Long distance free-space quantum key distribution
Schmitt-Manderbach, T.
2007-01-01
The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional ''decoy'' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250 bit
Long distance free-space quantum key distribution
Schmitt-Manderbach, T.
2007-10-16
The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the feasibility of satellite-based global quantum key distribution. In this context, a free-space quantum key distribution experiment over a real distance of 144 km was performed. The transmitter and the receiver were situated in 2500 m altitude on the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, respectively. The small and compact transmitter unit generated attenuated laser pulses, that were sent to the receiver via a 15-cm optical telescope. The receiver unit for polarisation analysis and detection of the sent pulses was integrated into an existing mirror telescope designed for classical optical satellite communications. To ensure the required stability and efficiency of the optical link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, the two telescopes were equipped with a bi-directional automatic tracking system. Still, due to stray light and high optical attenuation, secure key exchange would not be possible using attenuated pulses in connection with the standard BB84 protocol. The photon number statistics of attenuated pulses follows a Poissonian distribution. Hence, by removing a photon from all pulses containing two or more photons, an eavesdropper could measure its polarisation without disturbing the polarisation state of the remaining pulse. In this way, he can gain information about the key without introducing detectable errors. To protect against such attacks, the presented experiment employed the recently developed method of using additional 'decoy' states, i.e., the the intensity of the pulses created by the transmitter were varied in a random manner. By analysing the detection probabilities of the different pulses individually, a photon-number-splitting attack can be detected. Thanks to the decoy-state analysis, the secrecy of the resulting quantum key could be ensured despite the Poissonian nature of the emitted pulses. For a channel attenuation as high as 35 dB, a secret key rate of up to 250
Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system
Peloso, Matthew P; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, AntIa; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)], E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com
2009-04-15
Many quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations using a free space transmission path are restricted to operation at night time in order to distinguish the signal photons used for a secure key establishment from the background light. Here, we present a lean entanglement-based QKD system overcoming that limitation. By implementing spectral, spatial and temporal filtering techniques, we establish a secure key continuously over several days under varying light and weather conditions.
Practical free space quantum cryptography
Schmitt-Manderbach, T.; Weier, H.; Regner, N.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Weinfurter, H.
2005-01-01
Full text: Quantum cryptography, the secure key distribution between two parties, is the first practical application of quantum information technology. By encoding digital information into different polarization states of single photons, a string of key bits can be established between two parties, where laws of quantum mechanics ensure that a possible eavesdropper has negligible knowledge of. Having shown the feasibility of a long distance quantum key distribution scheme, the emphasis of this work is to incorporate the previously developed compact sender and receiver modules into a quantum cryptography system suitable for every-day use in metropolitan areas. The permanent installation with automatic alignment allows to investigate in detail the sensitivity of the free space optical link to weather conditions and air turbulences commonly encountered in urban areas. We report on a successful free space quantum cryptography experiment over a distance of 500 m between the rooftops of two university buildings using the BB84 protocol. The obtained bit error rates in first runs of this experiment using faint coherent pulses with an average photon number ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 was measured to be below 3 percent for experiments carried out during night, leading to average raw key rates (before error correction and privacy amplification) of 50 kBits per second. Thanks to its simplicity of implementation, our experiment brings free space quantum key distribution a big step closer to practical usability in metropolitan networks and on a level with fibre-based quantum cryptography that up to now offers the only ready-to-use systems available. Compact and automated free space hardware is also a prerequisite for a possible earth-satellite quantum key distribution system in order to break the distance limit of about 100 km of current quantum cryptography schemes. (author)
Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution
Wabnig, J; Bitauld, D; Li, H W; Niskanen, A O; Laing, A; O'Brien, J L
2013-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is moving from research laboratories towards applications. As computing becomes more mobile, cashless as well as cardless payment solutions are introduced. A possible route to increase the security of wireless communications is to incorporate QKD in a mobile device. Handheld devices present a particular challenge as the orientation and the phase of a qubit will depend on device motion. This problem is addressed by the reference frame independent (RFI) QKD scheme. The scheme tolerates an unknown phase between logical states that vary slowly compared to the rate of particle repetition. Here we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of RFI QKD over a free-space link in a prepare and measure scheme using polarization encoding. We extend the security analysis of the RFI QKD scheme to be able to deal with uncalibrated devices and a finite number of measurements. Together these advances are an important step towards mass production of handheld QKD devices. (paper)
Wang Le; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. (paper)
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip; Floyd, Bertram M.; Lind, Alexander J.;
2016-01-01
A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nanometer pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nanometer photons are up-converted to a single 532-nanometer photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nanometer photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nanometer and 1600 nanometer which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.
A Narrow-Linewidth Atomic Line Filter for Free Space Quantum Key Distribution under Daytime Atmospheric Conditions
Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel
2016-05-01
Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.
Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate KTP Waveguide Photon-Pair Source
Wilson, J.; Chaffee, D.; Wilson, N.; Lekki, J.; Tokars, R.; Pouch, J.; Lind, A.; Cavin, J.; Helmick, S.; Roberts, T.;
2016-01-01
NASA awarded Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts to AdvR, Inc to develop a high generation rate source of entangled photons that could be used to explore quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. The final product, a photon pair source using a dual-element periodically- poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide, was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in June of 2015. This paper describes the source, its characterization, and its performance in a B92 (Bennett, 1992) protocol QKD experiment.
Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-01-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as key material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). The authors have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. The authors have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of ∼1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, they examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD
Free-Space Quantum Communication with a Portable Quantum Memory
Namazi, Mehdi; Vallone, Giuseppe; Jordaan, Bertus; Goham, Connor; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Villoresi, Paolo; Figueroa, Eden
2017-12-01
The realization of an elementary quantum network that is intrinsically secure and operates over long distances requires the interconnection of several quantum modules performing different tasks. In this work, we report the realization of a communication network functioning in a quantum regime, consisting of four different quantum modules: (i) a random polarization qubit generator, (ii) a free-space quantum-communication channel, (iii) an ultralow-noise portable quantum memory, and (iv) a qubit decoder, in a functional elementary quantum network possessing all capabilities needed for quantum-information distribution protocols. We create weak coherent pulses at the single-photon level encoding polarization states |H ⟩ , |V ⟩, |D ⟩, and |A ⟩ in a randomized sequence. The random qubits are sent over a free-space link and coupled into a dual-rail room-temperature quantum memory and after storage and retrieval are analyzed in a four-detector polarization analysis akin to the requirements of the BB84 protocol. We also show ultralow noise and fully portable operation, paving the way towards memory-assisted all-environment free-space quantum cryptographic networks.
Entanglement-based Free Space Quantum Cryptography in Daylight
Gerhardt, Ilja; Peloso, Matthew P.; Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2009-05-01
In quantum key distribution (QKD) two families of protocols are established: One, based on preparing and sending approximations of single photons, the other based on measurements on entangled photon pairs, which allow to establish a secret key using less assumptions on the size of a Hilbert space. The larger optical bandwidth of photon pairs in comparison with light used for the first family makes establishing a free space link challenging. We present a complete entanglement based QKD system following the BBM92 protocol, which generates a secure key continuously 24 hours a day between distant parties. Spectral, spatial and temporal filtering schemes were introduced to a previous setup, suppressing more than 30,B of background. We are able to establish the link during daytime, and have developed an algorithm to start and maintain time synchronization with simple crystal oscillators.
Free-space entangled quantum carpets
Barros, Mariana R.; Ketterer, Andreas; Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; Walborn, Stephen P.
2017-04-01
The Talbot effect in quantum physics is known to produce intricate patterns in the probability distribution of a particle, known as "quantum carpets," corresponding to the revival and replication of the initial wave function. Recently, it was shown that one can encode a D -level qudit in such a way that the Talbot effect can be used to process the D -dimensional quantum information [Farías et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 062328 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.062328]. Here we introduce a scheme to produce free-propagating "entangled quantum carpets" with pairs of photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. First we introduce an optical device that can be used to synthesize arbitrary superposition states of Talbot qudits. Sending spatially entangled photon pairs through a pair of these devices produces an entangled pair of qudits. As an application, we show how the Talbot effect can be used to test a D -dimensional Bell inequality. Numerical simulations show that violation of the Bell inequality depends strongly on the amount of spatial correlation in the initial two-photon state. We briefly discuss how our optical scheme might be adapted to matter wave experiments.
Free space relativistic quantum cryptography with faint laser pulses
Molotkov, S N; Potapova, T A
2013-01-01
A new protocol for quantum key distribution through empty space is proposed. Apart from the quantum mechanical restrictions on distinguishability of non-orthogonal states, the protocol employs additional restrictions imposed by special relativity. The protocol ensures generation of a secure key even for the source generating non-strictly single-photon quantum states and for arbitrary losses in quantum communication channel. (letter)
Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels.
Yin, Juan; Ren, Ji-Gang; Lu, He; Cao, Yuan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xin-Dong; Xu, Ping; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Jia, Jian-Jun; Huang, Yong-Mei; Yin, Hao; Wang, Jian-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-08-09
Transferring an unknown quantum state over arbitrary distances is essential for large-scale quantum communication and distributed quantum networks. It can be achieved with the help of long-distance quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution. The latter is also important for fundamental tests of the laws of quantum mechanics. Although quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over moderate distances have been realized using optical fibre links, the huge photon loss and decoherence in fibres necessitate the use of quantum repeaters for larger distances. However, the practical realization of quantum repeaters remains experimentally challenging. Free-space channels, first used for quantum key distribution, offer a more promising approach because photon loss and decoherence are almost negligible in the atmosphere. Furthermore, by using satellites, ultra-long-distance quantum communication and tests of quantum foundations could be achieved on a global scale. Previous experiments have achieved free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over distances of 600 metres (ref. 14) and 13 kilometres (ref. 15), and transfer of triggered single photons over a 144-kilometre one-link free-space channel. Most recently, following a modified scheme, free-space quantum teleportation over 16 kilometres was demonstrated with a single pair of entangled photons. Here we report quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a 97-kilometre one-link free-space channel with multi-photon entanglement. An average fidelity of 80.4 ± 0.9 per cent is achieved for six distinct states. Furthermore, we demonstrate entanglement distribution over a two-link channel, in which the entangled photons are separated by 101.8 kilometres. Violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is observed without the locality loophole. Besides being of fundamental interest, our results represent an important step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high
Free-space communication based on quantum cascade laser
Liu Chuanwei; Zhai Shenqiang; Zhang Jinchuan; Zhou Yuhong; Jia Zhiwei; Liu Fengqi; Wang Zhanguo
2015-01-01
A free-space communication based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. A room-temperature continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) QCL combined with a mid-infrared detector comprise the basic unit of the communication system. Sinusoidal signals at a highest frequency of 40 MHz and modulated video signals with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz were successfully transmitted with this experimental setup. Our research has provided a proof-of-concept demonstration of space optical communication application with QCL. The highest operation frequency of our setup was determined by the circuit-limited modulation bandwidth. A high performance communication system can be obtained with improved modulation circuit system. (paper)
Continuous time quantum random walks in free space
Eichelkraut, Toni; Vetter, Christian; Perez-Leija, Armando; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Szameit, Alexander
2014-05-01
We show theoretically and experimentally that two-dimensional continuous time coherent random walks are possible in free space, that is, in the absence of any external potential, by properly tailoring the associated initial wave function. These effects are experimentally demonstrated using classical paraxial light. Evidently, the usage of classical beams to explore the dynamics of point-like quantum particles is possible since both phenomena are mathematically equivalent. This in turn makes our approach suitable for the realization of random walks using different quantum particles, including electrons and photons. To study the spatial evolution of a wavefunction theoretically, we consider the one-dimensional paraxial wave equation (i∂z +1/2 ∂x2) Ψ = 0 . Starting with the initially localized wavefunction Ψ (x , 0) = exp [ -x2 / 2σ2 ] J0 (αx) , one can show that the evolution of such Gaussian-apodized Bessel envelopes within a region of validity resembles the probability pattern of a quantum walker traversing a uniform lattice. In order to generate the desired input-field in our experimental setting we shape the amplitude and phase of a collimated light beam originating from a classical HeNe-Laser (633 nm) utilizing a spatial light modulator.
Free-space quantum electrodynamics with a single Rydberg superatom
Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Braun, Christoph; Kumlin, Jan
2017-01-01
The interaction of a single photon with an individual two-level system is the textbook example of quantum electrodynamics. Achieving strong coupling in this system has so far required confinement of the light field inside resonators or waveguides. Here, we demonstrate strong coherent coupling...
Description of quantum states using in free space optic communication
Kučera, Petr
2017-11-01
In the article we concentrate our attention on the quantum description of states which are prepared by light sources. The main goal of the article is the determination of density matrix of background radiation source. It is shown that these matrix elements satisfy Geometric distribution in the number state representation.
Development of the polarization tracking scheme for free-space quantum cryptography
Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Kunimori, Hiroo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide
2008-04-01
Quantum cryptography is a new technique for transmitting quantum information. The information is securely transmitted due to the laws of physics. In such systems, the vehicle that transfers quantum information is a single photon. The problem with using photons is that the transmission distance is limited by the absorption of the photons by the optical fiber along which they pass. The maximum demonstrated range so far is approximately 100 km. Using free-space quantum cryptography between a ground station and a satellite is a possible way of sending quantum information farther than is possible with optical fibers. This is because there is no birefringence effect in the atmosphere. However, there is a complication in that the directions of the polarization basis between the transmitter and the receiver must coincide with each other. This polarization changes because the mobile terminals for free-space transmission continuously change their attitudes. If the transmission protocol is based on polarization, it is necessary to compensate for the change in attitude between the mobile terminals. We are developing a scheme to track the polarization basis between the transceivers. The preliminary result is presented.
Rabinovich, W. S; Mahon, R; Burris, H. R; Gilbreath, G. C; Goetz, P. G; Moore, C. I; Stell, M. F; Vilcheck, M. J; Witkowsky, J. L; Swingen, L
2005-01-01
A 1550-nm eye-safe, free-space optical communications link is demonstrated at rates up to 5 Mbits/s over a distance of 2 km in the Chesapeake Bay, using quantum-well-based modulating retroreflectors...
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
2016-11-29
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Long-distance quantum teleportation assisted with free-space entanglement distribution
Ji-Gang, Ren; Zhen-Huan, Yi; Fei, Zhou; Cheng-Zhi, Peng; Jian-Wei, Pan; Bin, Yang; Kai, Chen
2009-01-01
Faithful long-distance quantum teleportation necessitates prior entanglement distribution between two communicated locations. The particle carrying on the unknown quantum information is then combined with one particle of the entangled states for Bell-state measurements, which leads to a transfer of the original quantum information onto the other particle of the entangled states. However in most of the implemented teleportation experiments nowadays, the Bell-state measurements are performed even before successful distribution of entanglement. This leads to an instant collapse of the quantum state for the transmitted particle, which is actually a single-particle transmission thereafter. Thus the true distance for quantum teleportation is, in fact, only in a level of meters. In the present experiment we design a novel scheme which has overcome this limit by utilizing fiber as quantum memory. A complete quantum teleportation is achieved upon successful entanglement distribution over 967 meters in public free space. Active feed-forward control techniques are developed for real-time transfer of quantum information. The overall experimental fidelities for teleported states are better than 89.6%, which signify high-quality teleportation. (rapid communications)
Differential phase-shift keying and channel equalization in free space optical communication system
Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Wan, Xiongfeng; Xu, Chenlu
2018-01-01
We present the performance benefits of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation in eliminating influence from atmospheric turbulence, especially for coherent free space optical (FSO) communication with a high communication rate. Analytic expression of detected signal is derived, based on which, homodyne detection efficiency is calculated to indicate the performance of wavefront compensation. Considered laser pulses always suffer from atmospheric scattering effect by clouds, intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed FSO communication link is analyzed. Correspondingly, the channel equalization method of a binormalized modified constant modulus algorithm based on set-membership filtering (SM-BNMCMA) is proposed to solve the ISI problem. Finally, through the comparison with existing channel equalization methods, its performance benefits of both ISI elimination and convergence speed are verified. The research findings have theoretical significance in a high-speed FSO communication system.
Long-distance free-space distribution of quantum entanglement over Vienna
Lindenthal, M.; Resch, K.; Blauensteiner, B.; Boehm, H.; Fedrizzi, A.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Poppe, A.; Schmitt-Manderbach, T.; Taraba, M.; Ursin, R.; Walther, P.; Weier, H.; Weinfurter, H.; Zeilinger, A.
2005-01-01
Full text: We have established a real-world free-space quantum channel over 7.8 km and demonstrate the distribution of entangled photons. The transmitter is placed at an observatory and the receiver on the 46th floor of an office skyscraper in Vienna, Austria. Using locally recorded time stamps and a public internet channel, coincident counts from correlated photons are demonstrated to violate a Bell inequality by 14 standard deviations. This confirms the high quality of the shared entanglement. In this experiment the horizontal freespace distance is chosen, so that the attenuation the light undergoes corresponds approximately to the attenuation from space to earth. This work is an encouraging step towards satellite-based distribution of quantum entanglement and future intra-city quantum networks. (author)
Quantum key distribution without sending a quantum signal
Ralph, T C; Walk, N
2015-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution is a quantum communication technique in which random numbers are encoded on quantum systems, usually photons, and sent from one party, Alice, to another, Bob. Using the data sent via the quantum signals, supplemented by classical communication, it is possible for Alice and Bob to share an unconditionally secure secret key. This is not possible if only classical signals are sent. While this last statement is a long standing result from quantum information theory it turns out only to be true in a non-relativistic setting. If relativistic quantum field theory is considered we show it is possible to distribute an unconditionally secure secret key without sending a quantum signal, instead harnessing the intrinsic entanglement between different regions of space–time. The protocol is practical in free space given horizon technology and might be testable in principle in the near term using microwave technology. (paper)
Quantum dense key distribution
Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility
Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption
Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo
2001-01-01
A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).
Li, Xueliang; Geng, Tianwen; Ma, Shuang; Li, Yatian; Gao, Shijie; Wu, Zhiyong
2017-06-01
The performance of coherent free-space optical (CFSO) communication with phase modulation is limited by both phase fluctuations and intensity scintillations induced by atmospheric turbulence. To improve the system performance, one effective way is to use digital phase estimation. In this paper, a CFSO communication system with quadrature phase-shift keying modulation is studied. With consideration of the effects of log-normal amplitude fluctuations and Gauss phase fluctuations, a two-stage Mth power carrier phase estimation (CPE) scheme is proposed. The simulation results show that the phase noise can be suppressed greatly by this scheme, and the system symbol error rate performance with the two-stage Mth power CPE can be three orders lower than that of the single-stage Mth power CPE. Therefore, the two-stage CPE we proposed can contribute to the performance improvements of the CFSO communication system and has determinate guidance sense to its actual application.
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
On a two-pass scheme without a faraday mirror for free-space relativistic quantum cryptography
Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Korol' kov, A. V. [Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation); Kulik, S. P., E-mail: sergei.kulik@gmail.com [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation)
2013-05-15
The stability of destructive interference independent of the input polarization and the state of a quantum communication channel in fiber optic systems used in quantum cryptography plays a principal role in providing the security of communicated keys. A novel optical scheme is proposed that can be used both in relativistic quantum cryptography for communicating keys in open space and for communicating them over fiber optic lines. The scheme ensures stability of destructive interference and admits simple automatic balancing of a fiber interferometer.
On a two-pass scheme without a faraday mirror for free-space relativistic quantum cryptography
Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Korol’kov, A. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2013-01-01
The stability of destructive interference independent of the input polarization and the state of a quantum communication channel in fiber optic systems used in quantum cryptography plays a principal role in providing the security of communicated keys. A novel optical scheme is proposed that can be used both in relativistic quantum cryptography for communicating keys in open space and for communicating them over fiber optic lines. The scheme ensures stability of destructive interference and admits simple automatic balancing of a fiber interferometer.
Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John
2018-01-09
Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.
A photonic nanowire trumpet for interfacing a quantum dot and a Gaussian free-space mode
Gregersen, Niels; Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.
2013-01-01
Efficient coupling between a localized quantum emitter and a well defined optical channel represents a powerful route to realize single-photon sources and spin-photon interfaces. The tailored fiber-like photonic nanowire embedding a single quantum dot has recently demonstrated an appealing...... potential. However, the device requires a delicate, sharp needle-like taper with performance sensitive to minute geometrical details. To overcome this limitation we demonstrate the photonic trumpet, exploiting an opposite tapering strategy. The trumpet features a strongly Gaussian far-field emission...
Is long distance free space quantum communication with the OAM state of light feasible [Presentation
Hamadou Ibrahim, A
2013-06-01
Full Text Available -space quantum communication with the OAM state of light feasible? A. HAMADOU IBRAHIM1,2, F.S. ROUX1, M. McLAREN1,3 , A. FORBES1,2,3 & T. KONRAD2 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...
Secure quantum key distribution
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2014-08-01
Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.
Key distillation in quantum cryptography
Slutsky, Boris Aron
1998-11-01
Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.
Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution
Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution
Detector decoy quantum key distribution
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos
2009-01-01
Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.
Quantum key distribution and cryptography
Alleaume, R.
2005-01-01
Full text: Originally proposed by classical cryptographers, the ideas behind Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) have attracted considerable interest among the quantum optics community, which has significantly helped bring these ideas to reality. Experimental realizations have quickly evolved from early lab demonstrations to QKD systems that are now deployed in real conditions and targeting commercial applications. Although QKD can be theoretically proven to rely on 'unconditional security proofs' and should thus be able to provide security levels unachievable through computationally-based cryptographic techniques, the debate on the cryptographic applications of QKD remains somehow controversial. It seems that a consensus on that matter cannot be reached without a careful analysis of assumptions and definitions related to security models used in classical or in quantum cryptography. In this talk, we will try to present a comprehensive synthesis on this topic. We have initiated this work as a contribution to the European IP SECOQC project, confronting views and knowledge among experimental and theoretical quantum physicists, as well as classical cryptographers. (author)
Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution
Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.
2004-08-01
We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.
Quantum key distribution using three basis states
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...
Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.
2014-11-01
The rate of secure key generation (SKG) in quantum key distribution (QKD) is adversely affected by optical noise and loss in the quantum channel. In a free-space atmospheric channel, the scattering of sunlight into the channel can lead to quantum bit error ratios (QBERs) sufficiently large to preclude SKG. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence limits the degree to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. A system simulation quantifies the potential benefit of tracking and higher-order adaptive optics (AO) technologies to SKG rates in a daytime satellite engagement scenario. The simulations are performed assuming propagation from a low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes an AO system comprised of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (SHWFS) and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror (DM). The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain waveoptics hardware emulator. Secure key generation rates are then calculated for the decoy state QKD protocol as a function of the receiver field of view (FOV) for various pointing angles. The results show that at FOVs smaller than previously considered, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and even enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of either background optical noise or signal loss due to turbulence effects.
Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications
Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.
2017-09-01
The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.
Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Anton Pljonkin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.
Subcarrier multiplexing optical quantum key distribution
Ortigosa-Blanch, A.; Capmany, J.
2006-01-01
We present the physical principles of a quantum key distribution system that opens the possibility of parallel quantum key distribution and, therefore, of a substantial improvement in the bit rate of such systems. Quantum mechanics allows for multiple measurements at different frequencies and thus we exploit this concept by extending the concept of frequency coding to the case where more than one radio-frequency subcarrier is used for independently encoding the bits onto an optical carrier. Taking advantage of subcarrier multiplexing techniques we demonstrate that the bit rate can be greatly improved as parallel key distribution is enabled
Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states
Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John
2001-01-01
We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel
Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography
Meyer, T.
2007-01-01
In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes the obtainable key rate for any
China demonstrates intercontinental quantum key distribution
Johnston, Hamish
2017-11-01
A quantum cryptography key has been shared between Beijing and Vienna using a satellite - allowing the presidents of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Austrian Academy of Sciences to communicate via a secure video link.
Renyi information gain on quantum key
Brandt, Howard E
2007-01-01
The concept of maximum Renyi information gain from quantum key is important in eavesdropping and security analyses of quantum key distribution. It is particularly useful in the design optimization of eavesdropping probes. The present work reviews the quantitative measure of Renyi information gain, its optimization, and application to the design of eavesdropping probes in which single-photon probe states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver
Quantum cryptography to satellites for global secure key distribution
Rarity, John G.; Gorman, Philip M.; Knight, Paul; Wallace, Kotska; Tapster, Paul R.
2017-11-01
We have designed and built a free space secure key exchange system using weak laser pulses with polarisation modulation by acousto-optic switching. We have used this system to exchange keys over a 1.2km ground range with absolute security. Building from this initial result we analyse the feasibility of exchanging keys to a low earth orbit satellite.
Secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement
Song, Daegene
2004-01-01
We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes
Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Guihua; Huang, Duan
2017-08-01
The survival of Gaussian quantum states in a turbulent atmospheric channel is of crucial importance in free-space continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD), in which the transmission coefficient will fluctuate in time, thus resulting in non-Gaussian quantum states. Different from quantum hacking of the imperfections of practical devices, here we propose a different type of attack by exploiting the security loopholes that occur in a real lossy channel. Under a turbulent atmospheric environment, the Gaussian states are inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which would cause a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. Therefore, an eavesdropper can perform an intercept-resend attack by applying an entanglement-distillation operation on the transmitted non-Gaussian mixed states, which allows the eavesdropper to bias the estimation of the parameters and renders the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure. Our proposal highlights the practical CV QKD vulnerabilities with free-space quantum channels, including the satellite-to-earth links, ground-to-ground links, and a link from moving objects to ground stations.
Parallel Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
Jain, Rahul; Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun
2017-01-01
A prominent application of quantum cryptography is the distribution of cryptographic keys with unconditional security. Recently, such security was extended by Vazirani and Vidick (Physical Review Letters, 113, 140501, 2014) to the device-independent (DI) scenario, where the users do not need to trust the integrity of the underlying quantum devices. The protocols analyzed by them and by subsequent authors all require a sequential execution of N multiplayer games, where N is the security parame...
Fully Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas
2014-10-01
Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol.
Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics
Darius Bunandar
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.
Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics
Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk
2018-04-01
Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.
Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation
Yuen, Horace P.
2010-01-01
We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.
Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters
Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)
2014-07-01
Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.
Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography
Meyer, T.
2007-10-31
In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes
Free space optical communication
Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat
2017-01-01
This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.
Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution
Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna
2017-01-01
Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels. (paper)
Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution
Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna
2017-05-01
Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels.
Coherent one-way quantum key distribution
Stucki, Damien; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Thoma, Yann; Zbinden, Hugo
2007-05-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) consists in the exchange of a secrete key between two distant points [1]. Even if quantum key distribution systems exist and commercial systems are reaching the market [2], there are still improvements to be made: simplify the construction of the system; increase the secret key rate. To this end, we present a new protocol for QKD tailored to work with weak coherent pulses and at high bit rates [3]. The advantages of this system are that the setup is experimentally simple and it is tolerant to reduced interference visibility and to photon number splitting attacks, thus resulting in a high efficiency in terms of distilled secret bits per qubit. After having successfully tested the feasibility of the system [3], we are currently developing a fully integrated and automated prototype within the SECOQC project [4]. We present the latest results using the prototype. We also discuss the issue of the photon detection, which still remains the bottleneck for QKD.
Secret key rates in quantum key distribution using Renyi entropies
Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bratzik, Sylvia; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)
2010-07-01
The secret key rate r of a quantum key distribution protocol depends on the involved number of signals and the accepted ''failure probability''. We reconsider a method to calculate r focusing on the analysis of the privacy amplification given by R. Renner and R. Koenig (2005). This approach involves an optimization problem with an objective function depending on the Renyi entropy of the density operator describing the classical outcomes and the eavesdropper system. This problem is analyzed for a generic class of QKD protocols and the current research status is presented.
Three state quantum key distribution for small keys
Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.
2005-01-01
Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)
Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution
Zhou Rui-Rui; Yang Li
2012-01-01
An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible. (general)
Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.
Giampouris, Dimitris
2017-01-01
Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.
Quantum key distribution on Hannover Campus
Duhme, Joerg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, AG Quanteninformation (Germany); Haendchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman [Albert Einstein Institut, Quantum Interferometry (Germany)
2012-07-01
We report on the progress of the implementation of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution on Hannover campus using squeezed gaussian states (continuous variables). This poster focuses on the theoretical aspects of the project. Experimental data has been compared with the theoretical simulation of the experimental setup. We especially discuss effects of the homodyne detection and postprocessing in use on the measurement outcome.
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-01-01
A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.
Multiparty quantum key agreement with single particles
Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-yan
2013-04-01
Two conditions must be satisfied in a secure quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol: (1) outside eavesdroppers cannot gain the generated key without introducing any error; (2) the generated key cannot be determined by any non-trivial subset of the participants. That is, a secure QKA protocol can not only prevent the outside attackers from stealing the key, but also resist the attack from inside participants, i.e. some dishonest participants determine the key alone by illegal means. How to resist participant attack is an aporia in the design of QKA protocols, especially the multi-party ones. In this paper we present the first secure multiparty QKA protocol against both outside and participant attacks. Further more, we have proved its security in detail.
Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements
Cabello, A
2000-01-01
Entanglement swapping between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs can be used to generate the same sequence of random bits in two remote places. A quantum key distribution protocol based on this idea is described. The scheme exhibits the following features. (a) It does not require that Alice and Bob choose between alternative measurements, therefore improving the rate of generated bits by transmitted qubit. (b) It allows Alice and Bob to generate a key of arbitrary length using a single quantum system (three EPR pairs), instead of a long sequence of them. (c) Detecting Eve requires the comparison of fewer bits. (d) Entanglement is an essential ingredient. The scheme assumes reliable measurements of the Bell operator. (20 refs).
Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution
Bonato, Cristian; Tomaello, Andrea; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Villoresi, Paolo
2009-01-01
In this paper we present a novel analysis of the feasibility of quantum key distribution between a LEO satellite and a ground station. First of all, we study signal propagation through a turbulent atmosphere for uplinks and downlinks, discussing the contribution of beam spreading and beam wandering. Then we introduce a model for the background noise of the channel during night-time and day-time, calculating the signal-to-noise ratio for different configurations. We also discuss the expected e...
The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna
Peev, M.; Pacher, C.; Alléaume, R.; Barreiro, C.; Bouda, J.; Boxleitner, W.; Debuisschert, T.; Diamanti, E.; Dianati, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fasel, S.; Fossier, S.; Fürst, M.; Gautier, J.-D.; Gay, O.; Gisin, N.; Grangier, P.; Happe, A.; Hasani, Y.; Hentschel, M.; Hübel, H.; Humer, G.; Länger, T.; Legré, M.; Lieger, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Lorünser, T.; Lütkenhaus, N.; Marhold, A.; Matyus, T.; Maurhart, O.; Monat, L.; Nauerth, S.; Page, J.-B.; Poppe, A.; Querasser, E.; Ribordy, G.; Robyr, S.; Salvail, L.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.; Stucki, D.; Suda, M.; Tamas, C.; Themel, T.; Thew, R. T.; Thoma, Y.; Treiber, A.; Trinkler, P.; Tualle-Brouri, R.; Vannel, F.; Walenta, N.; Weier, H.; Weinfurter, H.; Wimberger, I.; Yuan, Z. L.; Zbinden, H.; Zeilinger, A.
2009-07-01
In this paper, we present the quantum key distribution (QKD) network designed and implemented by the European project SEcure COmmunication based on Quantum Cryptography (SECOQC) (2004-2008), unifying the efforts of 41 research and industrial organizations. The paper summarizes the SECOQC approach to QKD networks with a focus on the trusted repeater paradigm. It discusses the architecture and functionality of the SECOQC trusted repeater prototype, which has been put into operation in Vienna in 2008 and publicly demonstrated in the framework of a SECOQC QKD conference held from October 8 to 10, 2008. The demonstration involved one-time pad encrypted telephone communication, a secure (AES encryption protected) video-conference with all deployed nodes and a number of rerouting experiments, highlighting basic mechanisms of the SECOQC network functionality. The paper gives an overview of the eight point-to-point network links in the prototype and their underlying technology: three plug and play systems by id Quantique, a one way weak pulse system from Toshiba Research in the UK, a coherent one-way system by GAP Optique with the participation of id Quantique and the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (formerly ARCAustrian Research Centers GmbH—ARC is now operating under the new name AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH following a restructuring initiative.), an entangled photons system by the University of Vienna and the AIT, a continuous-variables system by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and THALES Research and Technology with the participation of Université Libre de Bruxelles, and a free space link by the Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich connecting two nodes situated in adjacent buildings (line of sight 80 m). The average link length is between 20 and 30 km, the longest link being 83 km. The paper presents the architecture and functionality of the principal networking agent—the SECOQC node module, which enables the authentic
The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna
Peev, M; Pacher, C; Boxleitner, W; Happe, A; Hasani, Y; Alleaume, R; Diamanti, E; Barreiro, C; Fasel, S; Gautier, J-D; Gisin, N; Bouda, J; Debuisschert, T; Fossier, S; Dianati, M; Dynes, J F; Fuerst, M; Gay, O; Grangier, P; Hentschel, M
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present the quantum key distribution (QKD) network designed and implemented by the European project SEcure COmmunication based on Quantum Cryptography (SECOQC) (2004-2008), unifying the efforts of 41 research and industrial organizations. The paper summarizes the SECOQC approach to QKD networks with a focus on the trusted repeater paradigm. It discusses the architecture and functionality of the SECOQC trusted repeater prototype, which has been put into operation in Vienna in 2008 and publicly demonstrated in the framework of a SECOQC QKD conference held from October 8 to 10, 2008. The demonstration involved one-time pad encrypted telephone communication, a secure (AES encryption protected) video-conference with all deployed nodes and a number of rerouting experiments, highlighting basic mechanisms of the SECOQC network functionality. The paper gives an overview of the eight point-to-point network links in the prototype and their underlying technology: three plug and play systems by id Quantique, a one way weak pulse system from Toshiba Research in the UK, a coherent one-way system by GAP Optique with the participation of id Quantique and the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (formerly ARC ), an entangled photons system by University of Vienna and the AIT, a continuous-variables system by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and THALES Research and Technology with the participation of Universite Libre de Bruxelles, and a free space link by the Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich connecting two nodes situated in adjacent buildings (line of sight 80 m). The average link length is between 20 and 30 km, the longest link being 83 km. The paper presents the architecture and functionality of the principal networking agent-the SECOQC node module, which enables the authentic classical communication required for key distillation, manages the generated key material, determines a communication path between any destinations in the network
Distribution of high-dimensional entanglement via an intra-city free-space link.
Steinlechner, Fabian; Ecker, Sebastian; Fink, Matthias; Liu, Bo; Bavaresco, Jessica; Huber, Marcus; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert
2017-07-24
Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing and its distribution between distant parties is a key challenge in quantum communications. Increasing the dimensionality of entanglement has been shown to improve robustness and channel capacities in secure quantum communications. Here we report on the distribution of genuine high-dimensional entanglement via a 1.2-km-long free-space link across Vienna. We exploit hyperentanglement, that is, simultaneous entanglement in polarization and energy-time bases, to encode quantum information, and observe high-visibility interference for successive correlation measurements in each degree of freedom. These visibilities impose lower bounds on entanglement in each subspace individually and certify four-dimensional entanglement for the hyperentangled system. The high-fidelity transmission of high-dimensional entanglement under real-world atmospheric link conditions represents an important step towards long-distance quantum communications with more complex quantum systems and the implementation of advanced quantum experiments with satellite links.
Quantum hacking on quantum key distribution using homodyne detection
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-03-01
Imperfect devices in commercial quantum key distribution systems open security loopholes that an eavesdropper may exploit. An example of one such imperfection is the wavelength-dependent coupling ratio of the fiber beam splitter. Utilizing this loophole, the eavesdropper can vary the transmittances of the fiber beam splitter at the receiver's side by inserting lights with wavelengths different from what is normally used. Here, we propose a wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system using homodyne detection. By inserting light pulses at different wavelengths, this attack allows the eavesdropper to bias the shot-noise estimation even if it is done in real time. Based on experimental data, we discuss the feasibility of this attack and suggest a prevention scheme by improving the previously proposed countermeasures.
Security of practical quantum key distribution systems
Jain, Nitin
2015-02-24
This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.
Extensible router for a quantum key distribution network
Zhang Tao; Mo Xiaofan; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan
2008-01-01
Building a quantum key distribution network is crucial for practical quantum cryptography. We present a scheme to build a star topology quantum key distribution network based on wavelength division multiplexing which, with current technology, can connect at least a hundred users. With the scheme, a 4-user demonstration network was built up and key exchanges were performed
Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution
Watanabe, Yodai
2007-01-01
This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)
Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution
Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld
2017-01-01
nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum...
Application of quantum key distribution for mutual identification - experimental realization
Dusek, M.; Haderka, O.; Hendrych, M.
1998-01-01
A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are 're fuelled' from a shared secret key transferred over a quantum channel. The question of authentication of information sent over a public channel is discussed. An apparatus using two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers has been built, and quantum key distribution and 'quantum identification' have been successfully tested through a single-mode optical fibre at 830 nm, employing low intensity coherent states (below 0,1 photons per pulse). (author)
Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources
Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Lo, H.-K.
2007-01-01
A parametric down-conversion (PDC) source can be used as either a triggered single-photon source or an entangled-photon source in quantum key distribution (QKD). The triggering PDC QKD has already been studied in the literature. On the other hand, a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD are still missing. We fill in this important gap by proposing such a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD. Although the PDC model is proposed to study the entanglement-based QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other non-QKD experiments involving a PDC source. Since an entangled PDC source is a basis-independent source, we apply Koashi and Preskill's security analysis to the entanglement PDC QKD. We also investigate the entanglement PDC QKD with two-way classical communications. We find that the recurrence scheme increases the key rate and the Gottesman-Lo protocol helps tolerate higher channel losses. By simulating a recent 144-km open-air PDC experiment, we compare three implementations: entanglement PDC QKD, triggering PDC QKD, and coherent-state QKD. The simulation result suggests that the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate higher channel losses than the coherent-state QKD. The coherent-state QKD with decoy states is able to achieve highest key rate in the low- and medium-loss regions. By applying the Gottesman-Lo two-way post-processing protocol, the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate up to 70 dB combined channel losses (35 dB for each channel) provided that the PDC source is placed in between Alice and Bob. After considering statistical fluctuations, the PDC setup can tolerate up to 53 dB channel losses
Usenko, Vladyslav C; Filip, Radim; Heim, Bettina; Peuntinger, Christian; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2012-01-01
Entanglement properties of Gaussian states of light as well as the security of continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian states in free-space fading channels are studied. These qualities are shown to be sensitive to the statistical properties of the transmittance distribution in the cases when entanglement is strong or when channel excess noise is present. Fading, i.e. transmission fluctuations, caused by beam wandering due to atmospheric turbulence, is a frequent challenge in free-space communication. We introduce a method of fading discrimination and subsequent post-selection of the corresponding sub-states and show that it can improve the entanglement resource and restore the security of the key distribution over a realistic fading link. Furthermore, the optimal post-selection strategy in combination with an optimized entangled resource is shown to drastically increase the protocol's robustness to excess noise, which is confirmed for experimentally measured fading channel characteristics. The stability of the result against finite data ensemble size and imperfect channel estimation is also addressed. (paper)
Free-space QKD system hacking by wavelength control using an external laser.
Lee, Min Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Jung, Jisung; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung
2017-05-15
We develop a way to hack free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) systems by changing the wavelength of the quantum signal laser using an external laser. Most free-space QKD systems use four distinct lasers for each polarization, thereby making the characteristics of each laser indistinguishable. We also discover a side-channel that can distinguish the lasers by using an external laser. Our hacking scheme identifies the lasers by automatically applying the external laser to each signal laser at different intensities and detecting the wavelength variation according to the amount of incident external laser power. We conduct a proof-of-principle experiment to verify the proposed hacking structure and confirm that the wavelength varies by several gigahertzes to several nanometers, depending on the intensity of the external laser. The risk of hacking is successfully proven through the experimental results. Methods for prevention are also suggested.
Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-10-01
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a
Quantum Key Distribution Using Four-Qubit W State
Cai Haijing; Song Heshan
2006-01-01
A new theoretical quantum key distribution scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed, where four-qubit symmetric W state functions as quantum channel. It is shown that two legitimate users can secretly share a series of key bits by using Bell-state measurements and classical communication.
Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2016-01-01
Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....
Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states
Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael
2012-01-01
Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...
Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.
Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José
2012-06-01
We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.
Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode
Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-12-28
Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.
Quantum key distribution over multicore fiber based on silicon photonics
Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld
on quantum physics. In order to exchange secure information between users, quantum key distribution (QKD), a branch of Quantum Communications (QCs), provides good prospects for ultimate security based on the laws of quantum mechanics [2–7]. Most of QKD systems are implemented in a point-to-point link using...... generations, to HD-entanglement distribution. Furthermore, MCFs are expected as a good candidate for overcoming the capacity limit of a current optical communication system, as example the record capacity of 661 Tbits/s was obtained last year with a 30-cores fiber [8]. Proof of concept experiment has already...... requirements in terms of key generation are needed. A solution may be represented by new technologies applied to quantum world. In particular multicore fiber (MCF) open a new scenario for quantum communications, from high-dimensional (HD) spatial entanglement generation, to HD QKD and multi-user key...
Fast optical source for quantum key distribution based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.
Jofre, M; Gardelein, A; Anzolin, G; Amaya, W; Capmany, J; Ursin, R; Peñate, L; Lopez, D; San Juan, J L; Carrasco, J A; Garcia, F; Torcal-Milla, F J; Sanchez-Brea, L M; Bernabeu, E; Perdigues, J M; Jennewein, T; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V
2011-02-28
A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14×10⁻² while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication.
Multi-party Semi-quantum Key Agreement with Delegating Quantum Computation
Liu, Wen-Jie; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Ji, Sai; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun
2017-10-01
A multi-party semi-quantum key agreement (SQKA) protocol based on delegating quantum computation (DQC) model is proposed by taking Bell states as quantum resources. In the proposed protocol, the participants only need the ability of accessing quantum channel and preparing single photons {|0〉, |1〉, |+〉, |-〉}, while the complicated quantum operations, such as the unitary operations and Bell measurement, will be delegated to the remote quantum center. Compared with previous quantum key agreement protocols, this client-server model is more feasible in the early days of the emergence of quantum computers. In order to prevent the attacks from outside eavesdroppers, inner participants and quantum center, two single photon sequences are randomly inserted into Bell states: the first sequence is used to perform the quantum channel detection, while the second is applied to disorder the positions of message qubits, which guarantees the security of the protocol.
One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement.
Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao
2016-06-30
A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the "Ping-pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step.
Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles
Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen
2016-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.
Quantum mechanics - a key to understanding magnetism
Van Vleck, J.H.
1978-01-01
A translation is presented of J.H. van Vleck's lecture read at the 1977 Nobel Prize avarding ceremony. The basic results obtained using quantum mechanics in solving the problems of magnetism and especially paramagnetism are chronologically arranged. (Z.J.)
Photon nonlinear mixing in subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems.
Capmany, José
2009-04-13
We provide, for the first time to our knowledge, an analysis of the influence of nonlinear photon mixing on the end to end quantum bit error rate (QBER) performance of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems. The results show that negligible impact is to be expected for modulation indexes in the range of 2%.
Reply to 'Comment on 'Quantum dense key distribution''
Degiovanni, I.P.; Berchera, I. Ruo; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.
2005-01-01
In this Reply we propose a modified security proof of the quantum dense key distribution protocol, detecting also the eavesdropping attack proposed by Wojcik in his Comment [Wojcik, Phys. Rev. A 71, 016301 (2005)
Toward Designing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Simulation Model
Miralem Mehic; Peppino Fazio; Miroslav Voznak; Erik Chromy
2016-01-01
As research in quantum key distribution network technologies grows larger and more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. In this paper, we described the design of simplified simulation environment of the quantum key distribution network with multiple links and nodes. In such simulation environment, we analyzed several ...
Unconditional security of quantum key distribution and the uncertainty principle
Koashi, Masato
2006-01-01
An approach to the unconditional security of quantum key distribution protocols is presented, which is based on the uncertainty principle. The approach applies to every case that has been treated via the argument by Shor and Preskill, but it is not necessary to find quantum error correcting codes. It can also treat the cases with uncharacterized apparatuses. The proof can be applied to cases where the secret key rate is larger than the distillable entanglement
Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states
Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Li Lvjun
2009-01-01
Recently Boyer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)] suggested the idea of semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) in which Bob is classical and they also proposed a semiquantum key distribution protocol (BKM2007). To discuss the security of the BKM2007 protocol, they proved that their protocol is completely robust. This means that nonzero information acquired by Eve on the information string implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. The BKM2007 protocol uses four quantum states to distribute a secret key. In this paper, we simplify their protocol by using less than four quantum states. In detail, we present five different SQKD protocols in which Alice sends three quantum states, two quantum states, and one quantum state, respectively. Also, we prove that all the five protocols are completely robust. In particular, we invent two completely robust SQKD protocols in which Alice sends only one quantum state. Alice uses a register in one SQKD protocol, but she does not use any register in the other. The information bit proportion of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state but uses a register is the double as that in the BKM2007 protocol. Furthermore, the information bit rate of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state and does not use any register is not lower than that of the BKM2007 protocol.
Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
Li Chunyan; Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu
2008-01-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently. (general)
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states
Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Security by quantum key distribution and IPSEC (SEQKEIP): feasibility
Sfaxi, M.A.; Ghernaouti-Helie, S.; Ribordy, G; Gay, O.
2005-01-01
Full text: Classical cryptography algorithms are based on mathematical functions. The robustness of a given cryptosystem is based essentially on the secrecy of its (private) key and the difficulty with which the inverse of its one-way function(s) can be calculated. Unfortunately, there is no mathematical proof that will establish whether it is not possible to find the inverse of a given one-way function. On the contrary, quantum cryptography is a method for sharing secret keys, whose security can be formally demonstrated. It is based on the laws of physics. The possible applications of quantum cryptography are mainly linked to telecommunication services that require very high level of security. Quantum cryptography could be integrated in various existing concepts and protocols. One of the possible use of quantum cryptography is within IPSEC. The aim of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of using quantum cryptography in IPSEC and to present the estimated performances of this solution. (author)
The University of Canberra quantum key distribution testbed
Ganeshkumar, G.; Edwards, P.J.; Cheung, W.N.; Barbopoulos, L.O.; Pham, H.; Hazel, J.C.
1999-01-01
Full text: We describe the design, operation and preliminary results obtained from a quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed constructed at the University of Canberra. Quantum cryptographic systems use shared secret keys exchanged in the form of sequences of polarisation coded or phase encoded single photons transmitted over an optical communications channel. Secrecy of this quantum key rests upon fundamental laws of quantum physics: measurements of linear or circular photon polarisation states introduce noise into the conjugate variable and so reveal eavesdropping. In its initial realisation reported here, pulsed light from a 650nm laser diode is attenuated by a factor of 10 6 , plane-polarised and then transmitted through a birefringent liquid crystal modulator (LCM) to a polarisation sensitive single photon receiver. This transmitted key sequence consists of a 1 kHz train of weak coherent 100ns wide light pulses, polarisation coded according to the BB84 protocol. Each pulse is randomly assigned one of four polarisation states (two orthogonal linear and two orthogonal circular) by computer PCA operated by the sender ('Alice'). This quaternary polarisation shift keyed photon stream is detected by the receiver ('Bob') whose computer (PCB) randomly chooses either a linear or a circular polarisation basis. Computer PCB is also used for final key selection, authentication, privacy amplification and eavesdropping. We briefly discuss the realisation of a mesoscopic single photon QKD source and the use of the testbed to simulate a global quantum key distribution system using earth satellites. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society
Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing; Zhang Quan
2011-01-01
It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function. (general)
Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution
Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-11-01
Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.
Trojan horse attacks on counterfactual quantum key distribution
Yang, Xiuqing, E-mail: xqqyang@163.com [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Sun, Shihai, E-mail: shsun@nudt.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Du, Yungang [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wu, Lingan [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2016-04-22
There has been much interest in “counterfactual quantum cryptography” (T.-G. Noh, 2009 [10]). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes. - Highlights: • We find the attacks available for the two-way protocol become possible for the practical counterfactual systems. • It does not require the assumption that it works on the counterfactual systems only in a finite key scenario. • Compared to the other attack models, our scheme is relatively simple for an eavesdropper.
Experimental aspects of deterministic secure quantum key distribution
Walenta, Nino; Korn, Dietmar; Puhlmann, Dirk; Felbinger, Timo; Hoffmann, Holger; Ostermeyer, Martin [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Institut fuer Physik; Bostroem, Kim [Universitaet Muenster (Germany)
2008-07-01
Most common protocols for quantum key distribution (QKD) use non-deterministic algorithms to establish a shared key. But deterministic implementations can allow for higher net key transfer rates and eavesdropping detection rates. The Ping-Pong coding scheme by Bostroem and Felbinger[1] employs deterministic information encoding in entangled states with its characteristic quantum channel from Bob to Alice and back to Bob. Based on a table-top implementation of this protocol with polarization-entangled photons fundamental advantages as well as practical issues like transmission losses, photon storage and requirements for progress towards longer transmission distances are discussed and compared to non-deterministic protocols. Modifications of common protocols towards a deterministic quantum key distribution are addressed.
Quantum key distribution for composite dimensional finite systems
Shalaby, Mohamed; Kamal, Yasser
2017-06-01
The application of quantum mechanics contributes to the field of cryptography with very important advantage as it offers a mechanism for detecting the eavesdropper. The pioneering work of quantum key distribution uses mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) to prepare and measure qubits (or qudits). Weak mutually unbiased bases (WMUBs) have weaker properties than MUBs properties, however, unlike MUBs, a complete set of WMUBs can be constructed for systems with composite dimensions. In this paper, we study the use of weak mutually unbiased bases (WMUBs) in quantum key distribution for composite dimensional finite systems. We prove that the security analysis of using a complete set of WMUBs to prepare and measure the quantum states in the generalized BB84 protocol, gives better results than using the maximum number of MUBs that can be constructed, when they are analyzed against the intercept and resend attack.
Symmetric Blind Information Reconciliation for Quantum Key Distribution
Kiktenko, Evgeniy O.
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a quantum-proof key-exchange scheme which is fast approaching the communication industry. An essential component in QKD is the information reconciliation step, which is used for correcting the quantum-channel noise errors. The recently suggested blind-reconciliation technique, based on low-density parity-check codes, offers remarkable prospectives for efficient information reconciliation without an a priori quantum bit error rate estimation. We suggest an improvement of the blind-information-reconciliation protocol promoting a significant increase in the efficiency of the procedure and reducing its interactivity. Finally, the proposed technique is based on introducing symmetry in operations of parties, and the consideration of results of unsuccessful belief-propagation decodings.
Practical quantum key distribution with polarization-entangled photons
Poppe, A.; Fedrizzi, A.; Boehm, H.; Ursin, R.; Loruenser, T.; Peev, M.; Maurhardt, O.; Suda, M.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Weinfurter, H.; Jennewein, T.; Zeilinger, A.
2005-01-01
Full text: We present an entangled-state quantum cryptography system that operated for the first time in a real-world application scenario. The full key generation protocol was performed in real-time between two distributed embedded hardware devices, which were connected by 1.45 km of optical fiber, installed for this experiment in the Vienna sewage system. A source for polarization-entangled photons delivered about 8200 entangled photon pairs per second. After transmission to the distant receivers, a mean value of 468 pairs per second remained for the generation of a raw key, which showed an average qubit error rate of 6.4 %. The raw key was sifted and subsequently processed by a classical protocol which included error correction and privacy amplification. The final secure key bit rate was about 76 bits per second. The generated quantum key was then handed over and used by a secure communication application. (author)
Toward Designing a Quantum Key Distribution Network Simulation Model
Miralem Mehic
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As research in quantum key distribution network technologies grows larger and more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. In this paper, we described the design of simplified simulation environment of the quantum key distribution network with multiple links and nodes. In such simulation environment, we analyzed several routing protocols in terms of the number of sent routing packets, goodput and Packet Delivery Ratio of data traffic flow using NS-3 simulator.
Robustness bounds and practical limitations of quantum key distribution
Khalique, Aeysha
2008-01-01
Quantum information theory is a modern branch of theoretical physics. One of its main goals is to interpret concepts of quantum physics. This leads to a deeper understanding of quantum theory. The most common examples of practical applications of basic quantum theory are quantum computation and quantum cryptography. Quantum cryptography provides secure communication between legitimate users even in the presence of an adversary by making possible the distribution of a secret key. It then allows error correction and privacy amplification, which is elimination of adversary information, through classical communication. In this thesis two important aspects of quantum key distribution are covered, namely robustness bounds with respect to provable entanglement for ideal protocols and practical quantum key distribution using two-way classical communication. In part one of the thesis, ideal quantum key distribution protocols and their robustness in terms of provable entanglement are discussed. The robustness bounds are proved for most general coherent attacks. These bounds for provable entanglement are already known to be 25% for the four-state protocol and 33% for the six-state protocol. We anticipate to provide a region in which the legitimate users share entanglement. This region is large for the four-state protocol and is reduced to a smaller region for the six-state protocol because of additional constraint on it. We also investigate the information cost which the adversary has to pay in order to reach these bounds. In part two we adopt a more practical approach. We investigate the limitation on distance of secure communication because of practical restrictions. In particular we investigate the restrictions due to the lack of single photon sources, the lossy channel and faulty detectors. These practical limitations have already been observed using one-way classical communication between legitimate users. It has been observed that it is actually the dark count rate that
Optimal attacks on qubit-based Quantum Key Recycling
Leermakers, Daan; Škorić, Boris
2018-03-01
Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that allows one to reuse keys in an unconditionally secure way. By removing the need to repeatedly generate new keys, it improves communication efficiency. Škorić and de Vries recently proposed a QKR scheme based on 8-state encoding (four bases). It does not require quantum computers for encryption/decryption but only single-qubit operations. We provide a missing ingredient in the security analysis of this scheme in the case of noisy channels: accurate upper bounds on the required amount of privacy amplification. We determine optimal attacks against the message and against the key, for 8-state encoding as well as 4-state and 6-state conjugate coding. We provide results in terms of min-entropy loss as well as accessible (Shannon) information. We show that the Shannon entropy analysis for 8-state encoding reduces to the analysis of quantum key distribution, whereas 4-state and 6-state suffer from additional leaks that make them less effective. From the optimal attacks we compute the required amount of privacy amplification and hence the achievable communication rate (useful information per qubit) of qubit-based QKR. Overall, 8-state encoding yields the highest communication rates.
Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Secret key rates via Renyi entropies
Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bruss, Dagmar [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, Heinrich-Heine-universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)
2011-09-15
A realistic quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over Renyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.
Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Secret key rates via Renyi entropies
Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bruss, Dagmar
2011-01-01
A realistic quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over Renyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.
Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks
Pironio, Stefano; Gisin, Nicolas; AcIn, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Massar, Serge; Scarani, Valerio
2009-01-01
Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) represents a relaxation of the security assumptions made in usual quantum key distribution (QKD). As in usual QKD, the security of DIQKD follows from the laws of quantum physics, but contrary to usual QKD, it does not rely on any assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used in the protocol. In this paper, we present in detail the security proof for a DIQKD protocol introduced in AcIn et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 230501). This proof exploits the full structure of quantum theory (as opposed to other proofs that exploit only the no-signaling principle), but only holds against collective attacks, where the eavesdropper is assumed to act on the quantum systems of the honest parties independently and identically in each round of the protocol (although she can act coherently on her systems at any time). The security of any DIQKD protocol necessarily relies on the violation of a Bell inequality. We discuss the issue of loopholes in Bell experiments in this context.
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-04-01
A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.
Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas
2017-06-14
Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.
Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas
2015-04-07
Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.
Quantum-key-distribution protocol with pseudorandom bases
Trushechkin, A. S.; Tregubov, P. A.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.
2018-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers a way for establishing information-theoretical secure communications. An important part of QKD technology is a high-quality random number generator for the quantum-state preparation and for post-processing procedures. In this work, we consider a class of prepare-and-measure QKD protocols, utilizing additional pseudorandomness in the preparation of quantum states. We study one of such protocols and analyze its security against the intercept-resend attack. We demonstrate that, for single-photon sources, the considered protocol gives better secret key rates than the BB84 and the asymmetric BB84 protocols. However, the protocol strongly requires single-photon sources.
Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system
Grice, Warren P
2015-02-24
An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.
Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons
Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue
2016-10-01
We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols
Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.
2005-01-01
Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)
Two-way quantum key distribution at telecommunication wavelength
Kumar, Rupesh; Lucamarini, Marco; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Natali, Riccardo; Mancini, Giorgio; Tombesi, Paolo
2008-01-01
We report on a quantum key distribution effected with a two-way deterministic protocol over a standard telecommunication fiber. Despite the common belief of a prohibitive loss rate for such a scheme, our results show its feasibility on distances of few tenths of kilometers
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution
Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.
2016-07-01
We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.
Long-distance quantum key distribution with imperfect devices
Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen
2014-01-01
Quantum key distribution over probabilistic quantum repeaters is addressed. We compare, under practical assumptions, two such schemes in terms of their secure key generation rate per memory, R QKD . The two schemes under investigation are the one proposed by Duan et al. in [Nat. 414, 413 (2001)] and that of Sangouard et al. proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 76, 050301 (2007)]. We consider various sources of imperfections in the latter protocol, such as a nonzero double-photon probability for the source, dark count per pulse, channel loss and inefficiencies in photodetectors and memories, to find the rate for different nesting levels. We determine the maximum value of the double-photon probability beyond which it is not possible to share a secret key anymore. We find the crossover distance for up to three nesting levels. We finally compare the two protocols
Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarized Coherent States
Vidiella-Barranco, A.; Borelli, L. F. M.
We discuss a continuous variables method of quantum key distribution employing strongly polarized coherent states of light. The key encoding is performed using the variables known as Stokes parameters, rather than the field quadratures. Their quantum counterpart, the Stokes operators Ŝi (i=1,2,3), constitute a set of non-commuting operators, being the precision of simultaneous measurements of a pair of them limited by an uncertainty-like relation. Alice transmits a conveniently modulated two-mode coherent state, and Bob randomly measures one of the Stokes parameters of the incoming beam. After performing reconciliation and privacy amplification procedures, it is possible to distill a secret common key. We also consider a non-ideal situation, in which coherent states with thermal noise, instead of pure coherent states, are used for encoding.
Securing quantum key distribution systems using fewer states
Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.
2018-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote users to establish a secret key in the presence of an eavesdropper. The users share quantum states prepared in two mutually unbiased bases: one to generate the key while the other monitors the presence of the eavesdropper. Here, we show that a general d -dimension QKD system can be secured by transmitting only a subset of the monitoring states. In particular, we find that there is no loss in the secure key rate when dropping one of the monitoring states. Furthermore, it is possible to use only a single monitoring state if the quantum bit error rates are low enough. We apply our formalism to an experimental d =4 time-phase QKD system, where only one monitoring state is transmitted, and obtain a secret key rate of 17.4 ±2.8 Mbits/s at a 4 dB channel loss and with a quantum bit error rate of 0.045 ±0.001 and 0.037 ±0.001 in time and phase bases, respectively, which is 58.4% of the secret key rate that can be achieved with the full setup. This ratio can be increased, potentially up to 100%, if the error rates in time and phase basis are reduced. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to substantially simplify the design of high-dimensional QKD systems, including those that use the spatial or temporal degrees of freedom of the photon, and still outperform qubit-based (d =2 ) protocols.
Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution.
Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Makarov, Vadim; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-09-09
Characterizing the physical channel and calibrating the cryptosystem hardware are prerequisites for establishing a quantum channel for quantum key distribution (QKD). Moreover, an inappropriately implemented calibration routine can open a fatal security loophole. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to induce a large temporal detector efficiency mismatch in a commercial QKD system by deceiving a channel length calibration routine. We then devise an optimal and realistic strategy using faked states to break the security of the cryptosystem. A fix for this loophole is also suggested.
Key rate of quantum key distribution with hashed two-way classical communication
Watanabe, Shun; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Uyematsu, Tomohiko; Kawano, Yasuhito
2007-01-01
We propose an information reconciliation protocol that uses two-way classical communication. The key rates of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use our protocol are higher than those using previously known protocols for a wide range of error rates for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-state protocols. We also clarify the relation between the proposed and known QKD protocols, and the relation between the proposed protocol and entanglement distillation protocols
Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Guinnard, O; Houlmann, R; Korzh, B; Lim, C W; Lunghi, T; Portmann, C; Thew, R T; Burg, A; Constantin, J; Caselunghe, D; Kulesza, N; Legré, M; Monat, L; Soucarros, M; Trinkler, P; Junod, P; Trolliet, G; Vannel, F
2014-01-01
We present a compactly integrated, 625 MHz clocked coherent one-way quantum key distribution system which continuously distributes secret keys over an optical fibre link. To support high secret key rates, we implemented a fast hardware key distillation engine which allows for key distillation rates up to 4 Mbps in real time. The system employs wavelength multiplexing in order to run over only a single optical fibre. Using fast gated InGaAs single photon detectors, we reliably distribute secret keys with a rate above 21 kbps over 25 km of optical fibre. We optimized the system considering a security analysis that respects finite-key-size effects, authentication costs and system errors for a security parameter of ε QKD = 4 × 10 −9 . (paper)
Propagation of spatially entangled qudits through free space
Lima, G.; Neves, Leonardo; Santos, Ivan F.; Padua, S.; Aguirre Gomez, J. G.; Saavedra, C.
2006-01-01
We show the propagation of entangled states of high-dimensional quantum systems. The qudits states were generated using the transverse correlation of the twin photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Their free-space distribution was performed at the laboratory scale and the propagated states maintained a high fidelity with their original form. The use of entangled qudits allow an increase in the quantity of information that can be transmitted and may also guarantee more privacy for communicating parties. Therefore, studies about propagating entangled states of qudits are important for the effort of building quantum communication networks
Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters.
Lucamarini, M; Yuan, Z L; Dynes, J F; Shields, A J
2018-05-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) 1,2 allows two distant parties to share encryption keys with security based on physical laws. Experimentally, QKD has been implemented via optical means, achieving key rates of 1.26 megabits per second over 50 kilometres of standard optical fibre 3 and of 1.16 bits per hour over 404 kilometres of ultralow-loss fibre in a measurement-device-independent configuration 4 . Increasing the bit rate and range of QKD is a formidable, but important, challenge. A related target, which is currently considered to be unfeasible without quantum repeaters 5-7 , is overcoming the fundamental rate-distance limit of QKD 8 . This limit defines the maximum possible secret key rate that two parties can distil at a given distance using QKD and is quantified by the secret-key capacity of the quantum channel 9 that connects the parties. Here we introduce an alternative scheme for QKD whereby pairs of phase-randomized optical fields are first generated at two distant locations and then combined at a central measuring station. Fields imparted with the same random phase are 'twins' and can be used to distil a quantum key. The key rate of this twin-field QKD exhibits the same dependence on distance as does a quantum repeater, scaling with the square-root of the channel transmittance, irrespective of who (malicious or otherwise) is in control of the measuring station. However, unlike schemes that involve quantum repeaters, ours is feasible with current technology and presents manageable levels of noise even on 550 kilometres of standard optical fibre. This scheme is a promising step towards overcoming the rate-distance limit of QKD and greatly extending the range of secure quantum communications.
One-way quantum key distribution: Simple upper bound on the secret key rate
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos
2006-01-01
We present a simple method to obtain an upper bound on the achievable secret key rate in quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use only unidirectional classical communication during the public-discussion phase. This method is based on a necessary precondition for one-way secret key distillation; the legitimate users need to prove that there exists no quantum state having a symmetric extension that is compatible with the available measurements results. The main advantage of the obtained upper bound is that it can be formulated as a semidefinite program, which can be efficiently solved. We illustrate our results by analyzing two well-known qubit-based QKD protocols: the four-state protocol and the six-state protocol
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-17
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.
Analysis of the differential-phase-shift-keying protocol in the quantum-key-distribution system
Rong-Zhen, Jiao; Chen-Xu, Feng; Hai-Qiang, Ma
2009-01-01
The analysis is based on the error rate and the secure communication rate as functions of distance for three quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols: the Bennett–Brassard 1984, the Bennett–Brassard–Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocols. We consider the secure communication rate of the DPSK protocol against an arbitrary individual attack, including the most commonly considered intercept-resend and photon-number splitting attacks, and concluded that the simple and efficient differential-phase-shift-keying protocol allows for more than 200 km of secure communication distance with high communication rates. (general)
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise
Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2011-01-01
Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.
A System-Level Throughput Model for Quantum Key Distribution
2015-09-17
discrete logarithms in a finite field [35]. Arguably the most popular asymmetric encryption scheme is the RSA algorithm, published a year later in...Theory, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 644-654, 1976. [36] G. Singh and S. Supriya, ’A Study of Encryption Algorithms ( RSA , DES, 3DES and AES) for Information...xv Dictionary QKD = Quantum Key Distribution OTP = One-Time Pad cryptographic algorithm DES = Data Encryption Standard 3DES
Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)
2015-11-12
polarization control and the CV state and the LO state are separated at a polarizing beam splitter . The CV state is delayed relative to the LO state, and... splitter or loss imperfections. We have identified a number of risks associated with implementing this design . The two most critical risks are: • The...Contractor Address: 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Title of the Project: Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY
Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice
Erven, Chris; Ma Xiongfeng; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor
2009-01-01
We investigate a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that utilizes a biased basis choice in order to increase the efficiency of the scheme. The optimal bias between the two measurement bases, a more refined error analysis and finite key size effects are all studied in order to assure the security of the final key generated with the system. We then implement the scheme in a local entangled QKD system that uses polarization entangled photon pairs to securely distribute the key. A 50/50 non-polarizing beamsplitter (BS) with different optical attenuators is used to simulate a variable BS in order to allow us to study the operation of the system for different biases. Over 6 h of continuous operation with a total bias of 0.9837/0.0163 (Z/X), we were able to generate 0.4567 secure key bits per raw key bit as compared to 0.2550 secure key bits per raw key bit for the unbiased case. This represents an increase in the efficiency of the key generation rate by 79%.
Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity
Koashi, M
2009-01-01
We present an approach to the unconditional security of quantum key distribution protocols based on a complementarity argument. The approach is applicable to, but not limited to, every case that has been treated via the argument by Shor and Preskill based on entanglement distillation, with a benefit of decoupling of the error correction from the privacy amplification. It can also treat cases with uncharacterized apparatuses. We derive a secure key rate for the Bennett-Brassard-1984 protocol with an arbitrary source characterized only by a single parameter representing the basis dependence.
Spherical reconciliation for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Lu Zhao; Shi Jian-Hong; Li Feng-Guang
2017-01-01
Information reconciliation is a significant step for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. We propose a reconciliation method that allows two authorized parties to extract a consistent and secure binary key in a CV-QKD protocol, which is based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and homodyne detection. This method named spherical reconciliation is based on spherical quantization and non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. With the suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and code rate of non-binary LDPC codes, spherical reconciliation algorithm has a high efficiency and can extend the transmission distance of CV-QKD. (paper)
How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas
2011-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.
How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Hübel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas
2011-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.
Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2006-01-01
The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack
Multi-client quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing
Grice, Warren P.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G.; Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Schaake, Jason; Williams, Brian P.
2011-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) exploits the rules of quantum mechanics to generate and securely distribute a random sequence of bits to two spatially separated clients. Typically a QKD system can support only a single pair of clients at a time, and so a separate quantum link is required for every pair of users. We overcome this limitation with the design and characterization of a multi-client entangled-photon QKD system with the capacity for up to 100 clients simultaneously. The time-bin entangled QKD system includes a broadband down-conversion source with two unique features that enable the multi-user capability. First, the photons are emitted across a very large portion of the telecom spectrum. Second, and more importantly, the photons are strongly correlated in their energy degree of freedom. Using standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) hardware, the photons can be routed to different parties on a quantum communication network, while the strong spectral correlations ensure that each client is linked only to the client receiving the conjugate wavelength. In this way, a single down-conversion source can support dozens of channels simultaneously--and to the extent that the WDM hardware can send different spectral channels to different clients, the system can support multiple client pairings. We will describe the design and characterization of the down-conversion source, as well as the client stations, which must be tunable across the emission spectrum.
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-01-01
A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations. (paper)
Analysis of Free-Space Optics Development
Mikołajczyk Janusz
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents state of work in technology of free-space optical communications (Free Space Optics − FSO. Both commercially available optical data links and their further development are described. The main elements and operation limiting factors of FSO systems have been identified. Additionally, analyses of FSO/RF hybrid systems application are included. The main aspects of LasBITer project related to such hybrid technology for security and defence applications are presented.
Tomographic Approach in Three-Orthogonal-Basis Quantum Key Distribution
Liang Wen-Ye; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Chen Hua; Li Hong-Wei; Chen Wei; Han Zheng-Fu; Wen Hao
2015-01-01
At present, there is an increasing awareness of some three-orthogonal-basis quantum key distribution protocols, such as, the reference-frame-independent (RFI) protocol and the six-state protocol. For secure key rate estimations of these protocols, there are two methods: one is the conventional approach, and another is the tomographic approach. However, a comparison between these two methods has not been given yet. In this work, with the general model of rotation channel, we estimate the key rate using conventional and tomographic methods respectively. Results show that conventional estimation approach in RFI protocol is equivalent to tomographic approach only in the case of that one of three orthogonal bases is always aligned. In other cases, tomographic approach performs much better than the respective conventional approaches of the RFI protocol and the six-state protocol. Furthermore, based on the experimental data, we illustrate the deep connections between tomography and conventional RFI approach representations. (paper)
Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems
Gisin, N.; Fasel, S.; Kraus, B.; Zbinden, H.; Ribordy, G.
2006-01-01
General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob's system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan-horse attacks. This does reduce the security analysis of the two-way plug-and-play implementation to those of the standard one-way systems
Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light
Inoue, K.; Waks, E.; Yamamoto, Y.
2003-01-01
Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution based on two nonorthogonal states is described. A weak coherent pulse train is sent from Alice to Bob, in which the phase of each pulse is randomly modulated by {0,π}. Bob measures the differential phase by a one-bit delay circuit. The system has a simple configuration without the need for an interferometer and a bright reference pulse in Alice's site, unlike the conventional QKD system based on two nonorthogonal states, and has an advantage of improved communication efficiency. The principle of the operation is successfully demonstrated in experiments
Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser
Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement...... a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances...
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.
2005-01-01
The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users
Simultaneous classical communication and quantum key distribution using continuous variables*
Qi, Bing
2016-10-01
Presently, classical optical communication systems employing strong laser pulses and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems working at single-photon levels are very different communication modalities. Dedicated devices are commonly required to implement QKD. In this paper, we propose a scheme which allows classical communication and QKD to be implemented simultaneously using the same communication infrastructure. More specially, we propose a coherent communication scheme where both the bits for classical communication and the Gaussian distributed random numbers for QKD are encoded on the same weak coherent pulse and decoded by the same coherent receiver. Simulation results based on practical system parameters show that both deterministic classical communication with a bit error rate of 10-9 and secure key distribution could be achieved over tens of kilometers of single-mode fibers. It is conceivable that in the future coherent optical communication network, QKD will be operated in the background of classical communication at a minimal cost.
Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato
2017-07-01
An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.
A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks
Valivarthi, Raju; Zhou, Qiang; John, Caleb; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang
2017-12-01
We experimentally realize a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system. It is based on cost-effective and commercially available hardware such as distributed feedback lasers and field-programmable gate arrays that enable time-bin qubit preparation and time-tagging, and active feedback systems that allow for compensation of time-varying properties of photons after transmission through deployed fiber. We examine the performance of our system, and conclude that its design does not compromise performance. Our demonstration paves the way for MDI-QKD-based quantum networks in star-type topology that extend over more than 100 km distance.
Babinet-Inverted Optical Yagi-Uda Antenna for Unidirectional Radiation to Free Space
Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Choe, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jongcheon; Lee, Jaesoong; Jeong, Heejeong; Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Yeonsang; Song, In Yong; Park, Q.-Han; Hwang, Sung Woo; Kim, Kinam; Lee, Chang-Won
2014-06-01
Plasmonic nanoantennas are key elements in nanophotonics capable of directing radiation or enhancing the transition rate of a quantum emitter. Slot-type magnetic-dipole nanoantennas, which are complementary structures of typical electric-dipole-type antennas, have received little attention, leaving their antenna properties largely unexplored. Here we present a novel magnetic-dipole-fed multi-slot optical Yagi-Uda antenna. By engineering the relative phase of the interacting surface plasmon polaritons between the slot elements, we demonstrate that the optical antenna exhibits highly unidirectional radiation to free space. The unique features of the slot-based magnetic nanoantenna provide a new possibility of achieving integrated features such as energy transfer from one waveguide to another by working as a future optical via.
High-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation in continuous variable quantum key distribution
Bai, ZengLiang; Wang, XuYang; Yang, ShenShen; Li, YongMin
2016-01-01
Efficient reconciliation is a crucial step in continuous variable quantum key distribution. The progressive-edge-growth (PEG) algorithm is an efficient method to construct relatively short block length low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The qua-sicyclic construction method can extend short block length codes and further eliminate the shortest cycle. In this paper, by combining the PEG algorithm and qua-si-cyclic construction method, we design long block length irregular LDPC codes with high error-correcting capacity. Based on these LDPC codes, we achieve high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with slice recon-ciliation based on multilevel coding/multistage decoding with an efficiency of 93.7%.
Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source
Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2009-03-01
The security of a standard bi-directional ``plug & play'' quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been an open question for a long time. This is mainly because its source is equivalently controlled by an eavesdropper, which means the source is unknown and untrusted. Qualitative discussion on this subject has been made previously. In this paper, we present the first quantitative security analysis on a general class of QKD protocols whose sources are unknown and untrusted. The securities of standard BB84 protocol, weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, and one-decoy decoy state protocol, with unknown and untrusted sources are rigorously proved. We derive rigorous lower bounds to the secure key generation rates of the above three protocols. Our numerical simulation results show that QKD with an untrusted source gives a key generation rate that is close to that with a trusted source. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 77:052327 (2008).
Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames
Lucio-Martinez, I; Mo, X; Tittel, W; Chan, P; Hosier, S
2009-01-01
We propose a fibre-based quantum key distribution system, which employs polarization qubits encoded into faint laser pulses. As a novel feature, it allows sending of classical framing information via sequences of strong laser pulses that precede the quantum data. This allows synchronization, sender and receiver identification and compensation of time-varying birefringence in the communication channel. In addition, this method also provides a platform to communicate implementation specific information such as encoding and protocol in view of future optical quantum networks. We demonstrate in a long-term (37 h) proof-of-principle study that polarization information encoded in the classical control frames can indeed be used to stabilize unwanted qubit transformation in the quantum channel. All optical elements in our setup can be operated at Gbps rates, which is a first requirement for a future system delivering secret keys at Mbps. In order to remove another bottleneck towards a high rate system, we investigate forward error correction based on low-density parity-check codes.
One-sided measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Cao, Wen-Fei; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Zheng, Yu-Lin; Li, Li; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai
2018-01-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol was proposed to remove all the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the trusted encoding systems. Here we propose a one-sided MDI-QKD (1SMDI-QKD) protocol, which enjoys detection loophole-free advantage, and at the same time weakens the state preparation assumption in MDI-QKD. The 1SMDI-QKD can be regarded as a modified MDI-QKD, in which Bob's encoding system is trusted, while Alice's is uncharacterized. For the practical implementation, we also provide a scheme by utilizing coherent light source with an analytical two decoy state estimation method. Simulation with realistic experimental parameters shows that the protocol has a promising performance, and thus can be applied to practical QKD applications.
Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states
Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua [School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guihua [Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sdguoying@gmail.com, E-mail: rhshi@mail.edu.com, E-mail: ghzeng@sjtu.edu.cn
2010-04-15
A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.
Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states
Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Zeng, Guihua
2010-01-01
A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.
Free Space Optical Communication for Tactical Operations
2016-09-01
higher energy level to a lower energy level. The photons are focused to optical lenses before transmission into the air medium. The primary purpose...Security of a free space optical transmission . (n.d.). SONA Optical Wireless , [Online]. Available: http://htcbn.com/HTC_Profile_CD/fSONA/APPNOTE...almost always require on-the-move wireless communications. Radio frequency (RF) communication is used to fill the gap, but RF systems are hard pressed to
Security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol
Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo
2018-06-01
Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are allowed to set up a secure secret key between two users. Compared with their full quantum counterparts, one of the two users is restricted to perform some "classical" or "semi-quantum" operations, which potentially makes them easily realizable by using less quantum resource. However, the semi-quantum key distribution protocols mainly rely on a two-way quantum channel. The eavesdropper has two opportunities to intercept the quantum states transmitted in the quantum communication stage. It may allow the eavesdropper to get more information and make the security analysis more complicated. In the past ten years, many semi-quantum key distribution protocols have been proposed and proved to be robust. However, there are few works concerning their unconditional security. It is doubted that how secure the semi-quantum ones are and how much noise they can tolerate to establish a secure secret key. In this paper, we prove the unconditional security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Zou et al. (Phys Rev A 79:052312, 2009). We present a complete proof from information theory aspect by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we figure out an error threshold value such that for all error rates that are less than this threshold value, the secure secret key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. Otherwise, the users should abort the protocol. We make an illustration of the protocol under the circumstance that the reverse quantum channel is a depolarizing one with parameter q. Additionally, we compare the error threshold value with some full quantum protocols and several existing semi-quantum ones whose unconditional security proofs have been provided recently.
Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain
2016-07-01
We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.
Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States
Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua
2018-03-01
A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.
Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States
Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua
2018-06-01
A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.
Quantum deterministic key distribution protocols based on the authenticated entanglement channel
Zhou Nanrun; Wang Lijun; Ding Jie; Gong Lihua
2010-01-01
Based on the quantum entanglement channel, two secure quantum deterministic key distribution (QDKD) protocols are proposed. Unlike quantum random key distribution (QRKD) protocols, the proposed QDKD protocols can distribute the deterministic key securely, which is of significant importance in the field of key management. The security of the proposed QDKD protocols is analyzed in detail using information theory. It is shown that the proposed QDKD protocols can safely and effectively hand over the deterministic key to the specific receiver and their physical implementation is feasible with current technology.
Quantum deterministic key distribution protocols based on the authenticated entanglement channel
Zhou Nanrun; Wang Lijun; Ding Jie; Gong Lihua [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)], E-mail: znr21@163.com, E-mail: znr21@hotmail.com
2010-04-15
Based on the quantum entanglement channel, two secure quantum deterministic key distribution (QDKD) protocols are proposed. Unlike quantum random key distribution (QRKD) protocols, the proposed QDKD protocols can distribute the deterministic key securely, which is of significant importance in the field of key management. The security of the proposed QDKD protocols is analyzed in detail using information theory. It is shown that the proposed QDKD protocols can safely and effectively hand over the deterministic key to the specific receiver and their physical implementation is feasible with current technology.
Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment
Stucki, D; Gisin, N; Thew, R; Legré, M; Clausen, B; Monat, L; Page, J-B; Ribordy, G; Rochas, A; Robyr, S; Trinkler, P; Buntschu, F; Perroud, D; Felber, N; Henzen, L; Junod, P; Monbaron, P; Ventura, S; Litzistorf, G; Tavares, J
2011-01-01
In this paper, we report on the performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution (QKD) network. The network was installed in the Geneva metropolitan area and ran for more than one-and-a-half years, from the end of March 2009 to the beginning of January 2011. The main goal of this experiment was to test the reliability of the quantum layer over a long period of time in a production environment. A key management layer has been developed to manage the key between the three nodes of the network. This QKD-secure network was utilized by end-users through an application layer. (paper)
L. Bouchoucha
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we represent the principle of quantum cryptography (QC that is based on fundamental laws of quantum physics. QC or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD uses various protocols to exchange a secret key between two communicating parties. This research paper focuses and examines the quantum key distribution by using the protocol BB84 in the case of encoding on the single-photon polarization and shows the influence of optical components parameters on the quantum key distribution. We also introduce Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER to better interpret our results and show its relationship with the intrusion of the eavesdropper called Eve on the optical channel to exploit these vulnerabilities.
Quantum key distribution with finite resources: calculating the min-entropy
Bratzik, Sylvia; Mertz, Markus; Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Duesseldorf (Germany)
2010-07-01
The min-entropy is an important quantity in quantum key distribution. Recently, a connection between the min- entropy and the minimal-error discrimination problem was found. We use this connection to evaluate the min-entropy for different quantum key distribution setups.
Free-space communication with over 100 spatial modes
Rosales-Guzmán, C
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Congress 2016: Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL); Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (LS&C), 30 October - 3 November 2016, Boston, Massachusetts, United States Free-space communication with over 100 spatial modes...
Superdense Coding with GHZ and Quantum Key Distribution with W in the ZX-calculus
Anne Hillebrand
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is a key resource in many quantum protocols, such as quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography. Yet entanglement makes protocols presented in Dirac notation difficult to verify. This is why Coecke and Duncan have introduced a diagrammatic language for quantum protocols, called the ZX-calculus. This diagrammatic notation is both intuitive and formally rigorous. It is a simple, graphical, high level language that emphasises the composition of systems and naturally captures the essentials of quantum mechanics. In the author's MSc thesis it has been shown for over 25 quantum protocols that the ZX-calculus provides a relatively easy and more intuitive presentation. Moreover, the author embarked on the task to apply categorical quantum mechanics on quantum security; earlier works did not touch anything but Bennett and Brassard's quantum key distribution protocol, BB84. Superdense coding with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and quantum key distribution with the W-state are presented in the ZX-calculus in this paper.
Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol
Molotkov, S. N.
2008-01-01
In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper's capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determined for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency (η ∼ 20%) and dark count probability (p dark ∼ 10 -7 )
A continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution based on two-mode squeezed states
Gong, Li-Hua; Song, Han-Chong; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run; He, Chao-Sheng
2014-01-01
The distribution of deterministic keys is of significance in personal communications, but the existing continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols can only generate random keys. By exploiting the entanglement properties of two-mode squeezed states, a continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution (CVQDKD) scheme is presented for handing over the pre-determined key to the intended receiver. The security of the CVQDKD scheme is analyzed in detail from the perspective of information theory. It shows that the scheme can securely and effectively transfer pre-determined keys under ideal conditions. The proposed scheme can resist both the entanglement and beam splitter attacks under a relatively high channel transmission efficiency. (paper)
Multi-party semi-quantum key distribution-convertible multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing
Yu, Kun-Fei; Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta
2017-08-01
This paper proposes a multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing (MSQSS) protocol which allows a quantum party (manager) to share a secret among several classical parties (agents) based on GHZ-like states. By utilizing the special properties of GHZ-like states, the proposed scheme can easily detect outside eavesdropping attacks and has the highest qubit efficiency among the existing MSQSS protocols. Then, we illustrate an efficient way to convert the proposed MSQSS protocol into a multi-party semi-quantum key distribution (MSQKD) protocol. The proposed approach is even useful to convert all the existing measure-resend type of semi-quantum secret sharing protocols into semi-quantum key distribution protocols.
High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution
2016-10-12
count rate of Bob’s detectors. In this detector-limited regime , it is advantageous to increase M to encode as much information as possible in each...High- rate field demonstration of large-alphabet quantum key distribution Catherine Lee,1, 2 Darius Bunandar,1 Zheshen Zhang,1 Gregory R. Steinbrecher...October 12, 2016) 2 Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables secure symmetric key exchange for information-theoretically secure com- munication via one-time
Two-party quantum key agreement protocols under collective noise channel
Gao, Hao; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Qian, Song-Rong
2018-06-01
Recently, quantum communication has become a very popular research field. The quantum key agreement (QKA) plays an important role in the field of quantum communication, based on its unconditional security in terms of theory. Among all kinds of QKA protocols, QKA protocols resisting collective noise are widely being studied. In this paper, we propose improved two-party QKA protocols resisting collective noise and present a feasible plan for information reconciliation. Our protocols' qubit efficiency has achieved 26.67%, which is the best among all the two-party QKA protocols against collective noise, thus showing that our protocol can improve the transmission efficiency of quantum key agreement.
Determining influence of four-wave mixing effect on quantum key distribution
Vavulin, D N; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V; Chivilikhin, S A
2014-01-01
We consider the possibility of multiplexing the classical and quantum signals in a quantum cryptography system with optical fiber used as a transmission medium. If the quantum signal is located at a frequency close to the frequency of classical signals, a set of nonlinear effects such as FWM (four-wave mixing) and Raman scattering is observed. The impact of four-wave mixing (FWM) effect on error level is described and analyzed in this work in case of large frequency diversity between classical and quantum signals. It is shown that the influence of FWM is negligible for convenient quantum key distribution
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Preservation of a lower bound of quantum secret key rate in the presence of decoherence
Datta, Shounak, E-mail: shounak.datta@bose.res.in; Goswami, Suchetana, E-mail: suchetana.goswami@bose.res.in; Pramanik, Tanumoy, E-mail: tanu.pram99@bose.res.in; Majumdar, A.S., E-mail: archan@bose.res.in
2017-03-11
It is well known that the interaction of quantum systems with the environment reduces the inherent quantum correlations. Under special circumstances the effect of decoherence can be reversed, for example, the interaction modelled by an amplitude damping channel can boost the teleportation fidelity from the classical to the quantum region for a bipartite quantum state. Here, we first show that this phenomenon fails to preserve the quantum secret key rate derived under individual attack. We further show that the technique of weak measurement can be used to slow down the process of decoherence, thereby helping to preserve the quantum secret key rate when one or both systems are interacting with the environment via an amplitude damping channel. Most interestingly, in certain cases weak measurement with post-selection where one considers both success and failure of the technique is shown to be more useful than without it when both systems interact with the environment. - Highlights: • In general, decoherence has negative effect on the steerability and quantum secret key rate of a bipartite state. • Quantum key rate can be preserved against the effect of decoherence using the technique of weak measurement. • The technique of weak measurements includes a weak measurement and its reversal. • For some strength of weak measurement and environmental interaction, the average secret key rate is improved.
Preservation of a lower bound of quantum secret key rate in the presence of decoherence
Datta, Shounak; Goswami, Suchetana; Pramanik, Tanumoy; Majumdar, A.S.
2017-01-01
It is well known that the interaction of quantum systems with the environment reduces the inherent quantum correlations. Under special circumstances the effect of decoherence can be reversed, for example, the interaction modelled by an amplitude damping channel can boost the teleportation fidelity from the classical to the quantum region for a bipartite quantum state. Here, we first show that this phenomenon fails to preserve the quantum secret key rate derived under individual attack. We further show that the technique of weak measurement can be used to slow down the process of decoherence, thereby helping to preserve the quantum secret key rate when one or both systems are interacting with the environment via an amplitude damping channel. Most interestingly, in certain cases weak measurement with post-selection where one considers both success and failure of the technique is shown to be more useful than without it when both systems interact with the environment. - Highlights: • In general, decoherence has negative effect on the steerability and quantum secret key rate of a bipartite state. • Quantum key rate can be preserved against the effect of decoherence using the technique of weak measurement. • The technique of weak measurements includes a weak measurement and its reversal. • For some strength of weak measurement and environmental interaction, the average secret key rate is improved.
Bit-Oriented Quantum Public-Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States
Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan
2018-06-01
Quantum public key encryption system provides information confidentiality using quantum mechanics. This paper presents a quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. By H o l e v o' s theorem, the presented scheme provides the security of the secret key using one-wayness during the QPKC. While the QPKC scheme is information theoretic security under chosen plaintext attack ( C P A). Finally some important features of presented QPKC scheme can be compared with other QPKC scheme.
Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD).
Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Yongli; Colman-Meixner, Carlos; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jie
2017-10-30
Software-defined optical networking (SDON) will become the next generation optical network architecture. However, the optical layer and control layer of SDON are vulnerable to cyberattacks. While, data encryption is an effective method to minimize the negative effects of cyberattacks, secure key interchange is its major challenge which can be addressed by the quantum key distribution (QKD) technique. Hence, in this paper we discuss the integration of QKD with WDM optical networks to secure the SDON architecture by introducing a novel key on demand (KoD) scheme which is enabled by a novel routing, wavelength and key assignment (RWKA) algorithm. The QKD over SDON with KoD model follows two steps to provide security: i) quantum key pools (QKPs) construction for securing the control channels (CChs) and data channels (DChs); ii) the KoD scheme uses RWKA algorithm to allocate and update secret keys for different security requirements. To test our model, we define a security probability index which measures the security gain in CChs and DChs. Simulation results indicate that the security performance of CChs and DChs can be enhanced by provisioning sufficient secret keys in QKPs and performing key-updating considering potential cyberattacks. Also, KoD is beneficial to achieve a positive balance between security requirements and key resource usage.
Entangled photons and quantum communication
Yuan Zhensheng, E-mail: yuanzs@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bao Xiaohui [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan Jianwei, E-mail: pan@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2010-12-15
This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.
Entangled photons and quantum communication
Yuan Zhensheng; Bao Xiaohui; Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi; Pan Jianwei
2010-01-01
This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.
Two-party quantum key agreement based on four-particle GHZ states
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-04-01
Based on four-particle GHZ states, the double CNOT operation and the delayed measurement technique, a two-party quantum key agreement (QKA) protocols is proposed. The double CNOT operation makes each four-particle GHZ state collapse into two independent quantum states without any entanglement. Furthermore, one party can directly know the two quantum states and the other party can be aware of the two quantum states by using the corresponding measurement. According to the initial states of the two quantum states, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Then the protocol achieves the fair establishment of a shared key. The security analysis shows that the new protocol can resist against participant attacks, the Trojan horse attacks and other outsider attacks. Furthermore, the new protocol also has no information leakage problem and has high qubit efficiency.
Demonstration Of The Violation Of Bell Inequality In Quantum Key Distribution
Dermez, R.
2010-01-01
Today, the data privacy has become very important. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system is developed in this area. QKD, coding technique with single-use method of encoding used keys (information and messages) security guarantees. The system is based on Quantum Mechanics (The Certainty Principle). However, in some cases for quantum communication, QKD are limited. In determining this limit Bell Inequality (CHSH Inequality, 1969) is used. Bell inequality shows a violation of Quantum Key Distribution. In this study, using the program of Matematica 6, QKD through bilateral quantum system (system with two qubits) has been investigating the leak case and the violations. We showed leakage and violations in these figures via the calculations results in Matematica program.
Quantum-Secure Symmetric-Key Cryptography Based on Hidden Shifts
Alagic, Gorjan; Russell, Alexander
2017-01-01
Recent results of Kaplan et al., building on work by Kuwakado and Morii, have shown that a wide variety of classically-secure symmetric-key cryptosystems can be completely broken by quantum chosen-plaintext attacks (qCPA). In such an attack, the quantum adversary has the ability to query the cryp...
Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.
2016-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 062345. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum key distribution * Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering * temporal quantum correlations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016
Mafu, M
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d + 1) mutually unbiased measurements in a...
Comment on ''Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states''
Boyer, Michel; Mor, Tal
2011-01-01
For several decades it was believed that information-secure key distribution requires both the sender and receiver to have the ability to generate and/or manipulate quantum states. Earlier, we showed that quantum key distribution in which one party is classical is possible [Boyer, Kenigsberg, and Mor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)]. A surprising and very nice extension of that result was suggested by Zou, Qiu, Li, Wu, and Li [Phys. Rev. A 79, 052312 (2009)]. Their paper suggests that it is sufficient for the originator of the states (the person holding the quantum technology) to generate just one state. The resulting semiquantum key distribution, which we call here 'quantum key distribution with classical Alice' is indeed completely robust against eavesdropping. However, their proof (that no eavesdropper can get information without being possibly detected) is faulty. We provide here a fully detailed and direct proof of their very important result.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen
2013-07-09
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen
2017-06-14
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
Infrared Free Space Communication - The Autonomous Testing of Free Space Infrared Communication
Heldman, Christopher
2017-01-01
Fiber optics has been a winning player in the game of high-speed communication and data transfer in cable connections. Yet, in free space RF has been the repeated choice of communication medium of the space industry. Investigating the benefits of free space optical communication over radio frequency is worthwhile. An increase in science data rate return capabilities could occur if optical communication is implemented. Optical communication systems also provide efficiencies in power, mass, and volume over RF systems1. Optical communication systems have been demonstrated from a satellite in orbit with the moon to earth, and resulted in the highest data rates ever seen through space (622Mbps)2. Because of these benefits, optical communication is far superior to RF. The HiDRA (High Data Rate Architecture) project is researching Passive Misalignment Mitigation of Dynamic Free Apace Optical Communication Links. The goal of this effort is to enable gigabit per second transmission of data in short range dynamic links (less than 100 meters). In practice this would enhance data rates between sites on the International Space Station with minimal size, weight, and power requirements. This paper will focus on an autonomous code and a hardware setup that will be used to fulfill the next step in the research being conducted. The free space optical communications pointing downfalls will be investigated. This was achieved by creating 5 python programs and a top-level code to automate this test.
Wang, Tianyi; Gong, Feng; Lu, Anjiang; Zhang, Damin; Zhang, Zhengping
2017-12-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme that integrates quantum key distribution and private classical communication via continuous variables. The integrated scheme employs both quadratures of a weak coherent state, with encrypted bits encoded on the signs and Gaussian random numbers encoded on the values of the quadratures. The integration enables quantum and classical data to share the same physical and logical channel. Simulation results based on practical system parameters demonstrate that both classical communication and quantum communication can be implemented over distance of tens of kilometers, thus providing a potential solution for simultaneous transmission of quantum communication and classical communication.
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Post-quantum attacks on key distribution schemes in the presence of weakly stochastic sources
Al–Safi, S W; Wilmott, C M
2015-01-01
It has been established that the security of quantum key distribution protocols can be severely compromised were one to permit an eavesdropper to possess a very limited knowledge of the random sources used between the communicating parties. While such knowledge should always be expected in realistic experimental conditions, the result itself opened a new line of research to fully account for real-world weak randomness threats to quantum cryptography. Here we expand of this novel idea by describing a key distribution scheme that is provably secure against general attacks by a post-quantum adversary. We then discuss possible security consequences for such schemes under the assumption of weak randomness. (paper)
Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld
2017-01-01
is intrinsically limited to 1 bit/photon. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on space division multiplexing in multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated lightwave circuits. We successfully realized three mutually......-dimensional quantum states, and enables breaking the information efficiency limit of traditional quantum key distribution protocols. In addition, the silicon photonic circuits used in our work integrate variable optical attenuators, highly efficient multicore fiber couplers, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, enabling...
Security of quantum key distributions with entangled qudits
Durt, Thomas; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Chen, Jing-Ling; Kwek, L. C.
2004-03-01
We consider a generalization of Ekert's entanglement-based quantum cryptographic protocol where qubits are replaced by N - or d -dimensional systems (qudits). In order to study its robustness against optimal incoherent attacks, we derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper during a cloning-based individual attack. In doing so, we generalize Cerf’s formalism for cloning machines and establish the form of the most general cloning machine that respects all the symmetries of the problem. We obtain an upper bound on the error rate that guarantees the confidentiality of qudit generalizations of the Ekert’s protocol for qubits.
Emigh, Paul Jeffrey
This dissertation describes research on student understanding of quantum mechanics across multiple levels of instruction. The primary focus has been to identify patterns in student reasoning related to key concepts in quantum mechanics. The specific topics include quantum measurements, time dependence, vector spaces, and angular momentum. The research has spanned a variety of different quantum courses intended for introductory physics students, upper-division physics majors, and graduate students in physics. The results of this research have been used to develop a set of curriculum, Tutorials in Physics: Quantum Mechanics, for addressing the most persistent student difficulties. We document both the development of this curriculum and how it has impacted and improved student understanding of quantum mechanics.
Quantum Encryption Minimising Key Leakage under Known Plaintext Attacks
Pedersen, Thomas Brochmann
2006-01-01
, or interactive encryption schemes, where the interaction does not need to occur online. In our model we show that the amount of key leaked under a known plaintext attack can be made arbitrarily small even in non-interactive encryption schemes. We also give an encryption scheme where eavesdropping can be detected....... In this encryption scheme the entire key can be safely recycled when no eavesdropping is detected....
Two-party quantum key agreement protocol with four-particle entangled states
He, Yefeng; Ma, Wenping
2016-09-01
Based on four-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique, a two-party quantum key agreement protocol is proposed in this paper. In the protocol, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states in terms of the measurement correlation property of four-particle entangled states. According to the corresponding initial quantum states deduced by themselves, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. This guarantees the fair establishment of a shared key. Since each particle in quantum channel is transmitted only once, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The security analysis shows that the protocol not only can resist against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.
Quantum key distribution using basis encoding of Gaussian-modulated coherent states
Huang, Peng; Huang, Jingzheng; Zhang, Zheshen; Zeng, Guihua
2018-04-01
The continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) has been demonstrated to be available in practical secure quantum cryptography. However, its performance is restricted strongly by the channel excess noise and the reconciliation efficiency. In this paper, we present a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol by encoding the secret keys on the random choices of two measurement bases: the conjugate quadratures X and P . The employed encoding method can dramatically weaken the effects of channel excess noise and reconciliation efficiency on the performance of the QKD protocol. Subsequently, the proposed scheme exhibits the capability to tolerate much higher excess noise and enables us to reach a much longer secure transmission distance even at lower reconciliation efficiency. The proposal can work alternatively to strengthen significantly the performance of the known Gaussian-modulated CVQKD protocol and serve as a multiplier for practical secure quantum cryptography with continuous variables.
Quantum-locked key distribution at nearly the classical capacity rate.
Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2014-10-17
Quantum data locking is a protocol that allows for a small secret key to (un)lock an exponentially larger amount of information, hence yielding the strongest violation of the classical one-time pad encryption in the quantum setting. This violation mirrors a large gap existing between two security criteria for quantum cryptography quantified by two entropic quantities: the Holevo information and the accessible information. We show that the latter becomes a sensible security criterion if an upper bound on the coherence time of the eavesdropper's quantum memory is known. Under this condition, we introduce a protocol for secret key generation through a memoryless qudit channel. For channels with enough symmetry, such as the d-dimensional erasure and depolarizing channels, this protocol allows secret key generation at an asymptotic rate as high as the classical capacity minus one bit.
Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography
Kern, Oliver
2009-05-25
The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called
Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography
Kern, Oliver
2009-01-01
The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots
Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.
2008-12-01
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots
Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A
2008-01-01
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.
Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I
2008-12-10
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban
2017-12-01
Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.
Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan
2014-10-01
In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].
Quantum Flows for Secret Key Distribution in the Presence of the Photon Number Splitting Attack
Luis A. Lizama-Pérez
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Physical implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD protocols, like the Bennett-Brassard (BB84, are forced to use attenuated coherent quantum states, because the sources of single photon states are not functional yet for QKD applications. However, when using attenuated coherent states, the relatively high rate of multi-photonic pulses introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the photon number splitting (PNS attack to brake the quantum key. Some QKD protocols have been developed to be resistant to the PNS attack, like the decoy method, but those define a single photonic gain in the quantum channel. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new QKD protocol, called ack-QKD, which is resistant to the PNS attack. Even more, it uses attenuated quantum states, but defines two interleaved photonic quantum flows to detect the eavesdropper activity by means of the quantum photonic error gain (QPEG or the quantum bit error rate (QBER. The physical implementation of the ack-QKD is similar to the well-known BB84 protocol.
Lu, Weizhao; Huang, Chunhui; Hou, Kun; Shi, Liting; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Zhengmei; Qiu, Jianfeng
2018-05-01
In continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD), weak signal carrying information transmits from Alice to Bob; during this process it is easily influenced by unknown noise which reduces signal-to-noise ratio, and strongly impacts reliability and stability of the communication. Recurrent quantum neural network (RQNN) is an artificial neural network model which can perform stochastic filtering without any prior knowledge of the signal and noise. In this paper, a modified RQNN algorithm with expectation maximization algorithm is proposed to process the signal in CV-QKD, which follows the basic rule of quantum mechanics. After RQNN, noise power decreases about 15 dBm, coherent signal recognition rate of RQNN is 96%, quantum bit error rate (QBER) drops to 4%, which is 6.9% lower than original QBER, and channel capacity is notably enlarged.
One-time pad, complexity of verification of keys, and practical security of quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A direct relation between the complexity of the complete verification of keys, which is one of the main criteria of security in classical systems, and a trace distance used in quantum cryptography is demonstrated. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of verification steps required to determine the actual key are obtained.
Jiang, Cong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2018-04-01
We present an analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with correlated source-light-intensity errors. Numerical results show that the results here can greatly improve the key rate especially with large intensity fluctuations and channel attenuation compared with prior results if the intensity fluctuations of different sources are correlated.
One-time pad, complexity of verification of keys, and practical security of quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2016-01-01
A direct relation between the complexity of the complete verification of keys, which is one of the main criteria of security in classical systems, and a trace distance used in quantum cryptography is demonstrated. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of verification steps required to determine the actual key are obtained.
Data transmission with twisted light through a free-space to fiber optical communication link
Brüning, Robert; Duparré, Michael; Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Forbes, Andrew; Schröter, Siegmund; Kobelke, Jens
2016-01-01
Mode division multiplexing (MDM), where information is transmitted in the spatial modes of light, is mooted as a future technology with which to transmit large bits of information. However, one of the key issues in optical communication lies in connecting free-space to optical fiber networks, otherwise known as the ‘last mile’ problem. This is particularly problematic for MDM as the eigenmodes of free-space and fibers are in general not the same. Here we demonstrate a data transmission scheme across a free-space and fiber link using twisted light in the form of Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) azimuthal modes. As a proof-of-principle we design and implement a custom fiber where the supported LG modes can be grouped into five non-degenerate sets, and successfully transmit a gray-scale image across the composite link using one mode from each group, thereby ensuring minimal crosstalk. (letter)
Multi-user quantum key distribution based on Bell states with mutual authentication
Lin Song; Huang Chuan; Liu Xiaofen
2013-01-01
A new multi-user quantum key distribution protocol with mutual authentication is proposed on a star network. Here, two arbitrary users are able to perform key distribution with the assistance of a semi-trusted center. Bell states are used as information carriers and transmitted in a quantum channel between the center and one user. A keyed hash function is utilized to ensure the identities of three parties. Finally, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is discussed. (paper)
Time–energy high-dimensional one-side device-independent quantum key distribution
Bao Hai-Ze; Bao Wan-Su; Wang Yang; Chen Rui-Ke; Ma Hong-Xin; Zhou Chun; Li Hong-Wei
2017-01-01
Compared with full device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), one-side device-independent QKD (1sDI-QKD) needs fewer requirements, which is much easier to meet. In this paper, by applying recently developed novel time–energy entropic uncertainty relations, we present a time–energy high-dimensional one-side device-independent quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) and provide the security proof against coherent attacks. Besides, we connect the security with the quantum steering. By numerical simulation, we obtain the secret key rate for Alice’s different detection efficiencies. The results show that our protocol can performance much better than the original 1sDI-QKD. Furthermore, we clarify the relation among the secret key rate, Alice’s detection efficiency, and the dispersion coefficient. Finally, we simply analyze its performance in the optical fiber channel. (paper)
Systems and methods for free space optical communication
Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA
2011-05-10
Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.
No-signaling quantum key distribution: solution by linear programming
Hwang, Won-Young; Bae, Joonwoo; Killoran, Nathan
2015-02-01
We outline a straightforward approach for obtaining a secret key rate using only no-signaling constraints and linear programming. Assuming an individual attack, we consider all possible joint probabilities. Initially, we study only the case where Eve has binary outcomes, and we impose constraints due to the no-signaling principle and given measurement outcomes. Within the remaining space of joint probabilities, by using linear programming, we get bound on the probability of Eve correctly guessing Bob's bit. We then make use of an inequality that relates this guessing probability to the mutual information between Bob and a more general Eve, who is not binary-restricted. Putting our computed bound together with the Csiszár-Körner formula, we obtain a positive key generation rate. The optimal value of this rate agrees with known results, but was calculated in a more straightforward way, offering the potential of generalization to different scenarios.
Device-independent secret-key-rate analysis for quantum repeaters
Holz, Timo; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar
2018-01-01
The device-independent approach to quantum key distribution (QKD) aims to establish a secret key between two or more parties with untrusted devices, potentially under full control of a quantum adversary. The performance of a QKD protocol can be quantified by the secret key rate, which can be lower bounded via the violation of an appropriate Bell inequality in a setup with untrusted devices. We study secret key rates in the device-independent scenario for different quantum repeater setups and compare them to their device-dependent analogon. The quantum repeater setups under consideration are the original protocol by Briegel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5932] and the hybrid quantum repeater protocol by van Loock et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 240501 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.240501]. For a given repeater scheme and a given QKD protocol, the secret key rate depends on a variety of parameters, such as the gate quality or the detector efficiency. We systematically analyze the impact of these parameters and suggest optimized strategies.
Multimode entanglement assisted QKD through a free-space maritime channel
Gariano, John; Djordjevic, Ivan B.
2017-10-01
When using quantum key distribution (QKD), one of the trade-offs for security is that the generation rate of a secret key is typically very low. Recent works have shown that using a weak coherent source allows for higher secret key generation rates compared to an entangled photon source, when a channel with low loss is considered. In most cases, the system that is being studied is over a fiber-optic communication channel. Here a theoretical QKD system using the BB92 protocol and entangled photons over a free-space maritime channel with multiple spatial modes is presented. The entangled photons are generated from a spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) source of type II. To employ multiple spatial modes, the transmit apparatus will contain multiple SPDC sources, all driven by the pump lasers assumed to have the same intensity. The receive apparatuses will contain avalanche photo diodes (APD), modeled based on the NuCrypt CPDS-1000 detector, and located at the focal point of the receive aperture lens. The transmitter is assumed to be located at Alice and Bob will be located 30 km away, implying no channel crosstalk will be introduced in the measurements at Alice's side due to turbulence. To help mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence, adaptive optics will be considered at the transmitter and the receiver. An eavesdropper, Eve, is located 15 km from Alice and has no control over the devices at Alice or Bob. Eve is performing the intercept resend attack and listening to the communication over the public channel. Additionally, it is assumed that Eve can correct any aberrations caused by the atmospheric turbulence to determine which source the photon was transmitted from. One, four and nine spatial modes are considered with and without applying adaptive optics and compared to one another.
Energy Pooling Upconversion in Free Space and Optical Cavities
LaCount, Michael D.
energy pooling rate efficiency of 99%. This demonstrates that the energy pooling rate can be made faster than its competing processes. Based on the results of this study, a set of design rules was developed to optimize the rate efficiency of energy pooling. Prior to this research, no attempt had been made to determine if energy pooling could be made to out-pace competing processes--i.e. whether or not a molecular system could be designed to utilize energy pooling as an efficient means of upconversion. This initial investigation was part of a larger effort involving a team of researchers at the University of Colorado, Boulder and at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. After establishing our computational proof-of-concept, we collectively used the new design rules to select an improved system for energy pooling. This consisted of rhodamine 6G and stilbene-420. These molecules were fabricated into a thin film, and the maximum internal quantum yield was measured to be 36% under sufficiently high intensity light. To further increase the efficiency of energy pooling, encapsulation within optical cavities was considered as a way of changing the rate of processes characterized by electric dipole-dipole coupling. This was carried out using a combination of classical electromagnetism, quantum electrodynamics, and perturbation theory. It was found that, in the near field, if the distance of the energy transfer is smaller than the distance from the energy transfer site and the cavity wall, then the electric dipole-dipole coupling tensor is not influenced by the cavity environment and the rates of energy transfer processes are the same as those in free space. Any increase in energy transfer efficiencies that are experimentally measured must therefore be caused by changing the rate of light absorption and emission. This is an important finding because earlier, less rigorous studies had concluded otherwise. It has been previously demonstrated that an optical cavity can be used to
Memory-assisted quantum key distribution resilient against multiple-excitation effects
Lo Piparo, Nicolò; Sinclair, Neil; Razavi, Mohsen
2018-01-01
Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a technique to improve the rate-versus-distance behavior of QKD systems by using existing, or nearly-achievable, quantum technologies. The promise is that MA-MDI-QKD would require less demanding quantum memories than the ones needed for probabilistic quantum repeaters. Nevertheless, early investigations suggest that, in order to beat the conventional memory-less QKD schemes, the quantum memories used in the MA-MDI-QKD protocols must have high bandwidth-storage products and short interaction times. Among different types of quantum memories, ensemble-based memories offer some of the required specifications, but they typically suffer from multiple excitation effects. To avoid the latter issue, in this paper, we propose two new variants of MA-MDI-QKD both relying on single-photon sources for entangling purposes. One is based on known techniques for entanglement distribution in quantum repeaters. This scheme turns out to offer no advantage even if one uses ideal single-photon sources. By finding the root cause of the problem, we then propose another setup, which can outperform single memory-less setups even if we allow for some imperfections in our single-photon sources. For such a scheme, we compare the key rate for different types of ensemble-based memories and show that certain classes of atomic ensembles can improve the rate-versus-distance behavior.
Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack
Ma Hong-Xin; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Chou Chun
2016-01-01
We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. (paper)
Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack
Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun
2016-08-01
We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).
Two-party quantum key agreement with five-particle entangled states
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
A two-party quantum key agreement protocol is proposed with five-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. According to the measurement correlation property of five-particle entangled states, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states. As a result, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Thus, a shared key is fairly established. Since each particle is transmitted only once in quantum channel, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. It is shown that the protocol not only is secure against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.
Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B
2014-09-15
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case.
Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype
Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T; Diamanti, E; Villing, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P
2009-01-01
We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different QKD technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 h yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit s -1 over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high-speed requirements.
Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol
Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo
2011-01-01
Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.
Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz
2016-06-01
The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.
Analysis of Faraday Mirror in Auto-Compensating Quantum Key Distribution
Wei Ke-Jin; Ma Hai-Qiang; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu; Liu Hong-Wei; Zhang Yong; Jiao Rong-Zhen
2015-01-01
The ‘plug and play’ quantum key distribution system is the most stable and the earliest commercial system in the quantum communication field. Jones matrix and Jones calculus are widely used in the analysis of this system and the improved version, which is called the auto-compensating quantum key distribution system. Unfortunately, existing analysis has two drawbacks: only the auto-compensating process is analyzed and existing systems do not fully consider laser phase affected by a Faraday mirror (FM). In this work, we present a detailed analysis of the output of light pulse transmitting in a plug and play quantum key distribution system that contains only an FM, by Jones calculus. A similar analysis is made to a home-made auto-compensating system which contains two FMs to compensate for environmental effects. More importantly, we show that theoretical and experimental results are different in the plug and play interferometric setup due to the fact that a conventional Jones matrix of FM neglected an additional phase π on alternative polarization direction. To resolve the above problem, we give a new Jones matrix of an FM according to the coordinate rotation. This new Jones matrix not only resolves the above contradiction in the plug and play interferometric setup, but also is suitable for the previous analyses about auto-compensating quantum key distribution. (paper)
Tysowski, Piotr K.; Ling, Xinhua; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Mosca, Michele
2018-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a means of generating keys between a pair of computing hosts that is theoretically secure against cryptanalysis, even by a quantum computer. Although there is much active research into improving the QKD technology itself, there is still significant work to be done to apply engineering methodology and determine how it can be practically built to scale within an enterprise IT environment. Significant challenges exist in building a practical key management service (KMS) for use in a metropolitan network. QKD is generally a point-to-point technique only and is subject to steep performance constraints. The integration of QKD into enterprise-level computing has been researched, to enable quantum-safe communication. A novel method for constructing a KMS is presented that allows arbitrary computing hosts on one site to establish multiple secure communication sessions with the hosts of another site. A key exchange protocol is proposed where symmetric private keys are granted to hosts while satisfying the scalability needs of an enterprise population of users. The KMS operates within a layered architectural style that is able to interoperate with various underlying QKD implementations. Variable levels of security for the host population are enforced through a policy engine. A network layer provides key generation across a network of nodes connected by quantum links. Scheduling and routing functionality allows quantum key material to be relayed across trusted nodes. Optimizations are performed to match the real-time host demand for key material with the capacity afforded by the infrastructure. The result is a flexible and scalable architecture that is suitable for enterprise use and independent of any specific QKD technology.
Zhuo-Dan, Zhu; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Chen, Dong; Ying, Sun
2018-07-01
In this paper, a phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol without a shared reference frame is presented, which can generate secure keys between two parties while the quantum channel or interferometer introduces an unknown and slowly time-varying phase. The corresponding secret key rate and single photons bit error rate is analysed, respectively, with single photons source (SPS) and weak coherent source (WCS), taking finite-key analysis into account. The numerical simulations show that the modified phase-encoded MDI-QKD protocol has apparent superiority both in maximal secure transmission distance and key generation rate while possessing the improved robustness and practical security in the high-speed case. Moreover, the rejection of the frame-calibrating part will intrinsically reduce the consumption of resources as well as the potential security flaws of practical MDI-QKD systems.
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Radchenko, I V; Kravtsov, K S; Kulik, S P; Molotkov, S N
2014-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a concept of secret key exchange supported by fundamentals of quantum physics. Its perfect realization offers unconditional key security, however, known practical schemes are potentially vulnerable if the quantum channel loss exceeds a certain realization-specific bound. This discrepancy is caused by the fact that any practical photon source has a non-zero probability of emitting two or more photons at a time, while theory needs exactly one. We report an essentially different QKD scheme based on both quantum physics and theory of relativity. It works flawlessly with practical photon sources at arbitrary large channel loss. Our scheme is naturally tailored for free-space optical channels, and may be used in ground-to-satellite communications, where losses are prohibitively large and unpredictable for conventional QKD. (letters)
Free space optical networks for ultra-broad band services
Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V
2011-01-01
"Free Space Optical Network is a next generation communication network which uses optical waves instead of microwaves, potentially offering faster communication with ultra band width, meaning more complex communication services can be simultaneously offered. This book describes the network concepts in simple language starting with point-to-point free space optics basics and discusses networking, interoperability with existing communication network, and security. An ideal resource for communication professionals just entering the free space optical communication field and graduate students majoring in optical communications"--Provided by publisher.
Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum-key-distribution systems
Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2007-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to generate secret keys between two distant parties. Even though QKD has been proven unconditionally secure against eavesdroppers with unlimited computation power, practical implementations of QKD may contain loopholes that may lead to the generated secret keys being compromised. In this paper, we propose a phase-remapping attack targeting two practical bidirectional QKD systems (the 'plug-and-play' system and the Sagnac system). We showed that if the users of the systems are unaware of our attack, the final key shared between them can be compromised in some situations. Specifically, we showed that, in the case of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with ideal single-photon sources, when the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is between 14.6% and 20%, our attack renders the final key insecure, whereas the same range of QBER values has been proved secure if the two users are unaware of our attack; also, we demonstrated three situations with realistic devices where positive key rates are obtained without the consideration of Trojan horse attacks but in fact no key can be distilled. We remark that our attack is feasible with only current technology. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of our attack in order to ensure absolute security. In finding our attack, we minimize the QBER over individual measurements described by a general POVM, which has some similarity with the standard quantum state discrimination problem
An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States
Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin
2018-01-01
Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.
Multi-party Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on Cluster States
Liu, Chuanqi; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Pei, Changxing
2018-03-01
We propose a novel multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on cluster states. A four-photon analyzer which can distinguish all the 16 cluster states serves as the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Any two out of four participants can build secure keys after the analyzers obtains successful outputs and the two participants perform post-processing. We derive a security analysis for the protocol, and analyze the key rates under different values of polarization misalignment. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 280 km in the optical fiber channel when the key rate is about 10- 6 with the polarization misalignment parameter 0.015. Moreover, our work takes an important step toward a quantum communication network.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution
Shaari, J.S., E-mail: jesni_shamsul@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahari, Asma' Ahmad [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)
2012-10-01
A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-23
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution
Shaari, J.S.; Bahari, Asma' Ahmad
2012-01-01
A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.
Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Zhou Chun; Li Yuan
2014-01-01
Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD. (general)
Kochen-Specker theorem as a precondition for secure quantum key distribution
Nagata, Koji
2005-01-01
We show that (1) the violation of the Ekert 1991 inequality is a sufficient condition for certification of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, and (2) the violation of the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) inequality is, also, a sufficient condition for certification of the KS theorem. Therefore the success in each quantum key distribution protocol reveals the nonclassical feature of quantum theory, in the sense that the KS realism is violated. Further, it turned out that the Ekert inequality and the BBM inequality are depictured by distillable entanglement witness inequalities. Here, we connect the success in these two key distribution processes into the no-hidden-variables theorem and into witness on distillable entanglement. We also discuss the explicit difference between the KS realism and Bell's local realism in the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory
Quantum key distribution with a single photon from a squeezed coherent state
Matsuoka, Masahiro; Hirano, Takuya
2003-01-01
Squeezing of the coherent state by optical parametric amplifier is shown to efficiently produce single-photon states with reduced multiphoton probabilities compared with the weak coherent light. It can be a better source for a longer-distance quantum key distribution and also for other quantum optical experiments. The necessary condition for a secure quantum key distribution given by Brassard et al. is analyzed as functions of the coherent-state amplitude and squeeze parameter. Similarly, the rate of the gained secure bits G after error correction and privacy amplification given by Luetkenhaus is calculated. Compared with the weak coherent light, it is found that G is about ten times larger and its high level continues on about two times longer distance. By improvement of the detector efficiency it is shown that the distance extends further. Measurement of the intensity correlation function and the relation to photon antibunching are discussed for the experimental verification of the single-photon generation
Security bound of two-basis quantum-key-distribution protocols using qudits
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Alber, Gernot
2005-01-01
We investigate the security bounds of quantum-cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum-cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid
Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks
Waks, Edo; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2006-01-01
We derive a proof of security for the differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol under the assumption that Eve is restricted to individual attacks. The security proof is derived by bounding the average collision probability, which leads directly to a bound on Eve's mutual information on the final key. The security proof applies to realistic sources based on pulsed coherent light. We then compare individual attacks to sequential attacks and show that individual attacks are more powerful
Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics
Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai
2017-02-01
Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.
Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution
Liu Xiaobao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liao Changjun [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: chliao@scnu.edu.cn; Mi Jinglong; Wang Jindong; Liu Songhao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2008-12-22
We demonstrate experimentally an intrinsically stable polarization coding and decoding system composed of optical-fiber Sagnac interferometers with integrated phase modulators for quantum key distribution. An interference visibility of 98.35% can be kept longtime during the experiment without any efforts of active compensation for coding all four desired polarization states.
Independent attacks in imperfect settings: A case for a two-way quantum key distribution scheme
Shaari, J.S.; Bahari, Iskandar
2010-01-01
We review the study on a two-way quantum key distribution protocol given imperfect settings through a simple analysis of a toy model and show that it can outperform a BB84 setup. We provide the sufficient condition for this as a ratio of optimal intensities for the protocols.
Garrett K. Simon
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MDI-QKD is a two-photon protocol devised to eliminate eavesdropping attacks that interrogate or control the detector in realized quantum key distribution systems. In MDI-QKD, the measurements are carried out by an untrusted third party, and the measurement results are announced openly. Knowledge or control of the measurement results gives the third party no information about the secret key. Error-free implementation of the MDI-QKD protocol requires the crypto-communicating parties, Alice and Bob, to independently prepare and transmit single photons that are physically indistinguishable, with the possible exception of their polarization states. In this paper, we apply the formalism of quantum optics and Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the impact of small errors in wavelength, bandwidth, polarization and timing between Alice’s photons and Bob’s photons on the MDI-QKD quantum bit error rate (QBER. Using published single-photon source characteristics from two-photon interference experiments as a test case, our simulations predict that the finite tolerances of these sources contribute ( 4.04 ± 20 / N sifted % to the QBER in an MDI-QKD implementation generating an N sifted -bit sifted key.
Comment on ``Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states''
Boyer, Michel; Mor, Tal
2011-04-01
For several decades it was believed that information-secure key distribution requires both the sender and receiver to have the ability to generate and/or manipulate quantum states. Earlier, we showed that quantum key distribution in which one party is classical is possible [Boyer, Kenigsberg, and Mor, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.140501 99, 140501 (2007)]. A surprising and very nice extension of that result was suggested by Zou, Qiu, Li, Wu, and Li [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.79.052312 79, 052312 (2009)]. Their paper suggests that it is sufficient for the originator of the states (the person holding the quantum technology) to generate just one state. The resulting semiquantum key distribution, which we call here “quantum key distribution with classical Alice” is indeed completely robust against eavesdropping. However, their proof (that no eavesdropper can get information without being possibly detected) is faulty. We provide here a fully detailed and direct proof of their very important result.
Free Space Optics – Monitoring Setup for Experimental Link
Ján Tóth
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with advanced Free Space Optics communication technology. Two FSO nodes are needed in order to make a connection. Laser diodes are used as light sources. Simple OOK modulation is involved in this technology. FSO system offers multiple advantages indeed. However, a direct visibility is required in order to set up a communication link. This fact yields perhaps the most significant weakness of this technology. Obviously, there is no a chance to fight the weather phenomena like fog, heavy rain, dust and many other particles which are naturally present in the atmosphere. That’s why there is a key task to find a suitable solution to keep FSO link working with high reliability and availability. It turns out that it’s necessary to have knowledge about weather situation when FSO link operates (liquid water content - LWC, geographical location, particle size distribution, average particle diameter, temperature, humidity, wind conditions, pressure and many other variable weather parameters. It’s obvious that having most of mentioned parameter’s values stored in database (implicitly in charts would be really beneficial. This paper presents some of mentioned indicators continuously gathered from several sensors located close to one of FSO nodes.
Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment
Alheadary, Wael Ghazy
2017-12-28
Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2017-04-25
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei
2017-01-01
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
Exotic Optical Beam Classes for Free-Space Communication
2016-03-24
wandering of an optical vortex is one of the significant problems with the application of vortex beams to FSO applications. From a geometrical optics ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0131 Exotic optical beam classes for free-space communication Greg Gbur UNIVERSITY OF NOTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Final Report...12-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exotic optical beam classes for free-space communication 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0009 5c
Study on the security of discrete-variable quantum key distribution over non-Markovian channels
Huang Peng; Zhu Jun; He Guangqiang; Zeng Guihua
2012-01-01
The dynamic of the secret key rate of the discrete-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over the non-Markovian quantum channel is investigated. In particular, we calculate the secret key rate for the six-state protocol over non-Markovian depolarizing channels with coloured noise and Markovian depolarizing channels with Gaussian white noise, respectively. We find that the secure secret key rate for the non-Markovian depolarizing channel will be larger than the Markovian one under the same conditions even when their upper bounds of tolerable quantum bit error rate are equal. This indicates that this coloured noise in the non-Markovian depolarizing channel can enhance the security of communication. Moreover, we show that the secret key rate fluctuates near the secure point when the coupling strength of the system with the environment is high. The results demonstrate that the non-Markovian effects of the transmission channel can have a positive impact on the security of discrete-variable QKD. (paper)
Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States
Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan
2017-08-01
The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.
High performance reconciliation for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with LDPC code
Lin, Dakai; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua
2015-03-01
Reconciliation is a significant procedure in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. It is employed to extract secure secret key from the resulted string through quantum channel between two users. However, the efficiency and the speed of previous reconciliation algorithms are low. These problems limit the secure communication distance and the secure key rate of CV-QKD systems. In this paper, we proposed a high-speed reconciliation algorithm through employing a well-structured decoding scheme based on low density parity-check (LDPC) code. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced obviously. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU) device, our method may reach a reconciliation speed of 25 Mb/s for a CV-QKD system, which is currently the highest level and paves the way to high-speed CV-QKD.
Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation
Hirano, Takuya; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Namiki, Ryo; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro
2017-06-01
We have developed a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that employs discrete quadrature-amplitude modulation and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We experimentally demonstrated automated secure key generation with a rate of 50 kbps when a quantum channel is a 10 km optical fibre. The CV-QKD system utilises a four-state and post-selection protocol and generates a secure key against the entangling cloner attack. We used a pulsed light source of 1550 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 10 MHz. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realise shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. We used a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification. A graphical processing unit card is used to accelerate the software-based post-processing.
Extended analysis of the Trojan-horse attack in quantum key distribution
Vinay, Scott E.; Kok, Pieter
2018-04-01
The discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocols based on the 1984 protocol of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) are known to be secure against an eavesdropper, Eve, intercepting the flying qubits and performing any quantum operation on them. However, these protocols may still be vulnerable to side-channel attacks. We investigate the Trojan-horse side-channel attack where Eve sends her own state into Alice's apparatus and measures the reflected state to estimate the key. We prove that the separable coherent state is optimal for Eve among the class of multimode Gaussian attack states, even in the presence of thermal noise. We then provide a bound on the secret key rate in the case where Eve may use any separable state.
Improvement of "Novel Multiparty Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with GHZ States"
Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih
2017-10-01
Quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol is a method for negotiating a fair and secure key among mutually untrusted participants. Recently, Xu et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13:2587-2594, 2014) proposed a multi-party QKA protocol based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. However, this study points out that Xu et al.'s protocol cannot provide the fairness property. That is, the last involved participant in the protocol can manipulate the final shared secret key without being detected by the other participants. Moreover, according to Yu et al.'s research (2015), Xu et al.'s protocol cannot avoid the public discussion attack too. To avoid these weaknesses, an improved QKA protocol is proposed.
Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks
Patel, K. A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate quantum key distribution (QKD) with bidirectional 10 Gb/s classical data channels in a single fiber using dense wavelength division multiplexing. Record secure key rates of 2.38 Mbps and fiber distances up to 70 km are achieved. Data channels are simultaneously monitored for error-free operation. The robustness of QKD is further demonstrated with a secure key rate of 445 kbps over 25 km, obtained in the presence of data lasers launching conventional 0 dBm power. We discuss the fundamental limit for the QKD performance in the multiplexing environment
Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg
2015-01-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State......-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....
Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M; DeRose, Christopher T; Boynton, Nicholas; Urayama, Junji; Camacho, Ryan; Pomerene, Andrew; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S; Lentine, Anthony L
2017-05-29
We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.
Myhr, Geir Ove
2010-01-01
Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the
Myhr, Geir Ove
2010-11-08
Just like we can divide the set of bipartite quantum states into separable states and entangled states, we can divide it into states with and without a symmetric extension. The states with a symmetric extension - which includes all the separable states - behave classically in many ways, while the states without a symmetric extension - which are all entangled - have the potential to exhibit quantum effects. The set of states with a symmetric extension is closed under local quantum operations assisted by one-way classical communication (1-LOCC) just like the set of separable states is closed under local operations assisted by two-way classical communication (LOCC). Because of this, states with a symmetric extension often play the same role in a one-way communication setting as the separable states play in a two-way communication setting. We show that any state with a symmetric extension can be decomposed into a convex combination of states that have a pure symmetric extension. A necessary condition for a state to have a pure symmetric extension is that the spectra of the local and global density matrices are equal. This condition is also sufficient for two qubits, but not for any larger systems. We present a conjectured necessary and sufficient condition for two-qubit states with a symmetric extension. Proofs are provided for some classes of states: rank-two states, states on the symmetric subspace, Bell-diagonal states and states that are invariant under S x S, where S is a phase gate. We also show how the symmetric extension problem for multi-qubit Bell-diagonal states can be simplified and the simplified problem implemented as a semidefinite program. Quantum key distribution protocols such as the six-state protocol and the BB84 protocol effectively gives Alice and Bob Bell-diagonal states that they measure in the standard basis to obtain a raw key which they may then process further to obtain a secret error-free key. When the raw key has a high error rate, the
Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas
2015-11-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.
High-capacity quantum key distribution via hyperentangled degrees of freedom
Simon, David S; Sergienko, Alexander V
2014-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has long been a promising area for the application of quantum effects in solving real-world problems. However, two major obstacles have stood in the way of its widespread application: low secure key generation rates and short achievable operating distances. In this paper, a new physical mechanism for dealing with the first of these problems is proposed: the interplay between different degrees of freedom in a hyperentangled system (parametric down-conversion) is used to increase the Hilbert space dimension available for key generation while maintaining security. Polarization-based Bell tests provide security checking, while orbital angular momentum (OAM) and total angular momentum (TAM) provide a higher key generation rate. Whether to measure TAM or OAM is decided randomly in each trial. The concurrent noncommutativity of TAM with OAM and polarization provides the physical basis for quantum security. TAM measurements link polarization to OAM, so that if the legitimate participants measure OAM while the eavesdropper measures TAM (or vice-versa), then polarization entanglement is lost, revealing the eavesdropper. In contrast to other OAM-based QKD methods, complex active switching between OAM bases is not required; instead, passive switching by beam splitters combined with much simpler active switching between polarization bases makes implementation at high OAM more practical. (paper)
Practical round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution
Zhang, Zhen; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng
2017-01-01
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with which legitimate users are able to estimate information leakage by monitoring the disturbance of the transmitted quantum signals. Normally, the disturbance is reflected as bit flip errors in the sifted key; thus, privacy amplification, which removes any leaked information from the key, generally depends on the bit error rate. Recently, a round-robin differential-phase-shift QKD protocol for which privacy amplification does not rely on the bit error rate (Sasaki et al 2014 Nature 509 475) was proposed. The amount of leaked information can be bounded by the sender during the state-preparation stage and hence, is independent of the behavior of the unreliable quantum channel. In our work, we apply the tagging technique to the protocol and present a tight bound on the key rate and employ a decoy-state method. The effects of background noise and misalignment are taken into account under practical conditions. Our simulation results show that the protocol can tolerate channel error rates close to 50% within a typical experiment setting. That is, there is a negligible restriction on the error rate in practice. (paper)
Quantum key distribution with several intercept-resend attacks via a depolarizing channel
Dehmani, Mustapha; Errahmani, Mohamed; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah
2012-01-01
The disturbance effect of a depolarizing channel on the security of the quantum key distribution of the four-state BB84 protocol, with multiple sequential intercept-resend attacks of many eavesdroppers, has been studied. The quantum bit error rate and the mutual information are computed for an arbitrary number N of eavesdroppers. It is found that the quantum error rate decreases with increasing the depolarizing parameter p characterizing the noise of the channel. For p tr of p below which the information is secure and otherwise the information is not secure. The value of p tr decreases with increasing the number of attacks. In contrast, for p ⩾ 0.165, the information is not secure independently of the number of eavesdroppers. Phase diagrams corresponding to the secure—unsecure information are also established. (paper)
Quantum Key Distribution Based on a Weak-Coupling Cavity QED Regime
Li Chun-Yan; Li Yan-Song
2011-01-01
We present a quantum key distribution scheme using a weak-coupling cavity QED regime based on quantum dense coding. Hybrid entanglement states of photons and electrons are used to distribute information. We just need to transmit photons without storing them in the scheme. The electron confined in a quantum dot, which is embedded in a microcavity, is held by one of the legitimate users throughout the whole communication process. Only the polarization of a single photon and spin of electron measurements are applied in this protocol, which are easier to perform than collective-Bell state measurements. Linear optical apparatus, such as a special polarizing beam splitter in a circular basis and single photon operations, make it more flexible to realize under current technology. Its efficiency will approach 100% in the ideal case. The security of the scheme is also discussed. (general)
Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers.
Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P
2012-01-01
Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (quantum cascade laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.
High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution.
Dixon, A R; Sato, H
2014-12-02
Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90-94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0-80 km.
Fast implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification in quantum key distribution
Zhang Chun-Mei; Li Mo; Huang Jing-Zheng; Li Hong-Wei; Li Fang-Yi; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Chen Wei; Han Zhen-Fu; Treeviriyanupab Patcharapong; Sripimanwat Keattisak
2014-01-01
Post-processing is indispensable in quantum key distribution (QKD), which is aimed at sharing secret keys between two distant parties. It mainly consists of key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is used for sharing the same keys and for distilling unconditional secret keys. In this paper, we focus on speeding up the privacy amplification process by choosing a simple multiplicative universal class of hash functions. By constructing an optimal multiplication algorithm based on four basic multiplication algorithms, we give a fast software implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification. “Length-adaptive” indicates that the implementation of privacy amplification automatically adapts to different lengths of input blocks. When the lengths of the input blocks are 1 Mbit and 10 Mbit, the speed of privacy amplification can be as fast as 14.86 Mbps and 10.88 Mbps, respectively. Thus, it is practical for GHz or even higher repetition frequency QKD systems. (general)
Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review
Chandra, P.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Rowley, S. E.; Scott, J. F.
2017-11-01
The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c’s to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.
Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution
Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Ding, Yunhong; Forchhammer, Søren; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2016-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last 10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable.
Security of subcarrier wave quantum key distribution against the collective beam-splitting attack.
Miroshnichenko, G P; Kozubov, A V; Gaidash, A A; Gleim, A V; Horoshko, D B
2018-04-30
We consider a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where quantum encoding is carried out at weak sidebands generated around a coherent optical beam as a result of electro-optical phase modulation. We study security of two protocols, B92 and BB84, against one of the most powerful attacks for this class of systems, the collective beam-splitting attack. Our analysis includes the case of high modulation index, where the sidebands are essentially multimode. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a subcarrier wave QKD system with realistic parameters is capable of distributing cryptographic keys over large distances in presence of collective attacks. We also show that BB84 protocol modification with discrimination of only one state in each basis performs not worse than the original BB84 protocol in this class of QKD systems, thus significantly simplifying the development of cryptographic networks using the considered QKD technique.
Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P; Wilde, Mark M
2017-10-13
We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.
Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution
Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.
2016-01-01
10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak......Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last...... coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable....
Shor-Preskill-type security proof for quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases
Hwang, Won-Young; Wang Xiangbin; Matsumoto, Keiji; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong
2003-01-01
We give a Shor-Preskill-type security proof to quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases [W.Y. Hwang et al., Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)]. First, we modify the Lo-Chau protocol once more so that it finally reduces to the quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases. Then we show how we can estimate the error rate in the code bits based on that in the checked bits in the proposed protocol, which is the central point of the proof. We discuss the problem of imperfect sources and that of large deviation in the error rate distributions. We discuss when the bases sequence must be discarded
Takeoka, Masahiro; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.
2017-10-01
We consider quantum key distribution (QKD) and entanglement distribution using a single-sender multiple-receiver pure-loss bosonic broadcast channel. We determine the unconstrained capacity region for the distillation of bipartite entanglement and secret key between the sender and each receiver, whenever they are allowed arbitrary public classical communication. A practical implication of our result is that the capacity region demonstrated drastically improves upon rates achievable using a naive time-sharing strategy, which has been employed in previously demonstrated network QKD systems. We show a simple example of a broadcast QKD protocol overcoming the limit of the point-to-point strategy. Our result is thus an important step toward opening a new framework of network channel-based quantum communication technology.
Research progress of free space coherent optical communication
Tan, Zhenkun; Ke, Xizheng
2018-02-01
This paper mainly introduces the research progress of free space coherent optical communication in Xi'an University of Technology. In recent years, the research on the outer modulation technology of the laser, free-space-to-fiber coupling technique, the design of transmitting and receiving optical antenna, adaptive optical technology with or without wave-front sensor, automatic polarization control technology, frequency stabilization technology, heterodyne detection technology and high speed signal processing technology. Based on the above related research, the digital signal modulation, transmission, detection and data recovery are realized by the heterodyne detection technology in the free space optical communication system, and finally the function of smooth viewing high-definition video is realized.
Huber, Marcus; Pawlowski, Marcin
2013-01-01
We show that in device independent quantum key distribution protocols the privacy of randomness is of crucial importance. For sublinear test sample sizes even the slightest guessing probability by an eavesdropper will completely compromise security. We show that a combined attack exploiting test sample and measurement choices compromises the security even with a linear size test sample and otherwise device independent security considerations. We explicitly derive the sample size needed to ret...
Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution
Rogers, Daniel J; Bienfang, Joshua C; Nakassis, Anastase; Xu Hai; Clark, Charles W
2007-01-01
Recent advances in quantum key distribution (QKD) have given rise to systems that operate at transmission periods significantly shorter than the dead times of their component single-photon detectors. As systems continue to increase in transmission rate, security concerns associated with detector dead times can limit the production rate of sifted bits. We present a model of high-speed QKD in this limit that identifies an optimum transmission rate for a system with given link loss and detector response characteristics
Cross correlations of quantum key distribution based on single-photon sources
Dong Shuangli; Wang Xiaobo; Zhang Guofeng; Sun Jianhu; Zhang Fang; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang
2009-01-01
We theoretically analyze the second-order correlation function in a quantum key distribution system with real single-photon sources. Based on single-event photon statistics, the influence of the modification caused by an eavesdropper's intervention and the effects of background signals on the cross correlations between authorized partners are presented. On this basis, we have shown a secure range of correlation against the intercept-resend attacks.
Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution with position and momentum of photon pairs
Almeida, M.P.; Walborn, S.P.; Souto Ribeiro, P.H.
2005-01-01
We investigate the utility of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of the position and momentum of photon pairs from parametric down-conversion in the implementation of a secure quantum key distribution protocol. We show that security is guaranteed by the entanglement between down-converted pairs, and can be checked by either direct comparison of Alice and Bob's measurement results or evaluation of an inequality of the sort proposed by Mancini et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002)
Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2009-01-01
Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.
Reid, M. D.
2000-12-01
Correlations of the type discussed by EPR in their original 1935 paradox for continuous variables exist for the quadrature phase amplitudes of two spatially separated fields. These correlations were first experimentally reported in 1992. We propose to use such EPR beams in quantum cryptography, to transmit with high efficiency messages in such a way that the receiver and sender may later determine whether eavesdropping has occurred. The merit of the new proposal is in the possibility of transmitting a reasonably secure yet predetermined key. This would allow relay of a cryptographic key over long distances in the presence of lossy channels.
Implementation of a Wireless Time Distribution Testbed Protected with Quantum Key Distribution
Bonior, Jason D [ORNL; Evans, Philip G [ORNL; Sheets, Gregory S [ORNL; Jones, John P [ORNL; Flynn, Toby H [ORNL; O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hutton, William [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pratt, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carroll, Thomas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
2017-01-01
Secure time transfer is critical for many timesensitive applications. the Global Positioning System (GPS) which is often used for this purpose has been shown to be susceptible to spoofing attacks. Quantum Key Distribution offers a way to securely generate encryption keys at two locations. Through careful use of this information it is possible to create a system that is more resistant to spoofing attacks. In this paper we describe our work to create a testbed which utilizes QKD and traditional RF links. This testbed will be used for the development of more secure and spoofing resistant time distribution protocols.
A FPGA-based identity authority method in quantum key distribution system
Cui Ke; Luo Chunli; Zhang Hongfei; Lin Shengzhao; Jin Ge; Wang Jian
2012-01-01
In this article, an identity authority method realized in hardware is developed which is used in quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. This method is based on LFSR-Teoplitz hashing matrix. Its benefits relay on its easy implementation in hardware and high secure coefficient. It can gain very high security by means of splitting part of the final key generated from QKD systems as the seed where it is required in the identity authority method. We propose an specific flow of the identity authority method according to the problems and features of the hardware. The proposed method can satisfy many kinds of QKD systems. (authors)
Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2009-12-14
Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.
NASA's current activities in free space optical communications
Edwards, Bernard L.
2017-11-01
NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.
Multi-party quantum key agreement protocol secure against collusion attacks
Wang, Ping; Sun, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaoqiang
2017-07-01
The fairness of a secure multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol requires that all involved parties are entirely peer entities and can equally influence the outcome of the protocol to establish a shared key wherein no one can decide the shared key alone. However, it is found that parts of the existing MQKA protocols are sensitive to collusion attacks, i.e., some of the dishonest participants can collaborate to predetermine the final key without being detected. In this paper, a multi-party QKA protocol resisting collusion attacks is proposed. Different from previous QKA protocol resisting N-1 coconspirators or resisting 1 coconspirators, we investigate the general circle-type MQKA protocol which can be secure against t dishonest participants' cooperation. Here, t < N. We hope the results of the presented paper will be helpful for further research on fair MQKA protocols.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
Chau, H.F.
2002-01-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1√(5)≅27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date
Free Space Optics for Next Generation Cellular Backhaul
Zedini, Emna
2016-11-01
The exponential increase in the number of mobile users, coupled with the strong demand for high-speed data services results in a significant growth in the required cellular backhaul capacity. Optimizing the cost efficiency while increasing the capacity is becoming a key challenge to the cellular backhaul. It refers to connections between base stations and mobile switching nodes over a variety of transport technologies such as copper, optical fibers, and radio links. These traditional transmission technologies are either expensive, or cannot provide high data rates. This work is focused on the opportunities of free-space-optical (FSO) technology in next generation cellular back- haul. FSO is a cost effective and wide bandwidth solution as compared with the traditional radio-frequency (RF) transmission. Moreover, due to its ease of deployment, license-free operation, high transmission security, and insensitivity to interference, FSO links are becoming an attractive solution for next generation cellular networks. However, the widespread deployment of FSO links is hampered by the atmospheric turbulence-induced fading, weather conditions, and pointing errors. Increasing the reliability of FSO systems, while still exploiting their high data rate communications, is a key requirement in the deployment of an FSO-based backhaul. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide different approaches to address these technical challenges. In this context, investigation of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols from an information-theoretic perspective is undertaken. Moreover, performance analysis of asymmetric RF/FSO dual-hop systems is studied. In such system models, multiple RF users can be multiplexed and sent over the FSO link. More specifically, the end-to-end performance metrics are presented in closed-form. This also has increased the interest to study the performance of dual-hop mixed FSO/RF systems, where the FSO link is used as a multicast channel that serves
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Free Space Optics Communication for Mobile Military Platforms
2003-12-01
Federal Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FOV Field-of-View FSO Free Space Optics FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum Gbps...Physique et de Métrologie des Oscillateurs (LPMO) du CNRS UPR3203, associé à l’Université de Franche -Comté, 15 March 2002 [Schenk 2000] H. Schenk
One-carrier free space charge motion under applied voltage
Camargo, P.C.; Ferreira, G.F.L.
1976-01-01
The system of partial differential equations describing the one-carrier free space-charge motion under a given applied voltage is transformed into a system of two ordinary differential equations. The method is applied to find the external current injection [pt
Distillation of secret-key from a class of compound memoryless quantum sources
Boche, H., E-mail: boche@tum.de; Janßen, G., E-mail: gisbert.janssen@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Informationstechnik, Technische Universität München, 80290 München (Germany)
2016-08-15
We consider secret-key distillation from tripartite compound classical-quantum-quantum (cqq) sources with free forward public communication under strong security criterion. We design protocols which are universally reliable and secure in this scenario. These are shown to achieve asymptotically optimal rates as long as a certain regularity condition is fulfilled by the set of its generating density matrices. We derive a multi-letter formula which describes the optimal forward secret-key capacity for all compound cqq sources being regular in this sense. We also determine the forward secret-key distillation capacity for situations where the legitimate sending party has perfect knowledge of his/her marginal state deriving from the source statistics. In this case regularity conditions can be dropped. Our results show that the capacities with and without the mentioned kind of state knowledge are equal as long as the source is generated by a regular set of density matrices. We demonstrate that regularity of cqq sources is not only a technical but also an operational issue. For this reason, we give an example of a source which has zero secret-key distillation capacity without sender knowledge, while achieving positive rates is possible if sender marginal knowledge is provided.
Three-dimensional theory for interaction between atomic ensembles and free-space light
Duan, L.-M.; Cirac, J.I.; Zoller, P.
2002-01-01
Atomic ensembles have shown to be a promising candidate for implementations of quantum information processing by many recently discovered schemes. All these schemes are based on the interaction between optical beams and atomic ensembles. For description of these interactions, one assumed either a cavity-QED model or a one-dimensional light propagation model, which is still inadequate for a full prediction and understanding of most of the current experimental efforts that are actually taken in the three-dimensional free space. Here, we propose a perturbative theory to describe the three-dimensional effects in interaction between atomic ensembles and free-space light with a level configuration important for several applications. The calculations reveal some significant effects that were not known before from the other approaches, such as the inherent mode-mismatching noise and the optimal mode-matching conditions. The three-dimensional theory confirms the collective enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio which is believed to be one of the main advantages of the ensemble-based quantum information processing schemes, however, it also shows that this enhancement needs to be understood in a more subtle way with an appropriate mode-matching method
A practical two-way system of quantum key distribution with untrusted source
Chen Ming-Juan; Liu Xiang
2011-01-01
The most severe problem of a two-way 'plug-and-play' (p and p) quantum key distribution system is that the source can be controlled by the eavesdropper. This kind of source is defined as an “untrusted source . This paper discusses the effects of the fluctuation of internal transmittance on the final key generation rate and the transmission distance. The security of the standard BB84 protocol, one-decoy state protocol, and weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, with untrusted sources and the fluctuation of internal transmittance are studied. It is shown that the one-decoy state is sensitive to the statistical fluctuation but weak+vacuum decoy state is only slightly affected by the fluctuation. It is also shown that both the maximum secure transmission distance and final key generation rate are reduced when Alice's laboratory transmittance fluctuation is considered. (general)
Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels
Rosenberg, D; Peterson, C G; Harrington, J W; Rice, P R; Dallmann, N; Tyagi, K T; McCabe, K P; Hughes, R J; Nordholt, J E; Nam, S; Baek, B; Hadfield, R H
2009-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential for widespread real-world applications, but no secure long-distance experiment has demonstrated the truly practical operation needed to move QKD from the laboratory to the real world due largely to limitations in synchronization and poor detector performance. Here, we report results obtained using a fully automated, robust QKD system based on the Bennett Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with low-noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) and decoy levels to produce a secret key with unconditional security over a record 140.6 km of optical fibre, an increase of more than a factor of five compared with the previous record for unconditionally secure key generation in a practical QKD system.
Wang, Lian; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Chen, Xiao
2018-03-01
Based on the orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation, we present a novel passive measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) scheme with the two-mode source. Combining with the tight bounds of the yield and error rate of single-photon pairs given in our paper, we conduct performance analysis on the scheme with heralded single-photon source. The numerical simulations show that the performance of our scheme is significantly superior to the traditional MDI-QKD in the error rate, key generation rate and secure transmission distance, since the application of orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation can exclude the basis-dependent flaw and increase the information content for each single photon. Moreover, the performance is improved with the rise of the frame length. Therefore, our scheme, without intensity modulation, avoids the source side channels and enhances the key generation rate. It has greatly utility value in the MDI-QKD setups.
Security proof of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using three coherent states
Brádler, Kamil; Weedbrook, Christian
2018-02-01
We introduce a ternary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol and asymptotic security proof based on three coherent states and homodyne detection. Previous work had considered the binary case of two coherent states and here we nontrivially extend this to three. Our motivation is to leverage the practical benefits of both discrete and continuous (Gaussian) encoding schemes creating a best-of-both-worlds approach; namely, the postprocessing of discrete encodings and the hardware benefits of continuous ones. We present a thorough and detailed security proof in the limit of infinite signal states which allows us to lower bound the secret key rate. We calculate this is in the context of collective eavesdropping attacks and reverse reconciliation postprocessing. Finally, we compare the ternary coherent state protocol to other well-known QKD schemes (and fundamental repeaterless limits) in terms of secret key rates and loss.
Multi-party quantum key agreement with five-qubit brown states
Cai, Tao; Jiang, Min; Cao, Gang
2018-05-01
In this paper, we propose a multi-party quantum key agreement protocol with five-qubit brown states and single-qubit measurements. Our multi-party protocol ensures each participant to contribute equally to the agreement key. Each party performs three single-qubit unitary operations on three qubits of each brown state. Finally, by measuring brown states and decoding the measurement results, all participants can negotiate a shared secret key without classical bits exchange between them. With the analysis of security, our protocol demonstrates that it can resist against both outsider and participant attacks. Compared with other schemes, it also possesses a higher information efficiency. In terms of physical operation, it requires single-qubit measurements only which weakens the hardware requirements of participant and has a better operating flexibility.
Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states
Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.
2016-02-01
In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.
Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution
Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas
2011-01-01
By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being ''device-independent.'' Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are noncharacterized, but the dimensionality of the quantum systems used in the protocol is assumed to be bounded. Our security proof relies on the analogies between one-way QKD, dimension witnesses, and random-access codes.
Three-dimensional quantum key distribution in the presence of several eavesdroppers
Daoud, M; Ez-zahraouy, H
2011-01-01
Quantum key distribution based on encoding in three-dimensional systems in the presence of several eavesdroppers is proposed. This extends the BB84 protocol in the presence of many eavesdroppers where two-level quantum systems (qubits) are replaced by three-level systems (qutrits). We discuss the scenarios involving two, three and four complementary bases. We derive the explicit form of Alice and Bob mutual information and the information gained by each eavesdropper. In particular, we show that, in the presence of only one eavesdropper, the protocol involving four bases is safer than the other ones. However, for two eavesdroppers, the security is strongly dependent on the attack probabilities. The effect of a large number of eavesdroppers is also investigated.
Three-dimensional quantum key distribution in the presence of several eavesdroppers
Daoud, M [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Ez-zahraouy, H, E-mail: daoud@pks.mpg.de, E-mail: ezahamid@fsr.ac.m [LMPHE (URAC), Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco)
2011-10-15
Quantum key distribution based on encoding in three-dimensional systems in the presence of several eavesdroppers is proposed. This extends the BB84 protocol in the presence of many eavesdroppers where two-level quantum systems (qubits) are replaced by three-level systems (qutrits). We discuss the scenarios involving two, three and four complementary bases. We derive the explicit form of Alice and Bob mutual information and the information gained by each eavesdropper. In particular, we show that, in the presence of only one eavesdropper, the protocol involving four bases is safer than the other ones. However, for two eavesdroppers, the security is strongly dependent on the attack probabilities. The effect of a large number of eavesdroppers is also investigated.
Countermeasure against probabilistic blinding attack in practical quantum key distribution systems
Qian Yong-Jun; Li Hong-Wei; He De-Yong; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Zhang Chun-Mei; Chen Wei; Wang Shuang; Han Zheng-Fu
2015-01-01
In a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, imperfect equipment, especially the single-photon detector, can be eavesdropped on by a blinding attack. However, the original blinding attack may be discovered by directly detecting the current. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blinding attack model, where Eve probabilistically applies a blinding attack without being caught by using only an existing intuitive countermeasure. More precisely, our countermeasure solves the problem of how to define the bound in the limitation of precision of current detection, and then we prove security of the practical system by considering the current parameter. Meanwhile, we discuss the bound of the quantum bit error rate (QBER) introduced by Eve, by which Eve can acquire information without the countermeasure. (paper)
Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua
2018-03-01
How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.
Szajowski, Paul F.; Rigas, A. J.; Robinson, J. W.; Nykolak, Gerald; Paulson, Bruce D.; Tourgee, G. E.; Auborn, James J.
2001-02-01
12 Terrestrial 1550 nm WDM free-space optical communication systems have been demonstrated to provide a viable means to transport data, voice and video channels for point-to-point applications without the use of optical fiber. Key features of free-space optical transmission systems are their ability to utilize present day telecommunication components such as: laser diode transmitters, high-power optical amplifiers operating within the 1550 nm optical transmission window and high-sensitivity optical receivers designed for multi-Giga- bit data rates. In this paper, we report on details of the world's first field test, demonstrating real time video transmission of eight uncompressed standard-definition (SD) video channels operating at an aggregate data rate of 1.485 Gb/s over a 0.89 km terrestrial free-space link. This data link was used in support of the 2000 Olympic games held recently in Sydney, Australia. Results from this eight- channel SD terrestrial free-space laser communications systems are presented. The transmission system operated error-free continuously from September 14, 2000 until October 1, 2000, twenty-four hours a day, throughout the coverage of the games. Modeling results predict that free- space SD video transmission systems can be designed and operated over significant link distances under nominal visibility conditions.
Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Xu, Bingjie; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong
2018-04-01
The method of improving the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols by postselection has been recently proposed and verified. In continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocols, the measurement results are obtained from untrusted third party Charlie. There is still not an effective method of improving CV-MDI QKD by the postselection with untrusted measurement. We propose a method to improve the performance of coherent-state CV-MDI QKD protocol by virtual photon subtraction via non-Gaussian postselection. The non-Gaussian postselection of transmitted data is equivalent to an ideal photon subtraction on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state, which is favorable to enhance the performance of CV-MDI QKD. In CV-MDI QKD protocol with non-Gaussian postselection, two users select their own data independently. We demonstrate that the optimal performance of the renovated CV-MDI QKD protocol is obtained with the transmitted data only selected by Alice. By setting appropriate parameters of the virtual photon subtraction, the secret key rate and tolerable excess noise are both improved at long transmission distance. The method provides an effective optimization scheme for the application of CV-MDI QKD protocols.
Pilot-multiplexed continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a real local oscillator
Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua
2018-01-01
We propose a pilot-multiplexed continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) scheme based on a local local oscillator (LLO). Our scheme utilizes time-multiplexing and polarization-multiplexing techniques to dramatically isolate the quantum signal from the pilot, employs two heterodyne detectors to separately detect the signal and the pilot, and adopts a phase compensation method to almost eliminate the multifrequency phase jitter. In order to analyze the performance of our scheme, a general LLO noise model is constructed. Besides the phase noise and the modulation noise, the photon-leakage noise from the reference path and the quantization noise due to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) are also considered, which are first analyzed in the LLO regime. Under such general noise model, our scheme has a higher key rate and longer secure distance compared with the preexisting LLO schemes. Moreover, we also conduct an experiment to verify our pilot-multiplexed scheme. Results show that it maintains a low level of the phase noise and is expected to obtain a 554-Kbps secure key rate within a 15-km distance under the finite-size effect.
Robust catastrophe-free space agriculture on Mars
Yamashita, Masamichi
During the early stage of CELSS research, economy was a selling point of the bio-regenerative life support concept. Until system integration was exercised in detail at mission planing for the International Space Station, the turning point from open system to CELSS was estimated 10 years of operation for 10 crew member as a consensus. Initial investment and operational cost for the 10-10 regenerative system was believed to be cheaper than the integrated amount of consumables for running open system. Any drop-out from recycling loop of materials is counted as “penalty”. Under this context, degree of closure was raised as an index to measure “maturity” of CELSS technology. Once it was found quite difficult to achieve 100 % closure perfect, science merit of CELSS study was redefined as a small scaled model of terrestrial biosphere. Natural ecosystem has huge sink and backyard in its materials loop. They provide a basis for keeping member in the ecology without falling into catastrophe. Low productivity at high biological diversity is a common key feature at the climax phase of ecosystem. Artificial ecosystem on ground relies on “unpaid” backyard function of surrounding biosphere together with strong control for realizing high productivity at less degree of bio-diversity. It should be noted that top criteria in engineering manned space system is robustness and survivability of crew. All other item is secondary, and just better to have. Without verification of catastrophe free, space agriculture will never be implemented for space and stay as a fantasy on ground forever. There is a great gap between ecology and this requirement for manned space system. In order to fill this gap, we should remind how gatherer and hunter was civilized after the agricultural revolution about ten thousand years ago. Planting cereal crop was a great second step in agricultural innovation. Cereal grain can be stored more than one year after its harvest. Food processing and
Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution
Pawlowski, Marcin; Brunner, Nicolas
2011-01-01
By testing nonlocality, the security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) can be enhanced to being 'device-independent'. Here we ask whether such a strong form of security could also be established for one-way (prepare and measure) QKD. While fully device-independent security is impossible, we show that security can be guaranteed against individual attacks in a semi-device-independent scenario. In the latter, the devices used by the trusted parties are non-characterized, but t...
Transceivers and receivers for quantum key distribution and methods pertaining thereto
DeRose, Christopher; Sarovar, Mohan; Soh, Daniel B.S.; Lentine, Anthony; Davids, Paul; Camacho, Ryan
2018-02-27
Various technologies for performing continuous-variable (CV) and discrete-variable (DV) quantum key distribution (QKD) with integrated electro-optical circuits are described herein. An integrated DV-QKD system uses Mach-Zehnder modulators to modulate a polarization of photons at a transmitter and select a photon polarization measurement basis at a receiver. An integrated CV-QKD system uses wavelength division multiplexing to send and receive amplitude-modulated and phase-modulated optical signals with a local oscillator signal while maintaining phase coherence between the modulated signals and the local oscillator signal.
Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution
Yichen Zhang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.
Simple proof of the unconditional security of the Bennett 1992 quantum key distribution protocol
Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojing
2002-01-01
It is generally accepted that quantum key distribution (QKD) could supply legitimate users with unconditional security during their communication. Quite a lot of satisfactory efforts have been achieved on experimentations with quantum cryptography. However, when the eavesdropper has extra-powerful computational ability, has access to a quantum computer, for example, and can carry into execution any eavesdropping measurement that is allowed by the laws of physics, the security against such attacks has not been widely studied and rigorously proved for most QKD protocols. Quite recently, Shor and Preskill proved concisely the unconditional security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Their method is highly valued for its clarity of concept and concision of form. In order to take advantage of the Shor-Preskill technique in their proof of the unconditional security of the BB84 QKD protocol, we introduced in this paper a transformation that can translate the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol into the BB84 protocol. By proving that the transformation leaks no more information to the eavesdropper, we proved the unconditional security of the B92 protocol. We also settled the problem proposed by Lo about how to prove the unconditional security of the B92 protocol with the Shor-Preskill method
Two-party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol.
Grice, W P; Evans, P G; Lawrie, B; Legré, M; Lougovski, P; Ray, W; Williams, B P; Qi, B; Smith, A M
2015-03-23
We present and demonstrate a novel protocol for distributing secret keys between two and only two parties based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS). We demonstrate our new protocol with N = 3 parties using phase-encoded photons. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. Our implementation allows for an accessible transition between N-party QSS and arbitrary two party QKD without modification of hardware. In addition, our approach significantly reduces the number of resources such as single photon detectors, lasers and dark fiber connections needed to implement QKD.
Koehler-Sidki, Alexander; Dynes, James F.; Lucamarini, Marco; Roberts, George L.; Sharpe, Andrew W.; Savory, Seb J.; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J.
2017-10-01
In recent years, the security of avalanche photodiodes as single photon detectors for quantum key distribution has been subjected to much scrutiny. The most prominent example of this surrounds the vulnerability of such devices to blinding under strong illumination. We focus on self-differencing avalanche photodiodes, single photon detectors that have demonstrated count rates exceeding 1 GCounts/s resulting in secure key rates over 1 MBit/s. These detectors use a passive electronic circuit to cancel any periodic signals thereby enhancing detection sensitivity. However this intrinsic feature can be exploited by adversaries to gain control of the devices using illumination of a moderate intensity. Through careful experimental examinations, we define here a set of criteria for these detectors to avoid such attacks.
A New Quantum Key Distribution Scheme Based on Frequency and Time Coding
Chang-Hua, Zhu; Chang-Xing, Pei; Dong-Xiao, Quan; Jing-Liang, Gao; Nan, Chen; Yun-Hui, Yi
2010-01-01
A new scheme of quantum key distribution (QKD) using frequency and time coding is proposed, in which the security is based on the frequency-time uncertainty relation. In this scheme, the binary information sequence is encoded randomly on either the central frequency or the time delay of the optical pulse at the sender. The central frequency of the single photon pulse is set as ω 1 for bit 0 and set as ω 2 for bit 1 when frequency coding is selected. However, the single photon pulse is not delayed for bit 0 and is delayed in τ for 1 when time coding is selected. At the receiver, either the frequency or the time delay of the pulse is measured randomly, and the final key is obtained after basis comparison, data reconciliation and privacy amplification. With the proposed method, the effect of the noise in the fiber channel and environment on the QKD system can be reduced effectively
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with two-way classical postprocessing
Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, C.-H.F.; Chen Kai; Lo, H.-K.; Dupuis, Frederic; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2006-01-01
Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when a coherent-state source is used. Previously, data postprocessing schemes based on one-way classical communications were considered for use with decoy states. In this paper, we develop two data postprocessing schemes for the decoy-state method using two-way classical communications. Our numerical simulation (using parameters from a specific QKD experiment as an example) results show that our scheme is able to extend the maximal secure distance from 142 km (using only one-way classical communications with decoy states) to 181 km. The second scheme is able to achieve a 10% greater key generation rate in the whole regime of distances. We conclude that decoy-state QKD with two-way classical postprocessing is of practical interest
Taiwo, Ambali; Alnassar, Ghusoon; Bakar, M. H. Abu; Khir, M. F. Abdul; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Mokhtar, M.
2018-05-01
One-weight authentication code for multi-user quantum key distribution (QKD) is proposed. The code is developed for Optical Code Division Multiplexing (OCDMA) based QKD network. A unique address assigned to individual user, coupled with degrading probability of predicting the source of the qubit transmitted in the channel offer excellent secure mechanism against any form of channel attack on OCDMA based QKD network. Flexibility in design as well as ease of modifying the number of users are equally exceptional quality presented by the code in contrast to Optical Orthogonal Code (OOC) earlier implemented for the same purpose. The code was successfully applied to eight simultaneous users at effective key rate of 32 bps over 27 km transmission distance.
Finite-size analysis of continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yichen; Zhao, Yijia; Wang, Xiangyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong
2017-10-01
We study the impact of the finite-size effect on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, mainly considering the finite-size effect on the parameter estimation procedure. The central-limit theorem and maximum likelihood estimation theorem are used to estimate the parameters. We also analyze the relationship between the number of exchanged signals and the optimal modulation variance in the protocol. It is proved that when Charlie's position is close to Bob, the CV-MDI QKD protocol has the farthest transmission distance in the finite-size scenario. Finally, we discuss the impact of finite-size effects related to the practical detection in the CV-MDI QKD protocol. The overall results indicate that the finite-size effect has a great influence on the secret-key rate of the CV-MDI QKD protocol and should not be ignored.
Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Liu, Ai-Ping [Institute of Signal Processing Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210003 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinw@njupt.edu.cn [Institute of Signal Processing Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2016-04-01
In this paper, we propose to implement the heralded pair-coherent source into the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. By comparing its performance with other existing schemes, we demonstrate that our new scheme can overcome many shortcomings existing in current schemes, and show excellent behavior in the quantum key distribution. Moreover, even when taking the statistical fluctuation into account, we can still obtain quite high key generation rate at very long transmission distance by using our new scheme. - Highlights: • Implement the heralded pair-coherent source into the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. • Overcome many shortcomings existing in current schemes and show excellent behavior. • Obtain quite high key generation rate even when taking statistical fluctuation into account.
Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols
Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara
2005-01-01
We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel
Device-dependent and device-independent quantum key distribution without a shared reference frame
Slater, Joshua A; Tittel, Wolfgang; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas
2014-01-01
Standard quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols typically assume that the distant parties share a common reference frame. In practice, however, establishing and maintaining a good alignment between distant observers is rarely a trivial issue, which may significantly restrain the implementation of long-distance quantum communication protocols. Here we propose simple QKD protocols that do not require the parties to share any reference frame, and study their security and feasibility in both the usual device-dependent (DD) case—in which the two parties use well characterized measurement devices—as well as in the device-independent (DI) case—in which the measurement devices can be untrusted, and the security relies on the violation of a Bell inequality. To illustrate the practical relevance of these ideas, we present a proof-of-principle demonstration of our protocols using polarization entangled photons distributed over a coiled 10-km long optical fiber. We consider two situations, in which either the fiber spool's polarization transformation freely drifts, or randomly chosen polarization transformations are applied. The correlations obtained from measurements allow, with high probability, to generate positive asymptotic secret key rates in both the DD and DI scenarios (under the fair-sampling assumption for the latter case). (paper)
Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols
Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara
2005-07-01
We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman
2015-10-30
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.
Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman
2015-10-01
Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.
Interference of Single Photons Emitted by Entangled Atoms in Free Space
Araneda, G.; Higginbottom, D. B.; Slodička, L.; Colombe, Y.; Blatt, R.
2018-05-01
The generation and manipulation of entanglement between isolated particles has precipitated rapid progress in quantum information processing. Entanglement is also known to play an essential role in the optical properties of atomic ensembles, but fundamental effects in the controlled emission and absorption from small, well-defined numbers of entangled emitters in free space have remained unobserved. Here we present the control of the emission rate of a single photon from a pair of distant, entangled atoms into a free-space optical mode. Changing the length of the optical path connecting the atoms modulates the single-photon emission rate in the selected mode with a visibility V =0.27 ±0.03 determined by the degree of entanglement shared between the atoms, corresponding directly to the concurrence Cρ=0.31 ±0.10 of the prepared state. This scheme, together with population measurements, provides a fully optical determination of the amount of entanglement. Furthermore, large sensitivity of the interference phase evolution points to applications of the presented scheme in high-precision gradient sensing.
Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong
2014-01-01
By employing a nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier, we propose to increase the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states. With the covariance matrix transformation, the expression of secret key rate under reverse reconciliation is derived against collective entangling cloner attacks. We show that the noiseless linear amplifier can compensate the detrimental effect of the preparation noise with an enhancement of the maximum transmission distance and the noise resistance. - Highlights: • Noiseless amplifier is applied in noisy coherent state quantum key distribution. • Negative effect of preparation noise is compensated by noiseless amplification. • Maximum transmission distance and noise resistance are both enhanced
Quantum key distribution with hacking countermeasures and long term field trial.
Dixon, A R; Dynes, J F; Lucamarini, M; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Plews, A; Tam, W; Yuan, Z L; Tanizawa, Y; Sato, H; Kawamura, S; Fujiwara, M; Sasaki, M; Shields, A J
2017-05-16
Quantum key distribution's (QKD's) central and unique claim is information theoretic security. However there is an increasing understanding that the security of a QKD system relies not only on theoretical security proofs, but also on how closely the physical system matches the theoretical models and prevents attacks due to discrepancies. These side channel or hacking attacks exploit physical devices which do not necessarily behave precisely as the theory expects. As such there is a need for QKD systems to be demonstrated to provide security both in the theoretical and physical implementation. We report here a QKD system designed with this goal in mind, providing a more resilient target against possible hacking attacks including Trojan horse, detector blinding, phase randomisation and photon number splitting attacks. The QKD system was installed into a 45 km link of a metropolitan telecom network for a 2.5 month period, during which time the system operated continuously and distributed 1.33 Tbits of secure key data with a stable secure key rate over 200 kbit/s. In addition security is demonstrated against coherent attacks that are more general than the collective class of attacks usually considered.
Boosting up quantum key distribution by learning statistics of practical single-photon sources
Adachi, Yoritoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2009-01-01
We propose a simple quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme for practical single-photon sources (SPSs), which works even with a moderate suppression of the second-order correlation g (2) of the source. The scheme utilizes a passive preparation of a decoy state by monitoring a fraction of the signal via an additional beam splitter and a detector at the sender's side to monitor photon-number splitting attacks. We show that the achievable distance increases with the precision with which the sub-Poissonian tendency is confirmed in higher photon-number distribution of the source, rather than with actual suppression of the multiphoton emission events. We present an example of the secure key generation rate in the case of a poor SPS with g (2) =0.19, in which no secure key is produced with the conventional QKD scheme, and show that learning the photon-number distribution up to several numbers is sufficient for achieving almost the same distance as that of an ideal SPS.
Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Nakata, Kensuke; Sumiya, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Tajima, Akio; Koashi, Masato; Tomita, Akihisa
2018-03-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two distant parties to share secret keys with the proven security even in the presence of an eavesdropper with unbounded computational power. Recently, GHz-clock decoy QKD systems have been realized by employing ultrafast optical communication devices. However, security loopholes of high-speed systems have not been fully explored yet. Here we point out a security loophole at the transmitter of the GHz-clock QKD, which is a common problem in high-speed QKD systems using practical band-width limited devices. We experimentally observe the inter-pulse intensity correlation and modulation pattern-dependent intensity deviation in a practical high-speed QKD system. Such correlation violates the assumption of most security theories. We also provide its countermeasure which does not require significant changes of hardware and can generate keys secure over 100 km fiber transmission. Our countermeasure is simple, effective and applicable to wide range of high-speed QKD systems, and thus paves the way to realize ultrafast and security-certified commercial QKD systems.
Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication
Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.
Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network
Qi Bing; Qian Li; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Zhu Wen
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the feasibility of conducting quantum key distribution (QKD) together with classical communication through the same optical fiber by employing dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) technology at telecom wavelength. The impact of classical channels on the quantum channel has been investigated for both QKD based on single-photon detection and QKD based on homodyne detection. Our studies show that the latter can tolerate a much higher level of contamination from classical channels than the former. This is because the local oscillator used in the homodyne detector acts as a 'mode selector', which can suppress noise photons effectively. We have performed simulations based on both the decoy BB84 QKD protocol and the Gaussian-modulated coherent state (GMCS) QKD protocol. While the former cannot tolerate even one classical channel (with a power of 0 dBm), the latter can be multiplexed with 38 classical channels (0 dBm power per channel) and still has a secure distance around 10 km. A preliminary experiment has been conducted based on a 100 MHz bandwidth homodyne detector.
Security analysis of an untrusted source for quantum key distribution: passive approach
Zhao Yi; Qi Bing; Lo, H-K; Qian Li
2010-01-01
We present a passive approach to the security analysis of quantum key distribution (QKD) with an untrusted source. A complete proof of its unconditional security is also presented. This scheme has significant advantages in real-life implementations as it does not require fast optical switching or a quantum random number generator. The essential idea is to use a beam splitter to split each input pulse. We show that we can characterize the source using a cross-estimate technique without active routing of each pulse. We have derived analytical expressions for the passive estimation scheme. Moreover, using simulations, we have considered four real-life imperfections: additional loss introduced by the 'plug and play' structure, inefficiency of the intensity monitor noise of the intensity monitor, and statistical fluctuation introduced by finite data size. Our simulation results show that the passive estimate of an untrusted source remains useful in practice, despite these four imperfections. Also, we have performed preliminary experiments, confirming the utility of our proposal in real-life applications. Our proposal makes it possible to implement the 'plug and play' QKD with the security guaranteed, while keeping the implementation practical.
Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction
Leverrier, Anthony
2017-05-01
Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.
Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.
Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-09-08
A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes.
Four-State Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Photon Subtraction
Li, Fei; Wang, Yijun; Liao, Qin; Guo, Ying
2018-06-01
Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) is one of the discretely modulated CVQKD which generates four nonorthogonal coherent states and exploits the sign of the measured quadrature of each state to encode information rather than uses the quadrature \\hat {x} or \\hat {p} itself. It has been proven that four-state CVQKD is more suitable than Gaussian modulated CVQKD in terms of transmission distance. In this paper, we propose an improved four-state CVQKD using an non-Gaussian operation, photon subtraction. A suitable photon-subtraction operation can be exploited to improve the maximal transmission of CVQKD in point-to-point quantum communication since it provides a method to enhance the performance of entanglement-based (EB) CVQKD. Photon subtraction not only can lengthen the maximal transmission distance by increasing the signal-to-noise rate but also can be easily implemented with existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can lengthen the maximum transmission distance. Furthermore, by taking finite-size effect into account we obtain a tighter bound of the secure distance, which is more practical than that obtained in the asymptotic limit.
Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.
Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A
2001-12-10
A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.
Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks
Willebrand, Heinz A.
2003-04-01
Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system reliability.
Spontaneous emergence of free-space optical and atomic patterns
Schmittberger, Bonnie L; Gauthier, Daniel J
2016-01-01
The spontaneous formation of patterns in dynamical systems is a rich phenomenon that transcends scientific boundaries. Here, we report our observation of coupled optical–atomic pattern formation, which results in the creation of self-organized, multimode structures in free-space laser-driven cold atoms. We show that this process gives rise to spontaneous three-dimensional Sisyphus cooling even at very low light intensities and the emergence of self-organized structures on both sub- and super-wavelength scales. (paper)
Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space
Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling
2018-01-01
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.
Video semaphore decoding for free-space optical communication
Last, Matthew; Fisher, Brian; Ezekwe, Chinwuba; Hubert, Sean M.; Patel, Sheetal; Hollar, Seth; Leibowitz, Brian S.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.
2001-04-01
Using teal-time image processing we have demonstrated a low bit-rate free-space optical communication system at a range of more than 20km with an average optical transmission power of less than 2mW. The transmitter is an autonomous one cubic inch microprocessor-controlled sensor node with a laser diode output. The receiver is a standard CCD camera with a 1-inch aperture lens, and both hardware and software implementations of the video semaphore decoding algorithm. With this system sensor data can be reliably transmitted 21 km form San Francisco to Berkeley.
An Introduction to Free-space Optical Communications
H. Henniger
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Over the last two decades free-space optical communication (FSO has become more and more interesting as an adjunct or alternative to radio frequency communication. This article gives an overview of the challenges a system designer has to consider while implementing an FSO system. Typical gains and losses along the path from the transmitter through the medium to the receiver are introduced in this article. Detailed discussions of these topics can be found in this special issue of the Radioengineering Journal.
Improvement of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using optical amplifiers
Zhang, Yi-Chen; Yu, Song; Gu, Wanyi; Li, Zhengyu; Sun, Maozhu; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong; Weedbrook, Christian
2014-01-01
The imperfections of a receiver's detector affect the performance of two-way continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols and are difficult to adjust in practical situations. We propose a method to improve the performance of two-way CV-QKD by adding a parameter-adjustable optical amplifier at the receiver. A security analysis is derived against a two-mode collective entangling cloner attack. Our simulations show that the proposed method can improve the performance of protocols as long as the inherent noise of the amplifier is lower than a critical value, defined as the tolerable amplifier noise. Furthermore, the optimal performance can approach the scenario where a perfect detector is used. (paper)
Experimental integration of quantum key distribution and gigabit-capable passive optical network
Sun, Wei; Wang, Liu-Jun; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Mao, Yingqiu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Bi-Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) ensures information-theoretic security for the distribution of random bits between two remote parties. To extend QKD applications to fiber-to-the-home optical communications, such as gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs), an effective method is the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. However, the Raman scattering noise from intensive classical traffic and the huge loss introduced by the beam splitter in a GPON severely limits the performance of QKD. Here, we demonstrate the integration of QKD and a commercial GPON system with fiber lengths up to 14 km, in which the maximum splitting ratio of the beam splitter reaches 1:64. By placing the QKD transmitter on the optical line terminal side, we reduce the Raman noise collected at the QKD receiver. Using a bypass structure, the loss of the beam splitter is circumvented effectively. Our results pave the way to extending the applications of QKD to last-mile communications.
McKague, Matthew
2009-01-01
Device independent quantum key distribution (QKD) aims to provide a higher degree of security than traditional QKD schemes by reducing the number of assumptions that need to be made about the physical devices used. The previous proof of security by Pironio et al (2009 New J. Phys. 11 045021) applies only to collective attacks where the state is identical and independent and the measurement devices operate identically for each trial in the protocol. We extend this result to a more general class of attacks where the state is arbitrary and the measurement devices have no memory. We accomplish this by a reduction of arbitrary adversary strategies to qubit strategies and a proof of security for qubit strategies based on the previous proof by Pironio et al and techniques adapted from Renner.
Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian
2018-01-01
Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in uniform fast-fading channels
Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano
2018-03-01
We investigate the performance of several continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols in the presence of uniform fading channels. These are lossy channels whose transmissivity changes according to a uniform probability distribution. We assume the worst-case scenario where an eavesdropper induces a fast-fading process, where she chooses the instantaneous transmissivity while the remote parties may only detect the mean statistical effect. We analyze coherent-state protocols in various configurations, including the one-way switching protocol in reverse reconciliation, the measurement-device-independent protocol in the symmetric configuration, and its extension to a three-party network. We show that, regardless of the advantage given to the eavesdropper (control of the fading), these protocols can still achieve high rates under realistic attacks, within reasonable values for the variance of the probability distribution associated with the fading process.
Li, Qian; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Wei, Kejin; Pei, Changxing
2018-04-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. However, practical implementations of MDI-QKD, which require two-photon interferences from separated independent single-photon sources and a nontrivial reference alignment procedure, are still challenging with current technologies. Here, we propose a scheme that significantly reduces the experimental complexity of two-photon interferences and eliminates reference frame alignment by the combination of plug-and-play and reference frame independent MDI-QKD. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can be up to 219 km in the finite-data case and the scheme has good potential for practical MDI-QKD systems.
Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with photon subtraction
Ma, Hong-Xin; Huang, Peng; Bai, Dong-Yun; Wang, Shi-Yu; Bao, Wan-Su; Zeng, Gui-Hua
2018-04-01
It has been found that non-Gaussian operations can be applied to increase and distill entanglement between Gaussian entangled states. We show the successful use of the non-Gaussian operation, in particular, photon subtraction operation, on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol. The proposed method can be implemented based on existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the photon subtraction operation can remarkably increase the maximal transmission distance of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol, which precisely make up for the shortcoming of the original CV-MDI-QKD protocol, and one-photon subtraction operation has the best performance. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides a feasible method for the experimental implementation of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol.
A new design of pulsed laser diode driver system for multistate quantum key distribution
Abdullah, M. S.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Witjaksono, G.; Mokhtar, M. H. H.
2011-07-01
In this paper, we describe a new design of laser diode driver system based on MOSFET current mirror and digital signal controller (DSC). The system is designed to emit stream pairs of photons from three semiconductor laser diodes. The DSC is able to switch between the three laser diodes at constant rate. The duty cycle is maintained at 1% in order to reduce its thermal effect and thus prolong the laser diodes' life cycles. The MOSFET current mirror circuits are capable of delivering constant modulation current with peak current up to 58 mA to each laser diode. This laser driver system will allow the generating biphotons automatically with qubit rate around 8-13% for μ less than or equal to 1, thus making it practical for six-states quantum key distribution implementation.
Self-referenced continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Wang, Yijun; Wang, Xudong; Li, Jiawei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying
2018-05-01
We propose a scheme to remove the demand of transmitting a high-brightness local oscillator (LO) in continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, which we call as the self-referenced (SR) CV-MDI QKD. We show that our scheme is immune to the side-channel attacks, such as the calibration attacks, the wavelength attacks and the LO fluctuation attacks, which are all exploiting the security loopholes introduced by transmitting the LO. Besides, the proposed scheme waives the necessity of complex multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can greatly simplify the QKD processes and improve the transmission efficiency. The numerical simulations under collective attacks show that all the improvements brought about by our scheme are only at the expense of slight transmission distance shortening. This scheme shows an available method to mend the security loopholes incurred by transmitting LO in CV-MDI QKD.
Practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution without finite sampling bandwidth effects.
Li, Huasheng; Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Guihua
2016-09-05
In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, finite sampling bandwidth of the employed analog-to-digital converter at the receiver's side may lead to inaccurate results of pulse peak sampling. Then, errors in the parameters estimation resulted. Subsequently, the system performance decreases and security loopholes are exposed to eavesdroppers. In this paper, we propose a novel data acquisition scheme which consists of two parts, i.e., a dynamic delay adjusting module and a statistical power feedback-control algorithm. The proposed scheme may improve dramatically the data acquisition precision of pulse peak sampling and remove the finite sampling bandwidth effects. Moreover, the optimal peak sampling position of a pulse signal can be dynamically calibrated through monitoring the change of the statistical power of the sampled data in the proposed scheme. This helps to resist against some practical attacks, such as the well-known local oscillator calibration attack.
Moroder, Tobias
2009-01-01
idealized quantum key distribution protocol to the real experiment. We develop a formalism to check whether a given realistic measurement device has such a squash model or not and provide relevant detection schemes with and without this particular property. We also address an experimental option which equally well provides security of a realistic quantum key distribution experiment by just using the idealized version of it. We exploit the idea that one can combine a variable beam splitter with a simple click/no-click detector in order to achieve the statistics of a photon number resolving detector. Via this hardware change it is straightforward to estimate the crucial parameters for the security statement. Lastly we focus on experimental entanglement verification. Considering the mere question of entanglement verification this practicality issue occurs since one often uses - because of various reasons - an oversimplified model for the performed measurements. We show that via such a misinterpretation of the measurement results one can indeed make mistakes, nevertheless we are more interested in conditions under which such errors can be excluded. For that we introduce and investigate a similar, but less restrictive, concept of the squash model. As an application we show that the usual tomography entanglement test, typically used in parametric down-conversion or even multipartite photonic experiments, can easily be made error-free. (orig.)
Moroder, Tobias
2009-07-31
security analysis of an idealized quantum key distribution protocol to the real experiment. We develop a formalism to check whether a given realistic measurement device has such a squash model or not and provide relevant detection schemes with and without this particular property. We also address an experimental option which equally well provides security of a realistic quantum key distribution experiment by just using the idealized version of it. We exploit the idea that one can combine a variable beam splitter with a simple click/no-click detector in order to achieve the statistics of a photon number resolving detector. Via this hardware change it is straightforward to estimate the crucial parameters for the security statement. Lastly we focus on experimental entanglement verification. Considering the mere question of entanglement verification this practicality issue occurs since one often uses - because of various reasons - an oversimplified model for the performed measurements. We show that via such a misinterpretation of the measurement results one can indeed make mistakes, nevertheless we are more interested in conditions under which such errors can be excluded. For that we introduce and investigate a similar, but less restrictive, concept of the squash model. As an application we show that the usual tomography entanglement test, typically used in parametric down-conversion or even multipartite photonic experiments, can easily be made error-free. (orig.)
Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Shuang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Fang-Yi; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu; Bao, Wan-Su
2011-01-01
It is well known that the unconditional security of quantum-key distribution (QKD) can be guaranteed by quantum mechanics. However, practical QKD systems have some imperfections, which can be controlled by the eavesdropper to attack the secret key. With current experimental technology, a realistic beam splitter, made by fused biconical technology, has a wavelength-dependent property. Based on this fatal security loophole, we propose a wavelength-dependent attacking protocol, which can be applied to all practical QKD systems with passive state modulation. Moreover, we experimentally attack a practical polarization encoding QKD system to obtain all the secret key information at the cost of only increasing the quantum bit error rate from 1.3 to 1.4%.
Vortex instability in turbulent free-space propagation
Lavery, Martin P. J.
2018-04-01
The spatial structuring of optical fields is integral within many next generation optical metrology and communication techniques. A verifiable physical model of the propagation of these optical fields in a turbulent environment is important for developing effective mitigation techniques for the modal degradation that occurs in a free-space link. We present a method to simulate this modal degradation that agrees with recently reported experimental findings. A 1.5 km free-space link is emulated by decomposing the optical turbulence that accumulates over a long distance link, into many, weakly perturbing steps of 10 m. This simulation shows that the high-order vortex at the centre of the helical phase profiles in modes that carry orbital angular momentum of | {\\ell }| ≥slant 2{\\hslash } are unstable and fracture into many vortices when they propagate over the link. This splitting presents issues for the application of turbulence mitigation techniques. The usefulness of pre-correction, post-correction, and complex field conjugation techniques are discussed.
Robust free-space optical communication for indoor information environment
Nakada, Toyohisa; Itoh, Hideo; Kunifuji, Susumu; Nakashima, Hideyuki
2003-10-01
The purpose of our study is to establish a robust communication, while keeping security and privacy, between a handheld communicator and the surrounding information environment. From the viewpoint of low power consumption, we have been developing a reflectivity modulating communication module composed of a liquid crystal light modulator and a corner-reflecting mirror sheet. We installed a corner-reflecting sheet instead of light scattering sheet in a handheld videogame machine with a display screen with a reflection-type liquid crystal. Infrared (IR) LED illuminator attached next to the IR camera of a base station illuminates all the room, and the terminal send their data to the base station by switching ON and OFF of the reflected IR beam. Intensity of reflected light differs with the position and the direction of the terminal, and sometimes the intensity of OFF signal at a certain condition is brighter than that of ON signal at another condition. To improve the communication quality, use of machine learning technique is a possibility of the solution. In this paper, we compare various machine learning techniques for the purpose of free space optical communication, and propose a new algorithm that improves the robustness of the data link. Evaluation using an actual free-space communication system is also described.
Zhang, Zheshen; Chen, Changchen; Zhuang, Quntao; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2018-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables unconditionally secure communication ensured by the laws of physics, opening a promising route to security infrastructure for the coming age of quantum computers. QKD’s demonstrated secret-key rates (SKRs), however, fall far short of the gigabit-per-second rates of classical communication, hindering QKD’s widespread deployment. QKD’s low SKRs are largely due to existing single-photon-based protocols’ vulnerability to channel loss. Floodlight QKD (FL-QKD) boosts SKR by transmitting many photons per encoding, while offering security against collective attacks. Here, we report an FL-QKD experiment operating at a 1.3 Gbit s‑1 SKR over a 10 dB loss channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first QKD demonstration that achieves a gigabit-per-second-class SKR, representing a critical advance toward high-rate QKD at metropolitan-area distances.
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.
2016-02-01
Spatial filtering is an important technique for reducing sky background noise in a satellite quantum key distribution downlink receiver. Atmospheric turbulence limits the extent to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. Using atmospheric propagation and compensation simulations, the potential benefit of adaptive optics (AO) to secure key generation (SKG) is quantified. Simulations are performed assuming optical propagation from a low-Earth-orbit satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes AO. Higher-order AO correction is modeled assuming a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror. The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain wave-optics hardware emulator. SKG rates are calculated for a decoy-state protocol as a function of the receiver field of view for various strengths of turbulence, sky radiances, and pointing angles. The results show that at fields of view smaller than those discussed by others, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of background optical noise and signal loss due to propagation and turbulence effects.
Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution: Security analysis and fast implementation
Boaron, Alberto; Korzh, Boris; Boso, Gianluca; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo; Houlmann, Raphael; Lim, Charles Ci Wen
2016-01-01
One of the most pressing issues in quantum key distribution (QKD) is the problem of detector side-channel attacks. To overcome this problem, researchers proposed an elegant “time-reversal” QKD protocol called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is based on time-reversed entanglement swapping. However, MDI-QKD is more challenging to implement than standard point-to-point QKD. Recently, an intermediary QKD protocol called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD) has been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of MDI-QKD, with the hope that it would eventually lead to a more efficient detector side-channel-free QKD system. Here, we analyze the security of DDI-QKD and elucidate its security assumptions. We find that DDI-QKD is not equivalent to MDI-QKD, but its security can be demonstrated with reasonable assumptions. On the more practical side, we consider the feasibility of DDI-QKD and present a fast experimental demonstration (clocked at 625 MHz), capable of secret key exchange up to more than 90 km.
Rameez Asif
2017-01-01
Full Text Available There is current significant interest in Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH networks, that is, end-to-end optical connectivity. Currently, it may be limited due to the presence of last-mile copper wire connections. However, in near future, it is envisaged that FTTH connections will exist, and a key offering would be the possibility of optical encryption that can best be implemented using Quantum Key Distribution (QKD. However, it is very important that the QKD infrastructure is compatible with the already existing networks for a smooth transition and integration with the classical data traffic. In this paper, we report the feasibility of using off-the-shelf telecommunication components to enable high performance Continuous Variable-Quantum Key Distribution (CV-QKD systems that can yield secure key rates in the range of 100 Mbits/s under practical operating conditions. Multilevel phase modulated signals (m-PSK are evaluated in terms of secure key rates and transmission distances. The traditional receiver is discussed, aided by the phase noise cancellation based digital signal processing module for detecting the complex quantum signals. Furthermore, we have discussed the compatibility of multiplexers and demultiplexers for wavelength division multiplexed Quantum-to-the-Home (QTTH network and the impact of splitting ratio is analyzed. The results are thoroughly compared with the commercially available high-cost encryption modules.
The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2016-01-01
Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…
Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels
Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.
2015-03-01
Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.
Intensity position modulation for free-space laser communication system
Jangjoo, Alireza; Faghihi, F.
2004-12-01
In this research a novel modulation technique for free-space laser communication system called Intensity Position Modulation (IPM) is carried out. According to TEM00 mode of a laser beam and by linear fitting on the Gaussian function as an approximation, the variation of linear part on the reverse biased pn photodiode produced alternating currents which contain the information. Here, no characteristic property of the beam as intensity or frequency is changed and only the beam position moves laterally. We demonstrated that in this method no bandwidth is required, so it is possible to reduce the background radiation noise by narrowband filtering of the carrier. The fidelity of the analog voice communication system which is made upon the IPM is satisfactory and we are able to transmit the audio signals up to 1Km.
Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam
Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi
2016-08-01
The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.
Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter
Dhar, Madhumita; Lenske, Horst [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Justus- Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)
2015-07-01
Baryon-baryon interactions within the SU(3)-octet are investigated in free space and nuclear matter.A meson exchange model based on SU(3) symmetry is used for determining the interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. In-medium effect has been incorporated by including a two particle Pauli projector operator in the scattering equation. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The density dependence of interaction is clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters. The approach is compared to descriptions derived from chiral-EFT and other meson-exchange models e.g. the Nijmegen and the Juelich model.
Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter
Dhar, Madhumita [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-07-01
A new approach to the SU(3) flavour symmetric meson-exchange model is introduced to describe free space baryon-baryon interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge Q is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The derived vacuum interaction has then been used to derive nuclear medium effect by employing the Pauli projector operator in 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. The in-medium properties of the interaction are clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters as a function of density.
Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach
Majumdar, Arun K
2015-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...
Indoor Free Space Optic: a new prototype, realization and evaluation
Bouchet, Olivier; Besnard, Pascal; Mihaescu, Adrian
2008-08-01
The Free Space Optic (FSO) communication is a daily reality used by an increasing number of companies. For indoor environment, optical wireless communication becomes a good alternative with respect to radio proposals. For both technologies, the architecture is similar: emission/reception base station (Gateway or Bridge) are installed to cover zones, which are defined to ensure a quality of service. The customers may be connected to the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) with an adapter or module that emits and receives on this network. But due to its specific characteristics, wireless optical technology could present important advantages such as: Transmitted data security, medical immunity, high data rate, etc... Nevertheless, the optical system may have a limit on the network management aspect and link budget. The scope of this paper is to present a proposal at crossroads between optical fibre telecom system and data processing. In this document, we will present a prototype developed in Brittany during a regional collaborative project (Techim@ges). In order to answer to the management aspect and the link budget, this prototype uses an optical multiplexing technique in 1550 nm band: the Wavelength Division Multiple Access (WDMA). Moreover it also proposes a new class 1 high power emission solution. This full duplex system transmits these various wavelengths in free space, by using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules. Each module has a defined and personal wavelength associated to the terminal identification (addresses MAC or IP). This approach permits a data rate at a minimum of a ten's Mbit/s per customer and potentially hundred Mbps for a line of sight system. The application field for the achieved and proposed prototype is potentially investigated from WLAN to WPAN.
Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong
2003-01-01
We discuss a long code problem in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum-key-distribution protocol and describe how it can be overcome by concatenation of the protocol. Observing that concatenated modified Lo-Chau protocol finally reduces to the concatenated BB84 protocol, we give the unconditional security of the concatenated BB84 protocol
Frins, E [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dultz, W [J.W.v.Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmitzer, H, E-mail: requalivahanus@t-online.de [Xavier University, Cincinnati (United States)
2011-01-01
Rotating small birefringent particles with the spin angular momentum of light is a key experiment of quantum optics. We derive the equation of motion of small retarders in viscose liquids, demonstrate their some times irregular rotation in polarized light, and discuss possible technical applications.
Martyniuk, Piotr; Gawron, Waldemar; Mikołajczyk, Janusz
2017-10-01
There are many room temperature applications to include free space optics (FSO) communication system combining quantum cascade lasers sources where HgCdTe long-wave (8-12 micrometer) infrared radiation (LWIR) detector reaching ultrafast response time 109 cmHz1/2/W. Since commercially available FSO could operate separately in SWIR, MWIR and LWIR range - the dual band detectors should be implemented into FSO. This paper shows theoretical performance of the dual band back-to-back MWIR and LWIR HgCdTe detector operating at 300 K pointing out the MWIR active layer influence on LWIR operating regime.
Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD
Laenger, Thomas; Lenhart, Gaby
2009-01-01
In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been the object of intensive research activities and of rapid progress, and it is now developing into a competitive industry with commercial products. Once QKD systems are transferred from the controlled environment of physical laboratories into a real-world environment for practical use, a number of practical security, compatibility and connectivity issues need to be resolved. In particular, comprehensive security evaluation and watertight security proofs need to be addressed to increase trust in QKD. System interoperability with existing infrastructures and applications as well as conformance with specific user requirements have to be assured. Finding common solutions to these problems involving all actors can provide an advantage for the commercialization of QKD as well as for further technological development. The ETSI industry specification group for QKD (ISG-QKD) offers a forum for creating such universally accepted standards and will promote significant leverage effects on coordination, cooperation and convergence in research, technical development and business application of QKD.
Reliability of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes and security of quantum key distribution
Hamada, Mitsuru
2004-01-01
After Mayers (1996 Advances in Cryptography: Proc. Crypto'96 pp 343-57; 2001 J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 48 351-406) gave a proof of the security of the Bennett-Brassard (1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) pp 175-9) (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol, Shor and Preskill (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441-4) made a remarkable observation that a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code had been implicitly used in the BB84 protocol, and suggested its security could be proved by bounding the fidelity, say F n , of the incorporated CSS code of length n in the form 1-F n ≤ exp[-nE + o(n)] for some positive number E. This work presents such a number E = E(R) as a function of the rate of codes R, and a threshold R 0 such that E(R) > 0 whenever R 0 , which is larger than the achievable rate based on the Gilbert-Varshamov bound that is essentially given by Shor and Preskill. The codes in the present work are robust against fluctuations of channel parameters, which fact is needed to establish the security rigorously and was not proved for rates above the Gilbert-Varshamov rate before in the literature. As a byproduct, the security of a modified BB84 protocol against any joint (coherent) attacks is proved quantitatively
Implementation of quantum key distribution network simulation module in the network simulator NS-3
Mehic, Miralem; Maurhart, Oliver; Rass, Stefan; Voznak, Miroslav
2017-10-01
As the research in quantum key distribution (QKD) technology grows larger and becomes more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. Due to the specificity of the QKD link which requires optical and Internet connection between the network nodes, to deploy a complete testbed containing multiple network hosts and links to validate and verify a certain network algorithm or protocol would be very costly. Network simulators in these circumstances save vast amounts of money and time in accomplishing such a task. The simulation environment offers the creation of complex network topologies, a high degree of control and repeatable experiments, which in turn allows researchers to conduct experiments and confirm their results. In this paper, we described the design of the QKD network simulation module which was developed in the network simulator of version 3 (NS-3). The module supports simulation of the QKD network in an overlay mode or in a single TCP/IP mode. Therefore, it can be used to simulate other network technologies regardless of QKD.
Tsurumaru, Toyohiro
2007-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the security of the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution (DPSQKD) protocol by introducing an improved version of the so-called sequential attack, which was originally discussed by Waks et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006)]. Our attack differs from the original form of the sequential attack in that the attacker Eve modulates not only the phases but also the amplitude in the superposition of the single-photon states which she sends to the receiver. Concentrating especially on the 'discretized Gaussian' intensity modulation, we show that our attack is more effective than the individual attack, which had been the best attack up to present. As a result of this, the recent experiment with communication distance of 100 km reported by Diamanti et al. [Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006)] turns out to be insecure. Moreover, it can be shown that in a practical experimental setup which is commonly used today, the communication distance achievable by the DPSQKD protocol is less than 95 km
Shapiro, Jeffrey H. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2011-09-15
The effect of scintillation, arising from propagation through atmospheric turbulence, on the sift and error probabilities of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system that uses the weak-laser-pulse version of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is evaluated. Two earth-space scenarios are examined: satellite-to-ground and ground-to-satellite transmission. Both lie in the far-field power-transfer regime. This work complements previous analysis of turbulence effects in near-field terrestrial BB84 QKD [J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 67, 022309 (2003)]. More importantly, it shows that scintillation has virtually no impact on the sift and error probabilities in earth-space BB84 QKD, something that has been implicitly assumed in prior analyses for that application. This result contrasts rather sharply with what is known for high-speed laser communications over such paths, in which deep, long-lived scintillation fades present a major challenge to high-reliability operation.
Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD
Länger, Thomas; Lenhart, Gaby
2009-05-01
In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been the object of intensive research activities and of rapid progress, and it is now developing into a competitive industry with commercial products. Once QKD systems are transferred from the controlled environment of physical laboratories into a real-world environment for practical use, a number of practical security, compatibility and connectivity issues need to be resolved. In particular, comprehensive security evaluation and watertight security proofs need to be addressed to increase trust in QKD. System interoperability with existing infrastructures and applications as well as conformance with specific user requirements have to be assured. Finding common solutions to these problems involving all actors can provide an advantage for the commercialization of QKD as well as for further technological development. The ETSI industry specification group for QKD (ISG-QKD) offers a forum for creating such universally accepted standards and will promote significant leverage effects on coordination, cooperation and convergence in research, technical development and business application of QKD.
Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)
Long-distance multipartite quantum communication
Herbst, T.
2014-01-01
This work addresses two long-distance free-space experiments based on multi-photon polarization entanglement. The highlighted measurements were performed between the Canary Islands La Palma and Tenerife, featuring a 143 km horizontal free-space quantum channel. Based on the superposition principle, quantum entanglement constitutes the key building block in quantum information sciences. Its nonclassical correlations lay the ground for exciting new protocols like quantum cryptography, quantum computation or quantum teleportation. Our first experiment targeted on the teleportation of entanglement, also known as entanglement swapping, where the entanglement from two polarization entangled photon pairs 0-1 and 2-3 is swapped onto photons 1-2 and 0-3. This feature constitutes the fundamental resource for so-called quantum repeaters. In the future such devices could be used to subdivide large distances into shorter links and finally extend the entanglement over the whole range by entanglement swapping. In the second experiment we realized four-photon entanglement in the form of a GHZ-state, named after the researchers Daniel Greenberger, Michael Horne and Anton Zeilinger. At the base station on La Palma we employed two sources for polarization-entanglement, generating photon pairs of 808 nm wavelength by spontaneous parametric down-conversion of femtosecond pulsed laser light. In both experiments one of the four photons per pulse was transmitted over a 143 km free-space link to the receiver station on Tenerife, whereas the remaining three photons were measured locally on La Palma. Long term atmospheric turbulences in the near-ground quantum channel were compensated by means of a bi-directional closed-loop tracking of the transceiver telescopes. Despite an average link attenuation of around 30 dB over the 143 km free-space channel, we successfully showed entanglement swapping with a statistical significance of more than 6 standard deviations. Moreover we faithfully
Tamaki, K
2005-01-01
In this presentation, we show some counter-examples to a naive belief that the security of QKD is based on no-cloning theorem. One example is shown by explicitly proving that one can indeed generate an unconditionally secure key from Alice's two-photon emission part in "SARG04 protocol" proposed by V. Scarani et al, in Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004). This protocol differs from BB84 only in the classical communication. It is, thus, interesting to see how only the classical communication of QKD protocol might qualitatively change its security. We also show that one can generate an unconditionally secure key from the single to the four-photon part in a generalized SARG04 that uses six states. Finally, we also compare the bit error rate threshold of these protocols with the one in BB84 and the original six-state protocol assuming a depolarizing channel.
Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun
2018-03-01
A wavefront sensor is one of most important units for an adaptive optics system. Based on our previous works, in this paper, we discuss the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of coherent free space optical communication systems with a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. Firstly, the theory of a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor is given. Then the relationship between the BER and the mixing efficiency with a homodyne receiver is discussed on the basis of binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, the numerical simulation results are shown that the BER will be decreased obviously after aberrations correction with the focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. In addition, the BER will decrease along with increasing number of photons received within a single bit. These analysis results will provide a reference for the design of the coherent Free space optical communication (FSOC) system.
Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun
2018-03-01
Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.
QIPS: quantum information and quantum physics in space
Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Weier, Henning; Fürst, Martin; Jennewein, T.; Perdigues, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Rarity, J.; Zeilinger, Anton; Weinfurter, Harald
2017-11-01
The aim of the QIPS project (financed by ESA) is to explore quantum phenomena and to demonstrate quantum communication over long distances. Based on the current state-of-the-art a first study investigating the feasibility of space based quantum communication has to establish goals for mid-term and long-term missions, but also has to test the feasibility of key issues in a long distance ground-to-ground experiment. We have therefore designed a proof-of-concept demonstration for establishing single photon links over a distance of 144 km between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife to evaluate main limitations for future space experiments. Here we report on the progress of this project and present first measurements of crucial parameters of the optical free space link.
Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed. Here we present…
Frodo: Take off the ring! Practical, quantum-secure key exchange from LWE
J. Bos; C.J. Costello (Craig); L. Ducas (Léo); Mironov (I); Naehrig (Michael); Nikolaendo (Valieria); Ragghunathan (Ananth); Stebila (Douglas)
2016-01-01
textabstractLattice-based cryptography offers some of the most attractive primitives believed to be resistant to quantum computers. Following increasing interest from both companies and government agencies in building quantum computers, a number of works have proposed instantiations of practical
Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Federation Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation)
2012-05-15
The fundamental quantum mechanics prohibitions on the measurability of quantum states allow secure key distribution between spatially remote users to be performed. Experimental and commercial implementations of quantum cryptography systems, however, use components that exist at the current technology level, in particular, one-photon avalanche photodetectors. These detectors are subject to the blinding effect. It was shown that all the known basic quantum key distribution protocols and systems based on them are vulnerable to attacks with blinding of photodetectors. In such attacks, an eavesdropper knows all the key transferred, does not produce errors at the reception side, and remains undetected. Three protocols of quantum key distribution stable toward such attacks are suggested. The security of keys and detection of eavesdropping attempts are guaranteed by the internal structure of protocols themselves rather than additional technical improvements.
Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter
Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.
2016-01-01
Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff-Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices.
Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.
Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A
2002-09-10
Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.
Novel Photon-Counting Detectors for Free-Space Communication
Krainak, Michael A.; Yang, Guan; Sun, Xiaoli; Lu, Wei; Merritt, Scott; Beck, Jeff
2016-01-01
We present performance data for novel photon counting detectors for free space optical communication. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of three novel photon counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride avalanche array made by DRS Inc. 2) a commercial 2880 silicon avalanche photodiode array and 3) a prototype resonant cavity silicon avalanche photodiode array. We will present and compare dark count, photon detection efficiency, wavelength response and communication performance data for these detectors. We discuss system wavelength trades and architectures for optimizing overall communication link sensitivity, data rate and cost performance. The HgCdTe APD array has photon detection efficiencies of greater than 50 were routinely demonstrated across 5 arrays, with one array reaching a maximum PDE of 70. High resolution pixel-surface spot scans were performed and the junction diameters of the diodes were measured. The junction diameter was decreased from 31 m to 25 m resulting in a 2x increase in e-APD gain from 470 on the 2010 array to 1100 on the array delivered to NASA GSFC. Mean single photon SNRs of over 12 were demonstrated at excess noise factors of 1.2-1.3.The commercial silicon APD array has a fast output with rise times of 300ps and pulse widths of 600ps. Received and filtered signals from the entire array are multiplexed onto this single fast output. The prototype resonant cavity silicon APD array is being developed for use at 1 micron wavelength.
Information Theoretical Limits of Free-Space Optical Links
Ansari, Imran Shafique
2016-08-25
Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified ergodic capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link under both types of detection techniques (i.e., intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) over generalized atmospheric turbulence channels that account for generalized pointing errors is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented. Subsequently, capitalizing on these unified statistics, unified exact closed-form expressions for ergodic capacity performance metric of FSO link transmission systems is offered. Additionally, for scenarios wherein the exact closed-form solution is not possible to obtain, some asymptotic results are derived in the high SNR regime. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.
Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter
Maslovski, Stanislav I; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A
2016-01-01
Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff–Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices. (paper)
Optical Axis Identification Technique for Free Space Optics Transmission
Yuki Tashiro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes optical axis adjustment technique for an active free space optics transmission system. This system precisely controls the direction of a collimated thin laser beam using a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes. Before beginning laser beam feedback control, it is required to guide the laser beam within the range of the positioning photodiodes for initial laser beam alignment. This paper proposes an arrival position presumption method of laser beam traveling along the long distance from transmitter. A positioning sensor containing several photodiodes measures laser luminescence distribution, and analytically calculates the optical axis of laser beam according to the modified Gaussian beam optics based on four or five distributed local intensity of laser luminescence. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the presumption, and results reveal that the method is effective in leading the laser beam onto a distant receiver.
Designing localized electromagnetic fields in a source-free space
Borzdov, George N.
2002-01-01
An approach to characterizing and designing localized electromagnetic fields, based on the use of differentiable manifolds, differentiable mappings, and the group of rotation, is presented. By way of illustration, novel families of exact time-harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in the source-free space - localized fields defined by the rotation group - are obtained. The proposed approach provides a broad spectrum of tools to design localized fields, i.e., to build-in symmetry properties of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, to govern the distributions of their energy densities (both size and form of localization domains), and to set the structure of time-average energy fluxes. It is shown that localized fields can be combined as constructive elements to obtain a complex field structure with desirable properties, such as one-, two-, or three-dimensional field gratings. The proposed approach can be used in designing localized electromagnetic fields to govern motion and state of charged and neutral particles. As an example, motion of relativistic electrons in one-dimensional and three-dimensional field gratings is treated
Leverrier, A; Karpov, E; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P
2009-01-01
Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.
Curty, Marcos; Luetkenhaus, Norbert
2005-01-01
Unconditional security proofs of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol of quantum key distribution have been obtained recently. These proofs cover also practical implementations that utilize weak coherent pulses in the four signal polarizations. Proven secure rates leave open the possibility that new proofs or new public discussion protocols will obtain larger rates over increased distance. In this paper we investigate limits to the error rate and signal losses that can be tolerated by future protocols and proofs
Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space
Sergio Carbajo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London 431, 535 (2004; T. Toncian et al., Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons, Science 312, 410 (2006; S. Tokita et al. Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction with a laser-accelerated sub-MeV electron pulse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111911 (2009] rely on a medium to assist the light to particle energy transfer. The medium imposes material limitations or may introduce inhomogeneous fields [J. R. Dwyer et al., Femtosecond electron diffraction: “Making the molecular movie,”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 741 (2006]. The advent of few cycle ultraintense radially polarized lasers [S. Carbajo et al., Efficient generation of ultraintense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses, Opt. Lett. 39, 2487 (2014] has ushered in a novel accelerator concept [L. J. Wong and F. X. Kärtner, Direct acceleration of an electron in infinite vacuum by a pulsed radially polarized laser beam, Opt. Express 18, 25035 (2010; F. Pierre-Louis et al. Direct-field electron acceleration with ultrafast radially polarized laser beams: Scaling laws and optimization, J. Phys. B 43, 025401 (2010; Y. I. Salamin, Electron acceleration from rest in vacuum by an axicon Gaussian laser beam, Phys. Rev. A 73, 043402 (2006; C. Varin and M. Piché, Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme, Phys. Rev. E 74, 045602 (2006; A. Sell and F. X. Kärtner, Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and
Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong
2017-02-01
Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.
Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.
Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian
2015-07-01
For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.
Selvi, M; Murugesan, K
2012-01-01
Radio on free space optics—RoFSO—has gained momentum in research because of its cost effectiveness and efficiency in transferring data at a high rate that is comparable to that for optical fiber media. While the transmission data rate is limited in fiber due to dispersion and nonlinearity, such effects do not prevail in FSO communication links. The data rate depends mainly on the switching speed of the optoelectronic devices. With the characteristics of free space being random in nature, the performance of RoFSO is primarily governed by atmospheric conditions. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in free space and compare against its counterpart radio frequency (RF) wireless communication systems. Simulations have been done on the atmospheric conditions by means of modeling the scintillation effect using log-normal distribution. The performance of the proposed system under two different base-band modulations, namely OFDM–PSK (phase shift keying) and QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) in weak turbulence conditions is studied. It is found that PSK performs better than QAM. Also the M-ary performance analysis shows that 3–5 dB improvement in the signal to noise ratio is obtained for OFDM based FSO transmission compared to RF based wireless transmission. (paper)
Tan, Jun; Zhao, Zeping; Wang, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhike; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua
2018-01-22
A wide-spectrum, ultra-stable optical frequency comb (OFC) module with 100 GHz frequency intervals based on a quantum dot mode locked (QDML) laser is fabricated by our lab, and a scheme with 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical (FSO) communication is proposed based on the OFC module. The output power of the OFC is very stable, with the specially designed circuit and the flatness of the frequency comb over the span of 6 nm, which can be limited to 1.5 dB. Four channel wavelengths are chosen to demonstrate one-to-many channels for FSO communication, like optical wireless broadcast. The outdoor experiment is established to test the bit error rate (BER) and eye diagrams with 12.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK). The indoor experiment is used to test the highest traffic rate, which is up to 21 Gb/s for one-hop FSO communication. To the best of our knowledge, this scheme is the first to propose the realization of one-to-many broadcasting transmission for FSO communication based on the OFC module. The advantages of integration, miniaturization, channelization, low power consumption, and unlimited bandwidth of one-to-many broadcasting communication scheme, shows promising results on constructing the future space-air-ground-ocean (SAGO) FSO communication networks.
Wang Zhangyin; Yuan Hao; Gao Gan; Shi Shouhua
2006-01-01
We present a robust (n,n)-threshold scheme for multiparty quantum secret sharing of key over two collective-noise channels (i.e., the collective dephasing channel and the collective rotating channel) via three-photon mixed states. In our scheme, only if all the sharers collaborate together can they establish a joint key with the message sender and extract the secret message from the sender's encrypted message. This scheme can be implemented using only a Bell singlet, a one-qubit state and polarization identification of single photon, so it is completely feasible according to the present-day technique.
Quantum photonic network and physical layer security.
Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio
2017-08-06
Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Non-Mechanical Beam Steering in Free-Space Optical Communication Transceivers
Shortt, Kevin
Free-space optical communications systems are a rapidly growing field as they carry many of the advantages of traditional fibre-based communications systems without the added investment of installing complex infrastructure. Moreover, these systems are finding key niches in mobile platforms in order to take advantage of the increased bandwidth over traditional RF systems. Of course, the inevitable problem of tracking arises when dealing with mobile stations. To compound the problem in the case of communications to low Earth or geosynchronous orbits, FSOC systems typically operate with tightly confined beams over great distances often requiring pointing accuracies on the order of micro-radians or smaller. Mechanisms such as gimbal mounts and fine-steering mirrors are the usual candidates for platform stabilization, however, these clearly have substantial power requirements and inflate the mass of the system. Spatial light modulators (also known as optical phased arrays), on the other hand, offer a suitable alternative for beam-pointing stabilization. Some of the advantages of spatial light modulators over fine-steering mirrors include programmable multiple simultaneous beams, dynamic focus/defocus and moderate to excellent optical power handling capability. This thesis serves as an investigation into the implementation of spatial light modulators as a replacement for traditional fine-steering mirrors in the fine-pointing subsystem. In particular, pointing accuracy and scanning ability will be highlighted as performance metrics in the context of a variety of communication scenarios. Keywords: Free-space optical communications, beam steering, fine-steering mirror, spatial light modulator, optical phased array.
Sun Maozhu; Peng Xiang; Guo Hong
2013-01-01
We propose an improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) protocol by adding proper random noise on the receiver’s homodyne detection, the security of which is analysed against general collective attacks. The simulation result under the collective entangling cloner attack indicates that despite the correlation between two-way channels decreasing the secret key rate relative to the uncorrelated channels slightly, the performance of the two-way protocol is still far beyond that of the one-way protocols. Importantly, the added noise in detection is beneficial for the secret key rate and the tolerable excess noise of this two-way protocol. With the reasonable reconciliation efficiency of 90%, the two-way CV QKD with added noise allows the distribution of secret keys over 60 km fibre distance. (paper)
Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics
Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan
2014-11-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed.1-8 Here we present an approach to quantum physics based on the simplest quantum mechanical system—the quantum bit (qubit).1 Like its classical counterpart—the bit—a qubit corresponds to a two-level system, i.e., some system with a physical property that can admit two possible values. While typically a physical system has more than just one property or the property can admit more than just two values, in many situations most degrees of freedom can be considered to be fixed or frozen. Hence a variety of systems can be effectively described as a qubit. For instance, one may consider the spin of an electron or atom, with spin up and spin down as two possible values, and where other properties of the particle such as its mass or its position are fixed. Further examples include the polarization degree of freedom of a photon (horizontal and vertical polarization), two electronic degrees of freedom (i.e., two energy levels) of an atom, or the position of an atom in a double well potential (atom in left or right well). In all cases, only two states are relevant to describe the system.
Explaining electric conductivity using the particle-in-a-box model: quantum superposition is the key
Sivanesan, Umaseh; Tsang, Kin; Izmaylov, Artur F.
2017-12-01
Most of the textbooks explaining electric conductivity in the context of quantum mechanics provide either incomplete or semi-classical explanations that are not connected with the elementary concepts of quantum mechanics. We illustrate the conduction phenomena using the simplest model system in quantum dynamics, a particle in a box (PIB). To induce the particle dynamics, a linear potential tilting the bottom of the box is introduced, which is equivalent to imposing a constant electric field for a charged particle. Although the PIB model represents a closed system that cannot have a flow of electrons through the system, we consider the oscillatory dynamics of the particle probability density as the analogue of the electric current. Relating the amplitude and other parameters of the particle oscillatory dynamics with the gap between the ground and excited states of the PIB model allows us to demonstrate one of the most basic dependencies of electric conductivity on the valence-conduction band gap of the material.
Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative
Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.
2001-10-01
This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO
3 x 3 free-space optical router based on crossbar network and its control algorithm
Hou, Peipei; Sun, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Liren
2015-08-01
A 3 × 3 free-space optical router, which comprises optical switches and polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and based on crossbar network, is proposed in this paper. A control algorithm for the 3 × 3 free-space optical router is also developed to achieve rapid control without rearrangement. In order to test the performance of the network based on 3 × 3 free-space optical router and that of the algorithm developed for the optical router, experiments are designed. The experiment results show that the interconnection network based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router has low cross talk, fast connection speed. Under the control of the algorithm developed, a non-block and real free interconnection network is obtained based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router we proposed.
Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Shinohara, Shuji; Haruna, Taichi; Basios, Vasileios
2017-02-01
To overcome the dualism between mind and matter and to implement consciousness in science, a physical entity has to be embedded with a measurement process. Although quantum mechanics have been regarded as a candidate for implementing consciousness, nature at its macroscopic level is inconsistent with quantum mechanics. We propose a measurement-oriented inference system comprising Bayesian and inverse Bayesian inferences. While Bayesian inference contracts probability space, the newly defined inverse one relaxes the space. These two inferences allow an agent to make a decision corresponding to an immediate change in their environment. They generate a particular pattern of joint probability for data and hypotheses, comprising multiple diagonal and noisy matrices. This is expressed as a nondistributive orthomodular lattice equivalent to quantum logic. We also show that an orthomodular lattice can reveal information generated by inverse syllogism as well as the solutions to the frame and symbol-grounding problems. Our model is the first to connect macroscopic cognitive processes with the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics with no additional assumptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations
Wang Xiangbin; Yang Lin; Peng Chengzhi; Pan Jianwei
2009-01-01
We show how to calculate the fraction of single-photon counts of the 3-intensity decoy-state quantum cryptography faithfully with both statistical fluctuations and source errors. Our results rely only on the bound values of a few parameters of the states of pulses.
Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Liu Xiaobao; Tang Zhilie; Liao Changjun; Lu Yiqun; Zhao Feng; Liu Songhao
2006-01-01
We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45 o , 135 o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers
Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-11-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been widely investigated due to its remarkable advantages on the achievable transmission distance and practical security. However, the relative low key generation rate limits its real-life implementations. In this work, we adopt the newly proposed four-intensity decoy-state scheme [Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.042324] to study the performance of MDI-QKD with heralded single-photon sources (HSPS). Corresponding simulation results demonstrate that the four-intensity decoy-state scheme combining HSPS can drastically improve both the key generation rate and transmission distance in MDI-QKD, which may be very promising in future MDI-QKD systems.
Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua
2018-01-01
In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.
Zhang, Hang; Mao, Yu; Huang, Duan; Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying
2018-05-01
We introduce a reliable scheme for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) by using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). As a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, OFDM allows a large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarrier signals used to carry data on several parallel data streams or channels. We place emphasis on modulator impairments which would inevitably arise in the OFDM system and analyze how these impairments affect the OFDM-based CV-QKD system. Moreover, we also evaluate the security in the asymptotic limit and the Pirandola-Laurenza-Ottaviani-Banchi upper bound. Results indicate that although the emergence of imperfect modulation would bring about a slight decrease in the secret key bit rate of each subcarrier, the multiplexing technique combined with CV-QKD results in a desirable improvement on the total secret key bit rate which can raise the numerical value about an order of magnitude.
Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei
2017-01-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...
Kwiat, Paul G.
2002-01-01
Full text: In our modern era of telecommunications and the Internet, information has become a valuable commodity. Sometimes it must therefore be protected against theft - in this case, loss of secret information to an eavesdropper. Most of today's transactions are protected using encryption unproven to be secure against a computational attack by a classical computer and, in fact, the standardly used encryption algorithms are provably vulnerable to the mind-boggling parallelism of a quantum computer, should one ever be physically realized. Enter quantum cryptography. Underlying nearly all forms of encryption is the necessity for a truly secret key, a random string of zeros and ones; the basic notion of quantum cryptography is to employ single photon transmissions (or the closest attainable approximation to these) to distribute the random key material, while removing the threat of an undetected eavesdropper. Now, nearly twenty years since the seminal quantum cryptography paper by Bennett and Brassard (Bennett C H and Brassard G 1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Bangalore) (New York: IEEE) pp 175-9), we take a look at several state-of-the-art implementations, and glimpse how future quantum cryptosystems might look. We start with papers from three of the world's leading experimental quantum cryptography efforts: Stucki et al and Bethune and Risk describe working systems for quantum key distribution (QKD) over telecommunications fibres (at 1550 nanometres and 1300 nanometres, respectively). The former's achievement of quantum key exchange over 67 kilometres of optical fibre is a world record, as is the experimental demonstration by Hughes et al of daylight free-space QKD over a 10 km atmospheric range. Next, Luetkenhaus and Jahma explore the possible vulnerabilities of such systems (which employ attenuated laser pulses instead of actual single photon states) to conceivable future eavesdropping technologies. Enzer et al have
An autobias control system for the electro—optic modulator used in a quantum key distribution system
Chen Wen-Fen; Wei Zheng-Jun; Guo Li; Hou Li-Yan; Wang Geng; Wang Jin-Dong; Zhang Zhi-Ming; Guo Jian-Ping; Liu Song-Hao
2014-01-01
In a quantum key distribution system, it is crucial to keep the extinction ratio of the coherent pulses stable. This means that the direct current bias point of the electro—optic modulator (EOM) used for generating coherent pulses must be locked. In this paper, an autobias control system based on a lock-in-amplifier for the EOM is introduced. Its drift information extracting theory and control method are analyzed comprehensively. The long term drift of the extinction ratio of the coherent pulses is measured by a single photon detector, which indicates that the autobias control system is effective for stabilizing the bias point of the EOM. (general)
Molotkov, S N; Potapova, T A
2015-01-01
The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security. (letter)
Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-10-01
The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.
Gao Gan
2015-01-01
Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song’s encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song’s schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. (paper)
Femtosecond spectroscopy in semiconductors: a key to coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics
Axt, V M; Kuhn, T
2004-01-01
The application of femtosecond spectroscopy to the study of ultrafast dynamics in semiconductor materials and nanostructures is reviewed with particular emphasis on the physics that can be learned from it. Excitation with ultrashort optical pulses in general results in the creation of coherent superpositions and correlated many-particle states. The review comprises a discussion of the dynamics of this correlated many-body system during and after pulsed excitation as well as its analysis by means of refined measurements and advanced theories. After an introduction of basic concepts-such as coherence, correlation and quantum kinetics-a brief overview of the most important experimental techniques and theoretical approaches is given. The remainder of this paper is devoted to specific results selected in order to highlight how femtosecond spectroscopy gives access to the physics of coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics involving charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. First examples deal with the dynamics of basic laser-induced coherences that can be observed, e.g. in quantum beat spectroscopy, in coherent control measurements or in experiments using few-cycle pulses. The phenomena discussed here are basic in the sense that they can be understood to a large extent on the mean-field level of the theory. Nevertheless, already on this level it is found that semiconductors behave substantially differently from atomic systems. Subsequent sections report on the occurrence of coherences and correlations beyond the mean-field level that are mediated either by carrier-phonon or carrier-carrier interactions. The corresponding analysis gives deep insight into fundamental issues such as the energy-time uncertainty, pure dephasing in quantum dot structures, the role of two-pair or even higher correlations and the build-up of screening. Finally results are presented concerning the ultrafast dynamics of resonantly coupled excitations, where a combination of different
High-Speed Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Photonic Integrated Circuits
2014-01-28
polarizing beam splitter, TDC: time-to-digital converter. Extra&loss& photon/bin frame size QSER secure bpp ECC secure&key&rate& none& 0.0031 64 14...to-digital converter. photon/frame frame size QSER secure bpp ECC secure&key& rate& 1.3 16 9.5 % 2.9 layered LDPC 7.3&Mbps& Figure 24: Operating
Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chau, H. F.; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2018-04-01
In comparison to qubit-based protocols, qudit-based quantum key distribution ones generally allow two cooperative parties to share unconditionally secure keys under a higher channel noise. However, it is very hard to prepare and measure the required quantum states in qudit-based protocols in general. One exception is the recently proposed highly error tolerant qudit-based protocol known as the Chau15 (Chau 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324). Remarkably, the state preparation and measurement in this protocol can be done relatively easily since the required states are phase encoded almost like the diagonal basis states of a qubit. Here we report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the Chau15 protocol. One highlight of our experiment is that its post-processing is based on practical one-way manner, while the original proposal in Chau (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324) relies on complicated two-way post-processing, which is a great challenge in experiment. In addition, by manipulating time-bin qudit and measurement with a variable delay interferometer, our realization is extensible to qudit with high-dimensionality and confirms the experimental feasibility of the Chau15 protocol.
Characterization of the Marine Atmosphere for Free-Space Optical Communication
Thomas, Linda M. Wasiczko; Moore, Christopher I; Burris, Harris R; Suite, Michele; Stell, Mena; Murphy, James; Gilbreath, G. C; Rabinovich, William; Scharpf, William
2006-01-01
The Chesapeake Bay Detachment of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL-CBD) provides an ideal environment for characterizing the effects of the marine atmosphere on free space optical communication links...
On the performance of free-space optical communication systems with multiuser diversity
Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
Free space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD
Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes over free space turbulence media
Trichili, A
2016-07-01
Full Text Available of the atmospheric turbulence on the proposed communication system. We believe that the proposed technique is promising for high-bit-rate spatial division multiplexing in optical fiber and free space communication systems....
Development of the Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS)
Jeganathan, M.; Mecherle, G.; Lesh, J.
1998-01-01
The Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze optical communications link.
Performance of Cat's Eye Modulating Retro-Reflectors for Free-Space Optical Communications
Rabinovich, W. S; Goetz, P. G; Mahon, R; Swingen, L; Murphy, J; Gilbreath, G. C; Binari, S; Waluschka, E
2004-01-01
Modulating retro-reflectors (MRR) couple passive optical retro-reflectors with electro-optic modulators to allow free-space optical communication with a laser and pointing/acquisition/tracking system required on only one end of the link...
Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology
Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate
Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors
Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Cheng, Julian
2015-01-01
A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed
Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we
Quantum measurement information as a key to energy extraction from local vacuums
Hotta, Masahiro
2008-01-01
In this paper, a protocol is proposed in which energy extraction from local vacuum states is possible by using quantum measurement information for the vacuum state of quantum fields. In the protocol, Alice, who stays at a spatial point, excites the ground state of the fields by a local measurement. Consequently, wave packets generated by Alice's measurement propagate the vacuum to spatial infinity. Let us assume that Bob stays away from Alice and fails to catch the excitation energy when the wave packets pass in front of him. Next Alice announces her local measurement result to Bob by classical communication. Bob performs a local unitary operation depending on the measurement result. In this process, positive energy is released from the fields to Bob's apparatus of the unitary operation. In the field systems, wave packets are generated with negative energy around Bob's location. Soon afterwards, the negative-energy wave packets begin to chase after the positive-energy wave packets generated by Alice and form loosely bound states.
Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network
Li, Yushan; Refai, Hazem; Sluss, , James J., Jr.; Verma, Pramode; LoPresti, Peter
2005-08-01
Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has evolved to be applied to the mobile network, because it can provide up to 2.5Gbps or higher data rate wireless communication. One of the key challenges with FSO systems is to maintain the Line of Sight (LOS) between transmitter and receiver. In this paper, the feasibility and performance of applying the FSO technology to the mobile network is explored, and the design plan of the attitude positioning and tracking control system of the FSO transceiver is investigated. First, the system architecture is introduced, the requirements for the control system are analyzed, the involved reference frames and frame transformation are presented. Second, the control system bandwidth is used to evaluate the system performance in controlling a positioning system consisting of a gimbal and a steering mirror, some definitions to describe the positioning accuracy and tracking capacity are given. The attitude control of a FSO transceiver is split into 2 similar channels: pitch and yaw. Using an equivalent linear control system model, the simulations are carried out, with and without the presence of uncertainties that includes GPS data errors and sensor measurement errors. Finally, based on the simulation results in the pitch channel, the quantitative evaluation on the performance of the control system is given, including positioning accuracy, tracking capability and uncertainty tolerance.
Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology
Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter
2004-06-01
The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.
Correlation of free-space optics link attenuation with sonic temperature
Chládová, Zuzana; Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, Vladimír; Svoboda, Jaroslav
2013-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2013) ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : free-space optics * atmospheric attenuation * water vapor * free-space optics design Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.958, year: 2013 http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1667062
A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems
Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.
2017-12-01
Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.
Magnetic quantum tunneling: key insights from multi-dimensional high-field EPR.
Lawrence, J; Yang, E-C; Hendrickson, D N; Hill, S
2009-08-21
Multi-dimensional high-field/frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy is performed on single-crystals of the high-symmetry spin S = 4 tetranuclear single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Ni(hmp)(dmb)Cl](4), where hmp(-) is the anion of 2-hydroxymethylpyridine and dmb is 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol. Measurements performed as a function of the applied magnetic field strength and its orientation within the hard-plane reveal the four-fold behavior associated with the fourth order transverse zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction, (1/2)B(S + S), within the framework of a rigid spin approximation (with S = 4). This ZFS interaction mixes the m(s) = +/-4 ground states in second order of perturbation, generating a sizeable (12 MHz) tunnel splitting, which explains the fast magnetic quantum tunneling in this SMM. Meanwhile, multi-frequency measurements performed with the field parallel to the easy-axis reveal HFEPR transitions associated with excited spin multiplets (S spin s = 1 Ni(II) ions within the cluster, as well as a characterization of the ZFS within excited states. The combined experimental studies support recent work indicating that the fourth order anisotropy associated with the S = 4 state originates from second order ZFS interactions associated with the individual Ni(II) centers, but only as a result of higher-order processes that occur via S-mixing between the ground state and higher-lying (S spin multiplets. We argue that this S-mixing plays an important role in the low-temperature quantum dynamics associated with many other well known SMMs.
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.
2018-01-01
We consider a recently proposed entity authentication protocol in which a physical unclonable key is interrogated by random coherent states of light, and the quadratures of the scattered light are analyzed by means of a coarse-grained homodyne detection. We derive a sufficient condition for the protocol to be secure against an emulation attack in which an adversary knows the challenge-response properties of the key and moreover, he can access the challenges during the verification. The security analysis relies on Holevo's bound and Fano's inequality, and suggests that the protocol is secure against the emulation attack for a broad range of physical parameters that are within reach of today's technology.
Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Smooth Min entropy vs. Smooth Renyi entropy
Mertz, Markus; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Duesseldorf (Germany)
2010-07-01
We consider different entropy measures that play an important role in the analysis of the security of QKD with finite resources. The smooth min entropy leads to an optimal bound for the length of a secure key. Another bound on the secure key length was derived by using Renyi entropies. Unfortunately, it is very hard or even impossible to calculate these entropies for realistic QKD scenarios. To estimate the security rate it becomes important to find computable bounds on these entropies. Here, we compare a lower bound for the smooth min entropy with a bound using Renyi entropies. We compare these entropies for the six-state protocol with symmetric attacks.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.
Zeghuzi, A.; Schmeckebier, H.; Stubenrauch, M.; Bimberg, D.; Meuer, C.; Schubert, C.; Bunge, C.-A.
2015-01-01
Error-free generation of 25-Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals via direct modulation of InAs quantum-dot (QD) based semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is experimentally demonstrated with an input power level of −5 dBm. The QD SOAs emit in the 1.3-μm wavelength range and provide a small-signal fiber-to-fiber gain of 8 dB. Furthermore, error-free DPSK modulation is achieved for constant optical input power levels from 3 dBm down to only −11 dBm for a bit rate of 20 Gbit/s. Direct phase modulation of QD SOAs via current changes is thus demonstrated to be much faster than direct gain modulation
Koehler-Sidki, A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Roberts, G. L.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.
2018-04-01
Fast-gated avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are the most commonly used single photon detectors for high-bit-rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Their robustness against external attacks is crucial to the overall security of a QKD system, or even an entire QKD network. We investigate the behavior of a gigahertz-gated, self-differencing (In,Ga)As APD under strong illumination, a tactic Eve often uses to bring detectors under her control. Our experiment and modeling reveal that the negative feedback by the photocurrent safeguards the detector from being blinded through reducing its avalanche probability and/or strengthening the capacitive response. Based on this finding, we propose a set of best-practice criteria for designing and operating fast-gated APD detectors to ensure their practical security in QKD.
Information on a Photon: Free-Space Quantum Communication (InPho: FSQC)
2015-10-06
generate multiple bits per click, e.g., 1 pair in 1024 bins (210) ~10 bits Get extra 0.5 bpp from BB84 w. polarization. They can constantly check...they detect a photon in to generate multiple bits per click, e.g., 1 pair in 1024 bins (210) ~10 bits Get extra 0.5 bpp from BB84 w. polarization
Chakravarty, Sudip
2011-01-01
High temperature superconductivity in cuprate superconductors remains an unsolved problem in theoretical physics. The same statement can also be made about a number of other superconductors that have been dubbed novel. What makes these superconductors so elusive is an interesting question in itself. This paper focuses on the recent magnetic oscillation experiments and how they fit into the broader picture. Many aspects of these experiments can be explained by Fermi liquid theory; the key issue is the extent to which this is true. If true, the entire paradigm developed over the past three decades must be reexamined. A critical analysis of this issue has necessitated a broader analysis of questions about distinct ground states of matter, which may be useful in understanding other novel superconductors.
Fazal, Irfan M; Ahmed, Nisar; Wang, Jian; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Yan, Yan; Shamee, Bishara; Huang, Hao; Yue, Yang; Dolinar, Sam; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E
2012-11-15
We demonstrate a 2 Tbit/s free-space data link using two orthogonal orbital angular momentum beams each carrying 25 different wavelength-division-multiplexing channels. We measure the performance for different modulation formats, including directly detected 40 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) differential phase-shift keying, 40 Gbit/s NRZ on-off keying, and coherently-detected 10 Gbaud NRZ quadrature phase-shift keying, and achieve low bit error rates with penalties less than 5 dB.
Application of spinal code for performance improvement in free-space optical communications
Saiki, Naoya; Okamoto, Eiji; Takenaka, Hideki; Toyoshima, Morio
2017-09-01
In recent years, the demand for high-capacity communication has grown, and fiber-optic transmission is being used in wired communications to meet this demand. Similarly, free-space optics (FSO), which is an optical wireless communication technology that uses laser light, has attracted much attention and has been considered as a suitable alternative to satisfy this demand in wireless communications. Free-space optical communication uses a hundred THz frequency band and allows for high-speed and radio-regulation free transmission, which may provide a solution for the current shortage of radio frequency bands.
Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Willner, Asher; Lavery, Martin P J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Neifeld, Mark A; Willner, Alan E
2016-02-01
We experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of a 400-Gbit/s orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m on the roof of a building. Four OAM beams, each carrying a 100-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keyed channel are multiplexed and transmitted. We investigate the influence of channel impairments on the received power, intermodal crosstalk among channels, and system power penalties. Without laser tracking and compensation systems, the measured received power and crosstalk among OAM channels fluctuate by 4.5 dB and 5 dB, respectively, over 180 s. For a beam displacement of 2 mm that corresponds to a pointing error less than 16.7 μrad, the link bit error rates are below the forward error correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) for all channels. Both experimental and simulation results show that power penalties increase rapidly when the displacement increases.
Experimental fault-tolerant quantum cryptography in a decoherence-free subspace
Zhang Qiang; Pan Jianwei; Yin Juan; Chen Tengyun; Lu Shan; Zhang Jun; Li Xiaoqiang; Yang Tao; Wang Xiangbin
2006-01-01
We experimentally implement a fault-tolerant quantum key distribution protocol with two photons in a decoherence-free subspace [Phys. Rev. A 72, 050304(R) (2005)]. It is demonstrated that our protocol can yield a good key rate even with a large bit-flip error rate caused by collective rotation, while the usual realization of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol cannot produce any secure final key given the same channel. Since the experiment is performed in polarization space and does not need the calibration of a reference frame, important applications in free-space quantum communication are expected. Moreover, our method can also be used to robustly transmit an arbitrary two-level quantum state in a type of decoherence-free subspace
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Sickmiller, Brett A.
2017-12-01
The efficient coupling of photons from a free-space quantum channel into a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) has important implications for quantum network concepts involving SMF interfaces to quantum detectors, atomic systems, integrated photonics, and direct coupling to a fiber network. Propagation through atmospheric turbulence, however, leads to wavefront errors that degrade mode matching with SMFs. In a free-space quantum channel, this leads to photon losses in proportion to the severity of the aberration. This is particularly problematic for satellite-Earth quantum channels, where atmospheric turbulence can lead to significant wavefront errors. This report considers propagation from low-Earth orbit to a terrestrial ground station and evaluates the efficiency with which photons couple either through a circular field stop or into an SMF situated in the focal plane of the optical receiver. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel are calculated numerically and quantified through the quantum bit error rate and secure key generation rates in a decoy-state BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations include the statistical nature of Kolmogorov turbulence, sky radiance, and an adaptive-optics system under closed-loop control.
Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions
Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev
2013-01-01
The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...
Yang, Liang; Gao, Xiqi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD
Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications, Towards the Speeds of Wireline Networks
Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
in the recent past, is not anymore a viable solution to fulfill the demand for more wireless applications and higher data rates. Among the many proposed solutions, optical wireless communication or free-space optical (FSO) systems have gained an increasing
Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications
Ooi, Boon S.
2017-01-30
We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.
Høilund, Carsten; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Madsen, Claus B.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a method for determining the free space in a scene as viewed by a vehicle-mounted camera. Using disparity maps from a stereo camera and known camera motion, the disparity maps are first filtered by an iconic Kalman filter, operating on each pixel individually, thereby reducing...
The metric approximation property and Lipschitz-free spaces over subsets of R-N
Pernecká, Eva; Smith, R.J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 199, November (2015), s. 29-44 ISSN 0021-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/0345 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lipschitz-free space * approximation property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021904515000970
Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications
Ooi, Boon S.
2017-01-01
We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C
2017-01-01
The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)
Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak
Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Huanyang
2016-01-01
A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak. (paper)
Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak
Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Chen, Huanyang; Zhang, Baile
2016-04-01
A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak.
Chen Ke; Liu Pusheng; Lü Baida
2008-01-01
Taking two Laguerre—Gaussian beams with topological charge l = ± 1 as an example, this paper studies the composite optical vortices formed by two noncollinear Laguerre—Gaussian beams with different phases, amplitudes, waist widths, off-axis distances, and their propagation in free space. It is shown by detailed numerical illustrative examples that the number and location of composite vortices at the waist plane are variable by varying the relative phase β, amplitude ratio η, waist width ratio ζ, or off-axis distance ratio μ. The net topological charge l net is not always equal to the sum l sum of charges of the two component beams. The motion, creation and annihilation of composite vortices take place in the free-space propagation, and the net charge during the propagation remains unchanged and equals to the net charge at the waist plane
Hui Zhou
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.
Multi-Element Free-Space Optical (FSO) Modules for Mobile-Opportunistic Networking
2016-11-14
due to license-free spectrum, containment of beams, inherent security, energy efficient communications, and high transmission rates. We leveraged the... wireless spectrum bands in both military and civilian settings. Recent research has shown that free- space-optical (FSO), a.k.a. optical wireless ...communications is a promising complementary approach to address the exploding mobile wireless traffic demand. The major impediment for using FSO in a
The Generation Mechanism of Airy—Bessel Wave Packets in Free Space
Ren Zhi-Jun; Ying Chao-Fu; Fan Chang-Jiang; Wu Qiong
2012-01-01
Localized optical Airy—Bessel configuration wave packets were first generated on the basis of a grating-telescope combination [Nat. Photon. 4(2010) 103]. By studying the spatially induced group velocity dispersion effect of ultrashort pulsed Bessel beams during propagation, we find the universal physical foundation of generating Airy—Bessel wave packets (ABWs) in free space. The research results are expected to open up more common channels for generating stable linear localized ABWs
Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams
Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan
2018-03-01
A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimising their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.
Dev, K.; Nebuloni, R.; Capsoni, C.; Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1708-1713 ISSN 1751-8725 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : light attenuation * optical sensors * free-space optical communication Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.187, year: 2016 http://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0872
Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space
Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Shu, Weixing; Fan, Dianyuan
2010-01-01
We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus e...
Free-Space Squeezing Assists Perfectly Matched Layers in Simulations on a Tight Domain
Shyroki, Dzmitry; Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2010-01-01
outside the object, as in simulations of eigenmodes or scattering at a wavelength comparable to or larger than the object itself. Here, we show how, in addition to applying the perfectly matched layers (PMLs), outer free space can be squeezed to avoid cutting the evanescent field tails by the PMLs...... or computational domain borders. Adding the squeeze-transform layers to the standard PMLs requires no changes to the finite-difference algorithms....
Kapilevich, B.; Litvak, B.; Anisimov, M.; Hardon, D.; Pinhasi, Y.
2012-01-01
The paper describes the complex permittivity measurements of textiles and leathers in a free space at 330 GHz. The destructive role of the Rayleigh scattering effect is considered and the angular-invariant limit for an incidence angle has been found out experimentally within 25–30 degrees. If incidence angle exceeds this critical parameter, the uncertainty caused by the Rayleigh scattering is drastically increased preventing accurate measurements of the real and imaginary parts of a bulky mat...
Gaps of free-space optics beams with the Beer-Lambert law.
Lacaze, Bernard
2009-05-10
Lasers used in free-space optics propagate a beam within a truncated cone. Because of this shape, the intensity cannot follow the Beer-Lambert law. In the case of a homogeneous atmosphere, we calculate the gap from the cylinder case. We will see that the gap exists but is generally very weak and, therefore, that the use of the Beer-Lambert law is a justified approximation.
High-dimensional free-space optical communications based on orbital angular momentum coding
Zou, Li; Gu, Xiaofan; Wang, Le
2018-03-01
In this paper, we propose a high-dimensional free-space optical communication scheme using orbital angular momentum (OAM) coding. In the scheme, the transmitter encodes N-bits information by using a spatial light modulator to convert a Gaussian beam to a superposition mode of N OAM modes and a Gaussian mode; The receiver decodes the information through an OAM mode analyser which consists of a MZ interferometer with a rotating Dove prism, a photoelectric detector and a computer carrying out the fast Fourier transform. The scheme could realize a high-dimensional free-space optical communication, and decodes the information much fast and accurately. We have verified the feasibility of the scheme by exploiting 8 (4) OAM modes and a Gaussian mode to implement a 256-ary (16-ary) coding free-space optical communication to transmit a 256-gray-scale (16-gray-scale) picture. The results show that a zero bit error rate performance has been achieved.
Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B
2014-01-13
We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.
Hoff, Ulrich Busk
The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimental application and generation of continuous variable quantum correlated states of light in integrated dielectric structures. Squeezed states are among the most exploited continuous variable optical states for free-space quantum-enhanced se...... is presented and an optimized device design is proposed. The devices have been fabricated and tested optically and preliminary interrogations of the output quantum noise have been performed....
Diamanti, Eleni; Takesue, Hiroki; Honjo, Toshimori; Inoue, Kyo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2005-01-01
We compare the performance of various quantum-key-distribution (QKD) systems using a single-photon detector, which combines frequency up-conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD). The comparison is based on the secure communication rate as a function of distance for three QKD protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying protocols. We show that the up-conversion detector allows for higher communication rates and longer communication distances than the commonly used InGaAs/InP APD for all three QKD protocols
Dosimetric significance of cosmic radiation in the altitude of SST and in free space
Allkofer, O C [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reine und Angewandte Kernphysik
1977-01-01
The integral cosmic-ray flux, and hence the dose rate, increases with altitude. At the cruising altitude of the subsonic jets, about 10 km, the dose rate is already about a factor 70 higher than at sea level. At the higher altitudes of SST the situation is different because the composition of the galactic component differs from that at the subsonic level, the solar flares are more efficient, and a small number of heavy nuclei are still present. In free space an additional radiation hazard appears when the radiation belts have to be crossed.
Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation
Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi
1999-09-14
Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.
Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.
Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z
2015-08-10
A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.
Overlap relation between free-space Laguerre Gaussian modes and step-index fiber modes
Bruning, R
2015-09-01
Full Text Available to control the optical proper- ties of the emerging beam or the excited field distributions at the fiber input. The simplest connection is given by fibers with an parabolic refractive index profile, typical of graded-index fibers, whose modes can be described..., in general free space modes are not suitable to excite selective pure fiber modes and additional beam shaping techniques are required, such as the use of computer generated holograms [5]. The main disadvan- tages of such beam shaping techniques are the low...