OIF/OEF veterans. Analysis of posttest changes indicate the generalizability of previous research findings, based on other groups of trauma-affected groups, to OIF/OEF veterans. As predicted, increased perceived peer support and self-efficacy reduced PTSD symptoms. From a theoretical perspective, we found that both models of self-efficacy, situation-specific (Bandura, 1997; Benight & Bandura, 2004 and general self-efficacy (Schwarzer & Fuchs, 1996, mediated or explained the relationship between peer support and PTSD symptoms. Implications for social work are discussed.

  5. Traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, and pain diagnoses in OIF/OEF/OND Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David X. Cifu, MD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and pain in Veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND, Veterans who received any inpatient or outpatient care from Veterans Health Administration (VHA facilities from 2009 to 2011 were studied. A subset of Veterans was identified who were diagnosed with TBI, PTSD, and/or pain (head, neck, or back as determined by their International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision-Clinical Modification codes. Between fiscal years 2009 and 2011, 613,391 Veterans accessed VHA services at least once (age: 31.9 +/– 9.6 yr. TBI diagnosis in any 1 year was slightly less than 7%. When data from 3 years were pooled, 9.6% were diagnosed with TBI, 29.3% were diagnosed with PTSD, and 40.2% were diagnosed with pain. The full polytrauma triad expression (TBI, PTSD, and pain was diagnosed in 6.0%. Results show that increasing numbers of Veterans from OIF/OEF/OND accessed VHA over a 3 year period. Among those with a TBI diagnosis, the majority also had a mental health disorder, with approximately half having both PTSD and pain. While the absolute number of Veterans increased by over 40% from 2009 to 2011, the proportion of Veterans diagnosed with TBI and the high rate of comorbid PTSD and pain in this population remained relatively stable.

  6. Wheeled mobility: factors influencing mobility and assistive technology in veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from Vietnam war and OIF/OEF conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrier, Justin Z; McFarland, Lynne V; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rory A; Reiber, Gayle E

    2010-01-01

    Returning wounded veterans and servicemembers to their highest level of function following traumatic injury is a priority of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. We surveyed 245 veterans from the Vietnam war and 226 servicemembers and veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) conflicts with at least one major traumatic lower-limb loss to determine their use of mobility assistive technology (AT) and patterns of limb abandonment. Prosthetic device use without wheelchair use is found in 50.5% of Vietnam and 42.8% of OIF/OEF groups. Prostheses and supplementary wheelchairs are used by Vietnam (32%) and OIF/OEF (53%) groups (p multiple-limb loss (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 14.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-38.5), bilateral lower-limb loss (AOR = 12.7; 95% CI 6.2-26.1), and number of comorbidities (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.5) are associated with increased likelihood of wheelchair use. In OIF/OEF participants, bilateral lower-limb loss (AOR = 29.8; 95% CI 11.0-80.7), multiple-limb loss (AOR = 16.3; 95% CI 3.1-85.3), cumulative trauma disorder (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.9), and number of combat injuries (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) are associated with wheelchair use. Combined use of different types of mobility ATs promotes improved rehabilitation and ability to function.

  7. Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans: polytrauma clinical triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Otis, John D; Tun, Carlos; Kerns, Robert D; Clark, Michael E; Cifu, David X

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and coprevalence with which returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans were reporting symptoms consistent with chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS). The medical records of 340 OIF/OEF veterans seen at a Department of Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Network Site were comprehensively reviewed. Analyses indicated a high prevalence of all three conditions in this population, with chronic pain, PTSD, and PPCS present in 81.5%, 68.2%, and 66.8%, respectively. Only 12 of the veterans (3.5%) had no chronic pain, PTSD, or PPCS. The frequency at which these three conditions were present in isolation (10.3%, 2.9%, and 5.3%, respectively) was significantly lower than the frequency at which they were present in combination with one another, with 42.1% of the sample being diagnosed with all three conditions simultaneously. The most common chronic pain locations were the back (58%) and head (55%). These results underscore the complexity of the presenting complaints in OIF/OEF veterans and support the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach to assessment and treatment.

  8. Neuropsychological effects of self-reported deployment-related mild TBI and current PTSD in OIF/OEF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Edmundson, Maryanne; Graue, Lili O; Roach, Abbey; High, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Current combat veterans are exposed to many incidents that may result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While there is literature on the neuropsychological consequences of PTSD only (PTSD-o) and mTBI alone (mTBI-o), less has been done to explore their combined (mTBI+PTSD) effect. The goal of this study was to determine whether Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans with mTBI+PTSD have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than veterans with PTSD-o, mTBI-o, or combat exposure-only. The final sample included 20 OIF/OEF veterans with histories of self-reported deployment mTBI (mTBI-o), 19 with current PTSD (PTSD-o), 21 with PTSD and self-reported mTBI (mTBI+PTSD), and 21 combat controls (CC) (no PTSD and no reported mTBI). Groups were formed using structured interviews for mTBI and PTSD. All participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, including neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning tests. Results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in performance in the mTBI+PTSD and PTSD-o groups relative to mTBI-o and CC. Consistent with previous PTSD literature, significant differences were found on executive (switching) tasks, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. Effect sizes tended to be large in both groups with PTSD. Thus, PTSD seems to be an important variable affecting neuropsychological profiles in the post-deployment time period. Consistent with literature on civilian mTBI, the current study did not find evidence that combat-related mTBI in and of itself contributes to objective cognitive impairment in the late stage of injury.

  9. Quality of life for veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from Vietnam and OIF/OEF conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A; Heinemann, Allen W; McFarland, Lynne V

    2010-01-01

    The goals of rehabilitation after major limb loss include not only functional restoration but also a return to a high quality of life (QOL). Few studies have identified which factors are associated with QOL in veterans and servicemembers with combat-associated major limb loss. We enrolled Vietnam and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans and servicemembers in a national survey on prosthetic device use. In the Vietnam group, multivariate analysis found multiple limb loss (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57-6.02) and satisfaction with current prostheses (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.05-1.38) are associated with better overall QOL, while a higher amputation impact rank (aOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.59-0.74) and depression (aOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08-0.54) are associated with worse overall QOL. In the OIF/OEF group, three factors are significantly associated with worse overall QOL: combat-associated head injury (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61-0.99), combat-associated injury to the nonamputated limb (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.57-0.88), and assistance needed in daily living (aOR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.72). Improving satisfaction with prosthetic devices, improving mental health care, and treating other combat-associated injuries may significantly improve the overall QOL for these veterans and servicemembers.

  10. Comparison of satisfaction with current prosthetic care in veterans and servicemembers from Vietnam and OIF/OEF conflicts with major traumatic limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Gary M; Fergason, John; Milani, John R; Hattingh, John; McDowell, Martin; Nguyen, Viet; Reiber, Gayle E

    2010-01-01

    Prosthetic care is a vital aspect of healthcare and rehabilitation for veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss. Our survey queried 581 veterans and servicemembers with limb loss from the Vietnam and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) conflicts. Among survey participants, 78.2% from the Vietnam conflict and 90.5% from the OIF/OEF conflict currently use prosthetic devices. In Vietnam respondents, 78% received prosthetic care from private sources, 16% from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) prosthetic laboratories, 0.9% from Department of Defense (DOD), and 5% from multiple sources. In OIF/OEF respondents, 42% received prosthetic care from private sources, 9% percent from VA, 39% from DOD, and 10% from multiple sources. Participants identified their satisfaction with current prosthetic devices and prosthetic services. Reports of pain, sweating, skin irritation, and problems with socket fit continue to be significant issues for participants from both conflicts regardless of level of amputation or site of service. In those with upper-limb loss who used myoelectric prostheses, minimal effect on prosthesis use and satisfaction was noted. Among lower-limb loss participants from both conflicts, notable differences existed in prosthesis satisfaction by source of care.

  11. Comparison of satisfaction with current prosthetic care in veterans and servicemembers from Vietnam and OIF/OEF conflicts with major traumatic limb loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Berke, MS, CP, FAAOP

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic care is a vital aspect of healthcare and rehabilitation for veterans and servicemembers with major traumaticlimb loss. Our survey queried 581 veterans and servicememberswith limb loss from the Vietnam and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF conflicts. Among survey participants, 78.2% from the Vietnam conflict and 90.5% from the OIF/OEF conflict currently use prosthetic devices. In Vietnam respondents, 78% received prosthetic care from private sources, 16% from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA prosthetic laboratories, 0.9% from Department of Defense (DOD, and 5% from multiple sources. In OIF/OEF respondents,42% received prosthetic care from private sources, 9% percent from VA, 39% from DOD, and 10% from multiple sources. Participants identified their satisfaction with current prosthetic devices and prosthetic services. Reports of pain, sweating, skin irritation, and problems with socket fit continue to be significant issues for participants from both conflicts regardless of level of amputation or site of service. In those with upper-limb loss who used myoelectric prostheses, minimal effect on prosthesis use and satisfaction was noted. Among lower-limb loss participants from both conflicts, notable differencesexisted in prosthesis satisfaction by source of care.

  12. Improving PTSD Outcomes in OIF/OEF Returnees: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Hydrocortisone Augmentation of Prolonged Exposure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    intent and practice of manualized PE. 1 Schnurr PP. The rocks and hard places in psychotherapy outcome research. J Trauma Stress. 2007; 20(5):779-92...foresight and planning Social cognition Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT™): Managing Emotions Paper-and-pencil multiple-choice...Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0072 TITLE: Improving PTSD Outcomes in OIF/OEF Returnees: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Hydrocortisone

  13. Combat, Sexual Assault, and Post-Traumatic Stress in OIF/OEF Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    PRStnllllon wllll physical cornplalnlll. Dlployecl heallllcare providers � be a high l’tlk populallon for burnout or oec-.ry lraumatlzallon...Torner JC (Iowa City VAMC REAP & Carver College of Medicine Public Health Division, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.) Sadler AG (Iowa

  14. Prosthetic cost projections for servicemembers with major limb loss from Vietnam and OIF/OEF

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Blough, PhD; Sharon Hubbard, MS; Lynne V. McFarland, PhD; Douglas G. Smith, MD; Jeffrey M. Gambel, MD, MPH, MSW; Gayle E. Reiber, PhD

    2010-01-01

    This study projects prosthetic- and assistive-device costs for veterans with limb loss from Vietnam and injured servicemembersreturning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) to inform the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for these veterans’ future care. The 2005 Medicare prosthetic device component prices were applied to current prosthetic and assistive-device use obtained from a national survey of 581 veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic amput...

  15. Postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations among veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eric J; Peyton, Claudia G; Kim, David K; Nakama-Sato, Kristine K; Noble, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Difficulty in driving after deployment has emerged as an impediment for servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF-OEF). This study explored postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations using two self-report instruments: the Driver's Stress Profile and the Driving and Occupational Limitations questionnaire. Data gathered from 103 OIF-OEF returnees confirmed that driving and related occupational issues occur postdeployment. Significant low to moderate correlations were found between postdeployment driving stress and limitations in community mobility, leisure, and social participation. The returnees who drove off base more frequently during deployment showed significantly higher levels of postdeployment driving stress than the returnees who drove off base less frequently. Moreover, the returnees who demonstrated higher levels of driving stress and occupational limitations required more time to resume normal driving postdeployment. Findings raise awareness about the need to design effective driver rehabilitation and community reintegration programs for this population.

  16. Physical activity in postdeployment Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine R. Buis, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Veteran activity levels may decrease between Active Duty and postdeployment. We examined attitudes and changes in self-reported activities between the two in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA services. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey (June-August 2008 of postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans registered with the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic data and attitudes, while regression analyses compared physical activities during Active Duty with physical activities postdeployment. Participants (n = 319, 15.6% response rate reported that they believe staying physically fit is important, they worry about gaining weight, and they believe exercise will keep them healthy (77%, 72%, and 90% agree or strongly agree, respectively. Running (30.0%, Exercise with Gym Equipment (21.5%, Occupational Activities (14.9%, and Walking (13.0% were the most frequently reported Active Duty physical activities. The most frequently reported postdeployment physical activities included Walking (21.1%, Running (18.5%, and Exercise with Gym Equipment (17.9%. Health problems (39% and chronic pain (52% were common barriers to physical activity. Postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans using the VA believe physical activity is beneficial, yet many report health problems and/or chronic pain that makes exercise difficult. Physical activity promotes health, and strategies are needed to facilitate physical activity in this population.

  17. Factors associated with neurocognitive performance in OIF/OEF servicemembers with postconcussive complaints in postdeployment clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Bowles, Amy O

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive difficulties are frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom /Operation Iraqi Freedom military personnel who sustained mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). The current study examined several potential factors that may contribute to self-reported cognitive difficulties in postdeployment clinical settings. Eighty-four subjects who sustained a mild or moderate TBI and reported cognitive difficulties underwent neurocognitive testing. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the amount of variance in neurocognitive performance accounted for by the predictor variables (demographic, mechanism of injury, time since injury, headache severity, combat stress, postconcussive complaints, and effort/performance validity). The predictor variables collectively accounted for 51.7% of the variance in cognitive performance (F (8,72) = 11/99, p postconcussive complaints, combat stress, and headache intensity, accounted for 7.2% of the variance (p < 0.05). Demographic factors and injury characteristics, such as time since injury and mechanism of injury, were not significant predictive factors of cognitive performance. The findings of the current study underscore the need to include measurement of effort as part of neurocognitive evaluation in postdeployment settings when evaluating cognitive complaints associated with mild TBI.

  18. Military to Civilian: RCT of an Intervention to Promote Post-deployment Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    for improving outcomes among OIF/OEF veterans with post-deployment reintegration problems that can be used throughout VA for very little expense...civilian life2-4 Pilot Survey of Reintegration Difficulties ♦ Pilot survey results indicated that an estimated 96% of OEF/OIF combat veterans (n = 754...Certification & Accreditation) CONCLUSIONS ♦ Almost all OEF/OIF combat veterans express interest in services for reintegration problems ♦ Expressive Writing

  19. The Effects of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Combined Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Returning Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Pape, Theresa; Babcock-Parziale, Judith; Smith, Bridget; Schleenbaker, Randal; Shandera-Ochsner, Anne; Harp, Jordan P; High, Walter M

    2015-07-01

    United States veterans of the Iraqi (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) conflicts have frequently returned from deployment after sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and enduring stressful events resulting in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A large number of returning service members have been diagnosed with both a history of mTBI and current PTSD. Substantial literature exists on the neuropsychological factors associated with mTBI and PTSD occurring separately; far less research has explored the combined effects of PTSD and mTBI. The current study employed neuropsychological and psychological measures in a sample of 251 OIF/OEF veterans to determine whether participants with a history of mTBI and current PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than participants with mTBI only (mTBI-o), PTSD only (PTSD-o), or veteran controls (VC), when groups are comparable on intelligence quotient, education, and age. The mTBI+PTSD group performed more poorly than VC, mTBI-o, and PTSD-o groups on several neuropsychological measures. Effect size comparisons suggest small deleterious effects for mTBI-o on measures of processing speed and visual attention and small effects for PTSD-o on measures of verbal memory, with moderate effects for mTBI+PTSD on the same variables. Additionally, the mTBI+PTSD group was significantly more psychologically distressed than the PTSD-o group, and PTSD-o group was more distressed than VC and mTBI-o groups. These findings suggest that veterans with mTBI+PTSD perform significantly lower on neuropsychological and psychiatric measures than veterans with mTBI-o or PTSD-o. The results also raise the possibility of mild but persisting cognitive changes following mTBI sustained during deployment.

  20. The Continued Need for USAF Light Attack post OEF/OIF: A Survey of West African Infrastructure to Support Tactical Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    16 Figure5: Algeria ….…………………………………………………………………………18 Abstract As the USAF transitions to post-OIF/OEF operations there is a continued...Since then AQIM’s area of operation has expanded beyond Algeria to include Mali, Mauritania, Tunisia and Morocco.5 AQIM also operates along the...western boarder of Niger and may have links there to the local Tuareg group Mouvement des Nigerians pour la Justice.6 In 2010 AQIM announced its

  1. troubling 'freedom': silences in post-apartheid environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, in this essay, I trouble the concept of 'freedom' in post-apartheid environmental educa- ... Europe. The internationalisation of what we can now call 'modern Western science' was .... nations in periods of postcoloniru transition need.

  2. On (post modern economy and (non freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The (postmodern economy finds itself undoubtedly in the center of a large scale, radical contradictory, and uncertain current transformation of the world. Together with the (postmodern technologies it composes the dominant core of the globalizing processes, often referred to as globalization. The key features and especially the accumulated consequences of these processes pose a challenge for scientific and theoretical thought in the form of essential questions and dilemmas which are in the last instance tied to the impact of globalization on the quality and meaning of human life. This problem relates as much to individuals as it does to different social groups and human communities, that is to the entire humanity as such. This paper attempts to problematise these contradictory relationships between global corporative, economy as an instrumental value and the human liberty as a substantive i.e. the highest, value in itself (summum bonum, which gives meaning and dignity to human life. Therefore if economy in one form or another covers most of human practical activity then it is certain that it can have decisive impact on the most fundamental value of human life, that is the value of freedom (individual, general, internal and external. Of course the impact of economy can act either way - as an encouragement or, as it often happens, as a deterrent to expansion of the human freedom. This paper aims to briefly indicate some causes, characteristics and consequences of global economic processes which, in a way paradoxically, contribute more to narrowing than to opening spaces of human liberty, or simply generate proliferation of "hedonism of unfreedom". Is this another case of "surplus of knowledge" and "deficit of wisdom" that so strongly characterize our age, or something else?.

  3. The Association Between Suicide and OIF/OEF Deployment History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Military and Civilian Data. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior . 2006;36(2):182-191. 2. Rothberg JM, Bartone PT, Holloway HC, Marlowe DH. Life and...effect on suicide risk as measured using the 4- item Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (31). According to the interpersonal-psychological theory...attracted more young adults who may have a higher level of risk taking behaviors . Also, economic stress associated with transition to civilian life and

  4. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    from the Vietnam era.28 High Incidence of Hand Burns In December 2005, OTSG HP&S forwarded an ALAR - ACT entitled “High Incidence of Hand Burns”. The... ALAR - ACT identified a disproportionately high number of OIF/OEF soldiers returning with hand burns compared with burns of other body parts. This

  5. Military to Civilian: RCT of an Intervention to Promote Postdeployment Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Expressive Writing, Internet-based Intervention, OEF/OIF Veterans , Post-deployment Reintegration 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Product: Tested web-based intervention for improving outcomes among OIF/OEF veterans with post-deployment reintegration problems that can be used...deployment reintegration challenges and needs from the perspective of OIF/OEF veterans that can be used to inform other interventions Task 20

  6. A Study on Freedom of Speech Based on Politness Strategies used By the Jakarta Post Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of speech or expression is an indication of a democratic country. Indonesia that has transformed itself from an authoritarian government during the New Order Era into a democratic country in the so called Reform Era. This study is an attempt to find out the existence of freedom of expression in the Indonesian printed media. The data were collected from the Jakarta Post ReadersForum from 1 November 2010 to 28 February 2011. The data were then classified and analysed based on Brown and Levinsons theory of politeness strategies. The data analysis shows that a lot of utterances can be classified under Politeness Strategy 1 (the least polite strategy out of the four strategies. This proves that people are now free to express their ideas and criticisms in the most direct manner without fear of being arrested or reprimanded by the government. Even the sensitive issues like SARA (Ethnic, Religion, Racial and Communal conflicts can be freely discussed in the printed media. Thus freedom of expression is prevailing in Indonesia under the New Era government.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine and Morphine on the Performance of Representative Military Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    malformation • Epilepsy or seizure disorder (other than simple febrile seizures ) • Active gallbladder disease or gastrointestinal disorder (e.g...with respect to study demographics, of military personnel serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom /Operation Enduring Freedom , 11% are female (IOM, 2010...Surgical Research (ISR) noted that up to 17% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom /Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans report symptoms

  8. Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans report symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness one year after deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. McAndrew, PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Veterans returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF experience chronic pain. What is not known is whether for some OIF/OEF Veterans this pain is part of a larger condition of diffuse multisystem symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness (CMI. We use data from a prospective longitudinal study of OIF/OEF Veterans to determine the frequency of CMI. We found that 1 yr after deployment, 49.5% of OIF/OEF Veterans met criteria for mild to moderate CMI and 10.8% met criteria for severe CMI. Over 90% of Veterans with chronic pain met criteria for CMI. CMI was not completely accounted for either by posttraumatic stress disorder or by predeployment levels of physical symptoms. Veterans with symptoms consistent with CMI reported significantly worse physical health function than Veterans who did not report symptoms consistent with CMI. This study suggests that the presence of CMI should be considered in the evaluation of OIF/OEF Veterans. Further, it suggests that the pain management for these Veterans may need to be tailored to take CMI into consideration.

  9. Effectiveness of Telerehabilitation for OIF/OEF Returnees with Combat Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    6.7±1.05 6.7±0.46 6.4±1.18 6.7±0.73 5.3±2.89 7±0 Chair 6.6±0.84 6.8±0.41 6.7±0.82 6.9±0.35 6.6±0.63 6.8±0.51 6.7±0.58 7±0 Toiler 6.8±0.62 6.9±0.35...6.8±0.63 6.6±0.83 6.8±0.41 6.4±1.25 6.8±0.51 7±0 7±0 Wheelchair 6.8±0.75 6.9±0.25 6.9±0.26 6.9±0.26 7±0 6.9±0.42 7±0 6.5±0.71 Walking 6.3±1.05 6.4...Community 6.4±1.05 6.6±0.81 6.6±1.06 6.3±1.05 6.3±1.11 6.7±0.86 7±0 6.5±0.71 Wheelchair 6.8±0.75 7±0.18 6.9±0.35 6.9±0.26 7±0 6.9±0.42 7±0 6.5±0.71

  10. Effectiveness of Telerehabilitation for OIF/OEF Returnees with Combat Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    0.8±1.03 1±1.15 0.6±0.95 0.9±0.94 0.7±0.96 1±1.07 Anxiety: Tense, nervous, fearful , phobias , nightmares, flashbacks of stressful events 2.4±1.16 2.9...the left and right sides 0.9±1.3 0.8±1.03 1.1±1.31 1±1.24 1±1.26 1.2±1.23 Anxiety: Tense, nervous, fearful , phobias , nightmares, flashbacks of

  11. Blast Concussion mTBI, Hypopituitarism, and Psychological Health in OIF/OEF Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis were observed in large areas of the ipsilateral hemisphere (Holmin and Mathiesen...73 Medical News Today, April 24, 2013 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/259496. php Science Daily - Featured Research, April...1, 2013 http://whatayear.org/09_13. php 74 Live interview on Leonard Lopate Show, New York City NPR affiliate WNYC, September 5, 2013

  12. Couple Functioning and Posttraumatic Stress in OIF/OEF Veterans and Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    of high functioning Army couples during the process of reintegration after combat deployment, was called rekindling marriage, when successful . The...multiple case study portion of the dissertation contribute to a deeper understanding to the process of successful reintegration after combat...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Veterans and Spouses 5b. GRANT NUMBER HU0001-10-1-TS03 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Melvin

  13. Effectiveness of Telerehabilitation for OIF/OEF returnees with Combat Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    combat 2) Determine the immediate and sustained effects of telerehabilitation on patient outcomes on a variety of physical, psychological and social...telemedicine that deals with disease specific monitoring or intervention ( diabetes , CHF, dementia etc), our cohort exhibits a very diverse population in

  14. Effectiveness of Cognitive, Exposure, and Skills Group Manualized Treatments in OIF/OEF Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Masoschistic 71.1 (23.8) Major Depression 69.8 (21.3) 76.1 (24.7) 54 Note. * n = 139; **n = 146. Self-Defeating 75.9 (21.8) Delusional Disorder ...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 194-200. Fontana, A. & Rosenheck, R. (1997). Women under stress: Evaluation of the Women’s Stress Disorder ...1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048-1060. Krakow, B., Hollifield

  15. Epigenetic Patterns of PTSD: DNA Methylation In Serum of OIF/OEF Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    2116-2120. 54. Fenech M (2001): The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells. Mutation Research. 475:57-67. 55...and PTSD, (4, 33-35) to our knowledge , this is the first study to investigate the association between DNA methylation in repetitive elements (LINE-1...simple method for estimating global DNA methylation using bisulfite PCR of repetitive DNA elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 32:e38. 17. Robertson KD (2005

  16. Factors Influencing Cognitive Functioning Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in OIF/OEF Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 19 (2004), 825–834. [5] H.G. Belanger, T. Kretzmer, R. Yoash-Gantz, T. Pickett and L.A. Tupler...Poppe, N. Davis, B. Schmaus and S.E. Hobbs, Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trau- ma patients with and without mild TBI, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21...Koffler, C.R. Reynolds and C.H. Silver, Neuropsychological evalua- tion in the diagnosis and management of sports-related con- cussion, Archives of

  17. Plasticity-Based Adaptive Cognitive Remediation (PACR) for OIF/OEF Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    patient enrollment. As expected , this process has been time-consuming; however four out of five sites are now IRB approved, and the fifth (Tripler) is...cognitive symptoms following TBI for active military personnel, veterans, their families , and for American society as a whole is only now beginning to...with VA and military hospital sites funded through the CDMRP process, and launching patient enrollment. As expected , this process has been time

  18. The Association Between Suicide and OIF/OEF Deployment History. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are significant risk factors for suicide and/or suicidal behavior [9,16e19]; we attempted to determine whether or...in Iraq and Afghanistan could have attracted more young adult volunteers who may have a higher level of risk taking behaviors . Also, economic stress ...recent war veterans. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1289. [16] Ramshaw HJ, Fullerton CS, Mash HB, Ng TH, Kessler RC, Stein MB, et al. Risk for suicidal behaviors

  19. Using Motivational Enhancement among OIF / OEF Veterans Returning to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-25

    Public mpM!ng burden for lhfs colleclion of Information is esllmated 10 average 1 l1otir per response, Including tho time for reviewing lnslrucllons...Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for lnlormetion Opera11ons and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Su 1e...34Using Motivational Enhancement among OI F I OEF Veterans Returning to the Comm u n ity" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W8lXWH-11-1-0726 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. Telerehabilitation for OIF/OEF Returnees with Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    COPD and mental illness. However...H E A D A C H E LU M B A G O M IL D … IN S O M N IA N O S C E R V IC A LG IA D EP R ES SI VE … LT E FF … JO IN T P A IN -… M E N TA L D IS O...R … C H R O N IC P A IN … E S O P H A G E A L … P O S TC O N C U S… SL EE P AP N EA … JO IN T P A IN -… TI N N IT U S N O S H E A R IN G

  1. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Exposure & Skills Group Manualized Treatments in OIF/OEF Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Clinical Personality Pattern Schizoid 80.3 (23.1) 78.0 (16.0) Clinical Syndromes Avoidant 84.6 (20.1) 74.6 (19.7) Anxiety 71.3 (26.3) 84.2...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS

  2. Blast Concussion mTBI, Hypopituitarism, and Psychological Health in OIF/OEF Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    more vulnerable to damage because of their location in the pituitary’s exposed lateral wings and their primary dependence on vascular input from the...portal system alone. Gonadotrophs are distributed throughout the anterior pituitary, and the cells in the lateral wings are relatively vulnerable. In...the sphenoid bone, and because of this restriction it is subject to damage from compression resulting from brain movement or edema. Furthermore, the

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive, Exposure, and Skills Group Manualized Treatments in OIF/OEF Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    weaker processing speed ( Samuelson et al., 2006; Aupperle et al., 2012a) and executive functions including set switching, response inhibition, or...Corporation. Samuelson , K. W., Neylan, T. C., Metzler, T. J., Lenoci, M., Rothlind, J., Henn-Haase, C. et al. (2006). Neuropsychological

  4. Strength, Pain, Function in OIF/OEF Amputees: A Nurse-Managed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-25

    associated with residual and phantom limb pain . Sample: 45 subjects aged 18-55 yrs with traumatic ITA were randomly assigned to nurse-managed NMES...symptoms associated with residual and phantom limb pain . Sample: 45 subjects aged 18-55 yrs with traumatic TTA were randomly assigned to nurse-managed...prosthetic fitting (Specific Aim 1); (3) quality of life (QOL) (Specific Aim 2); and (4) symptoms associated with residual and phantom limb pain (Specific

  5. Prosthetic Cost Projections for Servicemembers with Major Limb Loss from Vietnam and OIF/OEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    levels of lower-limb loss were categorized as partial foot , ankle disarticulation, transtibial, knee disarticulation, transfemo- ral, hip... foot ($14,187), ankle disarticula- tion ($16,356), transtibial ($16,690), knee ($45,563), transfemoral ($45,563), hip ($45,633), and transpelvic...Cost utility analysis of knee prosthesis with complete microprocessor control (C- leg) compared with mechanical technology in trans-femoral

  6. Telerehabilitation for OIF/OEF Returnees with Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    hopes have changed because of your experience (e.g., no career , marriage, children, or long life) 14 3.2+-0.8 11 2.9+-1.3 10 2.9+-0.9 Have you...Have you felt that any future plans or hopes have changed because of your experience (e.g., no career , marriage, children, or long life) 14...Interest 14 1.8+-1 11 2.1+-0.8 10 1.8+-0.9 Indecisiveness 14 1.9+-0.7 11 2+-0.9 10 1.8+-0.9 Worthlessness 14 1.3+-1.1 11 1.5+-1.1 10 1.5+-1 Loss of

  7. Critical and post-critical behaviour of two-degree-of-freedom flutter-based generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolotti, Luca; Mannini, Claudio; Bartoli, Gianni; Thiele, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Energy harvesting from flow-induced vibrations is a recent research field, which considers a diverse range of systems, among which two-degree-of-freedom flutter-based solutions were individuated as good candidates to obtain high energy performance. In the present work, numerical linear analyses and wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a flat-plate sectional model. The aim is to identify some design guidelines for generators exploiting the classical-flutter instability, through the investigation of the critical condition and the response during the post-critical regime. Many sets of governing parameters of interest from the energy-harvesting point of view were considered, including high levels of heaving damping to simulate the operation of a conversion apparatus. In particular, eccentricity of the elastic centre and small downstream mass unbalance can be introduced as solutions aiming at optimal operative ranges. The collected results suggest the high potentiality of flutter-based generators, and a significant enhancement of performance can be envisaged. Moreover, they contribute to improve the knowledge of the flutter excitation mechanism and to widen the dataset of measurements in the post-critical regime.

  8. Can Academic Freedom Be Justified? Reflections on the Arguments of Robert Post and Stanley Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognised that academic freedom is currently under threat. But there is also considerable dispute about the meaning of the term. In this paper I examine two recent and important accounts of the nature of academic freedom that seek to distinguish it clearly from free speech. Such a distinction is, in my view, essential. The aim of the…

  9. Journalism in Jordan: A comparative analysis of press freedom in the post-Arab spring environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matt J Duffy; Hadil Maarouf

    2015-01-01

      [...]many argue that Jordan has suppressed freedom of expression more since the Arab Spring, even though evidence shows that many populations are rejecting information from state-controlled entities...

  10. Driving Simulator Performance of Veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder, reintegration, safety, virtual reality. INTRODUCTION Motor vehicle crashes ( MVCs ) are among the leading causes of injury-related...the early years postdeployment [2]. Being deployed may increase risk for MVC -related fatalities because deployed gulf war Veterans were found to...Enduring Freedom Abbreviations: MANOVA = multivariate analysis of variance, MVC = motor vehicle crash, OIF/OEF = Operation Iraqi Free- dom/Operation

  11. The Concept of Freedom in Post-Communism: a Proposal for Reconsidering Eastern European Thinking in Constructing Social Research in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    FLORIN GRANCEA

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of freedom and its ontology in post-communist Romania and questions the opportunity of using, without filtering through Eastern European philosophy, the major Western philosophical ideas on freedom. While there is a need to use verified and up to date theories when discussing post-communism, there is also a danger of using terms which locally have other meanings than those with which they are employed in the Western academic world. Thus, this article argues, ...

  12. Does Sustainability Require Transparency? The UN Divide Over Freedom of Information & Media in the Post-2015 Development Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Orme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the United Nations General Assembly will adopt a new set of global development objectives to succeed the Millennium Development Goals, which expire at the end of the year. A General Assembly working group has proposed 17 “Sustainable Development Goals” with 169 associated “targets,” including one committing all UN member states to “ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements.” The UN Secretary-General and his many prominent “post-2015” advisors also advocate guarantees for freedom of information in the new global goals. The inclusion of a clear commitment to access to information in the SDGs – including factual “indicators” to monitor compliance – could have a profound impact on freedom of expression and media globally, advocates contend. Yet it remains uncertain whether any provision on access to information will survive the remaining months of negotiations before the final set of SDGs is agreed at the UN’s Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015. Some developing countries oppose an access to information target, along with other proposed commitments to human rights and democratic governance in the SDGs. But others are strongly supportive, and UN debates on the new goals are likely to continue until the September deadline.

  13. Navigating Transition: Freedom, Limitation and the Post-colonial Persona in Michael Ondaatje's The Cat's Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alghamdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ondaatje's 2011 novel The Cat's Table follows a young boy's voyage from Colombo, Sri Lanka to London, England. Through this character and the unique environment of the ship, which forms a compelling sense of transitory place, Ondaatje explores liminality and its relationship with limitations or barriers. The young protagonist, Michael, and his companions enjoy an unusual level of freedom aboard the contained and hierarchically segmented ship. Polarization and transition between Eastern and Western culture is present but pales in importance compared to the validation of the self that is located within and defined by the sense of the in-between, an essential rite of passage undertaken before re-joining society.

  14. Media in Post-Conflict Transitions : Balancing Protection Against Violence and Freedom of Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyse, A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258219327

    2015-01-01

    Media are a crucial battleground in post-conflict reconstruction. On the one hand media may ignite tensions and induce renewed violence by spreading dangerous expressions. On the other hand free and diverse media underpin a society that tries to shift from authoritarianism to democracy. From a human

  15. Marine Corps Interwar Period Innovation and Implications for the Upcoming Post Operation Enduring Freedom Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    pointed out that because of unique coral reef configurations located at prospective landing sites, shore conditions, tidal implications, and...Amphibious Shipping Limitations Post WWI, the potential of a destructive and distracting naval...economically destructive shipbuilding program for each of their countries.13 Together, these countries established strict regulations on shipbuilding as well

  16. Media in Post-Conflict Transitions : Balancing Protection Against Violence and Freedom of Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyse, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Media are a crucial battleground in post-conflict reconstruction. On the one hand media may ignite tensions and induce renewed violence by spreading dangerous expressions. On the other hand free and diverse media underpin a society that tries to shift from authoritarianism to democracy. From a human

  17. Freedom of Contract in the Post-Crisis Era: Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores to what extent the future development of European financial services contract law will be determined by the information paradigm in the post-crisis era. By using the examples from the field of investment services and consumer credit, it shows that the regulatory measures

  18. Innovative Service Delivery for Secondary Prevention of PTSD in At-Risk OIF-OEF Service Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    psychosocial domains. Exposure techniques are typically trauma -focused; thus, these techniques may not ameliorate depressive symptoms that bear more direct...efficiency (> .70), and robust psychometrics with a variety of trauma populations. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI): The BDI-II is a 21-item, 4...preliminary investigation. Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(1): 93-100. PMID: 23869250. 12. Strachan, M.K., Gros, D.F

  19. Mental health treatment utilization in OIF/OEF National Guard and Reserve troops with and without DSM diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Jennifer M; Borsari, Brian; Benz, Madeline B; Reddy, Madhavi K; Shea, M Tracie

    2017-01-01

    Military service members have an increased risk of developing mental health (MH) problems following deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, yet only a small percentage seek mental health treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore patterns of MH service utilization within the first 12 months following return from combat deployment. Participants were 169 service members who had returned from war-zone deployment in either Iraq or Afghanistan and had assessments covering a 12-month period following their homecoming. The authors first examined the prevalence of mental health diagnoses and engagement with mental health treatment (e.g., visits to the emergency room, inpatient hospitalization, individual therapy, group therapy, family or couple therapy, medication appointments, and self-help). Regression analyses explored whether distress, functioning, diagnoses, or social support predicted treatment use. Findings indicated that 28 of 50 military service members (56%) who met diagnostic criteria for a mental health disorder accessed services in the year following their return from deployment. Individual treatment was the most common modality, and those with major depressive disorder (MDD) reported the most treatment contacts. Social support was not associated with use of mental health services. Baseline functioning and psychiatric distress predicted entry into treatment whereas only psychiatric distress predicted amount of mental health service use in the 12-month postdeployment period. Findings highlight the need for enhanced strategies to link those reporting psychiatric distress with MH treatment services and increase community connectedness regardless of whether they meet full criteria for a mental health diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. The Concept of Freedom in Post-Communism: a Proposal for Reconsidering Eastern European Thinking in Constructing Social Research in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN GRANCEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the concept of freedom and its ontology in post-communist Romania and questions the opportunity of using, without filtering through Eastern European philosophy, the major Western philosophical ideas on freedom. While there is a need to use verified and up to date theories when discussing post-communism, there is also a danger of using terms which locally have other meanings than those with which they are employed in the Western academic world. Thus, this article argues, research done without filtering Western-based theories and without debating them by using the local school of thought, can fail to reach its purpose. The methodology used for this article is mainly critical. Literature on both Western and Eastern schools of thought was reviewed and compared with data obtained from newspaper analyses. In order to validate empirical observations on the notion of freedom (including philosophical freedom, political freedom etc. qualitative interviews were conducted with people whom the "train of life" (Şora brought my way.

  1. Annual Surveillance Summary: Klebsiella Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    states and endemic levels in South America, Europe , Africa, and Asia.8 During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF...the patient’s gender , age, sponsor service (Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, or Navy), duty status (Active Duty, Retired, Family Member, or Other), and...when the prevalence count is less than or equal to 5. Data Source: NMCPHC HL7-formatted CHCS microbiology database. Prepared by the EpiData Center

  2. The aggressiveness of the comments posted on the blogs of the 2009 presidential campaign candidates. The violence of the speech as freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Momoc

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main hypothesis of the study The aggressiveness of the comments posted on the blogs of the 2009 presidential campaign candidates – The violence of the speech as freedom of expression was that, while the attitude promoted by the blogger candidates during the 2009 presidential campaign was a positive one, the attitude of the posted comments was a negative one. The readers’ comments on the 12 presidential candidates’ blogs have been monitored. The research method was content analysis. The result of the analysis answered the question on whether the online environment was used by the voters for political debate or to discredit the counter-candidates.

  3. Leaving tissue associated with infrequent intracranial EEG seizure onsets is compatible with post-operative seizure freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cyrus; Eric D Marsh; Ziskind, Daniela M.; Celix, Juanita M.; Peltzer, Bradley; Brown, Merritt W.; Storm, Phillip B.; Litt, Brian; Porter, Brenda E.

    2012-01-01

    Identify seizure onset electrodes that need to be resected for seizure freedom in children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography recording for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. All children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography subdural grid electrode placement at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2002-2008 were asked to enroll. We utilized intraoperative pictures to determine the location of the electrodes and define the resection cavity. A total of 15 ...

  4. Romance and Freedom: Nelson and Winnie Mandela’s Politics of Gender in Three Post-Apartheid Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to retrace the influence of the politics of gender enacted by Nelson and Winnie Mandela on post-apartheid gender relationships, as represented in three novels: Phaswane Mpe’s Welcome to Our Hillbrow (2001, Njabulo Ndebele’s The Cry of Winnie Mandela (2003 and Lewis Nkosi’s Mandela’s Ego (2006.Recently, Nelson and Winnie Mandela’s marriage has been also described as the “unusual founding-family romance” (Munro 2014 of the post-apartheid nation. Their marriage lasted from 1958 to 1992, including, thus, the last decades of the anti-apartheid struggle, as well as the demise of the apartheid regime. Their separation, which was due in the first place to Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment and, later, to their divorce, eventually marked the disruption of this founding-family romance, making it “unusual”.As a consequence, the deconstructive take on Nelson Mandela’s fatherhood and masculinity and Winnie Mandela’s femininity and motherhood which is enacted in the three novels also allows to reassess the possibility of that “founding-family romance”, envisioning an alternative understanding of the origins of the post-apartheid South African nation.

  5. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  6. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation...... that triadic causality and semiotic freedom have to the notions of teleology and emergence, and how the latter two are interrelated in living systems. I pinpoint some of the reservations that these notions have encountered in the history of science (including evolutionary biology and cognitive science......), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show...

  7. freedom stationery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UKZN

    PROCUREMENT ADJUDICATION AND THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN: FREEDOM. STATIONERY (PTY) ..... Fose v Minister of Safety and Security 1997 7 BCLR 851 (CC) para 19. 60. Section 38(1) .... Register of internet sources. Committee on ...

  8. Embodied freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Geertsema

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the relationship between freedom and embodiment. Firstly I argue that freedom is an essential part of our being human, whatever science might say, and should be understood as the possibility to be ourselves. I propose an understanding that starts from the perspective of the second person. In the second part I analyse the writing of a scientific article as a case study of the experience of freedom in a concrete practice. I show how normative elements are a necessary part of such a practice. In the third part I argue that the “free agent” is in fact the concrete person who acts and thinks. I also discuss the place of causation. In the final part I elaborate on the view of the person, as understood from a second person perspective, and on the meaning of freedom, taking my starting point in the biblical understanding.

  9. Student Veteran perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sonya B; Rosen, Jay; Himmerich, Sara; Myers, Ursula S; Davis, Brittany; Browne, Kendall C; Piland, Neill

    2015-01-01

    According to recent estimates, over 1 million Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans are utilizing the post-9/11 GI Bill to pursue higher education. Data collected by the Department of Defense suggests that greater than 17% of returning Veterans may suffer from mental and physical health disorders, which can negatively affect school performance. The current study explored student Veterans' perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. Thirty-one student Veterans completed self-report measures and interviews. Results suggested that Veterans that were reporting problems or symptoms in one mental or physical health domain were likely to be reporting symptoms or problems in others as well. The interview data were coded, and three overarching themes related to barriers and facilitators emerged: person features (e.g., discipline and determination, symptoms and stressors), institutional structure (i.e., what schools and the Department of Veterans Affairs do that was perceived to help or hinder student Veteran success), and policy concerns (i.e., how the structure of the GI Bill affects student Veteran school experience). Results from this research indicate the need for larger studies and program development efforts aimed at enhancing academic outcomes for Veterans.

  10. Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  11. A Pilot Study to Identify Barriers to Treatment in OIF/OEF Veterans with PTSD and Low Back Pain in Establishing Transdisciplinary Complementary Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    transdisciplinary complementary interventions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Agnes Wallbom, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Brentwood Biomedical Research...back pain in establishing transdisciplinary complementary interventions. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0033 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...potentially enhance awareness of the need for a more innovative and transdisciplinary approach to the treatment of’ CLBP in Veterans with comorbid

  12. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account for the i......The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account...... for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation......), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show...

  13. Education, Learning and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…

  14. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  15. The Guarantees of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Rafael La; Lopez-de-Silane, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Hayek (1960) distinguishes the institutions of English freedom, which guarantee the independence of judges from political interference in the administration of justice, from those of American freedom, which allow judges to restrain law-making powers of the sovereign through constitutional review. We create a data base of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these institutions of English and American freedom, and ask whether these rules predict economic and political freedom in a ...

  16. Freedom and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFreedom in nations can affect the happiness of citizens both positively and negatively. This study takes stock of the balance of effects. It considers 1) whether there is a positive net-effect at all, 2) which freedom variants contribute most to happiness 3) in what conditions. Freedom

  17. Issues in the design of a randomized noninferiority clinical trial of telemental health psychotherapy for rural combat veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A; Greene, Carolyn J; Rosen, Craig; Mauldin, Patrick D; Frueh, B Christopher

    2009-11-01

    This methodological article provides a description of the design, methods, and rationale of the first prospective, noninferiority designed randomized clinical trial evaluating the clinical and cost implications of delivering an evidence-based cognitive-behavioral group intervention specifically treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a trauma-focused intervention via video teleconferencing (VTC). PTSD is a prevalent mental health problem found among returning Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) military populations. These returning military personnel often live in rural areas and therefore have limited access to care and specialized psychological treatments. In the field of mental health, telemental health (TMH) technology has introduced a potential solution to the persistent problem of access to care in remote areas. This study is enrolling approximately 126 returning veterans with current combat-related PTSD who are receiving services through the Veteran Administration (VA) mental health care clinics on 4 Hawaiian Islands. Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), an empirically supported manualized treatment for PTSD, is being delivered across 9 cohorts. Participants are assigned to either the experimental VTC condition or the in-person control condition. Assessments measuring clinical, process, and cost outcomes are being conducted at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months post-treatment. The study employs a noninferiority design to determine if the group treatment delivered via VTC is as good as the traditional in-person modality. In addition, a cost analysis will be performed in order to compare the cost of the 2 modalities. Novel aspects of this trial and specific challenges are discussed.

  18. Fibromyalgia syndrome care of Iraq- and Afghanistan-deployed Veterans in Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, April F; Helmer, Drew A; Muthukutty, Anusha; McAndrew, Lisa M; Carter, Marjorie E; Judd, Joshua; Garvin, Jennifer H; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) care among Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) Veterans. Current recommendations include interdisciplinary, team-based combined care approaches and limited opioid use. In this study of OIF/OEF/OND Veterans who accessed Veterans Health Administration services between 2002 and 2012, we hypothesized that combined care (defined as at least 4 primary care visits/yr with visits to mental health and/or rheumatology) versus Hispanic, and never/currently married. Combined primary, mental health, and rheumatology care was associated with at least 2 opioid prescriptions (RR [95% CI] for males 2.2 [1.1-4.4] and females 2.8 [0.4-18.6]). Also, combined care was associated with at least 2 nonopioid pain-related prescriptions, a practice supported by evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. In tandem, these results provide mixed evidence of benefit of combined care for FMS. Future studies of healthcare encounter characteristics, care coordination, and benefits for Veterans with FMS are needed.

  19. Central nervous system and musculoskeletal medication profile of a veteran cohort with blast-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D; Bair, Matthew J; Bass, Elizabeth; Campbell, Robert R; Siddharthan, Kris

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the utilization of central nervous system (CNS) and musculoskeletal (MS) medications in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans with blast-related injuries (BRIs). We followed prescription drug use among a cohort of 133 OIF/OEF veterans with BRIs by using the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry, the Tampa Polytrauma Registry, and electronic medical records. We extracted 12 months of national medication records from the Veterans Health Administration Decision Support System and analyzed them with descriptive statistics. Over the 12-month period (fiscal year 2007), CNS medications comprised 27.9% (4,225/15,143) of total prescriptions dispensed to 90.2% (120/133) of our cohort. Approximately one-half (48.9%) of the 133 patients were treated with opioid analgesics. Nearly 60% received antidepressants. More than one-half (51.1%) of patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics were dispensed to 17.3% and 15.8%, respectively. For MS medicines, 804 were prescribed for 48.1% (64/133) of veterans. Nearly one-fourth (24.8%) were treated with skeletal muscle relaxants. The CNS and MS medications, in general, were continuously prescribed over the 12-month study period. This study provides insight into the complex medical management involved in the care of veterans with BRIs.

  20. Department of Veterans Affairs compensation and medical care benefits accorded to veterans with major limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Charles; Flohr, Brad; Guagliardo, Tony A; Martin, Chris H; McFarland, Lynne V; Pruden, Jonathan D; Reiber, Gayle E

    2010-01-01

    Veterans injured in theaters of combat operations are eligible for benefits, including medical care and compensation. This article describes veterans with service-connected disability for major lower- and/or upper-limb loss resulting from combat-field-associated injuries sustained in the Vietnam war, Operation Desert Shield/Operation Desert Storm, and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Using the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Compensation and Pension Mini-Master file, we identified 2,690 veterans who in August 2007 received compensation for loss of one or more limbs. More than 97% sustained their injuries in Vietnam; most were young men who served in the U.S. Army or Marine Corps. All but 5% had at least 50% combined service-connected disability and nearly half had a 100% rating. In addition to limb loss, one of the most prevalent compensable conditions was posttraumatic stress disorder, present in 46% of OIF/OEF and 20% of Vietnam veterans. Of these veterans, 82% visited VA outpatient clinics in 2007, although only 4% were hospitalized. A special obligation exists to those who have sustained serious injuries related to combat; this responsibility extends for the life of the servicemember and beyond to his or her spouse and dependents.

  1. Pain experience of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with comorbid chronic pain and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outcalt, Samantha D; Ang, Dennis C; Wu, Jingwei; Sargent, Christy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Bair, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) co-occur at high rates, and Veterans from recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to both conditions. The objective of this study was to identify key aspects of chronic pain, cognitions, and psychological distress associated with comorbid PTSD among this sample of Veterans. Baseline data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial testing a stepped-care intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans with chronic pain only (n = 173) were compared with those with chronic pain and clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (n = 68). Group differences on pain characteristics, pain cognitions, and psychological distress were evaluated. Results demonstrated that OIF/OEF Veterans with comorbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and PTSD experienced higher pain severity, greater pain-related disability and increased pain interference, more maladaptive pain cognitions (e.g., catastrophizing, self-efficacy, pain centrality), and higher affective distress than those with chronic pain alone. Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to the compounded adverse effects of chronic pain and PTSD. These results highlight a more intense and disabling pain and psychological experience for those with chronic pain and PTSD than for those without PTSD.

  2. Insomnia treatment acceptability and preferences of male Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans and their healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Dana R; Babcock-Parziale, Judith L; Haynes, Patricia L; Herb, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep difficulty is a prevalent problem among returning Veterans. Although there is strong evidence for the efficacy and durability of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) in the general population, the interventions require motivation, attention, and adherence from patients to achieve successful outcomes. Given the unique characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans who have experienced blast-related injuries and other trauma, CBT-I for these patients may require modification, including alternative delivery methods, to ensure effective implementation and positive outcomes. We interviewed 18 OIF/OEF Veterans who screened positive for mild traumatic brain injury and 19 healthcare providers to determine the acceptability of insomnia treatments and preferences for the interventions and treatment delivery. Veterans and providers had distinct preferences for insomnia treatment and its delivery. The treatments the Veterans found most acceptable were also the ones they preferred: relaxation treatment and pharmacotherapy. The providers identified relaxation therapy as the most acceptable treatment. Veterans preferred the individual treatment format as well as electronic methods of treatment delivery. Despite some differences between patients and providers, a compromise through modification of empirically supported behavioral treatments is feasible, and implications for preference-based insomnia intervention development and testing are discussed.

  3. Freedom & Self-Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ometto, D.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt

  4. (Neoliberal freedom: what freedom is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Scheeffer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Important theme in political theory is the freedom. With a wide range of meanings, in its negative sense, understood as non-interference, it get practical reflections clearly distinguishable in the field of political action. In this view, the (neoliberal ideology appropriates this concept for in the promoting of freedom, regarded as the supreme good, defend less state. In this sense, this article has the intention to question this premise that underpins the (neoliberal thought. What freedom is achieved mainly by lower classes, before the shrinking of the state? Given the small list of options that the poor end up with and that hinders the exercise of citizenship, seems to be a fallacy that in the notion that "race" toward success everyone has equal opportunities. In this perspective, this very present belief that poverty can be explained by lack of effort on a clear possibility of rise of all competitors in the market is merely an illusion, as well as the thesis that no state interference guarantees as longed individual freedom. This thought seems much more a way of favoring a small fraction of the population and cover a mode of production exclusive and unjust.

  5. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  6. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  7. Freedom, liberalism, multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković-Pejnović Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author proves connection between liberalism and multiculturalism in individual‘s political freedom. Individual freedom connected with political participation, in multicultural contexts, can be shown as means to achieve group recognition demands. Liberal conception of liberty in multicultural context shows that a major interest of multicultural groups through political participation necessary respect individual’s liberty. Multiculturalism follows liberal demand for freedom of choice and participation as preconditions for self determination determined by the reason, but through politics of difference, because for multiculturalism is not acceptable liberal thesis of cultural homogenous society.

  8. Homophobia and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Addressing homophobia and heterosexism as a teacher raises issues of respect for the intellectual freedom of your students. The central thesis of this article is that these issues are best addressed on the basis of general principles of academic freedom-that is, intellectual freedom in educational and research contexts. Three cases are analyzed on the basis of principles developed by the Academic Freedom Coalition of Nebraska (AFCON). These principles permit advocacy, rather than requiring neutrality, but do not permit indoctrination. That is, instructors may express and justify their own ideas relevant to the curriculum and try to convince students to adopt those ideas and/or abandon alternatives, but must not coerce or require belief, censor or punish students who remain unconvinced, or restrict access to alternative views.

  9. Academic Freedom under Siege?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandra Salas

    2006-01-01

    .... "I'm just trying to report what is going on in the classroom," [Mal Kline] adds. "If you prize your academic freedom so much, then why are you trying to keep it such a secret?" Notes [Greg Lukianoff...

  10. Scientific Freedom and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretsos, James M.

    1976-01-01

    Recommends that the American Society for Information Science become involved and cooperate with the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the issue of scientific freedom and responsibility. (Author/PF)

  11. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  12. Freedom in mundane mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places...... of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...

  13. FREEDOM AND DIGNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan VLĂDUȚESCU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a synthesis book on human freedom and dignity. Contributors are reputed specialists in theology, philosophy and law. The issue is centered on freedom, dignity and the model created by the sacrifice of Martir Constantin Brancoveanu, but it has inductions and in related areas such as education, human value in theology, cultural policies. The research methodology that is largely used is inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary; the perspectives of the approach are varied

  14. [Drug addiction and freedom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M A

    1982-03-01

    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  15. Freedom and forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavell, Marcia

    2003-06-01

    In the history of philosophy and political thought freedom has meant a number of different things. The author considers several of these meanings and their relevance to psychoanalytic theory. The general argument against freedom that has been mounted in the history of thought, and echoed by Freud, is the thesis of causal determinism; but it is urged here that this in itself is no threat to freedom in the sense of the word required for moral agency: a free choice is one that is caused to some extent by reasons and that is relatively unconstrained both by 'external' and 'internal' forces. Yet because agents are embedded in a causal nexus that includes both the physical world and other people, agency and freedom can be compromised in innumerable ways. Neither freedom nor agency is a condition which we absolutely have or lack, but a matter of degree. Psychoanalytic therapy works toward expanding the capacity for agency and diminishing the constraints of certain internal forces. In the sense defined here, objectivity is an attitude that accepts our embeddedness in the world. With objectivity may come both forgiveness and self-forgiveness, which in turn promote agency.

  16. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10...

  17. Thoughts on freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  18. High School Press Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  19. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  20. Intellectual Freedom and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…

  1. Freedom in Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Hajicek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    The structure of scientific laws is studied with the aim to show that they allow for a considerable freedom of choice. Newton mechanics admits the choice of system and initial state. Quantum mechanics adds laws of statistical character. General relativity can be reinterpreted to become compatible with both choices and accidents. A concept of causality as it emerges from physics is described. The importance of Hume's Principle of Causality is stressed and his Principle of Causation is weakened. The crucial notions of relevant conditions, range of options and the associated concept of relative freedom are introduced. Turning to biology, all living organisms are shown to be more flexible, in a well-defined sense, than automata. The origin of their flexibility is the freedom of choice from the basic ranges of options: mutations, motions and neural connections. The free will is defined as a kind of relative freedom. Such a notion is not metaphysical and can be dealt with as a subject of biology. Finally a comparis...

  2. Doxastic and Epistemic Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of

  3. Doxastic and Epistemic Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of bel

  4. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  5. Freedom and the Collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Isaiah Berlin’s epitomizing Cold War-essay, "Two Concepts of Liberty, " thinkers who emphasize collective concepts of social life have carried the burden of proof against charges of totalitarian tendencies. The background is a ground figure in contemporary political thought that sets notions of collectivity against individual freedom, in a zero sum game: Either one is in favour of the individual, or one is in favour of the collective, and hence, so the bias has it, willing to sacrifice the rights and liberties of individuals. Since it is impossible to favour the latter position and remain liberal, in the wide sense of the term, this dichotomy serves to rob contemporary political thought of both its classical and revolutionary connotations, leaving only individual initiatives like lobbying and voting. Cornelius Castoriadis offers a way around this – arguably false – dichotomy, by regarding individual and collective freedom as two sides of the same coin.

  6. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  7. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  8. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...

  9. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  10. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  11. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  12. Freedom of Divorce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    MS. Zhang and her husband came to realize they were not right for each other after three years of marriage. According to the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, citizens have freedom of marriage and divorce so the couple sought to end their unhappiness and begin new lives separately. As they had no children, and were in agreement on the divorce, the only

  13. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  14. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  15. Confinement versus asymptotic freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    2002-01-01

    I put forward the low-energy confining asymptote of the solution $$ (valid for large macroscopic contours C of the size $>>1/\\Lambda_{QCD}$) to the large N Loop equation in the D=4 U(N) Yang-Mills theory with the asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet domain. Adapting the multiscale decomposition characteristic of the Wilsonean renormgroup, the proposed Ansatz for the loop-average is composed in order to sew, along the lines of the bootstrap approach, the large N weak-coupling series for high-momentum modes with the $N\\to{\\infty}$ limit of the recently suggested stringy representation of the 1/N strong-coupling expansion Dub4 applied to low-momentum excitations. The resulting low-energy stringy theory can be described through such superrenormalizable deformation of the noncritical Liouville string that, being devoid of ultraviolet divergences, does not possess propagating degrees of freedom at short-distance scales $<<1/{\\sqrt{\\sigma_{ph}}}$, where $\\sigma_{ph}\\sim{(\\Lambda_{QCD})^{2}}$ is the physical s...

  16. Contractual Freedom and its Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Uta

    2010-01-01

    Parties’ freedom of will is expressed through the following three principles: 1. contractual freedom; 2. the binding power of the contract; and 3. the relativity of the contract’s effects. The parties are free to contract or not, to choose the other contracting party and to determine the content of the contractual clauses. The principle of mutual consent appears as a corollary of the freedom of will principle. According to this principle, the parties’ simple manifestation of will is sufficien...

  17. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social...... dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  18. INTERNET: MONITORED FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuschnaroff Contreras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a phenomenal research and information tool. It has entered the lives of people in an extremely fast way, offering a sense of freedom, and discoveries. This study presents the Internet usage in organizations, along with the use of equipment and information systems supplied by the employer and personal Internet usage at work. The subjects of the present research are businesspeople chosen among employees with a university degree in companies in the City of Curitiba, in the State of Paraná, with leading, managerial or operational occupations, with access to the Internet in their offices as well as at home. The study proposal consists of a critical analysis on the theme.

  19. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.

  20. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  1. The Erosion of Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  2. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  3. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  4. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  5. Freedoms Collide: Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Religion in Russia in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kuznetsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade ethnic and religious contradictions became a matter of growing concern and the issue of preserving the balance between the rights and interests of different groups of people comes to the forefront. There are many examples when freedom of expression is in opposition to freedom of religion. Two recent cases, the cartoons in the Danish newspaper and the recent parody of the Prophet Mohammed, show the importance of this issue. However, the notion of manifestation of religious beliefs, which in the paper is considered primary as a part of freedom of expression, is also very problematic. The paper considers models of coexistence of both freedoms adopted at the international level, in Europe and in Russia. The first chapter considers general approaches towards balancing of fundamental rights, including approaches of the Human Rights Committee and the European Court. The second chapter concentrates on the regulation of both freedoms in Russia, relevant international and domestic cases.

  6. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  7. Media Freedom, Political Knowledge, and Participation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter T. Leeson

    2008-01-01

    .... To explore these connections, I first examine media freedom and citizens' political knowledge in thirteen central and eastern European countries with data from Freedom House's Freedom of the Press...

  8. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...... are not significantly correlated with entrepreneurship.JEL CODE: M13, O31, O50KEYWORDS: Economic freedom, entrepreneurship, cross-country variation....

  9. Involuntary antipsychotic medication and freedom of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Stenlund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I clarify the relationship between the use of involuntary antipsychotic medication and a delusionalperson’s freedom of thought in the light of three different views of freedom, namely, freedom as negative freedom,freedom as having an autonomous mind and freedom as capability. It is not clear how freedom of thought as a psychoticperson’s human right should be understood and protected in practice. Therefore, further discussion is needed. Thesedifferent ways of understanding a patient’s freedom of thought also encourages to consider individual situations, hearthe patient’s voice and work both multiprofessionally and across disciplines.

  10. Freedom of Expression at Yale

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAUP Bulletin, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Freedom of Expression at Yale appointed by the president to examine the condition of free expression, peaceful dissent, mutual respect and tolerance at Yale and to draft recommendations for maintenance of those principles. (JT)

  11. Freedom in responsibility: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brent

    2005-08-01

    This paper is a critical response to Elisabeth Gräb-Schmidt's article "Freedom in responsibility: On the relevance of 'sin' as hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making." Gräb-Schmidt's chief contention is that ethics begins with anthropology, and that moral responsibility is thereby grounded within a set of given limits. Freedom is distorted into sin when these limits are transgressed. My principal complaint is that her account of the relationship between freedom and sin is grounded in a tragic ontology. Alternatively, I contend that anthropology is grounded in Christology in which freedom is a gift of the Spirit. Consequently, sin is not so much tragic as it marks a refusal of humans to accept their divine election. The issues of human cloning and embryonic stem-cell research are used to exemplify what difference these respective differences might make in a process of moral deliberation.

  12. FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INDONESIAN PRESS: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Staples

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will firstly examine the international framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the international human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia’s constitutional law and criminal and civil law, including sedition and defamation laws, and finally media ownership, on the interpretation and scope of the right to freedom of speech in the press. Consideration of these laws will be integrated with a discussion of judicial processes. This discussion will be used to determine how and in what circumstances the constitutional right to freedom of speech in the press may be facilitated or enabled, or on the other hand, limited, overridden or curtailed in Indonesia. Conclusions will then be drawn regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian laws in safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press and the democratic implications from an international human rights perspective. This inquiry will be restricted to Indonesian laws in existence during the post-New Order period of 1998 to the present, and to the information and analysis provided by English-language sources.

  13. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  14. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    Bauman’s theory of freedom shows how freedom should be understood as a differential capacity of social positions. Consequently, Bauman treats freedom (of action) and power as two sides of the same coin implying that the freedom of one actor will often restrict the possibilities of action of other...

  15. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  16. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokay GEDİKOĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  17. Nutritional Requirements for Space Station Freedom Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara L.; Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to set preliminary nutritional requirements for crewmembers flying from 90 to 180 day missions on Space Station Freedom. Specific recommendations included providing crewmembers with in flight feedback on nutritional intake, weight and strength, and incorporating issues of energy intake, body weight, body composition, strength, and protein intake in the flight medicine program. Exercise must be considered an integral part of any plan to maintain nutritional status, especially those modes that stress the skeleton and maintain body weight. Nutrient intake, amount of exercise, and drugs ingested must be recorded daily; high priority should be given to development of fully automated record systems that minimize astronauts' effort. A system of nutritional supplements should be developed to provide a method for reducing intake deficits that become apparent. Finally, post flight monitoring should include bone density, muscle mass and function, and iron status at three and six months after landing.

  18. The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in the Time of Controversy,” Clinical Psychology Review 29...Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Operating Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in a Time of Controversy.” Clinical Psychology Review 29

  19. Freedom of Expression? It's Academic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational environment in Japan since World War II. Assesses both elementary and secondary levels of education, and evaluates the psychology of dependence as a factor in the lack of freedom of expression in academic settings. Delves into the external and internal structure of Japanese cultural society. (CCM)

  20. Freedom as Satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    2004-01-01

    with harmony in one's entire volitional system, Frankfurt may solve the infi nite regress objection but he does so at the cost of ending up with a description of freedom, which comes very close to being identical to his own description of the wanton. Frankfurt's account leaves open the question of whether...

  1. Leisure, Freedom, and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    At present liberal education is generally understood and justified as the acquisition of critical thinking skills and individual autonomy. Traditionally, however, the ultimate purpose of liberal education has been leisure. Freedom, it was thought, was not simply the result of critical thinking but also required the cultivation of leisure that…

  2. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates arguments for the idea in recent American Supreme Court jurisprudence that freedom of religion should not simply be understood as an ordinary legal right within the framework of liberal constitutionalism but as an expression of deference by the state and its legal system...

  3. Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The concluding statement by participants in the 1990 Wolf Trap Conference on Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression (Virginia, April 29-May 1) proposes policies to assist institutions in responding to issues of accountability, audience, and public funding arising from presentation of artistic works to the public in a manner that preserves…

  4. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  5. Students and Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    The United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech to all citizen students. However, this right is not absolute. There is a point at which the right to free expression must be curtailed in the interest of providing the most effective teaching and learning environment. (Author/RC)

  6. Of Stone Books and Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Norcia, Vincent

    1986-01-01

    Studies two examples of Harold Innis' social theory to show that he had a sophisticated ecological understanding of the many forces at work in social dynamics. Argues that Innis' concept of monopolies of knowledge involved freedom both in elite control of a dominant technology and popular resistance to this dominance. (JD)

  7. Old Dilemmas Renewed: Fear of Freedom vs. Freedom from Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszczyk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.

  8. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...... democracy. This freedom argument goes beyond freedom as moral autonomy and a libertarian idea of freedom as non-interference to a notion of freedom as a form of standing constituted by the public legal order. The trouble with other attempts to connect freedom and democracy is that they have operated...

  9. Freedom, Time Constraints and Progressive Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Screpanti

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I present a measure of freedom for opportunity sets which are bounded by both budget and time constraints. Then I show that, in a society in which income is distributed more unequally than leisure time, a government aiming at leaving freedom distribution unaltered should apply progressive taxation. Since incomes bind freedom only partially when time constraints bind, taxing the rich reduces his freedom proportionally less than taxing the poor reduces his. Moreover, when incomes ...

  10. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  11. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global......While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...

  12. Development as Freedom - And As What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze

  13. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  14. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  15. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van

    2006-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  16. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  17. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  18. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  19. Freedom Of Worship: Problems In Concepts Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O. Kuznecov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses problem of specifying the concepts of "freedom of conscience" and "freedom of religion", and the question of their relations definable borders. Author, points to the need to divide these concepts, explores the process of securing the corresponding terms in the text of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Author notes that in all previously existing communities the religion was considered as the basis, on which was formed worldview that is the core of Western culture as a whole. Even relations, no direct religious influence, however, been included in the religious sense structure. In modern society, the situation is different. Despite the fact that freedom of religion is a self-sufficient legal institution and has its own specific content, constitutional rule through a combination of formal independent concepts fixes it inside another structural formation - Institute for freedom of conscience. In view of this, in practice, the concept of "freedom of religion" and "freedom of conscience" is often identified because of the "blurring" of insufficient specificity of the latter. The correction of this situation possibly based on more detailed and full prescribing powers in the areas of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion. In conclusion, author notes, that religious freedom acts as an element of freedom of conscience, as to the latter, in the political and legal importance of this category relates, in addition to the freedom of choice of religion and freedom to participate in religious practices, and even the right to share or not to share (to have, receive conviction of another kind. From our point of view, the qualitative change of the Institute of freedom of conscience is possible only on the basis of conscious differentiation of the concepts and their concretization, consisting in a more detailed and complete prescribing powers in the areas of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion.

  20. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  1. A Random Walk to Economic Freedom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte, Mark David

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide use of economic freedom in economic literature it is imperative to understand how economic freedom evolves. Results suggest that levels of economic freedom are dominated by random shocks. Using a test for stationarity devised by Westerlund and Larsson (2012 we are unable to reject the null hypothesis of a random walk. The changes to economic freedom also are mostly driven by random shocks with only a minor role played by country specific characteristics. Additionally, changes to economic freedom are partially reversed as increases (decreases in one year are partially offset by decreases (increases in the next year.

  2. The denial of religious freedom: a new approach to the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fuccillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Text in process of completion, not subject to referee review, of Report at the Conference on "La libertà religiosa nell'età post-secolare" in Lugano, Faculty of Theology (27-28 March 2014.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction: the social power of religions and the need for dialogue - 2. Law as a required hurdle to the “disclaimers” of religious freedom - 3. The restrictions to the exercise of religious freedom: an overview - 4. Religious freedom and social welfare: an inseparable duo - 5. Brief conclusions.

  3. Machiavelli: Ambition, Freedom and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the anthropological conception of Machiavelli, mainly taken from the Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius in which stands out the identity of human passions and the importance of its understanding to reach political knowledge. Machiavelli considers that the human being is malleable in such a way that a passion can be fought and compensated by another one. From this perspective, is analysed the role of ambition and freedom both as a source of confrontation and degeneration and as an incentive to achieve the most important goals.

  4. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  5. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  6. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  7. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  8. Denial Denied: Freedom of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Newey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Free speech is a widely held principle. This is in some ways surprising, since formal and informal censorship of speech is widespread, and rather different issues seem to arise depending on whether the censorship concerns who speaks, what content is spoken or how it is spoken. I argue that despite these facts, free speech can indeed be seen as a unitary principle. On my analysis, the core of the free speech principle is the denial of the denial of speech, whether to a speaker, to a proposition, or to a mode of expression. Underlying free speech is the principle of freedom of association, according to which speech is both a precondition of future association (e.g. as a medium for negotiation and a mode of association in its own right. I conclude by applying this account briefly to two contentious issues: hate speech and pornography.

  9. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... compares "best practice" in Denmark and "best practice" in Austria. The modern architects accepted the fact that industrialized architecture told the storey of repetition and monotonous as basic condition. This article aims to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  10. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    compares "best practice" in Denmark and "best practice" in Austria. The modern architects accepted the fact that industrialized architecture told the storey of repetition and monotonous as basic condition. This article aims to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through......Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... to 1973 it is discussed how architects can handle these Danish element and montage buildings through the transformation to upgraded aesthetical, functional and energy efficient architecture. The method used is analysis of cases, parallels to literature studies and producer interviews. This analysis...

  11. Six degree of freedom sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  12. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  13. The right of freedom of public assembly - constitutional aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Flamur Hyseni

    2015-01-01

    Freedom and human rights are in the focus of human rights. The protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights still remains the main challenge of consolidating democracy in some countries. In this regard the difficulties in protecting rights and freedoms are connected with individual freedoms as well as collective freedoms. The freedom of expression continues to be among the freedoms that define the level of democratic development in countries. In this respect the right to public assembl...

  14. Intellectual Freedom and the Bible College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    A number of evangelical Christian authors have wrestled with the subject of intellectual freedom--few, though, in the context of Bible college libraries. The secular concept of intellectual freedom is incompatible with Bible colleges in that it is absolutist and shuns any standard of morality. Theological, educational, and pragmatic factors…

  15. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  16. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  17. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  18. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... toil, it was the genius of America's forefathers to protect our freedom of religion, including the... Statute was more than a law. It was a statement of principle, declaring freedom of religion as the natural..., stating, ``Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the...

  19. A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...

  20. Is "Freedom" an Aim of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinum, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that "freedom" properly understood cannot be an aim or an ideal of education, and that when educators talk of "freedom" as an aim or ideal of education, they usually have in mind the development of autonomy. (Author)

  1. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  2. Freedom of Speech as an Academic Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    Since its formation, the Speech Communication Association's Committee on Freedom of Speech has played a critical leadership role in course offerings, research efforts, and regional activities in freedom of speech. Areas in which research has been done and in which further research should be carried out include: historical-critical research, in…

  3. Northrop Frye on Academic Freedom: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Argues that Frye's concept of academic freedom is based on an espistemological dualism that separates knowledge from experience. This distinction severely limits his account of academic freedom by excluding fundamental aspects of knowledge (experience, value judgments, teacher-student dialogue, rational argument, interdisciplinary inquiry,…

  4. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    In section 16(1)(a) of CRSA, freedom of the press and the media receive special reference ... order, safety, health and democratic values justify the imposition of restrictions on the ... cordance with the broader social interest in mind and certain questions ... mental rights, such as the right to freedom of expression, do not end.

  5. Individual Academic Freedom and Aprofessional Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Liviu Andreescu examines the question of whether a certain category of aprofessional acts by academics (in particular, political speech) deserves protection against academic sanctions under the principle of academic freedom. Andreescu discusses two alternative views of academic freedom (the extensive and the restrictive) providing…

  6. Do We Still Need Academic Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shils, Edward

    1993-01-01

    This review of academic freedom in U.S. universities focuses on the role of the American Association of University Professors, which originally linked academic freedom and tenure but now views equality of genders, races, and cultures and the normality of homosexuality as the only real values, whereas truth is seen as illusory, even exploitative.…

  7. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  8. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  9. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  10. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  11. Adorno on Kant, Freedom and Determinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutten, Timo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that Adorno's metacritique of freedom in Negative Dialectics and related texts remains fruitful today. I begin with some background on Adorno's conception of metacritique and on Kant's conception of freedom, as I understand it. Next, I discuss Adorno's analysis of the experient

  12. Religious pluralism into Lusophony: a question of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete S. Mendes Mónico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.

  13. Motorcycling freedom: a paraplegics dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomman, D; Kirk, B

    2006-03-01

    People with disabilities have the same rights as other members of society in directing and implementing the decisions which affect their lives, although it is not always afforded them due to physical limitations. A chance encounter by the author, a University of Western Australia mechanical engineering student, with a paraplegic man who expressed his dream of being able to ride a motorcycle again led to the design and build of a specially modified motorcycle that could be ridden safely and comfortably by a person without the use of their legs. The prototype involved several modifications which allow it to be ridden by a paraplegic person. They included, a thumb controlled pneumatic gear shifter, an integrated front and rear brake actuated with a single hand lever, ergonomic supports to hold the riders legs in place and an automatic stabilising system to balance the motorcycle at low speeds. The benefits that result from the inclusion of people with disabilities into regular leisure activities include normalisation as well as a sense of independence and freedom for the individual. It also allowed one man the chance to reach for his dreams.

  14. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  15. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...

  16. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND VIOLENCE AGAINST JOURNALISTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radu Florin GEAMĂNU

    2017-01-01

    This study will contain an analysys on the international and regional standards in the field of freedom of expression, as stipulated in the United Nations conventions and in the European Convention of Human Rights...

  17. 85 SECULARISM, SECULAR STATE AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human ..... principle of natural morality independent of all revelation and supernatural .... In the Commonwealth Realms, the Head of State is required to take the.

  18. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  19. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  20. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... matters of religion.'' The fundamental principle of religious freedom--guarded by our Founders and... religion as they choose, including the right to believe in no religion at all. However, these liberties...

  1. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    Personal freedom can be described as the right to decide for oneself the terms of .... republican attachment to rights, especially rights to speech and property.27 ..... taken into consideration and not those who are merely irritated, offended or. 66.

  2. Annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA makes annual reports of progress made on Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. This database contains PDF and XML versions of reports from 1999 to the...

  3. John Peter Zenger, Battler for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Gerry

    1974-01-01

    Examines the freedom of the press precedent set by the John Peter Zenger case in 1743 and considers its application to such current events as the jailing of reporters for not disclosing news sources. (RB)

  4. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...

  5. The Impact of Social Media on Press Freedom in Greece: Benefits, Challenges and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina SERAFEIM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the essay is to put light on the expansion of social media in news broadcasting in Greece, highlighting their impact on press freedom and freedom of expression. Taken for granted that the media in Greece (television, radio and print press have created, except from their “traditional version”, social media profiles (facebook profile, twitter etc. in order to disseminate the news, the essay investigates the interconnection between the aforementioned use of social media and press freedom. In addition, special focus is given to the challenges that appear from the emergence of social media as news platforms and to the debate that has occurred “for” and “against” this new role of them. Moreover, the essay puts light to some crucial questions that arise:Do social media in Greece, as news platforms, extend freedom of expression and how do they accomplish that? Does the fact that social media empower journalists to provide journalism in more ways than one through tweets, postings, and video and photo uploads, enhance journalists’ freedom of expression and, in a wider sense, the freedom of the press? Has the invasion of social media in the news flow and coverage changed the media landscape in Greece?

  6. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  7. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...

  8. The Invisible Wound: Moral Injury and Its Impact on the Health of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Grace W

    2016-05-01

    Many veterans are now returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) deployments with physical and mental health problems. However, there are few studies that examine the impact of moral injury on both physical and mental well-being. This study examines the impact of moral injury on self-reported general physical health, general mental health, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected at as part of a pilot study at the New Jersey Veteran Affairs. 100 OEF/OIF veterans recruited at the New Jersey Veteran Affairs completed the paper questionnaire. We found that moral injury and combat experiences positively predicted post-traumatic stress disorder scores. Seeing the aftermath of battle and moral injury were negatively associated with mental well-being and positively associated with depression. Physical health status was negatively associated with depression. Spirituality and moral injury were negatively associated with physical health, whereas age was positively associated with physical health. Moral injury plays an important role in both physical and mental health outcomes for OEF/OIF veterans, but it is often not addressed in health care. These results underline the need for an approach to veterans' health care that includes discussion of existential and moral issues since they may impact health outcomes for many service members.

  9. Democratic Freedom and the Concept of Freedom in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Herman Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several meanings of eleutheria used by Greeks in the classical period, democratic freedom is rejected by both Plato and Aristotle, who do not articulate a theory of political freedom but rather confine eleutheria to a social context.

  10. A Journey From Bondage To Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖

    2009-01-01

    Beloved, one of the representative works of Toni Morrison, was published more than a decade after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued. Although many years went by, the evil slavery still had an impact on the black people's internal world, because the condition of the enslavement of the external world, especially the denial of one's status as a human subject. The black people couldn't get out of the bondage of the past experience to gain the real freedom. In Beloved, Morrison emphasizes on gaining the internal freedom of the black people. She tries to tell the readers about the evil impact of slavery on the black people and she also wants to call up her fellow men to get out of the bondage and gain the internal freedom.

  11. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND VIOLENCE AGAINST JOURNALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Florin GEAMĂNU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will contain an analysys on the international and regional standards in the field of freedom of expression, as stipulated in the United Nations conventions and in the European Convention of Human Rights. Further we will establish a link between the breach of the freedom of expression when cases of violence against journalists arise, especially tackling the impunity problem. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding freedom of expression and cases of violence against journalists. Also, we will address the recent recommendations at the Council of Europe level. Concluding, the study will attempt to express some reccommendations in solving the problem of violence against journalists.

  12. Decoherence of rotational degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of decoherence for a mesoscopic quantum system with rotational degrees of freedom is studied. From a simple model of elastic scattering, we show that the nondiagonal density-matrix elements of the system exponentially decay. The decay rate depends on the difference of scattering amplitudes for different rotational configurations, leading to the gradual loss of quantum coherence between the pointer states in the orientational space. For a dielectric ellipsoid immersed in a photon-gas environment (assuming no absorption), the decay rate is found to be proportional to the seventh power of the temperature. For an ellipsoidal object interacting with massive particles, the decay rate is proportional to the 5/2 power of the temperature. Both are different from the case of translational decoherence induced by the same environment scattering. For photon scattering, the coherence time in the rotational degrees of freedom is shown to be much shorter than that in the translational degrees of freedom.

  13. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  14. The City Between Freedom and Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , participatory democracy, and the freedom of speech and assembly. From the starting point of the disputed redevelopment of the Oslo Government Quarter in the aftermath of attacks in 2011, the book functions as a broader discursive platform mediating a range of opposing actors and positions at the intersection......The publication "The City between Freedom and Security" addresses the contested territory between the state and corporate drive to 'securitise' contemporary urban space – and the principle of the city and its public spaces as fundamental yet fragile sites for enacting open civil society...

  15. Economic freedom and new economic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Are economic freedoms going to clear our way to prosperity? Is the growth of economic freedoms our path to prosperity? Is it in the base of the new understanding of development? If yes, what will necessarily have to be changed in the economic practice of every country and whole world in general? What will be changed in economic theory? What are potential consequences of an attempt to offer resistance to the new concept of development? These are just some of the questions discussed in this paper, whereas the starting point is the economy and economic development of Montenegro.

  16. Asymptocic Freedom of Gluons in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rocha, María; Głazek, Stanisław D.

    2016-07-01

    We derive asymptotic freedom of gluons in terms of the renormalized SU(3) Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the Fock space. Namely, we use the renormalization group procedure for effective particles to calculate the three-gluon interaction term in the front-form Yang-Mills Hamiltonian using a perturbative expansion in powers of g up to third order. The resulting three-gluon vertex is a function of the scale parameter s that has an interpretation of the size of effective gluons. The corresponding Hamiltonian running coupling constant exhibits asymptotic freedom, and the corresponding Hamiltonian {β} -function coincides with the one obtained in an earlier calculation using a different generator.

  17. Guest Editorial: Cognitive-communication rehabilitation for combat-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. MacLennan, MA, CCC-SLP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 2 million servicemembers (SMs have served in two theaters of operation in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF], which ended in December 2011, and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]. Improvements in body armor and advances in medical care have resulted in the highest survival rate of wounded military personnel compared with any previous conflict in U.S. history [1]. Traumatic brain injury (TBI is among the most common injuries and has been called the “signature injury” of the Global War on Terror [2-3]. Data based on self-reports indicate that approximately 15 to 22 percent of SMs deployed in OIF/OEF may have sustained mild TBI (mTBI as a result of exposure to improvised explosive devices [4-7]. The true incidence of mTBI among SMs remains largely unknown, because many SMs either do not seek immediate medical care or receive a diagnosis long after the injury, when the details of the event are more difficult to establish [8].

  18. Comparison of Veteran experiences of low-cost, home-based diet and exercise interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bree Holtz, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant health problem among Veterans who receive care from the Department of Veterans Affairs, as it is for so many other Americans. Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF experience a myriad of chronic conditions, which can make it difficult to maintain a physically active lifestyle. This pilot study tested the feasibility and user satisfaction with three low-cost, home-based diet and exercise programs, as well as point-of-decision prompts among these Veterans. The three programs target mechanisms that have been shown to improve healthy behavior change, including (1 online mediated social support, (2 objective monitoring of physical activity, and (3 structured high-intensity workouts. This was a randomized crossover trial; each participant used two of the three programs, and all used the point-of-decision prompts. Our qualitative results identified five overall themes related to social support, objective monitoring, structured activity, awareness and understanding, and the point-of-decision prompts. In general, participants were satisfied with and lost weight with each of the interventions. This study demonstrated that these low-cost interventions could be successful with the OIF/OEF Veteran population. A larger and longer study is planned to further investigate the effectiveness of these interventions.

  19. The Chains Around Academic Freedom in Teaching-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2017-04-01

    Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.

  20. Empirical Equivalence, Artificial Gauge Freedom and a Generalized Kretschmann Objection

    CERN Document Server

    Pitts, J Brian

    2009-01-01

    Einstein considered general covariance to characterize the novelty of his General Theory of Relativity (GTR), but Kretschmann thought it merely a formal feature that any theory could have. The claim that GTR is "already parametrized" suggests analyzing substantive general covariance as formal general covariance achieved without hiding preferred coordinates as scalar "clock fields," much as Einstein construed general covariance as the lack of preferred coordinates. Physicists often install gauge symmetries artificially with additional fields, as in the transition from Proca's to Stueckelberg's electromagnetism. Some post-positivist philosophers, due to realist sympathies, are committed to judging Stueckelberg's electromagnetism distinct from and inferior to Proca's. By contrast, physicists identify them, the differences being gauge-dependent and hence unreal. It is often useful to install gauge freedom in theories with broken gauge symmetries (second-class constraints) using a modified Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (...

  1. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  2. FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE LEGAL AND RELIGIOUS IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conscience is a defining existential reality of man, whose meaning can be seen only through an interdisciplinary unceasing effort of thinking and knowledge. In this study, we aim to make such an analysis of the conscience as an ontological foundation and characteristic of man, in its individual and social dimension, whose basis is made up of philosophical, theological and legal ideas, concepts and theories. Freedom of conscience is the main feature of the manifestations of man as a person within the specific environment of his/her existence. From the legal point of view, freedom of conscience is a complex fundamental right requesting a wide legislative system in order to establish and guarantee it. In our opinion, both the basis and the legitimacy of the legal system protecting the freedom of conscience are given by the philosophical truths and the truths of faith, as expressed in theological writings and meditations. In this study, we identify the theological and philosophical bases of the freedom of conscience and their reflection in the legal field.

  3. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  4. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN ETHIOPIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    our courts, we have yet to develop a body of standards, tests and doctrines ..... the press relating to deliberate acts of stifling freedom of expression through ...... protection of the fundamental rights of others like the right to a fair trial or it.

  5. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... call America home and seek to follow their consciences in peace. Our long history of religious... United States of America A Proclamation For nearly four centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from diverse backgrounds and faiths,...

  6. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  7. Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.

  8. Strengthening Academic Freedom by Nurturing Academic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, John A.

    2005-01-01

    When the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) decided to remove the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) from its list of censured colleges, an opportunity was created for VCCS colleges to examine anew the status of academic freedom. The 1972 decision to abolish tenure within the VCCS had been viewed by some faculty as a direct…

  9. Freedom and security: a sometimes delicate balance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions.   Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...

  10. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  11. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  12. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...

  13. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...

  14. Censorship and Intellectual Freedom in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes seven articles that discuss censorship and intellectual freedom in junior and senior high schools. Highlights include access to appropriate information; library material selection; dealing with complaints; a list of potentially controversial titles and topics; a history of book burning; the censorship of fiction; weeding versus…

  15. Two-spinor geometry and gauge freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Canarutto, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Gauge freedom in quantum particle physics is shown to arise in a natural way from the geometry of two-spinors (Weyl spinors). Various related mathematical notions are reviewed, and a special ansatz of the kind "the system defines the geometry" is discussed in connection with the stated results.

  16. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  17. Index of Economic Freedom: Unrealized Pedagogical Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Miller, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Although the Index of Economic Freedom appears in many economic textbooks, their coverage of the index misses opportunities to teach statistical and policy-related concepts important for the principles course. The standard textbook presentation passes up an opportunity to examine the statistical issues of weighting in composite index numbers and…

  18. Defending Academic Freedom: Advice for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Social studies and history teachers should be free to expose students to controversial ideas and to teach critical thinking skills. But are they free? Do they have the constitutional right--call it academic freedom--to teach what they want and to discuss controversial issues in the classroom? The short answer is "no." In this article,…

  19. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  20. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  1. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom or ...

  2. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  3. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  4. Freedom of Speech and Hate Speech: an analysis of possible limits for freedom of speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas; Matheus Felipe de Castro

    2013-01-01

      In a view to determining the outlines of the Freedom of Speech and to specify its contents, we face hate speech as an offensive and repulsive manifestation, particularly directed to minority groups...

  5. Freedom and Information. Assessing Publicly Available Data Regarding U.S. Transportation Infrastructure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    we learn, One bit of counsel consultants say applies to just about any business : Don’t post sensitive information on the Internet. Says...about adjacent public and private spaces (e.g., small marinas near major seaports, residential 34 Freedom and Information areas, or business parks...cases, this information is necessarily in the public domain because it provides an important service. For instance, as noted above, ecommerce sites for

  6. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  7. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  8. Academic freedom Akademískt frelsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article academic freedom is examined and an attempt made to elucidate and explain its content. The function of universities is discussed to set the context for academic freedom. A distinction is drawn between freedom of expression and academic freedom and it is argued that these two concepts of freedom are logically distinct and independent of each other. Also, a distinction between a wide and narrow conception of academic freedom is explored. It is argued that awide conception of academic freedom should be rejected. An example of a seemingly justified use of the wide conception of academic freedom is explored and rejected. At last it is argued that it is inevitable that some of the teaching and research in theoretical disciplines at universities is not useful or socially relevant in any significant sense but they are important for universities and for those who learn and teach them. They can also be beneficial for society in general as well.Í greininni er fjallað um akademískt frelsi og leitast við að skýra það og hlutverk þess. Farið er nokkrum orðum um hlutverk háskóla til að gera grein fyrir bakgrunni akademísks frelsis. Gerður er greinarmunur á tjáningarfrelsi og akademísku frelsi og því haldið fram að þessar tvær frelsisreglur séu röklega óháðar hvor annarri. Sömuleiðis verður að skilja á milli þröngs og víðs skilnings á akademísku frelsi. Í greininni er leitast við að skýra akademískt frelsi þröngt þannig að það nái einungis til þeirra sem starfa við háskóla og uppfylla tilteknar þekkingarkröfur og starfa þeirra við þá. Leitast er við að rökstyðja að hafna beri víðum skilningi á akademísku frelsi, að akademískar kröfur eigi við á vettvangi samfélagsins. Skoðað er dæmi þar sem til álita kemur að beita víðum skilningi en því hafnað. Að lokum er því haldið fram að í háskólum sé óhjákvæmilegt að stunda rannsóknir á sviðum sem

  9. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...

  10. Asymptocic Freedom of Gluons in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Rocha, María

    2016-01-01

    We derive asymptotic freedom of gluons in terms of the renormalized $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the Fock space. Namely, we use the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) to calculate the three-gluon interaction term in the front-form Yang-Mills Hamiltonian using a perturbative expansion in powers of $g$ up to third order. The resulting three-gluon vertex is a function of the scale parameter $s$ that has an interpretation of the size of effective gluons. The corresponding Hamiltonian running coupling constant exhibits asymptotic freedom, and the corresponding Hamiltonian $\\beta$-function coincides with the one obtained in an earlier calculation using a different generator.

  11. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  12. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  14. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  15. Freedom:Perquisite of Emerson’s Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing-xin

    2015-01-01

    Emerson established a systematic philosophy of individualism at his early stage. The basic three elements of individual⁃ism described in Emerson’s works are: freedom, self-identity and independence to others. Freedom, including the freedom to think and act, is the perquisite of the realization of individualism.

  16. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  17. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  18. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  19. New masculinities and pedagogy of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Rios

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research on masculinity in education has mainly been focused on analyze the organization of schools and the attention given to the students. This analysis has confirmed the existence of gender inequalities in schools, within them gender violence. This article will start from this background but has as objective to provide new knowledge about the pedagogy of freedom in the promotion of new alternative masculinities. Design/methodology: From a communicative-oriented qualitative methodology the voices of young boys and adult men that have been involved in educational actions, based on a pedagogy of freedom which have contributed to foster new alternative masculinities, have been collected. Findings: The results explain why the pedagogy of freedom can contribute to foster new alternative masculinities. Special attention is paid in the evolution of oppressed traditional masculinities (OTM to new alternative masculinities (NAM. In this regard, it is highlighted how OTM, that not contributes to gender violence but overcome neither, are walking to become NAM thanks to the organizational approach of the pedagogy of freedom. Practical implications: To provide scientific knowledge which could be used as a basis of the educational practices addressed to prevent gender violence. Social implications: The social impact refers to the effect of scientific knowledge in the educational quality and in the socialization of alternative masculinities which overcome harassment and gender violence. Originality/value: The article provides of new knowledge on the coeducational field which allows overcoming the double standards and the attraction against the violence reproduced in the traditional masculinity models.

  20. Degrees of freedom in discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P

    2016-01-01

    Following recent developments in discrete gravity, we study geometrical variables (angles and forms) of simplices in the discrete geometry point of view. Some of our relatively new results include: new ways of writing a set of simplices using vectorial (differential form) and coordinate-free pictures, and a consistent procedure to couple particles of space, together with a method to calculate the degrees of freedom of the system of 'quanta' of space in the classical framework.

  1. Histories and Freedom of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...... Foucault seems to go furthest in this endeavour, a comparison may enrich both lines of historical analyses....

  2. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  3. Membrane Triangles with Drilling Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fajman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate triangular plane element with drilling degrees of freedom is shown in this paper. This element can be successfully used for solving linear and nonlinear problems. The main advantage of this element is that the stiffness matrix is obtained from pure deformations – elongations of the edges. This aproach is very suitable for nonlinear analysis, where the unbalanced forces can be obtained directly from elongations of edges. 

  4. Freedom and the state: nanny or nightwatchman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, P

    2015-08-01

    There are two rival images often offered of the state. In one the state serves like a nanny to provide for the welfare of its members; in the other it requires people to look after themselves, providing only the service of a night-watchman. But this dichotomy, which is routinely invoked in debates about public health and welfare provision in general, is misleading. What the rival images turn on is not competing pictures of how the state should function in people's lives but competing pictures of what it is to guard the freedom of its people. On the neo-liberal theory, which has been dominant over the last century or so, providing for people's freedom means leaving them to their own devices and fortunes. On the neo-republican theory, which answers to a much longer tradition, it means democratically identifying a common set of basic liberties in the exercise of which everyone should be protected by law and, if necessary, resourced. This older way of thinking about freedom has important merits missing in the newer and argues strongly against the nightwatchman state. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Directed transport in a ratchet with internal and chemical freedoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, T., E-mail: tdittrich@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA-Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Naranjo, N.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA-Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2010-10-05

    Graphical abstract: Directed currents in a ratchet including a chemical freedom that provides energy input and an internal freedom modeled as a functional mode of a motor molecule show a direct relation to the structure of the underlying attaractor, limit cycle or chaotic, as reflected in their dependence on the coupling between external and chemical degrees of freedom. - Abstract: We consider mechanisms of directed current in a ratchet model comprising, besides the external freedom where transport occurs, a chemical freedom that replaces the familiar external driving by an autonomous dynamics providing energy input, and an internal freedom representing a functional mode of a motor molecule. The dependence of the current on various parameters is studied in numerical simulations of our model. In particular, we point out the role of the internal freedom as a buffer between energy input and output of mechanical work that allows a temporary storage of injected energy and can contribute to the efficiency of current generation.

  6. Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Afghanistan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mujeeb Khalvatgar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although media outlets have proliferated in the private sector in Afghanistan, the Afghan press is hobbled by insufficient security, lack of access for their investigations, serious revenue and funding shortfalls, stalled legislation for freedom of the press, change-wary socio-cultural norms that tend to undercut the wide dissemination of news and skirt in the presentation of scientific/technological and foreign information. To do their jobs, the nation’s journalists need to overcome these and other barriers.

  7. Space Station Freedom attached payloads and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, N.; Pyfer, B.; Smith, R. B., Jr.; Hunt, S. R.; Suddeth, D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) attaches external payloads to its main truss structure via Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE); this equipment also provides access to such SSF resources as electrical power, command/control, and data handling. In orbit, APAE payloads are installed and maintained by a teleoperated robot or by an astronaut in EVA. Commercialization of EPAE will be accomplished by private companies concerned with the development of materials processing, earth resources and ocean resources monitoring, telecommunications, and industrial services. Attention is given to APAE user-integration activity.

  8. Is freedom rooted in the brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conill Sancho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article first of all attempts to provide a new concept of human nature, beyond that of traditional metaphysics and the naturalistic interpretation of today’s neurosciences; it thus surpasses the unilateral scientistic appropriation of the concept of human nature and defends a biohermeneutics containing a plurality of standpoints for understanding human reality, as in Habermasian epistemic dualism. It secondly examines whether freedom is rooted in the brain in the sense of «free will» and of «autonomy», taking into account the stance of accredited neurologists and the study of natural dispositions in the Kantian notion of moral autonomy.

  9. Effective degrees of freedom in QCD thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turko L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective model reproducing the equation of state of hadronic matter as obtained in recent lattice QCD simulations and from hadron resonance gas data is presented. The hadronic phase is described by means of an extended Mott-Hagedorn resonance gas while the QGP phase is described by the extended PNJL model. The dissociation of hadrons is obtained by including the state dependent hadron resonance width. The model gives a quantitative estimate for partial fractions of hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom above Tc.

  10. Existentialist Freedom, Distorted Normativity, and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Baiasu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usually associated with a view of freedom as absolute, Sartre’s philosophy seems particularly able to account for the indeterminacy that we experience today in most areas of human experience that have a normative dimension. Without denying that this is a plausible reading, it will be argued here that it is nevertheless a problematic interpretation. On this reading, existentialism seems unable to account for the fact that we are powerfully conditioned by a significant number of factors, which limit our freedom and, in certain situations, make emancipation a normative requirement. It is held here that this problem can be addressed and a less problematic interpretation of Sartre can be defended, once we start to acknowledge that in Sartre we have a variety of notions of freedom that can provide a robust account of our freedom, of authentic choice and of responsibility. Habitualmente asociada a una visión de la libertad como un concepto absoluto, la filosofía de Sartre parece especialmente capaz de representar la indeterminación que experimentamos hoy en día en la mayoría de las áreas de la experiencia humana que tienen una dimensión normativa. Sin negar que ésta es una lectura convincente, no obstante, se va a argumentar que es una interpretación problemática. Con esta lectura parece que el existencialismo es incapaz de representar el hecho de que estamos fuertemente condicionados por un número importante de factores que limitan nuestra libertad y, en algunas situaciones, hacen de la emancipación una necesidad normativa. En este artículo se defiende que se puede abordar este problema, y se puede defender una interpretación de Sartre menos problemática, una vez empecemos a reconocer que en Sartre se pueden encontrar una variedad de nociones de libertad que permiten ofrecer una explicación sólida de nuestra libertad, de elección auténtica y de responsabilidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2622045

  11. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  12. Playful teaching between freedom and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Within higher education today, a culture is emerging characterized by fear of failure, avoidance of risk-taking, extrinsic motivation, and goal-oriented behavior – what we call a ‘gameful approach’ to HE. This paper uses the concept of ‘the magic circle’ – a central metaphor within game studies...... as it invites for a different type of teaching and learning environment, providing a safe educational space, in which mistake-making is not only encouraged, but engrained into the system. Taking up a ‘lusory attitude’ in the magic circle can create freedom, support playfulness and intrinsic motivation, and make...

  13. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between democracy and the media since the appearance of Habermas' major texts in the 1960s has been articulated through theories of the public sphere. The structure of the public sphere is significantly influenced by the communicative media, and the emergence of the internet thus......-value of utterances is not adequate. Negative freedom and truth are certainly important in the public sphere, because they are necessary conditions for taking a qualified stance towards the challenges that we face. It is, however, important also to reflect on what negative liberties are used for—which kinds of truths...

  14. Freedom and conscience in Sartre's metaphysical novel

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Pargada, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    J.-P. Sartre defines literature as the commitment of a determined will. In his own case this commitment is double: political and metaphysical. The result will be a metaphysical novel that corresponds to existencialist and phenomenologic principles. Time, body, subject and freedom are put “into situation” in order to stage men’s “throwness into the world” through the readers consciousness. As far as commitement is concerned, it should be understood as part of the principle to which Sartre, a m...

  15. Playful teaching between freedom and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Within higher education today, a culture is emerging characterized by fear of failure, avoidance of risk-taking, extrinsic motivation, and goal-oriented behavior – what we call a ‘gameful approach’ to HE. This paper uses the concept of ‘the magic circle’ – a central metaphor within game studies...... as it invites for a different type of teaching and learning environment, providing a safe educational space, in which mistake-making is not only encouraged, but engrained into the system. Taking up a ‘lusory attitude’ in the magic circle can create freedom, support playfulness and intrinsic motivation, and make...

  16. On Sarah's Final Freedom-Interpretation of the last ending of The French Lieutenant’s woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭美容

    2013-01-01

    The French Lieutenant’s Woman is the best-known novel written by John Fowles and is also called the post-modern metafiction. In the novel the mysterious woman Sarah is introduced, who rebels against Victorian conventions to pursue indepen-dence and freedom. Undoubtedly, Sarah is an independent woman ahead of her times. This paper is attempted to interpret the last ending of The French Lieutenant’s woman written by John Fowles, thus finding relevant evidence to support this interpreta-tion that Sarah has finally got her freedom which is not allowed against the Victorian background.

  17. The right of freedom of public assembly - constitutional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamur Hyseni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Freedom and human rights are in the focus of human rights. The protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights still remains the main challenge of consolidating democracy in some countries. In this regard the difficulties in protecting rights and freedoms are connected with individual freedoms as well as collective freedoms. The freedom of expression continues to be among the freedoms that define the level of democratic development in countries. In this respect the right to public assembly in many cases determines the degree of democratization of a country. The Republic of Kosovo on questions about guaranteeing and protecting the right to freedom of public assembly has set these entitlements in the Constitution of 2008, Article 43, freedom of assembly. The organization of public meetings is regulated by Law no. 03 / L-118 for public gatherings. Even the international aspect of the right of public assembly presents a major challenge for the consolidation of democracy and the commitment of the state to guarantee and protect the fundamental human rights and freedoms.

  18. Directed transport in a ratchet with internal and chemical freedoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider mechanisms of directed transport in a ratchet model comprising, besides the external freedom where transport occurs, a chemical freedom that replaces the familiar external driving by an autonomous dynamics providing energy input, and an internal freedom representing a functional mode of a motor molecule. The dependence of the current on various parameters is studied in numerical simulations of our model. In particular, we point out the role of the internal freedom as a buffer between energy input and output of mechanical work that allows a temporary storage of injected energy and can contribute to the efficiency of current generation.

  19. ECONOMIC FREEDOM – A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the ”architecture” of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals’ life.

  20. Mesodynamics with implicit degrees for freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Germann, Timothy C; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale phenomena -- involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum -- can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics diffrers from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation -- the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs) -- must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring me...

  1. Space Station Freedom electrical performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

  2. Press Freedom on the Media Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Maria de Carvalho Cruz Pires

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to present a refl ection on the meanings constructed by the Brazilian written press regarding media and democracy. For this, it was necessary to recompose a specifi c journalistic event: the submission to the Brazilian Congress of a bill to create the Federal Journalism Council by the Brazilian President, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, at the request of the National Journalists Federation in August, 2004. This procedure gave rise to something rarely seen: the media were in the spotlight and thus it caused a controversial debate to emerge on the public scene regarding the journalist profession, journalism and press freedom, involving a diversity of political subjects.

  3. Hidden degrees of freedom in aperiodic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toudic, Bertrand; Garcia, Pilar; Odin, Christophe; Rabiller, Philippe; Ecolivet, Claude; Collet, Eric; Bourges, Philippe; McIntyre, Garry J; Hollingsworth, Mark D; Breczewski, Tomasz

    2008-01-04

    Numerous crystalline materials, including those of bioorganic origin, comprise incommensurate sublattices whose mutual arrangement is described in a superspace framework exceeding three dimensions. We report direct observation by neutron diffraction of superspace symmetry breaking in a solid-solid phase transition of an incommensurate host-guest system: the channel inclusion compound of nonadecane/urea. Strikingly, this phase transition generates a unit cell doubling that concerns only the modulation of one substructure by the other-an internal variable available only in superspace. This unanticipated pathway for degrees of freedom to rearrange leads to a second phase transition, which again is controlled by the higher dimensionality of superspace. These results reveal nature's capacity to explore the increased number of phases allowed in aperiodic crystals.

  4. Saint Paul: Apostle of freedom in Christ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros VASSILIADIS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars in modernity have accused Saint Paul either for an unrestricted obedience to civil authorities (Rom 13, or for surrendering the divine gift of freedom and human dignity and accepting the status of slavery (1 Cor 7:21; Phlm, or for implying the subordination of women (1 Cor 14:34ff.; Eph 5:22; Col 3:18; etc.. I am referring of course to the well known household codes (Haustafeln, Col 3:18ff. and parallels. It was mainly these cases that gave rise to the criticism that Paul (or the Pauline school did not resist with all his power as he should to the socio-political status quo of his time, and that he and his school, and Christianity thereafter, tolerated unjust social institutions and structures.

  5. #2: Freedom of Movement throughout Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Teri; DiFranco, Joyce; Simkin, Penny

    2004-01-01

    In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the benefit of allowing freedom of movement throughout labor is discussed and presented as an evidence-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. The accompanying commentary—written by a well-known author of numerous articles and books on childbirth—compares the activities of women in two birthing environments: the conventional medicalized setting and the unconventional naturalistic setting. Reasons why women may not move in labor are presented. Lamaze International encourages women to use movement in labor in order to make labor more comfortable and more efficient. PMID:17273383

  6. Multiple degree of freedom impact oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontier, C. [Laboratoire Mecanique S., S. et M., Ecole Centrale, 75 -Paris (France)

    1996-07-01

    The forced vibration of dynamic systems with motion stops is relevant to many practical engineering problems. Several applications were identified in the field of mechanical engineering: structures having clearances, bolted junctions, or rods inside guiding grids. Such mechanical systems, when subjected to harmonic excitation, may not necessarily behave in a periodic way, and the loss of stability of their periodic motion is often a precursor for much more complex nonlinear behaviour. Many numerical, analytical and experimental studies have been carried out on the dynamics of these impacting systems. In particular, the behaviour of single degree of freedom (d.o.f.) impact oscillators has been extensively studied. Phenomena like attractor coexistence, subharmonic bifurcation, and chaos were identified in many earlier papers. The classical pattern of flip bifurcation cascade was observed numerically by Shaw and Holmes, and the Feigenbaum scenario of transition to chaos was confirmed. Others also proved that such systems can undergo ``grazing bifurcation`` and that they could lead to chaotic behaviour. Peterka and Vacik even provided bounds of chaotic responses with the help of an analogue computer. Experiments were also carried out on models, like impact pendulums, whose dynamics can be approximately fitted by a single d.o.f. impact oscillator. Other authors conducted investigations into the existence and stability of periodic solutions. Most of these studies were dedicated to the single impact periodic responses of single d.o.f. impact oscillators. The purpose of this paper is to expand the scope of these analytic investigations. This expansion will take two directions, considering first an arbitrarily large number of degrees of freedom in the oscillating structure, and secondly an arbitrary finite number of impacts per period. Thus, the methods presented here could be applied in the study of any finite impact periodic motions of any dynamic impacting system.

  7. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  8. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S

    2012-02-01

    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  9. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    organization would inform and coordinate with one of the six US Army Training and Doctrine Command Battle Laboratories in Fort Monroe, Virginia developing ...variety of Marine Corps training and education commands into an all-inclusive cohort of doctrinal focused professional development organization . He

  10. 45 CFR 1218.6 - Freedom to present views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freedom to present views. 1218.6 Section 1218.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEERS-HEARING OPPORTUNITY § 1218.6 Freedom to present views. The expression by...

  11. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  12. Freedom Reconsidered: Heteronomy, Open Subjectivity, and the "Gift of Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the entanglement of the modern concepts of freedom, autonomy, and the modern notion of the subject and how a passion for and insistence on freedom has undermined the reconstruction of human subjectivity in Heidegger and Foucault, and how such passion has also limited the educational effort at addressing the problems brought to…

  13. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Riders sent a resounding message to the rest of our Nation that desegregation was a moral imperative. The Freedom Riders also motivated and mobilized the next generation of civil rights leaders. The unflinching... activists, organizers, and leaders in the civil rights movement. Today, we remember the Freedom Riders...

  14. Federal Freedom of Information Policy: Highlights of Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2009-01-01

    For the Federal government of the United States, freedom of information policy is expressed in statutory law--the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), enacted in 1966, being the first such expression in this regard. Other transparency laws would follow. The FOIA, however, was legislated in the face of considerable opposition by the executive branch.…

  15. Which economic freedoms contribute to growth? A comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, J.E.; Leertouwer, E.; de Haan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Most studies on the relationship between economic freedom and growth employ a measure of economic freedom based on an (ad hoc) aggregation of various underlying components. We argue that the alternative aggregation procedure as recently suggested by Heckelman and Stroup (2000) - in which aggregation

  16. 36 CFR 1275.70 - Freedom of information requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requests. (a) The Archivist will process Freedom of Information Act requests for access to only those... Information requests where the requester can reasonably obtain the same materials through a request directed... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of information...

  17. Why Boards Can't Ignore Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pamela J.; Gottschalk, Thomas A.; O'Neil, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Ten board members and a like number of general counsels recently met to consider how to better protect and advance academic freedom--and to preserve the institutional autonomy of colleges and universities. The meeting reconfirmed that boards have a key, and increasingly important, role to play in sustaining academic freedom on campuses across the…

  18. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  19. Freedom of Speech: Its Exercise and Its Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Professor Roy Harris (2009) criticises me for ignoring freedom of speech in order to focus on "soft" issues, such as game theory, decision theory and chaos theory. In this response, I accept most of his arguments relating to freedom of speech, but argue that, in order to develop better systems of education, we need to pay more attention to the…

  20. 78 FR 32595 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 15 RIN 2501-AD57 Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation AGENCY... regulations implementing the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). HUD is proposing these amendments to update... Division at 202-708-3055 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with speech or hearing impairments...

  1. Freedom of Speech and Adolescent Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Murad

    2008-01-01

    Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.

  2. [Restrictions to therapeutic freedom or strengthening of medical treatment responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Guido

    2006-01-01

    Freedom of therapy is an important feature of our healthcare system, but at the same time limited by (1) ethical obligations, (2) the interaction between physician and patient, (3) the quality of the professional training, and (4) the availability of resources. Freedom of therapy is less restricted if well trained physicians adhere to high quality guidelines, and hospitals or surgeries are managed efficiently.

  3. Freedom under an Indifferent Dictator : Intentionality and Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Freedom is often analyzed in terms of the absence of intentionally imposed constraints. I defend the alternative view on which the relevant constraints are those for which some agent can be held morally responsible. I argue that this best captures the relation between freedom and respect. Berlin

  4. Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…

  5. Repression of Press Freedom in Nigerian Democratic Dispensations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... freedom due to censorship, multiple power centres and volatile political institutions ... by the daily struggle for survival in a highly competitive but limited market ..... the emerging Freedom of Information Bill and the extent of their agreement ...... World Bank, 2006, World Development Report 2006: Equity and ...

  6. Dialogue of Freedom. Asian Voices Challenge Cultural Assumptions about Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…

  7. School Zoning, Equity and Freedom: The Case of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Discusses implications of major reforms in secondary school zoning in New Zealand, highlighting freedom and equity considerations. Zoning's primary aim has changed from balancing out different schools' declared needs to emphasizing parents' rights. The new zoning provisions involve both a strong role for freedom and a weak role for equity. (72…

  8. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  9. The Function of the Illusions of Control and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcourt, Herbert M.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that while freedom and control are both illusions, inventions of man to make sense of his experience, they do have consequences; and presents research evidence that the loss of the illusion of freedom may have untoward consequences for the way men live. (Author/JM)

  10. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  11. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  12. Vouchers and Educational Freedom: A Debate. Policy Analysis No. 269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Joseph L.; And Others

    Advocates of educational freedom disagree about whether school vouchers would liberate schools and families and lead to greater freedom of choice or trap private schools in a web of subsidy and regulation that would destroy their independence and quality. In this exchange of opinions, Joseph L. Bast and David Harmer argue that voucher plans would…

  13. Freedom of Speech and Adolescent Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Murad

    2008-01-01

    Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.

  14. Freedom of Speech: Its Exercise and Its Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Professor Roy Harris (2009) criticises me for ignoring freedom of speech in order to focus on "soft" issues, such as game theory, decision theory and chaos theory. In this response, I accept most of his arguments relating to freedom of speech, but argue that, in order to develop better systems of education, we need to pay more attention to the…

  15. Negative and Positive Freedom: Considering Education and the Digital World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlok, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of freedom is one of the key ideas in political philosophy. In a liberal society one can do, live, and like whatever he/she pleases, but at the same time there are certain constraints on the individual that balance between one's desires and the common good. In this paper, the author examines the notion of freedom in the age of digital…

  16. Perceived freedom-responsibility covariation among Cypriot adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Georgia; Wilkerson, Keith; McGahan, Joseph R

    2008-04-01

    Participants were 67 Cypriot adolescents who responded to propositions regarding positive, negative, and noncontingent relations between freedom and responsibility. The authors framed items so that half dealt with freedom given responsibility, and the other half dealt with responsibility given freedom. Results indicated participants were more likely to endorse positive-contingency items than they were negative and noncontingency items when items were framed around freedom given responsibility. However, when items were framed around responsibility given freedom, no such differences emerged. The authors discuss results relative to cultural and sociopolitical differences and similarities between children in Cypress and participants in the United States and implications concerning the present study and previous studies regarding these constructs.

  17. Freedom and the Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    noninstrumental value. I see the noninstrumental value of democracy in terms of freedom rather than the now more common reference to equality or fairness. The freedom argument can better show the noninstrumenal value of democracy and can better respond to some core objections to democratic noninstrumentalism than...... the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value......This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has...

  18. Tourniquet use in combat-injured service members: a link with heterotopic ossification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacson BM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brad M Isaacson,1,2 Thomas M Swanson,1,2,4 Benjamin K Potter,4 Paul F Pasquina2,3 1The Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, 2The Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 3Department of Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Abstract: Tourniquet use during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF has contributed to the high survival rate of combat-injured service members. While preservation of a life – even at the potential expense of a limb – should always take precedence, delayed perfusion in traumatized residual limbs may alter the proliferation, differentiation, and function of endothelial and osteoprogenitor cells. Given the synergistic relationship between angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and the influence of environmental conditions on bone formation, hypoxic conditions from tourniquets may in part explain the higher frequency of heterotopic ossification (HO present during OIF/OEF. Determining a correlation between tourniquet usage/duration on subsequent HO formation remains challenging. Long-term retrospective investigations have been limited, since the United States Army's Institute of Surgical Research did not standardized tourniquet issuance until July 2004. Thus, associating tourniquet-induced HO in previous military conflicts is not feasible, since poor medical documentation and inadequate application of these medical devices prevent large-scale meta-analyses. Therefore, this article focuses on the basics of bone biology and how tourniquet usage following combat trauma may impact osteogenesis, and subsequently, ectopic bone formation. Keywords: heterotopic ossification, osteogenesis, combat, trauma, ectopic bone, osteoprogenitor cells, Operation Iraqi

  19. La Poste

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ The French Post Office has issued ten commemorative envelopes bearing original images depicting CERN and its history. This special fiftieth anniversary collector's edition will be available on the French Post Office (« La Poste ») stand at the Open Day on 16 October, in the CMS experiment hall at Cessy. Information for collectors: a pictorial postmark and date stamp have been specially designed and produced for the occasion with the assistance of CERN's graphics team. Sending a philatelic souvenir is a great way to commemorate the Open Day, so La Poste will be setting up a large post-box for that very purpose next to its stand. A perfect way to send images of CERN all around the world...

  20. Posters: balancing overkill and freedom of expression

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Internal Communication and HR Department

    2014-01-01

    The number of posters put up at CERN to inform, engage and invite is growing quickly, and they are taking over an ever-increasing number of walls, doors, pillars and glass panels. In the interests of freedom of information, no official restrictions are in place, but we are nonetheless obliged to maintain a fair balance. Here we discuss this issue.   Posters clamour for our attention, becoming more and more invasive and often eternal as they are never taken down... While the need to inform and to be informed is a legitimate one, we also have to respect our workplace. It’s no surprise that walls or pillars (sometimes freshly painted) at junctions in corridors that are busy at peak times are seen as ideal targets by people who want to publicise their events or activities, but this abundance, or overabundance, of posters is sometimes seen as vandalism of communal areas. What's more, the posters themselves are sometimes vandalised: comments, sometimes offensive, may be added and the...

  1. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  2. Filipino women demand freedom from debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguiwalo, J

    1993-10-01

    Filipino women suffer from the dual burden of unpaid reproductive work and underpaid labor in the work force. They are also paying heavily for the huge foreign debt assumed by their country. The fact that economic development has stagnated in the Philippines is directly related to a government policy which provides for automatic debt repayment regardless of the economic status of the country. The strategy of honoring debt obligations and removing governmental market controls was intended to lead to economic development in the Philippines but has instead increased the burden of women who must cope with reductions in income, reductions in social and community services, increases in taxes, and higher prices for essentials. Increased work and less food have had an adverse impact on the women's health, and the emphasis on exports has resulted in an increased number of women migrating overseas to find jobs. Thus, even highly trained women must resort to performing domestic work overseas to earn a living. Cash-crop production has reduced women's role in food production and threatened food security while creating a pool of cheap labor among the newly displaced peasant families. Violence against women is increasing because of stress related to poverty, and women working abroad are subject to rape and sexual abuse. These conditions have led to the creation of women's groups such as the Freedom from Debt Coalition which is developing a comprehensive alternative development strategy which includes measures to reduce the burden of foreign debt.

  3. Freedom of Expression: Criticising Public Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re'em Segev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In what follows, I summarise an argument against prohibitions on freedom of speech with regard to criticism directed at public officials – namely, every person who has a legal power in an institution of the state, including the legislative branch (particularly parliament member, the judiciary (particularly judges and the executive branch (including, for example, prosecutes, police officers – and public institutions (rather than a public official at the institution and the government in general (rather than a specific institution. Such criticism can include, for example, claims regarding the morality or legality of actions of public officials (for example, a claim that a police officer is corrupt, their qualifications (for example, a claim that a judge is lazy, or the efficiency of a certain institution (for example, the army. I argue that there are strong considerations in favour of criticising the performance of public officials (and institutions, and especially against legal (and particularly criminal limitations on such criticism, and relatively weak considerations against this criticism, especially with regard to legal (and particularly criminal limitations on criticising public officals.


  4. Differentiated Contracts: Giving Students Freedom to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tisha Admire

    2013-01-01

    Using Tomlinson's (2004) framework, the post-secondary classroom can be transformed into a community of learners where different avenues are provided for effectively acquiring content, processing ideas, and developing products. This article explores how instructors can differentiate instruction in teacher-education methods courses by…

  5. Social justice and the formal principle of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show, contra the right-libertarian critique of social justice, that there are good reasons for defending policies of social justice within a free society. In the first part of the paper, we will present two influential right-libertarian critiques of social justice, found in Friedrich Hayek’s Law, Legislation and Liberty and Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State and Utopia. Based on their approach, policies of social justice are seen as an unjustified infringement on freedoms of individual members of a society. In response to this critique, we will introduce the distincion between formal and factual freedom and argue that the formal principle of freedom defended by Hayek and Nozick does not suffice for the protection of factual freedom of members of a society, because it does not recognize (1 the moral obligation to help those who, without their fault, lack factual freedom to a significant degree, and (2 the legal obligation of the state to protect civic dignity of all members of a society. In the second part of the paper, we offer an interpretation of Kant’s argument on taxation, according to which civic dignity presupposes factual freedom, in order to argue that Kant’s justification of taxation offers good reasons for claiming that the state has the legal obligation to protect factual freedom via the policies of social justice.

  6. Freedom of racist speech: Ego and expressive threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark H; Crandall, Christian S

    2017-09-01

    Do claims of "free speech" provide cover for prejudice? We investigate whether this defense of racist or hate speech serves as a justification for prejudice. In a series of 8 studies (N = 1,624), we found that explicit racial prejudice is a reliable predictor of the "free speech defense" of racist expression. Participants endorsed free speech values for singing racists songs or posting racist comments on social media; people high in prejudice endorsed free speech more than people low in prejudice (meta-analytic r = .43). This endorsement was not principled-high levels of prejudice did not predict endorsement of free speech values when identical speech was directed at coworkers or the police. Participants low in explicit racial prejudice actively avoided endorsing free speech values in racialized conditions compared to nonracial conditions, but participants high in racial prejudice increased their endorsement of free speech values in racialized conditions. Three experiments failed to find evidence that defense of racist speech by the highly prejudiced was based in self-relevant or self-protective motives. Two experiments found evidence that the free speech argument protected participants' own freedom to express their attitudes; the defense of other's racist speech seems motivated more by threats to autonomy than threats to self-regard. These studies serve as an elaboration of the Justification-Suppression Model (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003) of prejudice expression. The justification of racist speech by endorsing fundamental political values can serve to buffer racial and hate speech from normative disapproval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. [Freedom of movement: a basic right, a regulated restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbon-Vincent, Marilyn

    Freedom of movement is recognised by national and supranational law. It falls within the scope of the definition of freedom set out in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, in 1789. It is also legally formulated and recognised as a basic right in two European texts: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10th December 1948 and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4th November 1950. How can it be respected in psychiatry, in view of the obligation to provide care and safety? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A theological perspective on human dignity, equality and freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Vorster

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity has proven to be a vague term in liberal rights discourse because of its broad range. This article attempted to provide a Christian definition of human dignity that is helpful in resolving tensions between equality and freedom. Firstly, it addressed the question of whether religious understandings of human dignity ought to be considered in the public domain. Secondly, it provided a theological perspective on dignity, equality and freedom and, lastly, it considered the special contribution that a Christian concept of dignity, equality and freedom can make to the rights discourse.

  9. FreedomCAR and Fuel Cells: Toward the Hydrogen Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    FreedomCAR is the Bush administration's bid to reduce our reliance on oil. A successor to the Clinton administration's Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), FreedomCAR is a research initiative designed to promote greater coordination between federal agencies and U.S. carmakers. In marked contrast to its predecessor, FreedomCAR shifts the research focus away from technologies close at hand to fuel cells, a family of products further down the road with far greater promise to redu...

  10. Internet Information:Freedom or Security? A Big Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Wang

    2004-01-01

    In the modern democratic society, all people should have freedom of access to, holding, and imparting various formats of information. However, many human fences have limited the freedom of access to information and the free flow of Internet communications. This paper extracts passages from selected international accords and U. S. statutes relating to the people's rights of access to information. It also highlights many U. S. government activities relating to its national security after the September - 11 terrorist attacks and people's reactions with regard to their consequences on the freedom of access to Internet information.

  11. A kinematic-freedom analysis of a flexed-knee-stance testing rig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatsky, A B

    1997-03-01

    The Oxford Rig was designed for biomechanical testing of post-mortem human knee-joint specimens during simulated flexed-knee stance, such as occurs when riding a bicycle, rising from a chair, or climbing stairs. It has been asserted, but never proven, that the movements of the 'ankle' and 'hip' assemblies of the Oxford Rig combine to allow a knee specimen its natural six degrees-of-freedom of movement (6 d.o.f.). This paper investigates this claim mathematically using the general mobility criterion for spatial linkages and the basics of screw theory. It is shown that within the physiological range of knee-joint movement and the physical construction of the Rig, the knee specimen is allowed full spatial freedom (6 d.o.f.). The general approach used in this paper could also be applied to the analysis and, in particular, to the design of other rigs used for biomechanical testing of post-mortem human joint specimens.

  12. Family support, family stress, and suicidal ideation in a combat-exposed sample of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Smith, Brian N; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Deployment-related risk factors for suicidal ideation among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans have received a great deal of attention. Studies show that mental health symptoms mediate the association between most deployment stressors and suicidal ideation; however, family-related factors during deployment are largely unexplored. We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms as mediators of the associations between deployment family support and stress and post-deployment suicidal ideation in combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans. National cross-sectional mail survey. 1046 veterans responded to the survey. The sample for this study was 978 veterans who experienced combat. Regression-based path analyses were conducted. Family support and stress had direct associations with suicidal ideation. When PTSD and depression symptoms were examined as mediators of these associations, results revealed significant indirect paths through these symptoms. This study contributes to the literature on suicidal ideation risk factors among OEF/OIF veterans. Deployment family support and family stress are associated with suicidal ideation; however these associations occur primarily through mental health symptomatology, consistent with findings observed for other deployment factors. This research supports ongoing efforts to treat mental health symptomatology as a means of suicide prevention.

  13. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health.

  14. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re......-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory....

  15. Freedom of expression: still a precondition for democracy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. McGonagle

    2015-01-01

    This conference report was written in the capacity of General Rapporteur for the Council of Europe Conference, 'Freedom of Expression: Still a Precondition for Democracy?', Strasbourg, 13-14 October 2015.

  16. Remittances, Economic Freedom, and Economic Growth in North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Zghidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the causal interactions between foreign direct investment (FDI, economic freedom and economic growth in a panel of 4 countries of North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt from 1980 to 2012. Using System Generalized Method of Moment (GMM panel data analysis, we find strong evidence of a positive link between remittances and economic growth. We also find evidence that economic freedom appear to be working as a complement to remittances and, moreover, that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in the presence of the economic freedom variable. Thus, to the extent that remittances have become a major source of external development finance, policies promoting greater freedom of economic activities gain significantly from the presence of remittances.

  17. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Husdal, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang, until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We first look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure as well as the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a "cross-over" temperature of 214 MeV where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  18. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Husdal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  19. 12. Oriare Nyarwath Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyarwath

    persons from admission into certain schools, hospitals or restaurants. ... The classification of human needs into primary and secondary is very important in two .... which freedom is sought; of the prioritization of these needs; of those factors that.

  20. The interaction between religious freedom, equality and human dignity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal Computer

    ABSTRACT. In balancing religious freedom with the right to equality and human dignity of persons ... Especially in the case of racial or gender discrimination, .... important issue is the determination of the burden of proof and whether the.

  1. Freedom House : Venemaa ei ole enam isegi osaliselt vaba riik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Freedom House raporti kohaselt on Venemaa osaliselt vabade riikide seast langenud mittevabade hulka, selle põhjus on autorite hinnangul mõjukate opositsiooniparteide sisuline hävitamine ning täitevvõimu tsentraliseerimine

  2. Freedom of Speech: A Selected, Annotated Basic Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Thomas L.

    This bibliography lists 36 books related to problems of freedom of speech. General sources (history, analyses, texts, and anthologies) are listed separately from those dealing with censorship of obscenity and pornography. Each entry is briefly annotated. (AA)

  3. A Reading of Kwame Nkrumah's Towards Colonial Freedom Atta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaders of the nationalist movements, in search of radical colouring, borrowed ... intellectual companion, Karl Marx, affirmed: 'mankind must first of all eat, drink, ..... last quote from Towards colonial freedom: 'Hence political independence is an ...

  4. Health promotion and the freedom of the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary; Hawley, Helen

    2006-03-01

    This article considers the extent to which health promotion strategies pose a threat to individual freedom. It begins by taking a look at health promotion strategies and at the historical development of health promotion in Britain. A theoretical context is then developed in which Berlin's distinction between negative and positive liberty is used alongside the ideas of John Stuart Mill, Charles Taylor and T.H. Green to discuss the politics of health promotion and to identify the implications of conflicting perspectives on freedom. The final section looks at current health promotion policy in Britain and beyond and argues that, if freedom is seen in terms of empowerment, health promotion can enhance individual freedom.

  5. Toward a Freedom to Learn in Continuing Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cheryl

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid of professional continuing education and Carl Rogers's humanistic philosophy supporting freedom in learning is proposed, and the five principles of the philosophy are examined for their potential for transfer to professional education. (MSE)

  6. Capital Freedom, Financial Development and Provincial Economic Growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Bengt; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a heavily regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom ...

  7. Characterization Parameters for a Three Degree of Freedom Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics , Monterey, CA, USA. [5] E. Shuey and M. Shuey, “Modeling and simulation for a surf zone robot ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS CHARACTERIZATION PARAMETERS FOR A THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM MOBILE ROBOT by Jessica L. Fitzgerald...Z39.18 12-20-2013 Master’s Thesis 2102-06-01—2104-10-31 CHARACTERIZATION PARAMETERS FOR A THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM MOBILE ROBOT Jessica L. Fitzgerald

  8. FRACTIONAL DIFFUSION EQUATIONS WITH INTERNAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Vázquez

    2003-01-01

    We present a generalization of the linear one-dimensional diffusion equation by combining the fractional derivatives and the internal degrees of freedom. The solutions are constructed from those of the scalar fractional diffusion equation. We analyze the interpolation between the standard diffusion and wave equations defined by the fractional derivatives. Our main result is that we can define a diffusion process depending on the internal degrees of freedom associated to the system.

  9. Parallel Mechanisms with Two or Three Degrees of Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辛军; 汪劲松; 李铁民; 段广洪

    2003-01-01

    Parallel manipulators for the machine tool industry have been studied extensively for various industrial applications. However, limited useful workspace areas, the poor mobility, and design difficulties of more complex parallel manipulators have led to more interest in parallel manipulators with less than six degrees of freedom (DoFs). Several parallel mechanisms with various numbers and types of degrees of freedom are described in this paper, which can be used in parallel kinematics machines, motion simulators, and industrial robots.

  10. Freedom to contract and its restriction in business obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Prieložný, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Freedom to contract and its restriction in business obligations (Summary) This thesis deals with freedom to contract and its limitations in the field of business obligations. It introduces the possibilities that parties have when entering into contracts as well as it outlines the boundaries which they cannot cross. It aspires to clarify the topic by referring to a wide scope of related judicial decisions which have evolved throughout the years. The first chapter briefly describes and classifi...

  11. FAST - FREEDOM ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING TOOL PROTOTYPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    FAST is a project management tool designed to optimize the assembly sequence of Space Station Freedom. An appropriate assembly sequence coordinates engineering, design, utilization, transportation availability, and operations requirements. Since complex designs tend to change frequently, FAST assesses the system level effects of detailed changes and produces output metrics that identify preferred assembly sequences. FAST incorporates Space Shuttle integration, Space Station hardware, on-orbit operations, and programmatic drivers as either precedence relations or numerical data. Hardware sequencing information can either be input directly and evaluated via the "specified" mode of operation or evaluated from the input precedence relations in the "flexible" mode. In the specified mode, FAST takes as its input a list of the cargo elements assigned to each flight. The program determines positions for the cargo elements that maximize the center of gravity (c.g.) margin. These positions are restricted by the geometry of the cargo elements and the location of attachment fittings both in the orbiter and on the cargo elements. FAST calculates every permutation of cargo element location according to its height, trunnion fitting locations, and required intercargo element spacing. Each cargo element is tested in both its normal and reversed orientation (rotated 180 degrees). The best solution is that which maximizes the c.g. margin for each flight. In the flexible mode, FAST begins with the first flight and determines all feasible combinations of cargo elements according to mass, volume, EVA, and precedence relation constraints. The program generates an assembly sequence that meets mass, volume, position, EVA, and precedence constraints while minimizing the total number of Shuttle flights required. Issues associated with ground operations, spacecraft performance, logistics requirements and user requirements will be addressed in future versions of the model. FAST is written in C

  12. 自由幻象%Mirage of Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史苗苗

    2014-01-01

    Money is a kind of magic in the Currency Philosophical Perspective, and is independent of the real world, can control the survival and freedom of human. Freedom is the inherent nature and development aspirations of people, the pursuit of freedom is eternal goal of the essence of human life. Human scale is the standard of evaluation freedom. But in the era of monetary economy, pursuit of the eternal value transform into for money, freedom alienation, we must reshape freedom.%在货币哲学视域中,货币是独立于现实世界的一种魔力,可左右人的生存与自由。自由是人的内在本质与发展诉求,追求自由是人生命本质的永恒奋斗目标。自由与必然是对立与统一的,并且自由是对必然的超越。在货币经济时代,人类追求的永恒的价值目标变成了对货币的追逐,人的尺度的评价标准被货币尺度所取代,自由异化了。

  13. THE THEORY AND APPLICATION OF THE STRUCTURE LIGHT ENGINEERING SURVEYING BASED ON A LASER THEODOLITE WITH THREE FREEDOMS OF ROTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concepts of “confining structure” and structure light areilluminated in this paper.A laser theodolite with three freedoms of rotation,which is aimed at “confining structure”,is developed.Various scanning modes and their mathematical models based on laser theodolite with three freedoms of rotation are discussed.According to the features of a huge object,,the structure light engineering surveying based on laser theodolite with three freedoms of rotation is determined as the main method in an actual application.The observation of four sound concrete posts and forced centering plates.Subsequently,it is transformed into the huge object coordinate system.The scanning mode with plumb plane is selected as the main mode in the whole work.And other assistant methods,such as close range photogrammetry and the method of using reflection sheet,are applied to the work of “scanning dead angle”.At last,a surveying accuracy estimation of this method is done and a surveying accuracy test is finished.It can be concluded that the structure light engineering surveying based on laser theodolite with three freedoms of rotation is considered to be an effective and applied method,and has many superiority to some other surveying methods in the work of surveying “confining structure”.

  14. Monitoring post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe

    2013-01-01

    This blog reports on the rumour that White House considers establishing a nudge unit similar to the UK Behavioural Insights Team. Given The Nudging Networks purpose and the work of the iNudgeYou-team this post is updated continuously to follow the US debate as it unfolds. Which issues are raised......? How is the debate different from the one in the UK? And how does our work relate to the issues raised? The post has already been referenced in several US media, including US News....

  15. Head Kinematics Resulting from Simulated Blast Loading Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    with incident wave s both linear leration has ussions to di to incorporat il tolerance c can football , tional metric evaluating a elling through...Neuropsychiatry Clinical Neuroscience , 18(2), [9] Dr. L. Najavits PTSD and the OIF / OEF Soldier (January 26 2011) Retrieved from http://www.idga.org/military

  16. Finding What Works in a Complicated Transition: Considerations for Soldiers with PTSD and mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    railway or workplace accidents. In the 1890s Sigmund Freud proposed a theory on seduction; he later abandoned the theory, however he created a paradigm...historical evolution of PTSD diagnostic criteria: from Freud to DSM-IV. The Journal of Traumatic Stress 7, no. 4 (October): 681-698. X4I-OIF/OEF

  17. Overview of Scientific Freedom and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Irving

    2000-04-01

    The subject of our scrutiny is very much in the news, punctuated with nouns and modifiers both inflammatory and mundane such as espionage, justice, scientific accountability and scientific freedom. And while our discussion will focus on these issues, I want to raise some of the pragmatic questions that bear on the foundation of our support for international science. Beneath questions of guilt and the loss of secrets in the Wen Ho Lee case lay the inherent tension between the tradition of open exchange in the scientific enterprise and the need to protect the nation's security. How this balance is to be achieved in a democratic society has bedeviled us ever since the Manhattan project heralded the emergence of science and technology as instruments of great national power. If we do not find this balance, we run the risk of damaging some of the most important intellectual treasures that the US has produced the Department of Energy's national laboratories and the entire system that we call the international scientific enterprise. For while the superheated charges of lax security and criminal negligence have led some to call for ``firewalls" to isolate and protect the secrets in our weapons labs, such measures may have severe consequences for weapons and non-weapons labs alike and their many associated universities. It's estimated that from 70% to as much as 80% in the expansion of our economy is technology-driven, derived from the most productive system of scientific innovation in the world. This is also true of our national security. Science is indispensable to the development and maintenance of the nation's arsenals. The Department of Energy's Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship Program is central to the safety and reliability of American nuclear weapons and to our hope for a worldwide ban on nuclear tests. But this program will fail without a continuing intense development effort based on cutting-edge science. And a great deal of the science needed is being pursued in

  18. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of expression and press freedom is the embodiment of the recognition of human rights. Freedom of expression is also the existence of press to disclose the news with honesty and do not get a pressure to deliver the news to the public space, which in news production is known as a work of journalism. Now the  press has gained freedom of expression in the news production process which is guaranteed in the state constitution. Although Article 28 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 does not point directly at the press, However, Article 28 F emphasis on processing and storage as well as ownership, excavations to information. It also contains provisions on the freedom of expression of others, which should be valued and respected. It shows equality for everyone in his position before the law in accordance with Article 27 1945 Constitution, which emphasizes the recognition of constitutional rights that belong to every person in the state of law in the Republic of Indonesia. Thus the press, which have freedom of expression in the writings of journalistic works are required to be responsible for the published news. So as not to face the legal issues and criminalization, then press should perform tasks and functions to enforce ethics as the precautionary principle when processing the news and broadcast it to the public space, as well as upholding human rights. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2014. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 101-118. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.96

  19. Press freedom, law and politics in Indonesia : a socio-legal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratraman, Herlambang Perdana

    2014-01-01

    Without press freedom a constitutional democracy cannot function properly, to the extent that the degree of press freedom becomes an indicator of the level of democracy in a particular country. This socio-legal study aims to clarify how the concepts of freedom of expression and press freedom have ev

  20. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  1. Press freedom, law and politics in Indonesia : a socio-legal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratraman, Herlambang Perdana

    2014-01-01

    Without press freedom a constitutional democracy cannot function properly, to the extent that the degree of press freedom becomes an indicator of the level of democracy in a particular country. This socio-legal study aims to clarify how the concepts of freedom of expression and press freedom have

  2. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  3. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 291 - Freedom of Information Act Request (DNA Form 524)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act Request (DNA Form 524... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY (DNA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 291, App. A Appendix A to Part 291—Freedom of Information Act Request (DNA...

  4. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fessel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

  5. Academic Freedom Should Be Redefined: Point and Counterpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Tonja M; Acosta, W Renee'; Chung, Eunice P; Cox, Arthur G; Garcia, George A; Klucken, Jamie Ridley; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2016-11-25

    As part of the 2014-15 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, the cohort teams presented debates on topics relevant to academic pharmacy at a public forum during the 2015 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Interim Meeting. The topic of one of the debates was "Academic Freedom Should Be Redefined." The "point" of the debate focused on important issues such as the fundamental definition of academic freedom as it was written in the 1940 American Association of University Professors' Statement and the need for redefinition as a consequence of many misunderstandings and misinterpretations that have arisen over time. The "counterpoint" received the greatest support, and it asserted that redefinition is not necessary, but rather the need is to clearly articulate the intended meaning of academic freedom through education, discussion, and by not supporting inappropriate behaviors in the name of "academic freedom." Reinforced clarity and operational guidance from the academy and academic institutions may add further clarification and may be the best approach to address the concerns related to academic freedom.

  6. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fessel, MA, MEd

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

  7. Self reported incidence and morbidity of acute respiratory illness among deployed U.S. military in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony W Soltis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historically, respiratory infections have had a significant impact on U.S. military missions. Deployed troops are particularly at high risk due to close living conditions, stressful work environments and increased exposure to pathogens. To date, there are limited data available on acute respiratory illness (ARI among troops deployed in support of ongoing military operations, specifically Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF. METHODS: Using self-report data from two sources collected from troops deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan and the surrounding region, we analyzed incidence and risk factors for ARI. Military personnel on mid-deployment Rest & Recuperation (R&R or during redeployment were eligible to participate in the voluntary self-report survey. RESULTS: Overall, 39.5% reported having at least one ARI. Of these, 18.5% sought medical care and 33.8% reported having decreased job performance. The rate of self-reported ARI was 15 episodes per 100 person-months among those taking the voluntary survey, and 24.7 episodes per 100 person-months among those taking the clinic health questionnaire. Negative binomial regression analysis found female sex, Navy branch of service and lack of flush toilets to be independently associated with increased rates of ARI. Deployment to OIF, increasing age and higher rank were also positively associated with ARI risk. CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of deployed military personnel reporting at least one acute respiratory illness decreased since earlier parts of OIF/OEF. However, the reported effect on job performance increased tremendously. The most important factors associated with increased respiratory infection are female sex, Navy branch of service, lack of improved latrine facilities, deployment to OIF, increasing age and higher rank.

  8. Higher Education in Transition: From Corruption to Freedom of Information in Post-Soviet Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostiashvili, Ketevan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines higher education reforms in the Republic of Georgia, tracing changes before and after the Rose Revolution. The transformation of this higher education system is one of gradual evolution, moving from a centrally controlled and corrupt system into a more transparent and organized system through a series of reforms, including…

  9. Higher Education in Transition: From Corruption to Freedom of Information in Post-Soviet Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostiashvili, Ketevan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines higher education reforms in the Republic of Georgia, tracing changes before and after the Rose Revolution. The transformation of this higher education system is one of gradual evolution, moving from a centrally controlled and corrupt system into a more transparent and organized system through a series of reforms, including…

  10. Freedom is not free: Estados Unidos, libertad y seguridad post 11/9

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la política exterior de los Estados Unidos después de los atentados del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El tema de la libertad y la seguridad se remontan a la época colonial de este país y se examinan las bases históricopolíticas del llamado excepcionalismo estadounidense y el destino manifiesto. El neoconservadurismo estadounidense en la política interna y externa de este país resalta en los ejemplos del Acta Patriota y el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional. Asimismo, present...

  11. SPIRITUAL EMOTIONAL FREEDOM TECHNIQUE DECREASING STRESS ON PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaniarti Z,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is known as one of deadly disease. The global incidence of cervical cancer is the second largest in the entire world, including in Indonesia. RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung, cervical cancer ranked fi rst (62.27% compared with other fi ve types of obstetry and gynecology malignancies (suspected malignant ovarian tumors 16.12%, ovarian cancer 11.76%, vulva cancer 8.65% and endometrial cancer 1.19% (Destiana, 2012. Chemotherapy as one of cancer treatment causes various side effects include hair loss, nails blackened, nausea and vomiting, that could makes patient stressful. SEFT ( Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique is useful to overcome negative emotions through a combination technique that uses psychological energy, spiritual strength, and praying. SEFT is an effective intervention in manage stress, there are some techniques that practiced simply such as praying, NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming, hypnotherapy, visualisation, meditation, relaxation, imagery and desensitisasi (Zainuddin, 2008. The purpose of this study was to explain reducing stress on patiens with cervical cancer through Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique (SEFT at RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Improvements on patient’s stress will lead to a better result on cervical cancer therapy. Methods: This study was used quasy experiment pre-post test randomize control group design. Patient with cervical cancer at stadium I to III that taking chemotherapy was selected by using purposive sampling and divided into two groups. Each group contains 34 patients. Intervention group was given SEFT in three round. Each round took 30 minutes. Before and after intervention patients was given Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Result: The result of this research showed that patient’s stress getting lower signifi cantly after intervention. Discussion: SEFT could reduced stress on patients with cervical cancer that

  12. Posttraumatic growth among operation enduring freedom and operation Iraqi freedom amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetato, Bonnie B

    2011-12-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a positive psychological change experienced as a result of struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. This study tested the PTG Model in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans following a major combat-related amputation. Specifically, the relationships among social support, rumination, length of time since amputation, and PTG among these veterans were examined. This was a descriptive correlational design using a mailed survey. Data were collected from OEF and OIF veterans with a major traumatic amputation (excluding digit-only loss). A nationwide postal survey was conducted in 2007 of veterans with a major combat-related traumatic amputation. 210 veterans registered at the Department of Veterans Affairs were sent a survey packet containing a letter of introduction, informed consent form, stamped return envelope, and four surveys: a study-specific demographic questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Postdeployment Social Support scale, and a Rumination scale. The mean PTGI score among OEF and OIF amputees (N= 56) was 59.1 (SD= 23). Rumination showed the strongest correlation with PTG: r= .43, p= .001. There was a small positive relationship between postdeployment social support and PTG: r= .24, p= .039. No statistically significant correlation between PTG and time since amputation was found in this sample. As proposed in the PTG model, the findings of this study support the benefit of rumination or cognitive processing of the traumatic event and postdeployment social support in the process of developing PTG following a major combat-related amputation. Following a life-threatening war injury, the patient's worldview is dramatically altered or shattered. Old assumptions and belief systems are rebuilt in the acute phase, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community. The struggle in the aftermath of the traumatic event that results in personal transformation is known as

  13. Precision Magnetic Bearing Six Degree of Freedom Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. E.; Trumper, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are capable of applying force and torque to a suspended object without rigidly constraining any degrees of freedom. Additionally, the resolution of magnetic bearings is limited only by sensors and control, and not by the finish of a bearing surface. For these reasons, magnetic bearings appear to be ideal for precision wafer positioning in lithography systems. To demonstrate this capability a linear magnetic bearing has been constructed which uses variable reluctance actuators to control the motion of a 14.5 kg suspended platen in five degrees of freedom. A Lorentz type linear motor of our own design and construction is used to provide motion and position control in the sixth degree of freedom. The stage performance results verify that the positioning requirements of photolithography can be met with a system of this type. This paper describes the design, control, and performance of the linear magnetic bearing.

  14. Ethics in psychiatry--the patient's freedom and bondage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, E K

    1982-12-01

    Ethics is defined as the realm of the 'ought', the realm of conscience which postulates that Man has the freedom to carry out what he judges to be morally right. By such acts he realizes his freedom of making himself into a truer, more authentic person than he was before. A libertarian psychotherapy, based on this ethic, is outlined. Medical science (as all science) belongs to the realm of the 'is' and postulates that the phenomena which it studies follow a necessary course. It is therefore deterministic. In psychiatry, allowance is made for a neurological determinism in cases in which personal freedom has been diminished or abolished by mental illness, but the determinisms of behaviour therapy and of psycho-analysis are rejected by the author.

  15. The Role of Freedom in Kant's Philosophy of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freedom is a fundamental concept in Kant's philosophy, including theoretical and practical philosophy, though its role in the latter is more significant. In his philosophy of ethics Kant considers freedom as the basis of his reasoning for ethics and in order to rule out the view that considers ethics as illusion he maintains that if we possess a free will, then ethics will turn out to be real and ethical laws will be valid for all.This article is an attempt to study the role of freedom in Kant's philosophy of ethics with special reference to his two main books on practical reason, namely, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Ethics and Critique of Practical Reason.

  16. Degrees of Freedom of Multi-Source Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Sang-Woon; Jafar, Syed A

    2009-01-01

    We study a multi-source Gaussian relay network consisting of $K$ source--destination pairs having $K$ unicast sessions. We assume $M$ layers of relays between the sources and the destinations. We find achievable degrees of freedom of the network. Our schemes are based on interference alignment at the transmitters and symbol extension and opportunistic interference cancellation at the relays. For $K$-$L$-$K$ networks, i.e., 2-hop network with $L$ relays, we show $\\min\\{K,K/2+L/(2(K-1))\\}$ degrees of freedom are achievable. For $K$-hop networks with $K$ relays in each layer, we show the full $K$ degrees of freedom are achievable provided that $K$ is even and the channel distribution satisfies a certain symmetry.

  17. Spatial Degrees of Freedom in Everett Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, M A

    2005-01-01

    Stapp claims that, when spatial degrees of freedom are taken into account, Everett quantum mechanics is ambiguous due to a "core basis problem." To examine this claim I generalize the ideal measurement model to include translational degrees of freedom for both the measured system and the measuring apparatus. Analysis of this generalized model using the Everett interpretation in the Heisenberg picture shows that it makes unambiguous predictions for the possible results of measurements and their respective probabilities. The presence of translational degrees of freedom for the measuring apparatus affects the probabilities of measurement outcomes in the same way that a mixed state for the measured system would. Examination of measurement scenarios involving several observers illustrates the consistency of the model with perceived spatial localization of the measuring apparatus, with intersubjective agreement as to the results of measurement, and with the idea of measurement as "state preparation."

  18. Approaching Chinese Freedom: A Study in Absolute and Relative Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of stability preservation to dominance in the political order coincided with a highly charged debate over “universal values” and a closely related discussion of a “China Model”. This paper analyses the critique of universal values as a “wedge issue” that is used to pre-empt criticism of the party-state by appealing to nationalism and cultural essentialism. Taking freedom as a case in point of a universal value, it shows that, while more developed in the West, freedom has an authentic Chinese history with key watersheds in the late Qing reception of popular sovereignty and the ending of the Maoist era. The work of Wang Ruoshui, Qin Hui and Xu Jilin display some of the resources liberals now bring to “de-wedging” universal values, not least freedom. They share a refusal to regard “Western” values as essentially hostile to Chinese.

  19. Free to Enterprise : Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurship In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ioan Şimandan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the relation between the economic freedom and the level of entrepreneurship in Romania. The widely used hypothesis that a free economic environment tend to generate high levels of entrepreneurship is discussed for the case of Romania. The evolution of a few fundamental features of the institutional environment for doing business in recent years is investigated, along with some measures of the level of entrepreneurship. A strong direct relation between economic freedom and entrepreneurship level was found for a large number of countries and geographic areas around the world. The available data does not allow us to make a quantitative analysis for Romania, but some suspected reasons for a direct relation between economic freedom and entrepreneurship level are presented. Future research directions are also suggested.

  20. Perturbative Degrees of Freedom in Loop Quantum Gravity: Anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, M; Morales-Tecotl, H A; Bojowald, Martin; Hernandez, Hector H.; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A

    2006-01-01

    The relation between an isotropic and an anisotropic model in loop quantum cosmology is discussed in detail, comparing the strict symmetry reduction with a perturbative implementation of symmetry. While the latter cannot be done in a canonical manner, it allows to consider the dynamics including the role of small non-symmetric degrees of freedom for the symmetric evolution. This serves as a model for the general situation of perturbative degrees of freedom in a background independent quantization such as loop quantum gravity, and for the more complicated addition of perturbative inhomogeneities. While being crucial for cosmological phenomenology, it is shown that perturbative non-symmetric degrees of freedom do not allow definitive conclusions for the singularity issue and in such a situation could even lead to wrong claims.

  1. Freedom of religion as part of EU 'ideology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treneska-Deskoska Renata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been already written that Europe is not geographical entity but an 'imagined space', created out of our mental maps. That supports the idea that Europe is entity with fluid borders, which 'are matter of ideology and politics rather than cartography,,. When EU launched the Common Foreign and Security Policy, it placed human rights at the heart of this ideology and policy. Individual rights, the rule of law and constitutional democracy are condition for EU entry for all countries candidates for EU members. This paper will analyze the meaning and content of the freedom of religion according to the EU standards. The emphasis will be given to the Article 9 of the European Convention of Human Rights and its interpretation by the European Court of Human Rights. The most important cases, in which violation of Article 9 was established, will be analyzed. The importance of the issue of freedom of religion for EU can be seen in the adopted EU Guidelines on the promotion and protection of the freedom of religion or belief on which this paper will also point. Also, this paper will point to the constitutional and legal frame on freedom of religion in Macedonia, as well as to the interpretation of the Constitutional court of the Republic of Macedonia to the freedom of religion. Also, Macedonia was brought in front of the European Court of Human Rights with regard to the Article 9. Case Kosteski v Macedonia is one of the cases with broader meaning in which the issue of the need to prove the belongingness in certain religion, in order to enjoy the rights that belong to the members of that religion was raised. The judicial portfolio of Macedonia in front of the European Court of Human rights regarding freedom of religion will be also subject of analysis.

  2. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms. I - The EFF element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Ken; De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Haugen, Bjorn; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    The formulation of 3-node 9-DOF membrane elements with normal-to-element-plane rotations (drilling freedoms) is examined in the context of parametrized variational principles. In particular, attention is given to the application of the extended free formulation (EFF) to the construction of a triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms that initially has complete quadratic polynomial expansions in each displacement component. The main advantage of the EFF over the free formulation triangle is that an explicit form is obtained for the higher-order stiffness.

  3. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  4. James Baldwin: Biographical Dispatches on a Freedom Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Luke Sinitiere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the idea of James Baldwin as a freedom writer, the organizing idea of my biography in progress. As a freedom writer, Baldwin was a revolutionary intellectual, an essayist and novelist committed unfailingly to the realization of racial justice, interracial political equality, and economic democracy. While the book is still in process, this short essay narrates autobiographically how I came to meet and know Baldwin’s work, explains in critical fashion my work in relation to existing biographies, and reflects interpretively my thoughts-in- progress on this fascinating and captivating figure of immense historical and social consequence.

  5. Super Five Brane Hamiltonian and the Chiral Degrees of Freedom

    CERN Document Server

    De Castro, A

    2002-01-01

    We construct the Hamiltonian of the super five brane in terms of its physical degrees of freedom. It does not depend on the inverse of the induced metric. Consequently, some singular configurations are physically admissible, implying an interpretation of the theory as a multiparticle one. The symmetries of the theory are analyzed from the canonical point of view in terms of the first and second class constraints. In particular it is shown how the chiral sector may be canonically reduced to its physical degrees of freedom.

  6. Academic Freedom and the Humanities: some current challenges

    OpenAIRE

    John Higgins

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world.  It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in higher education policy.  It further examines how this undermining is related to a general trend in a global higher education policy which privileges STEM disciplines, ...

  7. Manipulating spatiotemporal degrees of freedom of waves in random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoult, Fabrice; Lerosey, Geoffroy; de Rosny, Julien; Fink, Mathias

    2009-10-23

    We show that all the spatiotemporal degrees of freedom available in a complex medium can be harnessed and converted into spatial ones. This is demonstrated experimentally through an instantaneous spatial inversion, using broadband ultrasonic waves in a multiple scattering sample. We show theoretically that the inversion convergence is governed by the total number of degrees of freedom available in the medium for a fixed bandwidth and demonstrate experimentally its use for complex media investigation. We believe our approach has potential in sensing, imagery, focusing, and telecommunication.

  8. Free as in Freedom Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Free as in Freedom interweaves biographical snapshots of GNU project founder Richard Stallman with the political, social and economic history of the free software movement. It examines Stallman's unique personality and how that personality has been at turns a driving force and a drawback in terms of the movement's overall success. Free as in Freedom examines one man's 20-year attempt to codify and communicate the ethics of 1970s era "hacking" culture in such a way that later generations might easily share and build upon the knowledge of their computing forebears. The book documents Stallman'

  9. SUSPICIOUS POST

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    If you receive a suspicious letter or package in the post, please do not open it and contact the Fire Brigade Tel. 74444. They will contact the CERN Medical Service. This is especially important in today's current situation with regard to the Anthrax scare. For further information, the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva recommends the following web sites:   http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/cf/brennpunkt/03.html http://www.who.int/emc-documents/zoonoses/whoemczdi986c.html

  10. Custom-Shaped Organic Photovoltaic Modules—Freedom of Design by Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimäki, M.; Jansson, E.; Korhonen, P.; Peltoniemi, A.; Rousu, S.

    2017-02-01

    Freedom of design that was introduced as organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were fabricated by printing. As proof-of-concept, we show OPV leaf fabrication in A5 size using gravure and rotary screen printing processes for the main active layers of the OPV structure. These printing methods allow direct printing of any kind of arbitrary, two-dimensional shapes including patterning of the electric contacts thus post-patterning stages are not needed. Fabrication of custom-shaped OPV modules requires detailed information about the technical boundaries set by the manufacturing process and materials which in turn influence the layout design and R2R upscaling. In this paper, we show custom-shaped OPV modules, patterned directly in a shape of a tree leaf with an overall size of 110 cm2 and an active area of 50 cm2 providing a power conversion efficiency of 2.0% and maximum power of 98 mW.

  11. Measuring Economic Freedom: Better Without Size of Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage-indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the

  12. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  13. Space Station Freedom: The Dream Becomes Reality. A Learning Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    NASA will launch Space Station Freedom piece by piece in the cargo bay of space shuttles. The process is scheduled to start in 1995 and be completed in 1999. This pamphlet presents factual information and accompanying hands-on science activities concerning the following aspects of the project: (1) the space shuttle's role in transport; (2) the…

  14. More than Mere Law: Freedom of Religion or Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that all people, simply because they are human, enjoy the right to freedom of religion and that governments have the obligation to ensure the protection of that right. Yet we witness a world increasingly divided by religious tradition. The failures of many governments to ensure…

  15. Media Use of the Freedom of Information Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajans, Arthur E.

    1984-01-01

    This examination of the news media use of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as a source of information focuses on three categories of journalists: non-users; reactive or periodic users; and paper chasers. The use of the FOIA reflects differing views on newsgathering methods, i.e., through people or through documents. (CLB)

  16. New Strategies of Control: Academic Freedom and Research Ethics Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Magda

    2008-01-01

    This article, detailing the implications of "ethics drift" for critical work in the academy, reports on an ethics challenge to a non-research-based scholarly text. It analyzes how General Research Ethics Boards (GREBs) can threaten academic freedom when they lack a clear definition of "human subject" research, fail to distinguish between empirical…

  17. Freedom Schools Then and Now: A Transformative Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical and conceptual link between Ella Baker's Freedom School model and Paulo Freire's demand for critical education and emancipatory learning. Ella Baker, situated in the daunting environment of the Civil Rights Movement, saw education as a tool for social mobility for Mississippi residents in 1964.…

  18. Freedom and Responsibility: Existentialism, Gifted Students, and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses excerpts from Jean-Paul Sartre to examine the meaning of being human and also what it means to be free as a human being. It discusses how Sartre's thoughts on freedom and responsibilities may be usefully applied in science and social studies instruction for gifted students. (CR)

  19. Chaos in systems with many degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, Astrid Silvia de

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss some of the chaotic properties specific to systems of many particles and other systems with many degrees of freedom. A dynamical system is called chaotic if a typical infinite perturbation of initial conditions grows exponentially with time. The chaoticity of a system is

  20. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  1. Differences Between Walden Two and Beyond Freedom and Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Charles G.

    1975-01-01

    Most critics agree that "Beyond Freedom and Dignity" is merely a non-fiction version of "Walden Two." However, there are important differences which anyone who assigns either of these works or who talks about the social ideas of B. F. Skinner should be aware of. (DC)

  2. Freedom and fashion in materials science and engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert W Cahn

    2003-02-01

    This paper briefly analyses the rate at which a new scientific discovery is taken up around the world and further pursued, and the factors that govern such take-up, with special focus on freedom and fashion.

  3. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair at the…

  4. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is“voluntary” or “compulsory”. The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network

  5. "The Freedom to Choose": Neoliberalism, Feminism, and Childcare in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Emma

    2015-01-01

    In the second-wave women's movement in Canada (1965-1985), the rhetoric of ''freedom'' and ''choice'' occupied a prominent position in public discourses. Waged as rallying points to resist entrenched forms of gender inequality in all areas of social, economic, and political culture, this language asserted a desire for an alternative social order…

  6. The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimary, Donald L.

    With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might…

  7. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Jan Cremers has contributed with a main article in Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research (Vol. 22-2). It was published by Sage ahead of print. His article examines the problematic relationship between economic freedoms and labour standards in the context of cross-border labour

  8. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  9. Freedom and Empowerment: A Transformative Pedagogy of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Based on Foucault's discourse on freedom and empowerment, this article addresses his understanding of power and knowledge. By critically examining the negative impact of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" on education, the author discusses the transformative power of Foucault's pedagogy for educational reform in which students,…

  10. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  11. Aeroservoelastic Modeling of Body Freedom Flutter for Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The communication of this method is being used by NASA in the ongoing collaborations with groups interested in the X-56A flight test program. Model generation for body freedom flutter Addressing issues in: State Consistency, Low frequency dynamics, Unsteady aerodynamics. Applied approach to X-56A MUTT: Comparing to flight test data.

  12. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor

  13. Aspects of Regulating Freedom of Expression on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucereanu, D.

    2008-01-01

    It is common knowledge that the internet has profoundly affected the manner in which people communicate, obtain information and express themselves. What is less explored is exactly how freedom of expression and the internet interact, and what may be the legal consequences of the special features of

  14. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-02-05

    Feb 5, 2011 ... Dignity, which is a central Constitutional right, relates to the sense of self .... a bona fide drama, given that the producers must have known that the film would offend millions .... Freedom of speech must be awarded a generous.

  15. Quantum Degrees of Freedom, Quantum Integrability and Entanglment Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Buric, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Dynamical algebra notion of quantum degrees of freedom is utilized to study the relation between quantum dynamical integrability and generalized entanglement. It is argued that a quantum dynamical system generates generalized entanglement by internal dynamics if and only if it is quantum non-integrable. Several examples are used to illustrate the relation.

  16. Freedom Schools Then and Now: A Transformative Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical and conceptual link between Ella Baker's Freedom School model and Paulo Freire's demand for critical education and emancipatory learning. Ella Baker, situated in the daunting environment of the Civil Rights Movement, saw education as a tool for social mobility for Mississippi residents…

  17. A Response to the Proposed Paradigm: Freedom Runs through It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottens, Allen J.

    2011-01-01

    Freedom, conceived as self-determination, control, and agency, has been put forth as the central purpose of a paradigm to bring together the specialties of the counseling profession, integrate the many theories, and usher in a wave of potentially powerful techniques from Asian psychologies. It remains to be seen how the foci of the specialties…

  18. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  19. Freedom and Responsibility: Existentialism, Gifted Students, and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses excerpts from Jean-Paul Sartre to examine the meaning of being human and also what it means to be free as a human being. It discusses how Sartre's thoughts on freedom and responsibilities may be usefully applied in science and social studies instruction for gifted students. (CR)

  20. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  1. 78 FR 48083 - Freedom of Information Act Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... implications, as set forth in Executive Order 13132. It will not have substantial direct effects on the States... Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of information. For the reasons set out in the preamble, the Peace... record will be presumed to be best able to determine whether to disclose it. (2) * * * (ii) Whenever a...

  2. Internet Freedom in Asia: Case of Internet Censorship in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAINUDDIN MUDA Z. MONGGILO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet can develop the communication and information freedom on society but unfortunately in some nations, especially in Asia, it cannot be fully accessed because of government censorship. This report explains the relationship between the practice of Internet censorship imposed by the Chinese government and the freedom of its citizens (in the internet surfing experience as the realization of human rights in the freedom of expression and opinion (seek, receive-use, and communicate information which is traced through the relevant literature study. China is a unique case since the internet censorship regulation contributes to its status as the country with the least internet freedom yet at the same time it is credited as having the most internet users globally. In addition, China known as the communist country that began opening up to globalization and information of technology, but the government’s control over it is still so tight and binding, not only in the press, or the traditional media, but also in new media with the internet censorship. The control over this information may have a clear objective to maintain a climate of information in the community, but on the other hand, such control is tantamount to restricting the right of citizens to make, use, and distribute information, and more fatal as a violation of human rights.

  3. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor countrie

  4. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  5. Chaos in systems with many degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, Astrid Silvia de

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss some of the chaotic properties specific to systems of many particles and other systems with many degrees of freedom. A dynamical system is called chaotic if a typical infinite perturbation of initial conditions grows exponentially with time. The chaoticity of a system is cha

  6. The 1990 Wolf Trap Conference: Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the 1990 Wolf Trap Conference on Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression (Virginia, April 29-May 1) are summarized, focusing on the current climate for the arts, institutional neutrality, the role of the arts in the academic community, scope of protection of the arts, and the academic community as captive audience. (MSE)

  7. How Dutch Employees Experience Freedom of Learning for Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe…

  8. Academic Freedom and Tenure: Bloomfield College (New Jersey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAUP Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The investigating report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Tenure of the American Association of University Professors on Bloomfield College in New Jersey covers events of the 72-73 academic year, issues related to the dismissal of 13 faculty members, and findings related to the abolition of tenure. (Author/PG)

  9. Academic Freedom and Holocaust Denial Literature: Dealing with Infamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleberzon, William

    1984-01-01

    Some Jewish students at the University of Toronto protested its library's inclusion of certain books (which the students felt were anti-Semitic and not historically based) in its collection of Holocaust literature. The questions of academic freedom, and various ways to deal with the problem, are discussed. (CJB)

  10. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  11. Measuring Economic Freedom: Better Without Size of Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protec

  12. Measuring Economic Freedom: Better Without Size of Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage-indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protec

  13. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  14. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  15. Asymptotic freedom of gluons in the Fock space

    CERN Document Server

    Głazek, Stanisław D

    2015-01-01

    Asymptotic freedom of gluons is described in terms of a family of scale-dependent renormalized Hamiltonian operators acting in the Fock space. The Hamiltonians are obtained by applying the renormalization group procedure for effective particles to quantum Yang-Mills theory.

  16. The degrees of freedom of penalized l1 minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Dossal, Charles; Fadili, Jalal M; Peyré, Gabriel; Chesneau, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the degrees of freedom (df) of penalized l1 minimization (also known as the Lasso) for linear regression models. We give a closed-form expression of the degrees of freedom of the Lasso response. Namely, we show that for any given Lasso regularization parameter \\lambda and any observed data y belongs to a set of full measure, the cardinal of the support of a particular solution of the Lasso problem is an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of the Lasso response. This is achieved without any assumption on the uniqueness of the Lasso solution. Thus, our result remains true for both the underdetermined and the overdetermined case studied originally in Zou et al.. We also prove that a key result in Zou et al. is not true by providing a simple counterexample. An effective estimator of the number of degrees of freedom may have several applications including an objectively guided choice of the regularization parameter in the Lasso through the SURE framework.

  17. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is“voluntary” or “compulsory”. The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network

  18. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  19. Aspects of Regulating Freedom of Expression on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucereanu, D.

    2008-01-01

    It is common knowledge that the internet has profoundly affected the manner in which people communicate, obtain information and express themselves. What is less explored is exactly how freedom of expression and the internet interact, and what may be the legal consequences of the special features of

  20. Escaping Slavery: "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sue Ann

    This lesson uses the picture book "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt" by Deborah Hopkinson and an interactive website to enhance third- through fifth-grade students' understanding of the Underground Railroad and slavery, development of reading comprehension skills, and application of mapping skills. During three 45-60 minute lessons,…

  1. SA de Freitas PROSELYTISM AND THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    history, literature, physics, biology, and life skills. In this regard ... "freedom of religion", as defined by the Supreme Court of Canada in its first case about religion, namely R v ..... First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life. HM.

  2. Technology, Wellbeing, and Freedom: The Legacy of Utopian Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrestijn, Steven; Verbeek, Peter-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about the application of user-influencing design for improving wellbeing, focusing on the ethical issue of finding the right balance between determination and freedom. Two contemporary approaches for user-influencing design, “Persuasive Technology” and “Nudge,” are discussed against th

  3. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  4. FREEDOM FRANCHISING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CLASSIC FRANCHISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Solovova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the model of freedom franchising and to its comparison with the classic franchising model. The aim of the article is to systemize and enrich the knowledge in the sphere of the franchising model evolution. The author’s task was to identify the key features of the freedom franchising model, to compare the freedom franchising with classic franchising and to formulate the conditions under which the freedom franchising model can be developed. To achieve this the analysis, synthesis, comparison and longitude methods were used. Classic franchising model includes the transfer of both visible (design, brand style and invisible to the customers (business processes, know-how elements from the franchisor to the franchisee. Such a business model enables the franchise to preserve the high quality of products and services and to grow the net at high rate. The drawback of the classic model is the complexity of bringing up innovations by the franchisee – new ideas are strictly chosen by the franchisor and then implemented within the network only after the successful experience in control points of contact. Nevertheless, there is the franchising business model in which franchisees can experiment with front-of-house (visible elements of the system (such as point’s of contact design on the one hand, and on the other – in which new ideas and initiatives from the franchisee are welcomed by the franchisor. The model is called “freedom franchising”. It is important to point out that key system elements are standardized in both models as standardized production processes help preserve high quality within the franchising net. Freedom franchising model is not applicable in the spheres where full business standardization is needed as well as in the business that is focusing on fast growth. But it helps franchisees to implement new ideas within the whole network. The article would be of interest to franchisors for creating franchise

  5. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  6. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  7. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  8. Dignity, Equality, Freedom: The EU-Policy Values Viewed Personalistically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nnamdi Konye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author points out that dignity, equality, and freedom are leading themes of the European Union policy and should be respected and upheld if understood personalistically. He agrues that the subjectivity of the individual person, rather than that of the public state, underlines the context of interpreting those themes which are the liberal values the Western society purports to cultivate. Therefore, he claims that dignity is grounded on the understanding of man as imago Dei, equality is doubly grounded in both the unique identity and incommunicability of each human person, and freedom is doubly grounded in the dual responsibility of each human person for his or her actions as well as the responsibility we share for each human life from conception to natural death.

  9. Solutions to the new threats to academic freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In my commentary on Francesca Minerva's article 'New Threats to Academic Freedom', I agree with her contention that the existence of the Internet has given rise to new and very serious threats to academic freedom. I think that it is crucial that we confront those threats, and find ways to eliminate them, which I believe can be done. The threats in question involve both authors and editors. In the case of authors, I argue that the best solution is not anonymous publication, but publication using pseudonyms, and I describe how that would work. In the case of editors, my proposal is a website that a number of journals would have access to, where papers that editors judge to be clearly worthy of publication, but whose publication seems likely to set off a firestorm of public and media protest, could be published without any indication of the journal that had accepted the paper for publication.

  10. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Glampedakis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetised neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  11. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: go...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...

  12. [Freedom of conscience. Biojuridical conflicts at multicultural societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert Márquez, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the right of healthcare professionals to conscientious objection at multicultural societies. the ethical relativism, characteristic of these societies, lives together with an apparently paradoxical reduction of the exercise of freedom of conscience. It is wrote "Apparently" because, at the end, the ethical relativism tends to the adoption of dogmatic attitudes. Special attention is paid to the situation of Spanish healthcare in relation with euthanasia and abortion. With regard to euthanasia, the "dignified dead" draft bill of Andalucía is considered. With regard to abortion, we will pay attention to the reform of the Penal Code in the context of a new regulation about "reproductive health" of women, which means the adoption of a system of time limits, and the characterization of abortion as a women's right. It is concluded that the freedom of conscience of healthcare professionals would be probably at risk if proposed legal policies doesn't change.

  13. Holographic cosmology and its relevant degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawid, Richard

    1999-07-14

    We reconsider the options for cosmological holography. We suggest that a global and time-symmetric version of the Fischler-Susskind bound is the most natural generalization of the holographic bound encountered in AdS and De Sitter space. A consistent discussion of cosmological holography seems to imply an understanding of the notion of ''number of degrees of freedom'' that deviates from its simple definition as the entropy of the current state. The introduction of a more adequate notion of degree of freedom makes the suggested variation of the Fischler-Susskind bound look like a stringent and viable bound in all 4-dimensional cosmologies without a cosmological constant.

  14. Dense hadron star in quark degree of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Yiharn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quark degree of freedom may play an important role as one studies dense hadron stars which can help to understand the universe origin. We add a temperature dependence to the effective quark mass adopted from a quark-quark interaction on the QCD basis to probe properties of the star in the quark degree of freedom. Based on this interaction, the quark matter’s equation of state is obtained and its thermodynamic characteristics is investigated in detail. Stability of a star made of such matter is examined with and without strange quarks. The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation along with the condition that dm=dr = 4πr2E are used to calculate mass and radius of such a star. Exact computations are made to calculate the star’s radius and mass at several temperatures. Comparisons of results from these temperatures are made and the significance is carefully investigated and discussed.

  15. Repair-level analysis for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M.; Yaniec, J.

    1992-01-01

    To assign repair or discard-at-failure designations for orbital replacement units (ORUs) used on Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (SSFEPS), new algorithms and methods were required. Unique parameters, such as upmass costs, extravehicular activity costs and intravehicular activity (IVA) costs specific to Space Station Freedom's maintenance concept were incorporated into the Repair-Level Analysis (RLA). Additional outputs were also required of the SSFEPS RLA that were not required of previous RLAs. These outputs included recommendations for the number of launches that an ORU should be capable of attaining and an economic basis for condemnation rate. These unique parameters were not addressable using existing RLA models: therefore, a new approach was developed. In addition, it was found that preemptive analysis could be performed using spreadsheet-based Boolean expressions to represent the logical condition of the items under analysis.

  16. Religious Education and Freedom of Religion and Belief. Religion Education and Values. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen, Ed.; Freathy, Rob, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    What opportunities and challenges are presented to religious education across the globe by the basic human right of freedom of religion and belief? To what extent does religious education facilitate or inhibit "freedom of religion" in schools? What contribution can religious education make to freedom in the modern world? This volume provides…

  17. Religious Education and Freedom of Religion and Belief. Religion Education and Values. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen, Ed.; Freathy, Rob, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    What opportunities and challenges are presented to religious education across the globe by the basic human right of freedom of religion and belief? To what extent does religious education facilitate or inhibit "freedom of religion" in schools? What contribution can religious education make to freedom in the modern world? This volume…

  18. 7 CFR 1700.3 - Requests under the Freedom of Information Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests under the Freedom of Information Act. 1700.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION General § 1700.3 Requests under the Freedom of Information Act. Department of Agriculture procedures for requests for records under the Freedom of...

  19. Freedom of Speech on Campus: Rights and Responsibilities in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report considers the role of universities in promoting academic freedom and freedom of speech, and some of the constraints surrounding these freedoms. These issues are not straightforward and are often contested. The report does not offer easy solutions or absolute rules but seeks to map out the different considerations that might need to be…

  20. A Place from where to Speak: The University and Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2009-01-01

    The university is promoted as "a place from where to speak". Academic freedom is examined as a crucial value in an increasingly uncertain age which resonates with Barnett's concern to encourage students to overcome their "fear of freedom". My concern is that the putative university space of freedom and autonomy may well become constricted by those…

  1. Social Scientists' Understanding of Academic Freedom in Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefa, Demoze

    2015-01-01

    The perennial debate about academic freedom engages with assessing the extent to which academic freedom has been exercised by academics by using some normative and quantitative approaches. Often studies on academic freedom deal with the extent to which institutions comply with norms in terms of the rights of the academics on some international…

  2. How robust is the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, JE; De Haan, J

    Using various indicators for economic freedom, it is shown that increases in economic freedom are robustly related to economic growth. This conclusion holds even if the impact of outlying observations is taken into account. The level of economic freedom is not related to growth.

  3. The Ethics of Human Freedom and Healthcare Policy: A Nursing Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-07-01

    Global healthcare and healthcare policies are evolving with change at a swift pace. Inherent in the discussions of a person's right to choose health is the notion of freedom. The author in this column compares and contrasts bioethical views of freedom and autonomy with alternative views and possibilities by examining an ethic of freedom grounded from a different paradigm, the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective.

  4. A Place from where to Speak: The University and Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2009-01-01

    The university is promoted as "a place from where to speak". Academic freedom is examined as a crucial value in an increasingly uncertain age which resonates with Barnett's concern to encourage students to overcome their "fear of freedom". My concern is that the putative university space of freedom and autonomy may well become constricted by those…

  5. Freedom of Speech on Campus: Rights and Responsibilities in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report considers the role of universities in promoting academic freedom and freedom of speech, and some of the constraints surrounding these freedoms. These issues are not straightforward and are often contested. The report does not offer easy solutions or absolute rules but seeks to map out the different considerations that might need to be…

  6. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  7. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  8. Complementarity between Gauge-Boson Compositeness and Asymptotic Freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Akama, K; Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    We derive and solve the compositeness condition for the SU(N_c) gauge boson at the next-to-leading order in 1/N_f (N_f is the number of flavors) to obtain the expression of the gauge coupling constant in terms of the compositeness scale. It turns out that the argument of gauge-boson compositeness is successful only for N_f/N_c>11/2, where the asymptotic freedom fails.

  9. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  10. Freedom of movement within a community of developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Boehning WR

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on migration and the freedom of movement of migrant workers within a group of developing countries - examines political aspects and economic motivations that may inspire the creation of free movement zones; considers legal aspects, social implications and economic implications (incl. Duration of stay, access to education, right to work and equal opportunity), etc.; includes the text of a possible draft international agreement. References.

  11. The conditions of our freedom: Foucault, organization and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, A.; Knights, D.; Starkey, K

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the contribution of the French philosopher Michel Foucault to the subject of ethics in organizations. The paper combines an analysis of Foucault’s work on discipline and control, with an examination of his later work on the ethical subject and technologies of the self. By situating ethics as practices of the self, and by demonstrating the conditions under which freedom in organizations can be exercised, Foucault’s ethics connects an understanding and critique of power with ...

  12. Defending Whose Democracy?\\ud Media Freedom and Media Power

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Rarely has the relationship between media and democracy been so centre-stage. Whether regarding regulatory reform brought about by phone hacking in the UK, concentration of media ownership in Italy, Hungary, Australia to mention but a few; or in relation to social media and the internet as a supposed means to increased access to information and citizen production and circulation of non-mainstream content leading to greater so called media freedom. The debate on whether or not and in what form...

  13. Asymptotic freedom of Yang-Mills theory with gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Folkerts, Sarah; Pawlowski, Jan M

    2011-01-01

    We study the high energy behaviour of Yang-Mills theory under the inclusion of gravity. In the weak-gravity limit, the running gauge coupling receives no contribution from the gravitational sector, if all symmetries are preserved. This holds true with and without cosmological constant. We also show that asymptotic freedom persists in general field-theory-based gravity scenarios including gravitational shielding as well as asymptotically safe gravity.

  14. Asymptotic freedom of Yang-Mills theory with gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Folkerts@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Institut f. Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Litim, Daniel F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Pawlowski, Jan M. [Institut f. Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Inst. EMMI, GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-03-19

    We study the behaviour of Yang-Mills theory under the inclusion of gravity. In the weak-gravity limit, the running gauge coupling receives no contribution from the gravitational sector, if all symmetries are preserved. This holds true with and without cosmological constant. We also show that asymptotic freedom persists in general field-theory-based gravity scenarios including gravitational shielding as well as asymptotically safe gravity.

  15. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  16. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  17. Evaluation of Surveillance for Documentation of Freedom from Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza R. Nielsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study how surveillance for bovine tuberculosis (bTB could be made more resource-effective in a bTB free country. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed to: (1 evaluate the sensitivity (CSe of four surveillance system components (SSC (i.e., meat inspection of slaughtered domestic cattle, farmed deer and pigs, and tuberculin testing of adult export cattle given that bTB would enter one of these components, (2 estimate the probability of freedom (PFree from bTB over time, and (3 evaluate how future alternative programmes based on visual meat inspection would affect the confidence in freedom from bTB at the very low animal-level design prevalence 0.0002% and a low probabilities of introduction (1%. All, except the export cattle component reached a PFree above 96% within five years. The PFree was slightly reduced if surveillance was changed to visual inspection, e.g., PFree was reduced from 96.5% to 94.3% in the cattle component, and from 98.5% to 97.7% in the pig component after 24 years. In conclusion, visual meat inspection of pigs and cattle will only reduce the confidence in freedom from bTB slightly. However, with negligible probability of introduction (0.1% the PFree could be maintained well above 99% in the cattle, pigs and deer components, which highlights the importance of rigid testing and quarantine procedures in trade of livestock.

  18. Aeroservoelastic Modeling of Body Freedom Flutter for Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    One of the most severe forms of coupling between aeroelasticity and flight dynamics is an instability called freedom flutter. The existing tools often assume relatively weak coupling, and are therefore unable to accurately model body freedom flutter. Because the existing tools were developed from traditional flutter analysis models, inconsistencies in the final models are not compatible with control system design tools. To resolve these issues, a number of small, but significant changes have been made to the existing approaches. A frequency domain transformation is used with the unsteady aerodynamics to ensure a more physically consistent stability axis rational function approximation of the unsteady aerodynamic model. The aerodynamic model is augmented with additional terms to account for limitations of the baseline unsteady aerodynamic model and to account for the gravity forces. An assumed modes method is used for the structural model to ensure a consistent definition of the aircraft states across the flight envelope. The X-56A stiff wing flight-test data were used to validate the current modeling approach. The flight-test data does not show body-freedom flutter, but does show coupling between the flight dynamics and the aeroelastic dynamics and the effects of the fuel weight.

  19. Kappa and q Indices: Dependence on the Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The kappa distributions, or their equivalent, the q-exponential distributions, are the natural generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Maxwell distributions, applied to the study of the particle populations in collisionless space plasmas. A huge step in the development of the theory of kappa distributions and their applications in space plasma physics has been achieved with the discovery that the observed kappa distributions are connected with the solid statistical background of non-extensive statistical mechanics. Now that the statistical framework has been identified, it is straightforward to improve our understanding of the nature of the kappa index (or the entropic q-index that governs these distributions. One critical topic is the dependence of the kappa index on the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we first show how this specific dependence is naturally emerged, using the formalism of the N-particle kappa distribution of velocities. Then, the result is extended in the presence of potential energies. It is shown that the kappa index is simply related to the kinetic and potential degrees of freedom. In addition, it is shown that various problems of non-extensive statistical mechanics, such as (i the correlation dependence on the total number of particles; and (ii the normalization divergence for finite kappa indices, are resolved considering the kappa index dependence on the degrees of freedom.

  20. 理论与自由%Theory and Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楚廷

    2012-01-01

    理论的伟大所直接表现的是人本身的伟大,人的思想的伟大。理论工作不仅给人带来更多自由,从事理论研究的人也必须拥有自由、享有自由才能更有效地工作。正是自由的天性让人们天然地询问"为什么",天然地向理论靠近,天然地享受着天赋人权。%The greatness of theory directly shows the greatness of human being itself as well as people’s ideas. Theoretical work will bring more freedom to people while those engaged in the theory research must also have the freedom to work more effectively. It is the nature of freedom to make people naturally ask "why", naturally close to the theory and naturally enjoy the human rights.

  1. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work.

  2. The will: from metaphysical freedom to normative functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Free will is regarded by some as the most and by others as the least relevant concept for criminal responsibility. Contributions from religious and philosophical thinkers over the classical and medieval Christian eras demonstrate that, despite the passionate and historically consequential debates over the meaning of "freedom," the unifying theme that joined the will with the intellect remained persistent and pervasive. Leading historical jurists in England eventually dropped the descriptor "free," but retained the central importance of the will to criminal responsibility and emphasized its dependence on the intellect to function properly. Modern rationalist philosophers denied the will's metaphysical freedom, but not its existence. Today the neurosciences reveal more and more about how the will functions, even as lawyers and psychiatrists hesitate to utter the word. In properly avoiding metaphysical freedom within forensic inquiry and discourse, it is a grave conceptual mistake to overlook the will itself. Once greater conceptual clarity on the empirical nature of the will is achieved and accepted, the law itself could rediscover the core mental faculty behind human agency, the will.

  3. Structural technology challenges for evolutionary growth of Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Harold H.

    A proposed evolutionary growth scenario for Space Station Freedom was defined recently by a NASA task force created to study requirements for a Human Exploration Initiative. The study was an initial response to President Bush's July 20, 1989 proposal to begin a long range program of human exploration of space including a permanently manned lunar base and a manned mission to Mars. This growth scenario evolves Freedom into a critical transportation node to support lunar and Mars missions. The growth scenario begins with the Assembly Complete configuration and adds structure, power, and facilities to support a Lunar Transfer Vehicle (LTV) verification flight. Evolutionary growth continues to support expendable, then reusable LTV operations, and finally, LTV and Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) operations. The significant structural growth and additional operations creating new loading conditions will present new technological and structural design challenges in addition to the considerable technology requirements of the baseline Space Station Freedom program. Several structural design and technology issues of the baseline program are reviewed and related technology development required by the growth scenario is identified.

  4. The Significance of Freedom of Expression in an Antagonistic Society: Critical Understanding of Fascist Discourses and Linguistic Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Toplišek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will address the complex relations between linguistic vulnerability as it is understood and construed by Judith Butler, and the freedom of expression in an antagonistic society that was conceptualized by Chantal Mouffe. The purpose of this article is to move away from the dominant moralizing discourse which tackles the emergence of fascistic and hateful discursive practices uncritically and in a politically neutral manner, and then offer an alternative view of the paradox between the freedom of expression and the regulation of hate speech. First, I concentrate on the performative functioning of words that injure and the question of how to subvert this discursive subjection that the hate speaker is seeking to constitute in a way that will enable the critical agency of the one injured. Butler’s post-structuralist view on the performance of discursive acts reveals potential sites and possibilities for critical agency. With her critical analysis of moderate consensus politics, Mouffe identifies the narrowing of the political space for articulation of antagonistic relations in society as the effect of the dominant post-political rationality. At the end I come to the conclusion that generating open discursive spaces is of crucial importance for the facilitation of critical subversion of hateful contents and restoring a state of normality.

  5. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  6. Using military friendships to optimize postdeployment reintegration for male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.

  7. Tobacco Industry Use of Personal Responsibility Rhetoric in Public Relations and Litigation: Disguising Freedom to Blame as Freedom of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A.; Daynard, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the tobacco industry’s rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase “personal responsibility” explicitly, but rather “freedom of choice.” When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry’s public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom “blame rhetoric” has influenced the industry’s larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors. PMID:25521876

  8. Revising the "Rule of Three" for inferring seizure freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M Brandon; Cormier, Justine; Bianchi, Matt T; Shafi, Mouhsin; Kilbride, Ronan; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2012-02-01

    How long after starting a new medication must a patient go without seizures before they can be regarded as seizure-free? A recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force proposed using a "Rule of Three" as an operational definition of seizure freedom, according to which a patient should be considered seizure-free following an intervention after a period without seizures has elapsed equal to three times the longest preintervention interseizure interval over the previous year. This rule was motivated in large part by statistical considerations advanced in a classic 1983 paper by Hanley and Lippman-Hand. However, strict adherence to the statistical logic of this rule generally requires waiting much longer than recommended by the ILAE task force. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an alternative approach to the Rule of Three might be possible, and under what conditions the rule may be expected to hold or would need to be extended. Probabilistic modeling and application of Bayes' rule. We find that an alternative approach to the problem of inferring seizure freedom supports using the Rule of Three in the way proposed by the ILAE in many cases, particularly in evaluating responses to a first trial of antiseizure medication, and to favorably-selected epilepsy surgical candidates. In cases where the a priori odds of success are less favorable, our analysis requires longer seizure-free observation periods before declaring seizure freedom, up to six times the average preintervention interseizure interval. The key to our approach is to take into account not only the time elapsed without seizures but also empirical data regarding the a priori probability of achieving seizure freedom conferred by a particular intervention. In many cases it may be reasonable to consider a patient seizure-free after they have gone without seizures for a period equal to three times the preintervention interseizure interval, as proposed on pragmatic grounds in a recent ILAE

  9. Revising the Rule Of Three For Inferring Seizure Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M. Brandon; Cormier, Justine; Bianchi, Matt T.; Shafi, Mouhsin; Kilbride, Ronan; Cole, Andrew J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose How long after starting a new medication must a patient go without seizures before they can be regarded as seizure free? A recent ILAE task force proposed using a “Rule of Three” as an operational definition of seizure freedom, according to which a patient should be considered seizure-free following an intervention after a period without seizures has elapsed equal to three times the longest pre-intervention inter-seizure interval over the previous year. This rule was motivated in large part by statistical considerations advanced in a classic 1983 paper by Hanley and Lippman-Hand. However, strict adherence to the statistical logic of this rule generally requires waiting much longer than recommended by the ILAE task force. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an alternative approach to the Rule of Three might be possible, and under what conditions the rule may be expected to hold or would need to be extended. Methods Probabilistic modeling and application of Bayes’ rule. Key Findings We find that an alternative approach to the problem of inferring seizure freedom supports using the Rule of Three in the way proposed by the ILAE in many cases, particularly in evaluating responses to a first trial of anti-seizure medication, and to favorably-selected epilepsy surgical candidates. In cases where the a priori odds of success are less favorable, our analysis requires longer seizure-free observation periods before declaring seizure freedom, up to six times the average pre-intervention insterseizure interval. The key to our approach is to take into account not only the time elapsed without seizures but also empirical data regarding the a priori probability of achieving seizure freedom conferred by a particular intervention. Significance In many cases it may be reasonable to consider a patient seizure free after they have gone without seizures for a period equal to three times the pre-intervention inter-seizure interval, as proposed on pragmatic

  10. Relationship between Economic Freedom and Pro-poor Growth: Evidence from Pakistan (1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid ZAMAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic freedom and pro-poor growth is examined in Pakistan from 1995-2010. The concept of pro-poor growth is derived from the literature of Kakwani and Pernia (2000 and Kakwani and Son (2003. The domino effect shows that there is a strong link between economic freedom indicators and pro-poor growth. Econometric analysis proves a strong relationship between economic freedom, poverty reduction and income inequality. Results reveal that larger the business freedom and / or trade freedom, greater the economic growth. This will ultimately reduce poverty in the country.

  11. Flourishing and Freedom: Exploring Their Tensions and Their Relevance to Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, João Calinas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper I will briefly discuss flourishing and freedom, relating them to health and disease; discuss the tensions between flourishing and freedom; and exemplify how those discussions are relevant to chronic disease suffering. The concept of freedom has significant connections with the concepts of health, disability and disease. Understanding disease and disability in terms of the loss of aspects of freedom may help our understanding of the suffering that arises from chronic disease. On the other hand, flourishing may require a degree of adversity. Therefore disability and disease may be conducive to flourishing. Flourishing may be understood as subordinated to freedom, as a path to freedom, or as transcending freedom. It is suggested that freedom and flourishing are expressed as mutually enhancing cycles, actualized according to the personal circumstances that will ground their expression. In a distant horizon of innocent spontaneous self-expression, flourishing and freedom may become coincident. Regarding chronic disease as a constraint on 'species-typical' abilities to fulfill one's significant life interests, as well as an unwanted intrusion into the patient's life, presents chronic disease suffering as a loss of both positive and negative freedom. The conceptual relation between flourishing and freedom will thus organise the possibilities the sufferer sees as open to their self.

  12. Social freedom as a prerequisite for social responsibility of economic agents in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonar, Viktor Pavlovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the development of theoretical understanding of social freedom as the basis for socially responsible behavior of economic agents acting in socially and economically diverse environment as well as at the analysis of social freedom realization in the economy of Ukraine. The reasoning presented in the paper suggests that social freedom as a precondition for social responsibility of economic agents means a state of socioeconomic relations which gives the proactive agents full awareness of economic interests and a possibility for constructive influence on each other and on the socioeconomic reality with the minimum difference in the power of that influence. The paper gives a structure for multidimensional analysis of realization of social freedom in Ukraine in economic terms of social responsibility. Being based on international indicators the structure includes the components for analysis of civil freedom, actual economic freedom and freedom as the absence of social exclusion. The analysis reveals a relative scarcity of social freedom in Ukraine, hindering social responsibility manifestation in the economy. The realization of actual economic freedom is the most flawed. The fight against social exclusion also proved inconsistent. That slightly contrasts with the humble advances in the area of civil freedom. The international comparison confirms this observation. The paper concludes that social freedom as a precondition for social responsibility of economic agents suffers from the vulnerability and instability in Ukraine and the relevant reform is to be intensified in the country.

  13. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Artistic Research on Freedom in Space and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Schelfhout, Ronald; Gelfand, Dmitry; Van der Heide, Edwin; Preusterink, Jolanda; Domnitch, Evelina

    ArtScience ESTEC: Space science in the arts. Since the earliest scientific preparations for extra-terrestrial travel at the beginning of the 20th century, the exploration of outer space has become a quintessential framework of the human condition and its creative manifestations. Although the artistic pursuit of space science is still in its infancy, an accelerated evolution is currently underway. Perspective: With the current state of the planet and the development of technology, humankind has the ability to look from a greater distance to the damage that has been done. This offers potential in the form of early detection and prevention of disasters. Meanwhile our aim seems to be directed away from the earth into the universe. In the Space science in the arts project I tried to encapsulate these two viewpoints that tend to avoid each other. We are still earthbound and that is our basis. A tree cannot grow tall without strong roots. Space, a promise of freedom. Line of thought: Space sounds like freedom but to actually send people out there they have to be strapped tightly on top of a giant missile to reach a habitat of interconnecting tubes with very little space. It is impossible to escape protocol with- out risking your life and the lives of astronauts have been fixed years in advance. This is the human predicament which does not apply to the telescopes and other devices used to reach far into the universe. Providing information instantly the various forms of light allow us to travel without moving. Description of the installation: The research on freedom in space and science led to the development of an installation that reflects the dualistic aspect which clings to the exploration of the universe. The installation is a model on multiple scales. You can look at the material or the feeling it evokes as well as at the constantly changing projections. The image is light. Inside this glass circle there is a broken dome placed over a dark and reflective surface on

  15. Correlation between magnetoencephalography-based "clusterectomy" and postoperative seizure freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadera, Sumeet; Jehi, Lara; Burgess, Richard C; Shea, Katherine; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Mosher, John; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bingaman, William

    2013-06-01

    During the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy, a variety of noninvasive studies are performed to localize the hypothetical epileptogenic zone and guide the resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is becoming increasingly used in the clinical realm for this purpose. No investigators have previously reported on coregisteration of MEG clusters with postoperative resection cavities to evaluate whether complete "clusterectomy" (resection of the area associated with MEG clusters) was performed or to compare these findings with postoperative seizure-free outcomes. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts and imaging studies of 65 patients undergoing MEG followed by resective epilepsy surgery from 2009 until 2012 at the Cleveland Clinic. Preoperative MEG studies were fused with postoperative MRI studies to evaluate whether clusters were within the resected area. These data were then correlated with postoperative seizure freedom. Sixty-five patients were included in this study. The average duration of follow-up was 13.9 months, the mean age at surgery was 23.1 years, and the mean duration of epilepsy was 13.7 years. In 30 patients, the main cluster was located completely within the resection cavity, in 28 it was completely outside the resection cavity, and in 7 it was partially within the resection cavity. Seventy-four percent of patients were seizure free at 12 months after surgery, and this rate decreased to 60% at 24 months. Improved likelihood of seizure freedom was seen with complete clusterectomy in patients with localization outside the temporal lobe (extra-temporal lobe epilepsy) (p = 0.04). In patients with preoperative MEG studies that show clusters in surgically accessible areas outside the temporal lobe, we suggest aggressive resection to improve the chances for seizure freedom. When the cluster is found within the temporal lobe, further diagnostic testing may be required to better localize the epileptogenic zone.

  16. Moral distress and professional freedom of speech among doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2013-06-25

    Previous studies indicate that Norwegian doctors experience distress in their encounter with differing and partly contradictory ideals, such as the obligation to criticise unethical and inappropriate practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of moral distress and professional freedom of speech among Norwegian doctors as of today, as well as identify changes that have occurred since the previous study undertaken in 2004. A total of 1,522 economically active doctors received a questionnaire listing various statements describing the perception of moral distress and professional freedom of speech. The responses were compared to responses to the 2004 study. Altogether 67% of the doctors responded to the questionnaire. The proportion who reported «fairly strong» or «strong» moral distress varied from 24% to 70% among the different statements. On the whole, the «rank and file» hospital doctors reported the highest degree of moral distress. Nevertheless, a decrease in the scores for moral distress could be observed from 2004 to 2010. During the same period, the perception of professional freedom of speech increased slightly. A reduced level of distress associated with ethical conflicts in working life may be due to improved methods for handling distressing situations, or because the consequences of the health services reorganisations are perceived as less threatening now than in 2004, immediately after the introduction of the hospital reform. However, the perceived lower distress level may also be due to professional and ethical resignation. These findings should be followed up by a qualitative study.

  17. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  18. Internet in the workplace: censorship, liability, and freedom of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwill-Navarro, P

    1998-01-01

    Most hospital medical libraries are supported by private, corporate funds and thus fall under the corporation's policies in regard to discrimination, harassment, and sexual harassment. With the free flow of information available on the Internet and through e-mail, it is mandatory to create a corporate policy for appropriate use and review of materials. Access to "questionable" or inappropriate Internet sites is not a freedom of speech issue in a private corporation; it is a potential liability for the corporation, the library, and the librarian. It is also a misuse of company resources.

  19. Life in the cloud and freedom of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    2013-05-01

    This paper is primarily about the personal and public responsibilities of ethics and of ethicists in speaking, writing and commenting publicly about issues of ethical, political and social significance. The paper argues that any such interventions are 'willy-nilly', actually or potentially, in the public domain in ways that make any self-conscious decision about intended publics or audiences problematic. In it is argued that a famous, and hitherto useful, distinction relating to the ethical limitations on freedom of speech which we owe to John Stuart Mill may, because of the emergence of 'the cloud' have become redundant or inoperable.

  20. Nonclassical degrees of freedom in the Riemann Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srednicki, Mark

    2011-09-02

    The Hilbert-Pólya conjecture states that the imaginary parts of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function are eigenvalues of a quantum Hamiltonian. If so, conjectures by Katz and Sarnak put this Hamiltonian in the Altland-Zirnbauer universality class C. This implies that the system must have a nonclassical two-valued degree of freedom. In such a system, the dominant primitive periodic orbits contribute to the density of states with a phase factor of -1. This resolves a previously mysterious sign problem with the oscillatory contributions to the density of the Riemann zeros.