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Sample records for free-solution label-free detection

  1. Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornhop, D.J.; Latham, J.C.; Kussrow, A.

    2007-01-01

    Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions were investigated with back-scattering interferometry in a simple optical train composed of a helium-neon laser, a microfluidic channel, and a position sensor. Molecular binding interactions between proteins, ions and protein, and small molecules...... and protein, were determined with high dynamic range dissociation constants (K-d spanning six decades) and unmatched sensitivity (picomolar K-d's and detection limits of 10,000s of molecules). With this technique, equilibrium dissociation constants were quantified for protein A and immunoglobulin G...

  2. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  3. Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Melinda S; Domier, Leslie L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2012-01-15

    Viruses represent a continual threat to humans through a number of mechanisms, which include disease, bioterrorism, and destruction of both plant and animal food resources. Many contemporary techniques used for the detection of viruses and viral infections suffer from limitations such as the need for extensive sample preparation or the lengthy window between infection and measurable immune response, for serological methods. In order to develop a method that is fast, cost-effective, and features reduced sample preparation compared to many other virus detection methods, we report the application of silicon photonic microring resonators for the direct, label-free detection of intact viruses in both purified samples as well as in a complex, real-world analytical matrix. As a model system, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bean pod mottle virus, a pathogen of great agricultural importance, with a limit of detection of 10 ng/mL. By simply grinding a small amount of leaf sample in buffer with a mortar and pestle, infected leaves can be identified over a healthy control with a total analysis time of less than 45 min. Given the inherent scalability and multiplexing capability of the semiconductor-based technology, we feel that silicon photonic microring resonators are well-positioned as a promising analytical tool for a number of viral detection applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Label-free detection of breast masses using multiphoton microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufeng Wu

    Full Text Available Histopathology forms the gold standard for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM has been proposed to be a potentially powerful adjunct to current histopathological techniques. A label-free imaging based on two- photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation is developed for differentiating normal breast tissues, benign, as well as breast cancer tissues. Human breast biopsies (including human normal breast tissues, benign as well as breast cancer tissues that are first imaged (fresh, unfixed, and unstained with MPM and are then processed for routine H-E histopathology. Our results suggest that the MPM images, obtained from these unprocessed biopsies, can readily distinguish between benign lesions and breast cancers. In the tissues of breast cancers, MPM showed that the tumor cells displayed marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. The tumor cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, infiltrated into disrupted connective tissue, leading to the loss of second-harmonic generation signals. For breast cancer, MPM diagnosis was 100% correct because the tissues of breast cancers did not have second-harmonic generation signals in MPM imaging. On the contrary, in benign breast masses, second-harmonic generation signals could be seen easily in MPM imaging. These observations indicate that MPM could be an important potential tool to provide label-free noninvasive diagnostic impressions that can guide surgeon in biopsy and patient management.

  5. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Chip for Label-Free Detection of Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Krüger, Asger Christian; Groothoff, Nathaniel

    Narrow polarization-mixing resonances in planar photonic crystals are studied as candidate components for label-free refractive index sensors for detecting bacteria causing sepsis through the identification of DNA strands....

  6. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  7. Label-free aptamer biosensor for selective detection of thrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Weidan; Liu, Xiaotong; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-10-29

    We fabricated a novel fluorescence biosensor for the selective detection of thrombin by using bovine serum albumin-capped CdS quantum dots (BSA-CdS QDs). Two kinds of designed DNA (DNA1 and DNA2) could bind to CdS QDs through the electrostatic interaction between DNA and Cd{sup 2+} on the surface of CdS QDs. The obtained DNA/BSA-CdS QDs kept stable in the solution with the fluorescence intensity obviously enhanced. Hairpin structure of DNA1contained two domains, one is the aptamer sequence of thrombin and the other is the complementary sequence of DNA2. When thrombin was added, it would bind to DNA1 and induce the hairpin structure of DNA1 changed into G-quadplex structure. Meanwhile, DNA2 would transfer from the surface of CdS QDs to DNA1 via hybridization, which resulted in the removal of DNA1 and DNA2 from the surface of CdS QDs, and led to the fluorescence intensity of CdS QDs reduced. Thus, the determination of thrombin could be achieved by monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of CdS QDs. The present method is simple and fast, and exhibits good selectivity for thrombin over other proteins. We have successfully detected thrombin in human serum samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A novel strategy for the detection of thrombin was established based on BSA-CdS QDs. • DNA could serve as the co-ligands to stabilize CdS QDs and enhance the fluorescence intensity. • Thrombin could change the structure of DNA1 and quench the fluorescence of CdS QDs. • Thrombin in real sample was detected with satisfactory results.

  8. Label-free electrochemical detection of singlet oxygen protein damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargová, Veronika; Giménez, Rodrigo E.; Černocká, Hana; Trujillo, Diana Chito; Tulli, Fiorella; Zanini, Verónica I. Paz; Paleček, Emil; Borsarelli, Claudio D.; Ostatná, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage of proteins results in changes of their structures and functions. In this work, the singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 )-mediated oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and urease by blue-light photosensitization of the tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) cation [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ was studied by square wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode and by constant current chronopotentiometry at mercury electrode. Small changes in voltammetric oxidation Tyr and Trp peaks did not indicate significant changes in the BSA structure after photo-oxidation at carbon electrode. On the other hand chronopotentiometric peak H of BSA at HMDE increased during blue-light photosensitization, indicating that photo-oxidized BSA was more susceptible to the electric field-induced denaturation than non-oxidized native BSA. Similar results were obtained for urease, where enzymatic activity was also evaluated. The present results show the capability of label- and reagent-free electrochemical methods to detect oxidative changes in proteins. We believe that these methods will become important tools for detection of various protein damages.

  9. Label-free impedimetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, Rodica E. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Batiment CPE, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gondran, Chantal; Bouffier, Laurent [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 5250, ICMG FR CNRS 2607, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.jaffrezic@univ-lyon1.f [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Batiment CPE, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Martelet, Claude [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Batiment CPE, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cosnier, Serge, E-mail: serge.cosnier@ujf-grenoble.f [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 5250, ICMG FR CNRS 2607, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-08-30

    Impedance spectroscopy transduction combined with the immunosensor technology has been used for the determination of atrazine, a herbicide The sensor electrode was based on the immobilization of anti-atrazine antibody by affinity binding onto a polypyrrole film N-substituted by nitrilotriacetic acid NTA electrogenerated on a gold electrode. The poly NTA film was previously modified by the coordination of Cu2 ions by the chelating NTA centers. The anti-atrazine antibody Fab fragment K47 modified with histidine-tag was then anchored by affinity interactions between the histidine-tag and the coordinated Cu2. Cyclic voltammetry experiments confirm that the antibody immobilization and the resulting immunosensor were applied to the impedimetric detection of atrazine without reagent and labelling step. The immunoreaction of atrazine on the attached anti-atrazine antibody directly triggers an increase in the charge transfer resistance proportional to the atrazine concentration, allowing the detection of extremely low atrazine concentration, namely 10 pg mL{sup -1}.

  10. Improving Probe Immobilization for Label-Free Capacitive Detection of DNA Hybridization on Microfabricated Gold Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Carrara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to labeled optical detection for DNA arrays are actively investigated for low-cost point-of-care applications. In this domain, label-free capacitive detection is one of the most intensely studied techniques. It is based on the idea to detect the Helmholtz ion layer displacements when molecular recognition occurs at the electrodes/solution interface. The sensing layer is usually prepared by using thiols terminated DNA single-strength oligonucleotide probes on top of the sensor electrodes. However, published data shows evident time drift, which greatly complicates signal conditioning and processing and ultimately increases the uncertainty in DNA recognition sensing. The aim of this work is to show that newly developed ethylene-glycol functionalized alkanethiols greatly reduce time drift, thereby significantly improving capacitance based label-free detection of DNA.

  11. Label-Free Aptasensor for Lysozyme Detection Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisia Ortiz-Aguayo; Manel del Valle

    2018-01-01

    This research develops a label-free aptamer biosensor (aptasensor) based on graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECs) for the detection of lysozyme protein using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The chosen immobilization technique was based on covalent bonding using carbodiimide chemistry; for this purpose, carboxylic moieties were first generated on the graphite by electrochemical grafting. The detection was performed using [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− as redox probe. Afte...

  12. Label-Free Electrical Detection Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Maehashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Label-free detections of biomolecules have attracted great attention in a lot of life science fields such as genomics, clinical diagnosis and practical pharmacy. In this article, we reviewed amperometric and potentiometric biosensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. In amperometric detections, CNT-modified electrodes were used as working electrodes to significantly enhance electroactive surface area. In contrast, the potentiometric biosensors were based on aptamer-modified CNT field-effect transistors (CNTFETs. Since aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides and thus are smaller than the Debye length, proteins can be detected with high sensitivity. In this review, we discussed on the technology, characteristics and developments for commercialization in label-free CNT-based biosensors.

  13. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

  14. Nanoplasmonic biochips for rapid label-free detection of imidacloprid pesticides with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuang-Li; You, Meng-Lin; Tsai, Chia-Hsin; Lin, En-Hung; Hsieh, Shu-Yi; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Hsu, Ju-Chun; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2016-01-15

    The widespread and intensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides induces negative cascading effects on ecosystems. It is desirable to develop a portable sensitive sensing platform for on-site screening of high-risk pesticides. We combined an indirect competitive immunoassay, highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biochip and a simple portable imaging setup for label-free detection of imidacloprid pesticides. The SPR biochip consists of several capped nanoslit arrays with different periods which form a spectral image on the chip. The qualitative and semiquantitative analyses of pesticides can be directly observed from the spot shift on the chip. The precise semiquantitative analyses can be further completed by using image processing in a smartphone. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of four different concentrations of imidacloprid pesticides. The visual detection limit is about 1ppb, which is well below the maximum residue concentration permitted by law (20ppb). Compared to the one-step strip assay, the proposed chip is capable of performing semiquantitative analyses and multiple detection. Compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, our method is label-free and requires simple washing steps and short reaction time. In addition, the label-free chip has a comparable sensitivity but wider working range than those labeling techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Label-Free Bioanalyte Detection from Nanometer to Micrometer Dimensions—Molecular Imprinting and QCMs †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern diagnostic tools and immunoassay protocols urges direct analyte recognition based on its intrinsic behavior without using any labeling indicator. This not only improves the detection reliability, but also reduces sample preparation time and complexity involved during labeling step. Label-free biosensor devices are capable of monitoring analyte physiochemical properties such as binding sensitivity and selectivity, affinity constants and other dynamics of molecular recognition. The interface of a typical biosensor could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptors for example molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs. The foremost advantages of using MIPs are their high binding selectivity comparable to natural antibodies, straightforward synthesis in short time, high thermal/chemical stability and compatibility with different transducers. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM resonators are leading acoustic devices that are extensively used for mass-sensitive measurements. Highlight features of QCM devices include low cost fabrication, room temperature operation, and most importantly ability to monitor extremely low mass shifts, thus potentially a universal transducer. The combination of MIPs with quartz QCM has turned out as a prominent sensing system for label-free recognition of diverse bioanalytes. In this article, we shall encompass the potential applications of MIP-QCM sensors exclusively label-free recognition of bacteria and virus species as representative micro and nanosized bioanalytes.

  16. A label free aptamer-based LPG sensor for detection of mercury in aquatic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Hamed; Latifi, Hamid; Ziaee, Farzaneh

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a label free fiber optic sensor for detection of mercury ions in aquatic solutions. This sensor utilizes aptamers as bio-recognition element which traps mercury ions and cause a refractive index change in the vicinity of the sensor. Refractive index variations lead to a change in the transmission spectrum that can be used to calculate the concentration of mercury ions in that solution. The concentration of 1 nM mercury ions was detected which is below the specific amount determined by the US environmental protection agency as the maximum authorized contaminant level of Hg2+ ions in drinking water.

  17. Quantitative Label-Free Cell Proliferation Tracking with a Versatile Electrochemical Impedance Detection Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Claudia; Carminati, M; Heiskanen, Arto

    2012-01-01

    optimal detection strategies. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to monitor and compare adhesion of different cell lines. HeLa cells and 3T3 fibroblasts have been cultured for 12 hours on interdigitated electrode arrays integrated into a tailor-made cell culture platform. Both......Since the use of impedance measurements for label-free monitoring of cells has become widespread but still the choice of sensing configuration is not unique though crucial for a quantitative interpretation of data, we demonstrate the application of a novel custom multipotentiostat platform to study...... vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configuration approaches have been used and compared on the same cell populations....

  18. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43- symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm-1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue-implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis.

  19. Label-free amino acid detection based on nanocomposites of graphene oxide hybridized with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Xu, Gang; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-03-15

    Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (GO/GNPs) were synthesized for label-free detections of amino acids. Interactions between the composites and amino acids were investigated by both naked-eye observation and optical absorption spectroscopy. The GO/GNPs composites displayed apparent color changes and absorption spectra changes in presences of amino acids including glutamate, aspartate, and cysteine. The interaction mechanisms of the composites and amino acids were discussed and explored with sulfhydryl groups and non-α-carboxylic groups on the amino acids. Sensing properties of the composites were tested, while pure gold particles were used as the control. The results suggested that the GO/GNPs composites had better linearity and stability in dose-dependent responses to the amino acids than those of the particles, especially in detections for acidic amino acids. Therefore, the nanocomposites platform can provide a convenient and efficient approach for label-free optical detections of important molecules such as amino acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A compact and portable optofluidic device for detection of liquid properties and label-free sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Walo, D.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Yubero, F.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

    2017-06-01

    Optofluidic lasers have been widely investigated over the last few years mainly because they can be easily integrated in sensor devices. However, high power pulse lasers are required as excitation sources, which, in practice, limit the portability of the system. Trying to overcome some of these limitations, in this paper we propose the combined use of a small CW laser with a Fabry-Perot optofluidic planar microcavity showing high sensitivity and versatility for detection of liquid properties and label-free sensing. Firstly, a fluorescein solution in ethanol is used to demonstrate the high performances of the FP microcavity as a temperature sensor both in the laser (high pump power above laser threshold) and in the fluorescence (low pump power) regimes. A shift in the wavelength of the resonant cavity modes is used to detect changes in the temperature and our results show that high sensitivities could be already obtained using cheap and portable CW diode lasers. In the second part of the paper, the demonstration of this portable device for label-free sensing is illustrated under low CW pumping. The wavelength positions of the optofluidic resonant modes are used to detect glucose concentrations in water solutions using a protein labelled with a fluorescent dye as the active medium.

  1. Nanogap biosensors for electrical and label-free detection of biomolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyu Kim, Sang; Cho, Hyunmin; Park, Hye-Jung; Kwon, Dohyoung; Min Lee, Jeong; Hyun Chung, Bong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate nanogap biosensors for electrical and label-free detection of biomolecular interactions. Parallel fabrication of nanometer distance gaps has been achieved using a silicon anisotropic wet etching technique on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a finely controllable silicon device layer. Since silicon anisotropic wet etching resulted in a trapezoid-shaped structure whose end became narrower during the etching, the nanogap structure was simply fabricated on the device layer of a SOI wafer. The nanogap devices were individually addressable and a gap size of less than 60 nm was obtained. We demonstrate that the nanogap biosensors can electrically detect biomolecular interactions such as biotin/streptavidin and antigen/antibody pairs. The nanogap devices show a current increase when the proteins are bound to the surface. The current increases proportionally depending upon the concentrations of the molecules in the range of 100 fg ml -1 -100 ng ml -1 at 1 V bias. It is expected that the nanogap developed here could be a highly sensitive biosensor platform for label-free detection of biomolecular interactions.

  2. A label-free electrochemiluminescent sensor for ATP detection based on ATP-dependent ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Lin, Chunshui; Yao, Qiuhong; Chen, Xi

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we describe a new label-free, sensitive and highly selective strategy for the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of ATP at the picomolar level via ATP-induced ligation. The molecular-beacon like DNA probes (P12 complex) are self-assembled on a gold electrode. The presence of ATP leads to the ligation of P12 complex which blocks the digestion by Exonuclease III (Exo III). The protected P12 complex causes the intercalation of numerous ECL indicators (Ru(phen)3(2+)) into the duplex DNA grooves, resulting in significantly amplified ECL signal output. Since the ligating site of T4 DNA ligase and the nicking site of Exo III are the same, it involves no long time of incubation for conformation change. The proposed strategy combines the amplification power of enzyme and the inherent high sensitivity of the ECL technique and enables picomolar detection of ATP. The developed strategy also shows high selectivity against ATP analogs, which makes our new label-free and highly sensitive ligation-based method a useful addition to the amplified ATP detection arena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free detection of insulin and glucagon within human islets of Langerhans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Hilderink

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic transplantation of donor islets of Langerhans is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. It is of critical importance to accurately monitor islet quality before transplantation, which is currently done by standard histological methods that are performed off-line and require extensive sample preparation. As an alternative, we propose Raman spectroscopy which is a non-destructive and label-free technique that allows continuous real-time monitoring of the tissue to study biological changes as they occur. By performing Raman spectroscopic measurements on purified insulin and glucagon, we showed that the 520 cm(-1 band assigned to disulfide bridges in insulin, and the 1552 cm(-1 band assigned to tryptophan in glucagon are mutually exclusive and could therefore be used as indirect markers for the label-free distinction between both hormones. High-resolution hyperspectral Raman imaging for these bands showed the distribution of disulfide bridges and tryptophan at sub-micrometer scale, which correlated with the location of insulin and glucagon as revealed by conventional immunohistochemistry. As a measure for this correlation, quantitative analysis was performed comparing the Raman images with the fluorescence images, resulting in Dice coefficients (ranging between 0 and 1 of 0.36 for insulin and 0.19 for glucagon. Although the use of separate microscope systems with different spatial resolution and the use of indirect Raman markers cause some image mismatch, our findings indicate that Raman bands for disulfide bridges and tryptophan can be used as distinctive markers for the label-free detection of insulin and glucagon in human islets of Langerhans.

  4. Asymmetric split-ring resonator-based biosensor for detection of label-free stress biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Suji; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an asymmetric split-ring resonator, metamaterial element, is presented as a biosensing transducer for detection of highly sensitive and label-free stress biomarkers. In particular, the two biomarkers, cortisol and α-amylase, are used for evaluating the sensitivity of the proposed biosensor. In case of cortisol detection, the competitive reaction between cortisol-bovine serum albumin and free cortisol is employed, while alpha-amylase is directly detected by its antigen-antibody reaction. From the experimental results, we find that the limit of detection and sensitivity of the proposed sensing device are about 1 ng/ml and 1.155 MHz/ng ml-1, respectively.

  5. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  6. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using transistors based on CVD grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Yin; Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Tse-Wei Wang, Jacob; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Lin, Cheng-Te; Li, Lain-Jong

    2013-03-15

    The high transconductance and low noise of graphene-based field-effect transistors based on large-area monolayer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition are used for label-free electrical detection of DNA hybridization. The gate materials, buffer concentration and surface condition of graphene have been optimized to achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 1 pM (10(-12) M), which is more sensitive than the existing report based on few-layer graphene. The graphene films obtained using conventional PMMA-assisted transfer technique exhibits PMMA residues, which degrade the sensing performance of graphene. We have demonstrated that the sensing performance of the graphene samples prepared by gold-transfer is largely enhanced (by 125%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowires for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Thang, Cao Xuan

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application. The CeO 2 nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. The immobilization of Anti-V. cholerae O1 onto CeO 2 nanowire-deposited sensor was performed via an amino ester, which was created by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, and sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with [Fe (CN) 6 ] 3−/4− as redox probe. A linear response in electron transfer resistance for cell of V. cholerae O1 concentration was found in the range of 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10 4 CFU/mL. The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL. The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU·mL −1 . Furthermore, the parameters affecting immunosensor response were also investigated, as follows: pH value, immunoreaction time, incubation temperature, and anti-V. cholerae O1 concentration. - Highlights: • A label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application was developed. • A linear response was found in the range of 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10 4 CFU/mL. • The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10 2 CFU/mL. • The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU.mL −1 .

  8. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowires for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh, E-mail: phuongdinhtam@gmail.com; Thang, Cao Xuan, E-mail: thang.caoxuan@hust.edu.vn

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application. The CeO{sub 2} nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. The immobilization of Anti-V. cholerae O1 onto CeO{sub 2} nanowire-deposited sensor was performed via an amino ester, which was created by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, and sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide. The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with [Fe (CN) {sub 6}] {sup 3−/4−} as redox probe. A linear response in electron transfer resistance for cell of V. cholerae O1 concentration was found in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL. The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU·mL{sup −1}. Furthermore, the parameters affecting immunosensor response were also investigated, as follows: pH value, immunoreaction time, incubation temperature, and anti-V. cholerae O1 concentration. - Highlights: • A label-free immunosensor based on cerium oxide nanowire for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection application was developed. • A linear response was found in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL to 1.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU/mL. • The detection limit of the immunosensor was 1.0 × 10{sup 2} CFU/mL. • The immunosensor sensitivity was 56.82 Ω/CFU.mL{sup −1}.

  9. Label-free SnO2 nanowire FET biosensor for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Markus H.; Dong, Bo; Gutsch, Sebastian; Chatelle, Claire; Krishnaraja, Abinaya; Weber, Wilfried; Zacharias, Margit

    2017-06-01

    Novel tin oxide field-effect-transistors (SnO2 NW-FET) for pH and protein detection applicable in the healthcare sector are reported. With a SnO2 NW-FET the proof-of-concept of a bio-sensing device is demonstrated using the carrier transport control of the FET channel by a (bio-) liquid modulated gate. Ultra-thin Al2O3 fabricated by a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process represents a sensitive layer to H+ ions safeguarding the nanowire at the same time. Successful pH sensitivity is demonstrated for pH ranging from 3 to 10. For protein detection, the SnO2 NW-FET is functionalized with a receptor molecule which specifically interacts with the protein of interest to be detected. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated via the detection of a biotinylated protein using a NW-FET functionalized with streptavidin. An immediate label-free electronic read-out of the signal is shown. The well-established Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method is used to determine the optimal experimental procedure which would enable molecular binding events to occur while being compatible with a final label-free electronic read-out on a NW-FET. Integration of the bottom-up fabricated SnO2 NW-FET pH- and biosensor into a microfluidic system (lab-on-a-chip) allows the automated analysis of small volumes in the 400 μl range as would be desired in portable on-site point-of-care (POC) devices for medical diagnosis.

  10. Label free detection of 5′ hydroxymethylcytosine within CpG Islands using optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Rasheeda M.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant research has been invested in correlating genetic variations with different disease probabilities. Recently, it has become apparent that other DNA modifications, such as the addition of a methyl or hydroxymethyl group to cytosine, can also play a role. While these modifications do not change the sequence, they can negatively impact the function. Therefore, it is critical to be able to both read the genetic code and identify these modifications. Currently, the detection of hydroxymethylated cytosine (5′hmC) and the two closely related variants, cytosine (C) and 5′methylcytosine (5′mC), relies on a combination of nucleotide modification steps, followed by PCR and gene sequencing. However, this approach is not ideal because transcription errors which are inherent to the PCR process can be misinterpreted as fluctuations in the relative C:5′mC:5′hmC concentrations. As such, an alternative method which does not rely on PCR or nucleotide modification is desirable. One approach is based on label-free optical resonant cavity sensors. In the present work, toroidal resonant cavity sensors are functionalized with antibodies to enable label-free detection and discrimination between C, 5′mC, and 5′hmC in real-time without PCR. Specifically, epoxide chemistry is used to covalently attach the 5′hmC antibody to the surface of the cavity. Subsequently, to thoroughly characterize the sensor platform, detection of C, 5′mC, and 5′hmC is performed over a concentration range from pM to nM. At low (pM) concentrations, the hydroxymethylated cytosine produces a significantly larger signal than the structurally similar epigenetic markers; thus demonstrating the applicability of this platform. PMID:25461158

  11. Old tree with new shoots: silver nanoparticles for label-free and colorimetric mercury ions detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuyan; Jia, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Mercury in the environment from global mercury emissions as well as various forms of contamination poses severe threats to both human health and the environment. Long-term exposure to high levels of Hg-based toxins results in serious and irreversible damage of the central nervous system and other organs. Therefore, the development of effective sensing systems for mercury detection becomes an increasing demand. In this article, a yogurt-mediated silver nanostructure is reported to be unprecedentedly used in the naked-eye and label-free detection of mercury. The method relies on the redox reaction resulting from the electrode potential difference between Ag+/Ag (0.7996 V) and Hg2+/Hg2 2+ (0.920 V) that makes colorless Hg2+ ions which oxidize colored silver nanoparticle (AgNP) to colorless Ag+. The labor-intensive modification of AgNPs and expensive labeling are avoided, and the traditional AuNPs are substituted by AgNPs in this Hg2+ ions sensing platform, which makes it facile, low-cost, and particularly useful for home, clinic, or field applications as well as resource-limited conditions. This sensing system achieves a detection limit as low as 10 nM, lower than the toxicity level of Hg2+ ions in drinking water (30 nM) defined by World Health Organization, and exhibits excellent selectivity, largely free from the matrix effect of the real water samples. This visual label-free Hg2+ ions sensing motif shows great promise for sensing Hg2+ ions in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, cost, and maneuverability. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and functional materials, which may trigger interest in furthering biosystems for environmental science applications.

  12. Old tree with new shoots: silver nanoparticles for label-free and colorimetric mercury ions detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shuyan; Jia Xiaoxia; Chen Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Mercury in the environment from global mercury emissions as well as various forms of contamination poses severe threats to both human health and the environment. Long-term exposure to high levels of Hg-based toxins results in serious and irreversible damage of the central nervous system and other organs. Therefore, the development of effective sensing systems for mercury detection becomes an increasing demand. In this article, a yogurt-mediated silver nanostructure is reported to be unprecedentedly used in the naked-eye and label-free detection of mercury. The method relies on the redox reaction resulting from the electrode potential difference between Ag + /Ag (0.7996 V) and Hg 2+ /Hg 2 2+ (0.920 V) that makes colorless Hg 2+ ions which oxidize colored silver nanoparticle (AgNP) to colorless Ag+. The labor-intensive modification of AgNPs and expensive labeling are avoided, and the traditional AuNPs are substituted by AgNPs in this Hg 2+ ions sensing platform, which makes it facile, low-cost, and particularly useful for home, clinic, or field applications as well as resource-limited conditions. This sensing system achieves a detection limit as low as 10 nM, lower than the toxicity level of Hg 2+ ions in drinking water (30 nM) defined by World Health Organization, and exhibits excellent selectivity, largely free from the matrix effect of the real water samples. This visual label-free Hg 2+ ions sensing motif shows great promise for sensing Hg 2+ ions in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, cost, and maneuverability. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and functional materials, which may trigger interest in furthering biosystems for environmental science applications.

  13. Old tree with new shoots: silver nanoparticles for label-free and colorimetric mercury ions detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shuyan, E-mail: shuyangao@htu.cn; Jia Xiaoxia; Chen Yanli [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China)

    2013-01-15

    Mercury in the environment from global mercury emissions as well as various forms of contamination poses severe threats to both human health and the environment. Long-term exposure to high levels of Hg-based toxins results in serious and irreversible damage of the central nervous system and other organs. Therefore, the development of effective sensing systems for mercury detection becomes an increasing demand. In this article, a yogurt-mediated silver nanostructure is reported to be unprecedentedly used in the naked-eye and label-free detection of mercury. The method relies on the redox reaction resulting from the electrode potential difference between Ag{sup +}/Ag (0.7996 V) and Hg{sup 2+}/Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+} (0.920 V) that makes colorless Hg{sup 2+} ions which oxidize colored silver nanoparticle (AgNP) to colorless Ag+. The labor-intensive modification of AgNPs and expensive labeling are avoided, and the traditional AuNPs are substituted by AgNPs in this Hg{sup 2+} ions sensing platform, which makes it facile, low-cost, and particularly useful for home, clinic, or field applications as well as resource-limited conditions. This sensing system achieves a detection limit as low as 10 nM, lower than the toxicity level of Hg{sup 2+} ions in drinking water (30 nM) defined by World Health Organization, and exhibits excellent selectivity, largely free from the matrix effect of the real water samples. This visual label-free Hg{sup 2+} ions sensing motif shows great promise for sensing Hg{sup 2+} ions in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, cost, and maneuverability. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and functional materials, which may trigger interest in furthering biosystems for environmental science applications.

  14. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrates for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shicai; Man, Baoyuan; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yue, Weiwei; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Mei; Chen, Chuansong; Zhang, Chao

    2014-04-25

    We demonstrate that continuous, uniform graphene films can be directly synthesized on quartz substrates using a two-temperature-zone chemical vapor deposition system and that their layers can be controlled by adjusting the precursor partial pressure. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm the formation of monolayer graphene with a grain size of ∼100 nm. Hall measurements show a room-temperature carrier mobility above 1500 cm2 V(-1) s(-1). The optical transmittance and conductance of the graphene films are comparable to those of transferred metal-catalyzed graphene. The method avoids the complicated and skilled post-growth transfer process and allows the graphene to be directly incorporated into a fully functional biosensor for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This device shows a fast response time of a few milliseconds and achieves a high sensitivity to ATP molecules over a very wide range from 0.002 to 5 mM.

  15. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  16. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong Dinh Tam; Mai Anh Tuan; Tran Trung; Nguyen Duc Chien

    2009-01-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when emerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  17. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuong Dinh Tam; Mai Anh Tuan [International Training Institute for Materials Science (Viet Nam); Tran Trung [Department of Electrochemistry, Hung-Yen University of Technology and Education (Viet Nam); Nguyen Duc Chien [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: tr_trunghut@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when emerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  18. Sensitive and label-free detection of miRNA-145 by triplex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviñó, Anna; Huertas, César S; Lechuga, Laura M; Eritja, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The development of new strategies for detecting microRNAs (miRNAs) has become a crucial step in the diagnostic field. miRNA profiles depend greatly on the sample and the analytical platform employed, leading sometimes to contradictory results. In this work, we study the use of modified parallel tail-clamps to detect a miRNA sequence involved in tumor suppression by triplex formation. Thermal denaturing curves and circular dichroism (CD) measurements have been performed to confirm that parallel clamps carrying 8-aminoguanine form the most stable triplex structures with their target miRNA. The modified tail-clamps have been tested as bioreceptors in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for the detection of miRNA-145. The detection limit was improved 2.4 times demonstrating that a stable triplex structure is formed between target miRNA and 8-aminoguanine tail-clamp bioreceptor. This new approach is an essential step toward the label-free and reliable detection of miRNA signatures for diagnostic purposes.

  19. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md. Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Fouad, H.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera.

  20. Label-free signal-on aptasensor for sensitive electrochemical detection of arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-05-15

    A signal-on aptasensor was fabricated for highly sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of arsenite with a label-free Ars-3 aptamer self-assembled on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) via Au-S bond. The Ars-3 aptamer could adsorb cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction to repel other cationic species. In the presence of arsenite, the change of Ars-3 conformation due to the formation of Ars-3/arsenite complex led to less adsorption of PDDA, and the complex could adsorb more positively charged [Ru(NH3)6](3+) as an electrochemically active indicator on the aptasensor surface, which produced a sensitive "turn-on" response. The target-induced structure switching could be used for sensitive detection of arsenite with a linear range from 0.2 nM to 100 nM and a detection limit down to 0.15 nM. Benefiting from Ars-3 aptamer, the proposed system exhibited excellent specificity against other heavy metal ions. The SPCE-based aptasensor exhibited the advantages of low cost and simple fabrication, providing potential application of arsenite detection in environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Label-Free QCM Immunosensor for the Detection of Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Şeyda Pirinçci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a potent mycotoxin that poses a risk in food and feed moieties and subject to worldwide regulation. Laboratory-based analytical methods are traditionally employed for reliable OTA quantification, but these methods cannot provide rapid and on-site analysis, where biosensors fill this gap. In this study a label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-based immunosensor for the detection of OTA, which is one of the most important small molecule contaminants, was developed by direct immobilization of OTA to amine-bearing sensor surfaces using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS chemistry. The protein-free sensor surface enabled regeneration of sensor surface with 50 mM NaOH and 1% SDS up to 13 times without loss of performance, which would disrupt a protein-containing sensor surface. We developed a QCM immunosensor using the developed sensor surface with a 17.2–200 ng/mL detection range which can be used for on-site detection of feedstuffs.

  2. Label free selective detection of estriol using graphene oxide-based fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Sao, Reshma; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-07-01

    Water-soluble and fluorescent Graphene oxide (GO) is biocompatible, easy, and economical to synthesize. Interestingly, GO is also capable of quenching fluorescence. On the basis of its fluorescence and quenching abilities, GO has been reported to serve as an energy acceptor in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor. GO-based FRET biosensors have been widely reported for sensing of proteins, nucleic acid, ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), etc. GO complexes with fluorescent dyes and enzymes have been used to sense metal ions. Graphene derivatives have been used for sensing endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenols and chlorophenols with high sensitivity and good reproducibility. On this basis, a novel GO based fluorescent sensor has been successfully designed to detect estriol with remarkable selectivity and sensitivity. Estriol is one of the three estrogens in women and is considered to be medically important. Estriol content of maternal urine or plasma acts as an important screening marker for estimating foetal growth and development. In addition, estriol is also used as diagnostic marker for diseases like breast cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, lupus erythematosus, endometriosis, etc. In this present study, we report for the first time a rapid, sensitive with detection limit of 1.3 nM, selective and highly biocompatible method for label free detection of estriol under physiological conditions using fluorescence assay.

  3. Label-free aptamer biosensor for thrombin detection based on functionalized graphene nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Zhou, Zhixue; Zhai, Yanling; Zhang, Lingling; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Zhiquan; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-08-15

    A label-free and amplified electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor based on functionalized graphene nanocomposites (rGO-AuNPs) was developed for the detection of thrombin, which played a vital role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The thiolated aptamer and dithiothreitol (TBA15-DTT) were firstly immobilized on the gold electrode to capture the thrombin molecules, and then aptamer functionalized graphene nanocomposites (rGO-TBA29) were used to fabricate a sandwich sensing platform for amplifying the impedimetric signals. As numerous negative charges of TBA29 on the electrode repelled to the [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) anions, resulting in an obvious amplified charge-transfer resistance (Rct) signal. The Rct increase was linearly proportional to the thrombin concentration from 0.3 to 50nM and a detection limit of 0.01nM thrombin was achieved. In addition, graphene could also be labeled with other probes via electrostatic or π-π stacking interactions to produce signals, therefore different detection methods expanding wide application could be used in this model. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A label-free electrochemical impedance aptasensor for cylindrospermopsin detection based on thionine-graphene nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Chen, Hongda; Ma, Lina; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2015-08-21

    It is important to develop methods to determine cylindrospermopsin (CYN) at trace levels since CYN is a kind of widespread cyanobacterial toxin in water sources. In this study, a label-free impedimetric aptasensor has been fabricated for detecting CYN. In this case, the amino-substituted aptamer of CYN was covalently grafted onto the surface of the thionine-graphene (TH-G) nanocomposite through the cross-linker glutaraldehyde (GA). The reaction of the aptamer with CYN was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy because the CYN induced conformation change of the aptamer can cause a remarkable decrease of the electron transfer resistance. Under optimum conditions, the aptasensor exhibits high sensitivity and a low detection limit for CYN determination. The CYN can be quantified in a wide range of 0.39 to 78 ng mL(-1) with a good linearity (R(2) = 0.9968) and a low detection limit of 0.117 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed aptasensor displays excellent stability, reusability and reproducibility.

  5. A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Makarona, Eleni; Salapatas, Alexandros; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Botsialas, Athanasios; Jobst, Gerhard; Haasnoot, Willem; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo; Lees, Michelle; Valamontes, Evangelos

    2016-03-01

    Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

  6. Label-Free Aptasensor for Lysozyme Detection Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisia Ortiz-Aguayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a label-free aptamer biosensor (aptasensor based on graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECs for the detection of lysozyme protein using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS technique. The chosen immobilization technique was based on covalent bonding using carbodiimide chemistry; for this purpose, carboxylic moieties were first generated on the graphite by electrochemical grafting. The detection was performed using [Fe(CN6]3−/[Fe(CN6]4− as redox probe. After recording the frequency response, values were fitted to its electric model using the principle of equivalent circuits. The aptasensor showed a linear response up to 5 µM for lysozyme and a limit of detection of 1.67 µM. The sensitivity of the established method was 0.090 µM−1 in relative charge transfer resistance values. The interference response by main proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c, has been also characterized. To finally verify the performance of the developed aptasensor, it was applied to wine analysis.

  7. Label-Free Aptasensor for Lysozyme Detection Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Aguayo, Dionisia; Del Valle, Manel

    2018-01-26

    This research develops a label-free aptamer biosensor (aptasensor) based on graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECs) for the detection of lysozyme protein using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The chosen immobilization technique was based on covalent bonding using carbodiimide chemistry; for this purpose, carboxylic moieties were first generated on the graphite by electrochemical grafting. The detection was performed using [Fe(CN)₆] 3- /[Fe(CN)₆] 4- as redox probe. After recording the frequency response, values were fitted to its electric model using the principle of equivalent circuits. The aptasensor showed a linear response up to 5 µM for lysozyme and a limit of detection of 1.67 µM. The sensitivity of the established method was 0.090 µM -1 in relative charge transfer resistance values. The interference response by main proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c, has been also characterized. To finally verify the performance of the developed aptasensor, it was applied to wine analysis.

  8. Label-free detection of sex determining region Y (SRY) via capacitive biosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we present for the first time, the use of a simple fractal capacitive biosensor for the quantification and detection of sex-determining region Y (SRY) genes. This section of genetic code, which is found on the Y chromosome, finds importance for study as it causes fetuses to develop characteristics of male sex-like gonads when a mutation occurs. It is also an important genetic code in men, and disorders involving the SRY gene can cause infertility and sexual malfunction that lead to a variety of gene mutational disorders. We have therefore designed silicon-based, label-free fractal capacitive biosensors to quantify various proteins and genes. We take advantage of a good dielectric material, Parylene C for enhancing the performance of the sensors. We have integrated these sensors with a simple microchannel for easy handling of fluids on the detection area. The read-out value of an Agilent LCR meter used to measure capacitance of the sensor at a frequency of 1 MHz determined gene specificity and gene quantification. These data revealed that the capacitance measurement of the capacitive biosensor for the SRY gene depended on both the target and the concentration of DNA. The experimental outcomes in the present study can be used to detect DNA and its variations in crucial fields that have a great impact on our daily lives, such as clinical and veterinary diagnostics, industrial and environmental testing and forensic sciences.

  9. Switchable DNA interfaces for the highly sensitive detection of label-free DNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Scherer, Simon; Pringsheim, Erika; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tornow, Marc; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2007-10-30

    We report a method to detect label-free oligonucleotide targets. The conformation of surface-tethered probe nucleic acids is modulated by alternating electric fields, which cause the molecules to extend away from or fold onto the biased surface. Binding (hybridization) of targets to the single-stranded probes results in a pronounced enhancement of the layer-height modulation amplitude, monitored optically in real time. The method features an exceptional detection limit of <3 x 10(8) bound targets per cm(2) sensor area. Single base-pair mismatches in the sequences of DNA complements may readily be identified; moreover, binding kinetics and binding affinities can be determined with high accuracy. When driving the DNA to oscillate at frequencies in the kHz regime, distinct switching kinetics are revealed for single- and double-stranded DNA. Molecular dynamics are used to identify the binding state of molecules according to their characteristic kinetic fingerprints by using a chip-compatible detection format.

  10. Rapid and label-free detection of protein a by aptamer-tethered porous silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmann, Katharina; Reich, Peggy; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Beckmann, Dieter; Segal, Ester; Scheper, Thomas

    2017-09-10

    Protein A, which is secreted by and displayed on the cell membrane of Staphylococcus aureus is an important biomarker for S. aureus. Thus, its rapid and specific detection may facilitate the pathogen identification and initiation of proper treatment. Herein, we present a simple, label-free and rapid optical biosensor enabling specific detection of protein A. Protein A-binding aptamer serves as the capture probe and is immobilized onto a nanostructured porous silicon thin film, which serves as the optical transducer element. We demonstrate high sensitivity of the biosensor with a linear detection range between 8 and 23μM. The apparent dissociation constant was determined as 13.98μM and the LoD is 3.17μM. Harnessing the affinity between protein A and antibodies, a sandwich assay format was developed to amplify the optical signal associated with protein A capture by the aptamer. Using this approach, we increase the sensitivity of the biosensor, resulting in a three times lower LoD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Label-Free Detection of Glycan-Protein Interactions for Array Development by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiuru; Martin, Sharon J H; Chinoy, Zoeisha S; Liu, Lin; Rittgers, Brandon; Dluhy, Richard A; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    A glyco-array platform has been developed, in which glycans are attached to plasmonic nanoparticles through strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Glycan-protein binding events can then be detected in a label-free manner employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). As proof of concept,

  12. A label free aptasensor for Ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans: An application to chocolate industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rupesh K.; Hayat, Akhtar; Catanante, Gaëlle; Ocaña, Cristina; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of food by mycotoxin occurs in minute/trace quantities. Nearly 92.5% of the cocoa samples present Ochratoxin A (OTA) levels at trace quantity. Hence, there is a necessity for a highly sensitive and selective device that can detect and quantify these organic toxins in various matrices such as cocoa beans. This work reports for the first time, a facile and label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for rapid detection and quantitation of OTA in cocoa beans. The developed aptasensor was constructed based on the diazonium-coupling reaction mechanism for the immobilization of anti-OTA-aptamer on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL, with added advantages of good selectivity and reproducibility. The increase in electron transfer resistance was linearly proportional to the OTA concentration in the range 0.15–2.5 ng/mL, with an acceptable recovery percentage (91–95%, RSD = 4.8%) obtained in cocoa samples. This work can facilitate a general model for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans based on the impedimetric aptasensor. The analysis can be performed onsite with pre-constructed and aptamer modified electrodes employing a portable EIS set up. - Highlights: • Simple and facile method to detect OTA. • The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL. • The first report on OTA detection in cocoa beans using impedimetric aptasensor

  13. A label free aptasensor for Ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans: An application to chocolate industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rupesh K. [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France); Hayat, Akhtar [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France); Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Catanante, Gaëlle; Ocaña, Cristina [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France); Marty, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jlmarty@univ-perp.fr [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France)

    2015-08-19

    Contamination of food by mycotoxin occurs in minute/trace quantities. Nearly 92.5% of the cocoa samples present Ochratoxin A (OTA) levels at trace quantity. Hence, there is a necessity for a highly sensitive and selective device that can detect and quantify these organic toxins in various matrices such as cocoa beans. This work reports for the first time, a facile and label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for rapid detection and quantitation of OTA in cocoa beans. The developed aptasensor was constructed based on the diazonium-coupling reaction mechanism for the immobilization of anti-OTA-aptamer on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL, with added advantages of good selectivity and reproducibility. The increase in electron transfer resistance was linearly proportional to the OTA concentration in the range 0.15–2.5 ng/mL, with an acceptable recovery percentage (91–95%, RSD = 4.8%) obtained in cocoa samples. This work can facilitate a general model for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans based on the impedimetric aptasensor. The analysis can be performed onsite with pre-constructed and aptamer modified electrodes employing a portable EIS set up. - Highlights: • Simple and facile method to detect OTA. • The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL. • The first report on OTA detection in cocoa beans using impedimetric aptasensor.

  14. Label-Free Ag+ Detection by Enhancing DNA Sensitized Tb3+ Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Kleinke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of Ag+ on DNA sensitized Tb3+ luminescence was studied initially using the Ag+-specific RNA-cleaving DNAzyme, Ag10c. While we expected to observe luminescence quenching by Ag+, a significant enhancement was produced. Based on this observation, simple DNA oligonucleotide homopolymers were used with systematically varied sequence and length. We discovered that both poly-G and poly-T DNA have a significant emission enhancement by Ag+, while the absolute intensity is stronger with the poly-G DNA, indicating that a G-quadruplex DNA is not required for this enhancement. Using the optimized length of the G7 DNA (an oligo constituted with seven guanines, Ag+ was measured with a detection limit of 57.6 nM. The signaling kinetics, G7 DNA conformation, and the binding affinity of Tb3+ to the DNA in the presence or absence of Ag+ are also studied to reveal the mechanism of emission enhancement. This observation is useful not only for label-free detection of Ag+, but also interesting for the rational design of new biosensors using Tb3+ luminescence.

  15. Detection of Myoglobin with an Open-Cavity-Based Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailin; Tamez-Vela, Juan Manuel; Solis, Steven; Bustamante, Gilbert; Peterson, Ralph; Rahman, Shafiqur; Morales, Andres; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2013-01-01

    The label-free detection of one of the cardiac biomarkers, myoglobin, using a photonic-crystal-based biosensor in a total-internal-reflection configuration (PC-TIR) is presented in this paper. The PC-TIR sensor possesses a unique open optical microcavity that allows for several key advantages in biomolecular assays. In contrast to a conventional closed microcavity, the open configuration allows easy functionalization of the sensing surface for rapid biomolecular binding assays. Moreover, the properties of PC structures make it easy to be designed and engineered for operating at any optical wavelength. Through fine design of the photonic crystal structure, biochemical modification of the sensor surface, and integration with a microfluidic system, we have demonstrated that the detection sensitivity of the sensor for myoglobin has reached the clinically significant concentration range, enabling potential usage of this biosensor for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The real-time response of the sensor to the myoglobin binding may potentially provide point-of-care monitoring of patients and treatment effects.

  16. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Miyahara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry.

  17. Graphene-CNT nanohybrid aptasensor for label free detection of cardiac biomarker myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Shorie, Munish; Ganguli, Ashok K; Sabherwal, Priyanka

    2015-10-15

    We report a label free electrochemical detection of cardiac bio-marker myoglobin (Mb) on aptamer functionalized rGO/CNT nanostructured electrodes by measuring its direct electron transfer (DET). Configured as a highly responsive aptasensor, the newly developed biosensing platform exhibits synergistic effect of the nano-hybrid functional construct by combining good electrical properties and the facile chemical functionality of nanohybrid for the compatible bio-interface development. The specific anti-Mb aptamer was generated by five iterative SELEX (Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) rounds, showing high senstivity (KD ~65 pM). The aptamer functionalized rGO/CNT nanostructured electrodes demonstrated a significant increase in signal response with a detection limit of ~0.34 ng/mL in the dynamic response range between 1 ng/mL and 4 µg/mL for Mb. The newly developed DET assay format presents a promising candidate in point-of-care diagnosis for routine screening of Mb in patient's samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry. PMID:23435052

  19. A G-quadruplex-based Label-free Fluorometric Aptasensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Juan; Tian, Xue; Kong, Xiang Juan; Chu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    A G-quadruplex-based, label-free fluorescence assay was demonstrated for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), hybridized by ATP-aptamer and its complementary sequence, was employed as a substrate for ATP binding. SYBR Green I (SG I) was a fluorescent probe and exonuclease III (Exo III) was a nuclease to digest the dsDNA. Consequently, in the absence of ATP, the dsDNA was inset with SG I and was digested by Exo III, resulting in a low background signal. In the presence of ATP, the aptamer in dsDNA folded into a G-quadruplex structure that resisted the digestion of Exo III. SG I was inserted into the structure, showing high fluorescence. Owing to a decrease of the background noise, a high signal-to-noise ratio could be obtained. This sensor can detect ATP with a concentration ranging from 50 μM to 5 mM, and possesses a capacity for the sensitive determination of other targets.

  20. Theoretical analysis of bimetallic nanorod dimer biosensors for label-free molecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Avijit; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we theoretically analyze a gold (Au) core within silver (Ag) shell (Au@Ag) nanorod dimer biosensor for label-free molecule detection. The incident light on an Au@Ag nanorod strongly couples to localized surface plasmon modes, especially around the tip region. The field enhancement around the tip of a nanorod or between the tips of two longitudinally aligned nanorods as in a dimer can be exploited for sensitive detection of biomolecules. We derive analytical expressions for the interactions of an Au@Ag nanorod dimer with the incident light. We also study the detail dynamics of an Au@Ag nanorod dimer with the incident light computationally using finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique when core-shell ratio, relative position of the nanorods, and angle of incidence of light change. We find that the results obtained using the developed analytical model match well with that obtained using FDTD simulations. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of the Au@Ag nanorod dimer, i.e., shift in the resonance wavelength, when a target biomolecule such as lysozyme (Lys), human serum albumin (HSA), anti-biotin (Abn), human catalase (CAT), and human fibrinogen (Fb) protein molecules are attached to the tips of the nanorods.

  1. A label-free silicon quantum dots-based photoluminescence sensor for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yinhui; Zhu, Gangbing; Liu, Chang; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Haitao; Zhao, Jiangna; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-12-03

    Sensitive, rapid, and simple detection methods for the screening of extensively used organophosphorus pesticides and highly toxic nerve agents are in urgent demand. A novel label-free silicon quantum dots (SiQDs)-based sensor was designed for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides. This sensing strategy involves the reaction of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to form choline that is in turn catalytically oxidized by choline oxidase (ChOx) to produce betaine and H2O2 which can quench the photoluminescence (PL) of SiQDs. Upon the addition of pesticides, the activity of AChE is inhibited, leading to the decrease of the generated H2O2, and hence the PL of SiQDs increases. By measuring the increase in SiQDs PL, the inhibition efficiency of pesticide to AChE activity was evaluated. It was found that the inhibition efficiency was linearly dependent on the logarithm of the pesticides concentration. Consequently, pesticides, such as carbaryl, parathion, diazinon, and phorate, were determined with the SiQDs PL sensing method. The lowest detectable concentrations for carbaryl, parathion, diazinon, and phorate reached 7.25 × 10(-9), 3.25 × 10(-8), 6.76 × 10(-8), and 1.9 × 10(-7) g/L, respectively, which were much lower than those previously reported. The detecting results of pesticide residues in food samples via this method agree well with those from high-performance liquid chromatography. The simple strategy reported here should be suitable for on-site pesticides detection, especially in combination with other portable platforms.

  2. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrates for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shicai; Man, Baoyuan; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yue, Weiwei; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Mei; Chen, Chuansong; Zhang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that continuous, uniform graphene films can be directly synthesized on quartz substrates using a two-temperature-zone chemical vapor deposition system and that their layers can be controlled by adjusting the precursor partial pressure. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm the formation of monolayer graphene with a grain size of ∼100 nm. Hall measurements show a room-temperature carrier mobility above 1500 cm 2  V −1  s −1 . The optical transmittance and conductance of the graphene films are comparable to those of transferred metal-catalyzed graphene. The method avoids the complicated and skilled post-growth transfer process and allows the graphene to be directly incorporated into a fully functional biosensor for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This device shows a fast response time of a few milliseconds and achieves a high sensitivity to ATP molecules over a very wide range from 0.002 to 5 mM. (paper)

  3. Organophosphonate-based PNA-functionalization of silicon nanowires for label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani-Scholz, Anna; Pedone, Daniel; Dubey, Manish; Neppl, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Feulner, Peter; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We investigated hydroxyalkylphosphonate monolayers as a novel platform for the biofunctionalization of silicon-based field effect sensor devices. This included a detailed study of the thin film properties of organophosphonate films on Si substrates using several surface analysis techniques, including AFM, ellipsometry, contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity, and current-voltage characteristics in electrolyte solution. Our results indicate the formation of a dense monolayer on the native silicon oxide that has excellent passivation properties. The monolayer was biofunctionalized with 12 mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) receptor molecules in a two-step procedure using the heterobifunctional linker, 3-maleimidopropionic-acid-N-hydroxysuccinimidester. Successful surface modification with the probe PNA was verified by XPS and contact angle measurements, and hybridization with DNA was determined by fluorescence measurements. Finally, the PNA functionalization protocol was translated to 2 microm long, 100 nm wide Si nanowire field effect devices, which were successfully used for label-free DNA/PNA hybridization detection.

  4. Label-free fluorimetric detection of CEA using carbon dots derived from tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hong; Wang, Lan; Zhuo, Yan; Zhou, Zinan; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-12-15

    A facile-green strategy to synthesize carbon dots (CDs) with a quantum yield (QY) of nearly 13.9% has been built up, while tomato juice served as the carbon source. Interestingly, not only the precursor of CDs and the whole synthesis procedure were environmental-friendly, but this type of CDs also exhibited multiple advantages including high fluorescent QY, excellent photostability, non-toxicity and satisfactory stability. Significantly, a label-free sensitive assay for detecting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in a continuous and recyclable way has been proposed on the basis of adsorption and desorption of aptamers by the surface of CDs through a competitive mechanism. To be specific, the richness of carboxyl groups of the CDs enabled strong adsorption of ssDNA to the surface of CDs through π-π stacking interactions, resulting in the effective fluorescence quenching by forming CDs-aptamer complexes. The stronger binding affinity between CEA and CEA-aptamer than the π-π stacking interactions has been taken advantage to achieve immediate recovery of the fluorescence of CDs once CEA was introduced. Thereby, quantitative evaluation of CEA concentration in a broad range from 1ngmL(-1) to 0.5ngmL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.3ngmL(-1) was realized in this way. This strategy can be applied in a recyclable way, broadening the sensing application of CDs with biocompatibility. Besides, the CDs were used for cell imaging, potentiating them towards diverse purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic and label-free high-throughput detection of biomolecular interactions based on phase-shift interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Huang, Guoliang; Gan, Wupeng; Chen, Shengyi

    2009-08-01

    Biomolecular interactions can be detected by many established technologies such as fluorescence imaging, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)[1-4], interferometry and radioactive labeling of the analyte. In this study, we have designed and constructed a label-free, real-time sensing platform and its operating imaging instrument that detects interactions using optical phase differences from the accumulation of biological material on solid substrates. This system allows us to monitor biomolecular interactions in real time and quantify concentration changes during micro-mixing processes by measuring the changes of the optical path length (OPD). This simple interferometric technology monitors the optical phase difference resulting from accumulated biomolecular mass. A label-free protein chip that forms a 4×4 probe array was designed and fabricated using a commercial microarray robot spotter on solid substrates. Two positive control probe lines of BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) and two experimental human IgG and goat IgG was used. The binding of multiple protein targets was performed and continuously detected by using this label-free and real-time sensing platform.

  6. Single walled carbon nanotube-based electrical biosensor for the label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, S. M.; Baek, Y. K.; Shin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize...... different pathogenic bacteria was analyzed, and conditions were optimized with different probe concentrations. Using this system, the reference strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were successfully detected; in both cases, the sensor showed a detection limit of 10 CFU....... This SWNT-based electrical biosensor will prove useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific handheld pathogen detectors....

  7. Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction — DNA — Antimicrobial peptide binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Gurevich, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    the molecule. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been already demonstrated suitable for food-safety control, label-free screening for various disease markers in bodily fluids, as well as for real-time continuous monitoring of drug levels in intensive care environment. We envisage...... of plasmon based biosensors to the study of the interaction of Antimicrobial peptide IL4 and DNA. Our results indicate high affinity binding between IL4 and DNA thereby preventing DNA replication and eventually killing the affected cell. We speculate that this is common for a large class of Antimicrobial...

  8. Novel charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET as a biosensor for label-free detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Dey, Prithu; De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET (CP-DIMOSFET) has been proposed for the first time to ease the label free detection of biomolecules. The concept of CP-DIMOSFET is proposed and analyzed on basis of simulated data using SILVACO ATLAS. Low thermal budgeting and thin silicon layer without any dopant implantations make the proposed structure advantageous compared to the existing MOSFET based biosensors. The results show that the proposed device is capable to detect the presence of biomolecules. Simple fabrication schemes, miniaturization, high sensitivity, dominance of dielectric modulation make the proposed biosensor a promising one that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry.

  9. Direct and label-free detection of the human growth hormone in urine by an ultrasensitive bimodal waveguide biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Maldonado, Jesús; Dante, Stefania; Grajales, Daniel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    A label-free interferometric transducer showing a theoretical detection limit for homogeneous sensing of 5 × 10 -8 RIU, being equivalent to a protein mass coverage resolution of 2.8 fg mm -2 , is used to develop a high sensitive biosensor for protein detection. The extreme sensitivity of this transducer combined with a selective bioreceptor layer enables the direct evaluation of the human growth hormone (hGH) in undiluted urine matrix in the 10 pg mL -1 range. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chong; Han, Qiaorong; Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health

  11. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin [Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Wang, Weijuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhao, Wenbo, E-mail: zhaowenbo@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min, E-mail: zhouminnju@126.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−}. Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health.

  12. Label-free detection of HIV-1 infected cells via integration of optical tweezers and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugongolo, Masixole Yvonne; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Noto, Luyanda Lunga; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is currently detected using conventional qualitative and quantitative tests to determine the presence or absence of HIV in blood samples. However, the approach of these tests detects the presence of either viral antibodies or viral RNA that require labelling which may be costly, sophisticated and time consuming. A label-free approach of detecting the presence of HIV is therefore desirable. Of note optical tweezers can be coupled with other technologies including spectroscopy, which also investigates light-matter interactions. For example, coupling of optical tweezers with luminescence spectroscopy techniques has emerged as a powerful tool in biology for micro-manipulation, detection and analysis of individual cells. Integration of optical techniques has enabled studying biological particles in a label-free manner, whilst detecting functional groups and other essential molecules within mixed populations of cells. In the current study, an optical trapping system coupled to luminescence spectroscopy was utilised to detect the presence of HIV infection in TZM-bl cells in vitro. This was performed by infecting TZM-bl cells with the ZM53 HIV-1 pseudovirus, and incubating them for 48 hours prior analysis. The differences between infected and uninfected cells were thereafter displayed as shown by the spectrographs obtained. Combination of these two techniques has a potential in the field of infectious disease diagnostics.

  13. Label-free glucose detection using cantilever sensor technology based on gravimetric detection principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shuchen; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Po-Chiao; Wu, Chun-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Efficient maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a major challenge in diabetes therapy, where accurate and reliable glucose level detection is required. Though several methods are currently used, these suffer from impaired response and often unpredictable drift, making them unsuitable for long-term therapeutic practice. In this study, we demonstrate a method that uses a functionalized atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever as the sensor for reliable glucose detection with sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for clinical use. We first modified the AFM tip with aminopropylsilatrane (APS) and then adsorbed glucose-specific lectin concanavalin A (Con A) onto the surface. The Con A/APS-modified probes were then used to detect glucose by monitoring shifts in the cantilever resonance frequency. To confirm the molecule-specific interaction, AFM topographical images were acquired of identically treated silicon substrates which indicated a specific attachment for glucose-Con A and not for galactose-Con A. These results demonstrate that by monitoring the frequency shift of the AFM cantilever, this sensing system can detect the interaction between Con A and glucose, one of the biomolecule recognition processes, and may assist in the detection and mass quantification of glucose for clinical applications with very high sensitivity.

  14. Label and label-free based surface-enhanced Raman scattering for pathogen bacteria detection: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhou, Haibo; Hu, Ziwei; Yu, Guangxia; Yang, Danting; Zhao, Jinshun

    2017-08-15

    Rapid, accurate detection of pathogen bacteria is a highly topical research area for the sake of food safety and public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is being considered as a powerful and attractive technique for pathogen bacteria detection, due to its sensitivity, high speed, comparatively low cost, multiplexing ability and portability. This contribution aims to give a comprehensive overview of SERS as a technique for rapid detection of pathogen bacteria based on label and label-free strategies. A brief tutorial on SERS is given first of all. Then we summarize the recent trends and developments of label and label-free based SERS applied to detection of pathogen bacteria, including the relatively complete interpretation of SERS spectra. In addition, multifunctional SERS platforms for pathogen bacteria in matrix are discussed as well. Furthermore, an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for real-time pathogen bacteria detection are given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Label-Free Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spore Uptake in Macrophage Cells Using Analytical Optical Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Colin G; Hart, Sean; Leski, Tomasz A; Terray, Alex; Lu, Qin

    2017-10-03

    Understanding the interaction between macrophage cells and Bacillus anthracis spores is of significant importance with respect to both anthrax disease progression, spore detection for biodefense, as well as understanding cell clearance in general. While most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins and fluorescent labels to identify the target(s) of interest, label-free methods probe changes in intrinsic properties, such as size, refractive index, and morphology, for correlation with a particular biological event. Optical chromatography is a label free technique that uses the balance between optical and fluidic drag forces within a microfluidic channel to determine the optical force on cells or particles. Here we show an increase in the optical force experienced by RAW264.7 macrophage cells upon the uptake of both microparticles and B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 spores. In the case of spores, the exposure was detected in as little as 1 h without the use of antibodies or fluorescent labels of any kind. An increase in the optical force was also seen in macrophage cells treated with cytochalasin D, both with and without a subsequent exposure to spores, indicating that a portion of the increase in the optical force arises independent of phagocytosis. These results demonstrate the capability of optical chromatography to detect subtle biological differences in a rapid and sensitive manner and suggest future potential in a range of applications, including the detection of biological threat agents for biodefense and pathogens for the prevention of sepsis and other diseases.

  16. A SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-PROBE DETECTION LABEL-FREE OPTICAL-RESOLUTION PHOTOACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE BASED ON MICROCAVITY TRANSDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONGBO WU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous multi-probe detection for an optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM system. OR-PAM has elicited the attention of biomedical imaging researchers because of its optical absorption contrast and high spatial resolution with great imaging depth. OR-PAM allows label-free and noninvasive imaging by maximizing the optical absorption of endogenous biomolecules. However, given the inadequate absorption of some biomolecules, detection sensitivity at the same incident intensity requires improvement. In this study, a modulated continuous wave with power density less than 3 mW/cm2 (1/4 of the ANSI safety limit excited the weak photoacoustic (PA signals of biological cells. A microcavity transducer is developed based on the bulk modulus of gas five orders of magnitude lower than that of solid; air pressure variation is inversely proportional to cavity volume at the same temperature increase. Considering that a PA wave expands in various directions, detecting PA signals from different positions and adding them together can increase detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we employ four detectors to acquire tiny PA signals simultaneously. Experimental results show that the developed OR-PAM system allows the label-free imaging of cells with weak optical absorption.

  17. A label-free colorimetric sensor for Pb2+ detection based on the acceleration of gold leaching by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Cuiling; Zhao, Longyun; Peng, Weidong; Xian, Yuezhong

    2015-03-14

    In this work, we developed a novel, label-free, colorimetric sensor for Pb(2+) detection based on the acceleration of gold leaching by graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be dissolved in a thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) aqueous environment in the presence of oxygen; however, the leaching rate is very slow due to the high activation energy (27.99 kJ mol(-1)). In order to enhance the reaction rate, some accelerators should be added. In comparison with the traditional accelerators (metal ions or middle ligands), we found that GO could efficiently accelerate the gold leaching reaction. Kinetic data demonstrate that the dissolution rate of gold in the Pb(2+)-S2O3(2-)-GO system is 5 times faster than that without GO at room temperature. In addition, the effects of surface modification and the nanoparticle size on the etching of AuNPs were investigated. Based on the GO-accelerated concentration-dependent colour changes of AuNPs, a colorimetric sensor for Pb(2+) detection was developed with a linear range from 0.1 to 20 μM and the limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated to be 0.05 μM. This colorimetric assay is simple, low-cost, label-free, and has numerous potential applications in the field of environmental chemistry.

  18. Label-free aptamer-based sensor for specific detection of malathion residues by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yonghui; Teng, Yuanjie; Li, Pan; Liu, Wenhan; Shi, Qianwei; Zhang, Yuchao

    2018-02-01

    A novel label-free aptamer surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for trace malathion residue detection was proposed. In this process, the binding of malathion molecule with aptamer is identified directly. The silver nanoparticles modified with positively charged spermine served as enhancing and capture reagents for the negatively charged aptamer. Then, the silver nanoparticles modified by aptamer were used to specifically capture the malathion. The SERS background spectra of spermine, aptamer, and malathion were recorded and distinguished with the spectrum of malathion-aptamer. To enhance the characteristic peak signal of malathion captured by the aptamer, the aggregate reagents (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2) were compared and selected. The selectivity of this method was verified in the mixed-pesticide standard solution, which included malathion, phosmet, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and fethion. Results show that malathion can be specifically identified when the mixed-pesticide interferences existed. The standard curve was established, presenting a good linear range of 5 × 10- 7 to 1 × 10- 5 mol·L- 1. The spiked experiments for tap water show good recoveries from 87.4% to 110.5% with a relative standard deviation of less than 4.22%. Therefore, the proposed label-free aptamer SERS sensor is convenient, specifically detects trace malathion residues, and can be applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of other pesticides.

  19. Label-Free Fluorescent Detection of Trypsin Activity Based on DNA-Stabilized Silver Nanocluster-Peptide Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Xia Zhuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin is important during the regulation of pancreatic exocrine function. The detection of trypsin activity is currently limited because of the need for the substrate to be labeled with a fluorescent tag. A label-free fluorescent method has been developed to monitor trypsin activity. The designed peptide probe consists of six arginine molecules and a cysteine terminus and can be conjugated to DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs by Ag-S bonding to enhance fluorescence. The peptide probe can also be adsorbed to the surface of graphene oxide (GO, thus resulting in the fluorescence quenching of DNA-AgNCs-peptide conjugate because of Förster resonance energy transfer. Once trypsin had degraded the peptide probe into amino acid residues, the DNA-AgNCs were released from the surface of GO, and the enhanced fluorescence of DNA-AgNCs was restored. Trypsin can be determined with a linear range of 0.0–50.0 ng/mL with a concentration as low as 1 ng/mL. This label-free method is simple and sensitive and has been successfully used for the determination of trypsin in serum. The method can also be modified to detect other proteases.

  20. High-throughput label-free detection of aggregate platelets with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiyue; Lei, Cheng; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Ito, Takuro; Guo, Baoshan; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Yatomi, Yutaka; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    According to WHO, approximately 10 million new cases of thrombotic disorders are diagnosed worldwide every year. In the U.S. and Europe, their related diseases kill more people than those from AIDS, prostate cancer, breast cancer and motor vehicle accidents combined. Although thrombotic disorders, especially arterial ones, mainly result from enhanced platelet aggregability in the vascular system, visual detection of platelet aggregates in vivo is not employed in clinical settings. Here we present a high-throughput label-free platelet aggregate detection method, aiming at the diagnosis and monitoring of thrombotic disorders in clinical settings. With optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with a spatial resolution of 780 nm and an ultrahigh linear scanning rate of 75 MHz, it is capable of detecting aggregated platelets in lysed blood which flows through a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic device at a high throughput of 10,000 particles/s. With digital image processing and statistical analysis, we are able to distinguish them from single platelets and other blood cells via morphological features. The detection results are compared with results of fluorescence-based detection (which is slow and inaccurate, but established). Our results indicate that the method holds promise for real-time, low-cost, label-free, and minimally invasive detection of platelet aggregates, which is potentially applicable to detection of platelet aggregates in vivo and to the diagnosis and monitoring of thrombotic disorders in clinical settings. This technique, if introduced clinically, may provide important clinical information in addition to that obtained by conventional techniques for thrombotic disorder diagnosis, including ex vivo platelet aggregation tests.

  1. Label-free detection of cellular drug responses by high-throughput bright-field imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Mao, Ailin; Jiang, Yiyue; Guo, Baoshan; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-09-29

    In the last decade, high-content screening based on multivariate single-cell imaging has been proven effective in drug discovery to evaluate drug-induced phenotypic variations. Unfortunately, this method inherently requires fluorescent labeling which has several drawbacks. Here we present a label-free method for evaluating cellular drug responses only by high-throughput bright-field imaging with the aid of machine learning algorithms. Specifically, we performed high-throughput bright-field imaging of numerous drug-treated and -untreated cells (N = ~240,000) by optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with high throughput up to 10,000 cells/s and applied machine learning to the cell images to identify their morphological variations which are too subtle for human eyes to detect. Consequently, we achieved a high accuracy of 92% in distinguishing drug-treated and -untreated cells without the need for labeling. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that dose-dependent, drug-induced morphological change from different experiments can be inferred from the classification accuracy of a single classification model. Our work lays the groundwork for label-free drug screening in pharmaceutical science and industry.

  2. Label-free detection of protein biomolecules secreted from a heart-on-a-chip model for drug cardiotoxicity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuna, Frank; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Bustamante, Gilbert; Li, Le; Lauderdale, Matthew; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ye, Jing Yong

    2018-02-01

    Efficient methods for the accurate analysis of drug toxicities are in urgent demand as failures of newly discovered drug candidates due to toxic side effects have resulted in about 30% of clinical attrition. The high failure rate is partly due to current inadequate models to study drug side effects, i.e., common animal models may fail due to its misrepresentation of human physiology. Therefore, much effort has been allocated in the development of organ-on-a-chip models which offer a variety of human organ models mimicking a multitude of human physiological conditions. However, it is extremely challenging to analyze the transient and long-term response of the organ models to drug treatments during drug toxicity tests, as the proteins secreted from the organ-on-a-chip model are minute due to its volumetric size, and current methods for detecting said biomolecules are not suitable for real-time monitoring. As protein biomolecules are being continuously secreted from the human organ model, fluorescence techniques are practically impossible to achieve real-time fluorescence labeling in the dynamically changing environment, thus making a label-free approach highly desirable for the organ-on-achip applications. In this paper, we report the use of a photonic-crystal biosensor integrated with a microfluidic system for sensitive label-free bioassays of secreted protein biomolecules from a heart-on-the-chip model created with cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

  3. "Molecular beacon"-hosted thioflavin T: Applications for label-free fluorescent detection of iodide and logic operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yun; Jiang, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Ling-Fei; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we presented a simple, label-free and rapid-responsive fluorescence assay for iodide (I(-)) detection based on "molecular beacon (MB)"-hosted thioflavin T (ThT), achieving a limit of detection as low as 158 nM. The proposed method exhibited very good selectivity to I(-) ions over other anions interference due to the strong binding force between I(-) ions with Hg(2+). Upon the addition of I(-) ions, it would capture Hg(2+) from a T-Hg(2+)-T complex belonging to the MB-like DNA hairpin structure, which eventually quenched the initial fluorescence as output. In addition, it was successfully applied for operation of an integrated DNA logic gate system and to the determination of I(-) in real samples such as human urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kamrul; Suhail, Ahmed; Pan, Genhua

    2017-07-12

    We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG), as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp² lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC) readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL -1 . The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  5. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Islam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG, as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp2 lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL−1. The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  6. New Detection Modality for Label-Free Quantification of DNA in Biological Samples via Superparamagnetic Bead Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel C.; Li, Jingyi; Strachan, Briony C.; Begley, Matthew R.; Finkler, David; Bazydlo, Lindsay L.; Barker, N. Scott; Haverstick, Doris; Utz, Marcel; Landers, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Combining DNA and superparamagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field produces multiparticle aggregates that are visually striking, and enables label-free optical detection and quantification of DNA at levels in the picogram per microliter range. DNA in biological samples can be quantified directly by simple analysis of optical images of microfluidic wells placed on a magnetic stirrer without DNA purification. Aggregation results from DNA/bead interactions driven either by the presence of a chaotrope (a nonspecific trigger for aggregation) or by hybridization with oligonucleotides on functionalized beads (sequence-specific). This paper demonstrates quantification of DNA with sensitivity comparable to that of the best currently available fluorometric assays. The robustness and sensitivity of the method enable a wide range of applications, illustrated here by counting eukaryotic cells. Using widely available and inexpensive benchtop hardware, the approach provides a highly accessible low-tech microscale alternative to more expensive DNA detection and cell counting techniques. PMID:22423674

  7. Ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on sandwich architecture for selective label-free detection of colorectal cancer (CT26) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashkavayi, Ayemeh Bagheri; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Kavoosian, Saeid

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has no effective treatment. Therefore, development of new methods for early diagnosis is instantly required. Biological recognition probes such as synthetic receptor and aptamer is one of the candidate recognition layers to detect important biomolecules. In this work, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed by fabricating an aptamer-cell-aptamer sandwich architecture on an SBA-15-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SBA-15-pr-NH 2 ) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified graphite screen printed electrode (GSPE) surface for the selective, label-free detection of CT26 cancer cells. Based on the incubation of the thiolated aptamer with CT26 cells, the electron-transfer resistance of Fe (CN) 6 3-/4- redox couple increased considerably on the aptasensor surface. The results obtained from cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies showed that the fabricated aptasensor can specifically identify CT26 cells in the concentration ranges of 10-1.0×10 5 cells/mL and 1.0×10 5 -6.0×10 6 cells/mL, respectively, with a detection limit of 2cells/mL. Applying the thiol terminated aptamer (5TR1) as a recognition layer led to a sensor with high affinity for CT26 cancer cells, compared to control cancer cells of AGS cells, VERO Cells, PC3 cells and SKOV-3 cells. Therefore a simple, rapid, label free, inexpensive, excellent, sensitive and selective electrochemical aptasensor based on sandwich architecture was developed for detection of CT26 Cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. "Peak tracking chip" for label-free optical detection of bio-molecular interaction and bulk sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle; Li, Shunbo; Zhang, Yinghua; Hsing, I-Ming; Benisty, Henri; Wen, Weijia

    2012-10-21

    A novel imaging method for bulk refractive index sensing or label-free bio-molecular interaction sensing is presented. This method is based on specially designed "Peak tracking chip" (PTC) involving "tracks" of adjacent resonant waveguide gratings (RWG) "micropads" with slowly evolving resonance position. Using a simple camera the spatial information robustly retrieves the diffraction efficiency, which in turn transduces either the refractive index of the liquids on the tracks or the effective thickness of an immobilized biological layer. Our intrinsically multiplex chip combines tunability and versatility advantages of dielectric guided wave biochips without the need of costly hyperspectral instrumentation. The current success of surface plasmon imaging techniques suggests that our chip proposal could leverage an untapped potential to routinely extend such techniques in a convenient and sturdy optical configuration toward, for instance for large analytes detection. PTC design and fabrication are discussed with challenging process to control micropads properties by varying their period (step of 2 nm) or their duty cycle through the groove width (steps of 4 nm). Through monochromatic imaging of our PTC, we present experimental demonstration of bulk index sensing on the range [1.33-1.47] and of surface biomolecule detection of molecular weight 30 kDa in aqueous solution using different surface densities. A sensitivity of the order of 10(-5) RIU for bulk detection and a sensitivity of the order of ∼10 pg mm(-2) for label-free surface detection are expected, therefore opening a large range of application of our chip based imaging technique. Exploiting and chip design, we expect as well our chip to open new direction for multispectral studies through imaging.

  9. Label-free fluorescence strategy for sensitive microRNA detection based on isothermal exponential amplification and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hou, Ting; Wu, Min; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in many biological processes, and have been regarded as potential targets and biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Also, to meet the big challenge imposed by the characteristics of miRNAs, such as small size and vulnerability to enzymatic digestion, it is of great importance to develop accurate, sensitive and simple miRNA assays. Herein, we developed a label-free fluorescence strategy for sensitive miRNA detection by combining isothermal exponential amplification and the unique features of SYBR Green I (SG) and graphene oxide (GO), in which SG gives significantly enhanced fluorescence upon intercalation into double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs), and GO selectively adsorbs miRNA, single-stranded DNA and SG, to protect miRNA from enzymatic digestion, and to quench the fluorescence of the adsorbed SG. In the presence of the target miRNA, the ingeniously designed hairpin probe (HP) is unfolded and the subsequent polymerization and strand displacement reaction takes place to initiate the target recycling process. The newly formed dsDNAs are then recognized and cleaved by the nicking enzyme, generating new DNA triggers with the same sequence as the target miRNA, which hybridize with intact HPs to initiate new extension reactions. As a result, the circular exponential amplification for target miRNA is achieved and large amount of dsDNAs are formed to generate significantly enhanced fluorescence upon the intercalation of SG. Thus sensitive and selective fluorescence miRNA detection is realized, and the detection limit of 3 fM is obtained. Besides, this method exhibits additional advantages of simplicity and low cost, since expensive and tedious labeling process is avoided. Therefore, the as-proposed label-free fluorescence strategy has great potential in the applications in miRNA-related clinical practices and biochemical researches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanomechanical microcantilever operated in vibration modes with use of RNA aptamer as receptor molecules for label-free detection of HCV helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Sang-Myung; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Tae Song

    2007-11-30

    We report the nanomechanical microcantilevers operated in vibration modes (oscillation) with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules for label-free detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase. The nanomechanical detection principle is that the ligand-receptor binding on the microcantilever surface induces the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. We implemented the label-free detection of HCV helicase in the low concentration as much as 100 pg/ml from measuring the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. Moreover, from the recent studies showing that the ligand-receptor binding generates the surface stress on the microcantilever, we estimate the surface stress, on the oscillating microcantilevers, induced by ligand-receptor binding, i.e. binding between HCV helicase and RNA aptamer. In this article, it is suggested that the oscillating microcantilevers with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules may enable one to implement the sensitive label-free detection of very small amount of small-scale proteins.

  11. Impedance spectral fingerprint of E. coli cells on interdigitated electrodes: A new approach for label free and selective detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mallén-Alberdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Impedance-based biosensors for bacterial detection offer a rapid and cost-effective alternative to conventional techniques that are time-consuming and require specialized equipment and trained users. In this work, a new bacteria detection scheme is presented based on impedance measurements with antibody-modified polysilicon interdigitated electrodes (3 μm pitch, IDEs. The detection approach was carried out taking advantage of the E. coli structure which, in electrical terms, is constituted by two insulating cell membranes that separate a conductive cytoplasmatic medium and a more conductive periplasm. Impedance detection of bacteria is usually analyzed using electrical equivalent circuit models that show limitations for the interpretation of such complex cell structure. Here, a differential impedance spectrum representation is used to study the unique fingerprint that arises when bacteria attach to the surface of IDEs. That fingerprint shows the dual electrical behavior, insulating and conductive, at different frequency ranges. In parallel, finite-element simulations of this system using a three-shell bacteria model are performed to explain such phenomena. Overall, a new approach to detect bacteria is proposed that also enables to differentiate viable bacteria from other components non-specifically attached to the IDE surface by just detecting their spectral fingerprints. Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, Bacterial detection, Interdigitated electrodes, Label-free detection, Immuno-detection, E. coli O157:H7

  12. Functionalized gold nanostars for label-free detection of PKA phosphorylation using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Kah, James C. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation controls fundamental biological processes. Dysregulation of protein kinase is associated with a series of human diseases including cancer. Protein kinase A (PKA) activity has been reported to serve as a potential prognostic marker for cancer. To this end, we developed a non-radioactive, rapid, cheap and robust scheme based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for label-free detection of PKA phosphorylation using gold nanostars (AuNS) functionalized with BSA-kemptide. While bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins stabilized the AuNS, kemptide, which is a high affinity substrate peptide specific for PKA, were phosphorylated in vitro to generate Raman signals that were identified by performing principal component analysis (PCA) on the acquired SERS spectra.

  13. A Rapid Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor PicoGreen-Based Strategy for Aflatoxin B₁ Detection in Traditional Chinese Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Dou, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Meifeng; Zhao, Ming; OuYang, Zhen; Kong, Dandan; Antonio, F Logrieco; Yang, Meihua

    2018-02-28

    Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is a very hazardous carcinogen, readily contaminating foodstuffs and traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that has inspired increasing health concerns due to dietary exposure. Colloidal nanocrystals have been proposed as optical labels for aptasensor assembly, but these typically require tedious multistep conjugation and suffer from unsatisfactory robustness when used for complex matrices. In the present study, we report a rapid and sensitive method for screening for trace AFB₁ levels in TCMs using a label-free fluorescent aptasensor PicoGreen dye-based strategy. Using PicoGreen to selectively measure complementary double-stranded DNA, fluorescence enhancement due to dsDNA is 'turned off' in the presence of AFB₁ due binding of aptamer target over complementary sequence. Self-assembly of a label-free fluorescent aptasensor based on AFB₁ aptamer and PicoGreen dye was performed. Due to competition between the complementary sequence and AFB₁ target, this rapid method was capable of highly sensitive and selective screening for AFB₁ in five types of TCMs. This proposed approach had a limit of detection as low as 0.1 μg·L -1 and good linearity with a range of 0.1-10 μg·L -1 (0.1-10 ppb). Among the 20 samples tested, 6 batches were found to be contaminated with AFB₁ using this method, which was confirmed using sophisticated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. The results of this study indicate the developed method has the potential to be a simple, quick, and sensitive tool for detecting AFB₁ in TCMs.

  14. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (˜25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng.

  15. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl 4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (∼25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng. (paper)

  16. Quenching the chemiluminescence of acridinium ester by graphene oxide for label-free and homogeneous DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Huang, Guangming; Cui, Hua

    2013-11-13

    It was found that graphene oxide (GO) could effectively quench the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from a acridinium ester (AE)-hydrogen peroxide system. By taking advantage of this quenching effect, as a proof of concept, a label-free and homogeneous DNA assay was developed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. In the absence of target DNA, both probe DNA and AE were absorbed on the surface of GO, producing a weak CL emission owing to the CL quenching effect of GO. However, in the presence of target DNA, a double-stranded structure of DNA was generated, leading to the release of the oligonucleotide from the GO surface. AE favors binding with double-stranded DNA, which will be released from the GO surface; thus, the quenching effect of GO will be no longer effective and a strong CL signal can be observed. This assay can detect M. tuberculosis DNA with a detection limit of 0.65 nM. This sensitivity is lower than that of previously reported electrochemical detection.

  17. Label-free peptide aptamer based impedimetric biosensor for highly sensitive detection of TNT with a ternary assembly layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Manru; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    We report a label-free peptide aptamer based biosensor for highly sensitive detection of TNT which was designed with a ternary assembly layer consisting of anti-TNT peptide aptamer (peptamer), dithiothreitol (DTT), and 6-mercaptohexanol (MCH), forming Au/peptamer-DTT/MCH. A linear relationship between the change in electron transfer resistance and the logarithm of the TNT concentration from 0.44 to 18.92 pM, with a detection limit of 0.15 pM, was obtained. In comparison, the detection limit of the aptasensor with a common binary assembly layer (Au/peptamer/MCH) was 0.15 nM. The remarkable improvement in the detection limit could be ascribed to the crucial role of the ternary assembly layer, providing an OH-richer hydrophilic environment and a highly compact surface layer with minimal surface defects, reducing the non-covalent binding (physisorption) of the peptamer and non-specific adsorption of TNT onto the electrode surface, leading to high sensitivity, and which can serve as a general sensing platform for the fabrication of other biosensors.

  18. Tunable detection sensitivity of opiates in urine via a label-free porous silicon competitive inhibition immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Lisa M; Delouise, Lisa A

    2010-01-15

    Currently, there is need for laboratory-based high-throughput and reliable point-of-care drug screening methodologies. We demonstrate here a chip-based label-free porous silicon (PSi) photonic sensor for detecting opiates in urine. This technique provides a cost-effective alternative to conventional labeled drug screening immunoassays with potential for translation to multiplexed analysis. Important effects of surface chemistry and competitive binding assay protocol on the sensitivity of opiate detection are revealed. Capability to tune sensitivity and detection range over approximately 3 orders of magnitude (18.0 nM to 10.8 muM) was achieved by varying the applied urine specimen volume (100-5 muL), which results in systematic shifts in the competitive binding response curve. A detection range (0.36-4.02 muM) of morphine in urine (15 muL) was designed to span the current positive cutoff value (1.05 muM morphine) in medical opiate urine screening. Desirable high cross-reactivity to oxycodone, in addition to other common opiates, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-acetyl morphine, demonstrates an advantage over current commercial screening assays, while low interference with cocaine metabolite was maintained. This study uniquely displays PSi sensor technology as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable drug screening technology. Furthermore, the versatile surface chemistry developed can be implemented on a range of solid-supported sensors to conduct competitive inhibition assays.

  19. A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of the egg allergen ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Shimaa; L'Hocine, Lamia; Siaj, Mohamed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-08-07

    A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of the egg white allergen ovalbumin has been developed. Graphene-modified screen printed carbon electrodes have been covalently functionalized using electrochemical reduction of in situ generated aryl diazonium salt forming a carboxyphenyl film on the graphene surface. The blocking property of the carboxyphenyl film grafted on to the graphene electrodes using different cyclic voltammetry cycles has been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry in [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) solution. Then, the terminal carboxylic groups on the graphene surface were activated using EDC/NHS and used to immobilize the ovalbumin antibody and construct the immunosensor. The fabrication steps of the immunosensor have also been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry. The decrease in the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) reduction peak current after the immunochemical reaction with ovalbumin has been used for the ovalbumin detection. The developed immunosensor has been used for ovalbumin detection in the concentration range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.83 pg mL(-1) in PBS buffer. The food matrix effect studied with ovalbumin spiked cake extract showed a good percentage of recovery, indicating the possible applicability of the developed immunosensor in real food samples.

  20. Label-free biochips for rapid detection of soybean allergen GlymBd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detection. Keywords: Soybean Allergen, Gly mBd 30K, Biochip, Detection, Foods ... methods of choice by food industries and food .... shrimp, fish, peanut, wheat, and graham bread served as negative controls. Manufactured foods such as cream cake, cereal bar, chocolate biscuits, and pineapple cake were screened for.

  1. Hall effect biosensors with ultraclean graphene film for improved sensitivity of label-free DNA detection

    KAUST Repository

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim

    2017-07-19

    The quality of graphene strongly affects the performance of graphene-based biosensors which are highly demanded for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules, such as DNA. This work reported a novel transfer process for preparing a residue-free graphene film using a thin gold supporting layer. A Hall effect device made of this gold-transferred graphene was demonstrated to significantly enhance the sensitivity (≈ 5 times) for hybridization detection, with a linear detection range of 1 pM – 100nM for DNA target. Our findings provide an efficient method to boost the sensitivity of graphene-based biosensors for DNA recognition.

  2. Hall effect biosensors with ultraclean graphene film for improved sensitivity of label-free DNA detection

    KAUST Repository

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Wu, Dongqin; Ye, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Tra, Vu Thanh; Wei, Qiuping; Fu, Li; Yu, Aimin; Li, Lain-Jong; Lin, Cheng-Te

    2017-01-01

    The quality of graphene strongly affects the performance of graphene-based biosensors which are highly demanded for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules, such as DNA. This work reported a novel transfer process for preparing a

  3. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cardiac marker using graphene quantum dots (GQDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Satish K; Chen, Rui; Kukkar, Manil; Song, Chung Kil; Mutreja, Ruchi; Singh, Suman; Paul, Ashok K; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash; Suri, C Raman

    2016-12-15

    A label-free immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been developed for the sensitive detection of a cardiac biomarker myoglobin (cMyo). Hydrothermally synthesized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been used as an immobilized template on screen printed electrodes for the construction of an impedimetric sensor platform. The GQDs-modified electrode was conjugated with highly specific anti-myoglobin antibodies to develop the desired immunosensor. The values of charge transfer resistance (Rct) were monitored as a function of varying antigen concentration. The Rct value of the immunosensor showed a linear increase (from 0.20 to 0.31kΩ) in the range of 0.01-100ng/mL cMyo. The specific detection of cMyo was also made in the presence of other competing proteins. The limit of detection for the proposed immunosensor was estimated as 0.01ng/mL which is comparable to the standard ELISA techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Label-free immunosensor for the detection of kanamycin using Ag@Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles and thionine mixed graphene sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shujun; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Li, He; Yan, Liangguo; Ma, Hongmin; Zhang, Yong

    2013-10-15

    A highly sensitive label-free immunosensor for the detection of kanamycin had been developed using silver hybridized mesoporous ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Ag@Fe₃O₄ NPs) and thionine mixed graphene sheet (TH-GS). TH was used as an electron transfer mediator. The electrical signal was greatly improved in the presence of GS due to its good electron-transfer ability. With the advantages of large specific surface area and excellent electrical conductivity, Ag@Fe₃O₄ NPs could immobilize more antibodies of kanamycin and promote the electron transfer. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were used to characterize the recognition of kanamycin. The proposed immunosensor showed good performances such as low detection limit (15 pg mL⁻¹), wide linear range (from 0.050 to 16 ng mL⁻¹), short analysis time (3 min), high stability, and good selectivity in the detection of kanamycin. The immunosensor was evaluated for pork meat sample, receiving satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization and single point mutations in a nano-gap biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffino, R L; Mir, M; Samitier, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a conductance-based biosensor that exploits DNA-mediated long-range electron transport for the label-free and direct electrical detection of DNA hybridization. This biosensor platform comprises an array of vertical nano-gap biosensors made of gold and fabricated through standard photolithography combined with focused ion beam lithography. The nano-gap walls are covalently modified with short, anti-symmetric thiolated DNA probes, which are terminated by 19 bases complementary to both the ends of a target DNA strand. The nano-gaps are separated by a distance of 50nm, which was adjusted to fit the length of the DNA target plus the DNA probes. The hybridization of the target DNA closes the gap circuit in a switch on/off fashion, in such a way that it is readily detected by an increase in the current after nano-gap closure. The nano-biosensor shows high specificity in the discrimination of base-pair mismatching and does not require signal indicators or enhancing molecules. The design of the biosensor platform is applicable for multiplexed detection in a straightforward manner. The platform is well-suited to mass production, point-of-care diagnostics, and wide-scale DNA analysis applications. (paper)

  6. Fast label-free detection of Legionella spp. in biofilms by applying immunomagnetic beads and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusić, Dragana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Legionellae colonize biofilms, can form a biofilm by itself and multiply intracellularly within the protozoa commonly found in water distribution systems. Approximately half of the known species are pathogenic and have been connected to severe multisystem Legionnaires' disease. The detection methods for Legionella spp. in water samples are still based on cultivation, which is time consuming due to the slow growth of this bacterium. Here, we developed a cultivation-independent, label-free and fast detection method for legionellae in a biofilm matrix based on the Raman spectroscopic analysis of isolated single cells via immunomagnetic separation (IMS). A database comprising the Raman spectra of single bacterial cells captured and separated from the biofilms formed by each species was used to build the identification method based on a support vector machine (SVM) discriminative classifier. The complete method allows the detection of Legionella spp. in 100 min. Cross-reactivity of Legionella spp. specific immunomagnetic beads to the other studied genera was tested, where only small cell amounts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli compared to the initial number of cells were isolated by the immunobeads. Nevertheless, the Raman spectra collected from isolated non-targeted bacteria were well-discriminated from the Raman spectra collected from isolated Legionella cells, whereby the Raman spectra of the independent dataset of Legionella strains were assigned with an accuracy of 98.6%. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was also used to differentiate between isolated Legionella species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Label-free SPR detection of gluten peptides in urine for non-invasive celiac disease follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Moreno, Maria de Lourdes; Cebolla, Angel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-05-15

    Motivated by the necessity of new and efficient methods for dietary gluten control of celiac patients, we have developed a simple and highly sensitive SPR biosensor for the detection of gluten peptides in urine. The sensing methodology enables rapid and label-free quantification of the gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) by using G12 mAb. The overall performance of the biosensor has been in-depth optimized and evaluated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility, reaching a limit of detection of 0.33 ng mL(-1). Besides, the robustness and stability of the methodology permit the continuous use of the biosensor for more than 100 cycles with excellent repeatability. Special efforts have been focused on preventing and minimizing possible interferences coming from urine matrix enabling a direct analysis in this fluid without requiring extraction or purification procedures. Our SPR biosensor has proven to detect and identify gluten consumption by evaluating urine samples from healthy and celiac individuals with different dietary gluten conditions. This novel biosensor methodology represents a novel approach to quantify the digested gluten peptides in human urine with outstanding sensitivity in a rapid and non-invasive manner. Our technique should be considered as a promising opportunity to develop Point-of-Care (POC) devices for an efficient, simple and accurate gluten free diet (GFD) monitoring as well as therapy follow-up of celiac disease patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A silicon-based electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive, specific, label-free and real-time DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Su, Shao; Wei, Xinpan; Zhong, Yiling; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    We herein present a new kind of silicon-based electrochemical sensor using a gold nanoparticles-decorated silicon wafer (AuNPs@Si) as a high-performance electrode, which is facilely prepared via in situ AuNPs growth on a silicon wafer. Particularly significantly, the resultant electrochemical sensor is efficacious for label-free DNA detection with high sensitivity due to the unique merits of the prepared silicon-based electrode. Typically, DNA at remarkably low concentrations (1–10 fM) could be readily detected without requiring additional signal-amplification procedures, which is better than or comparable to the lowest DNA concentration ever detected via well-studied signal-amplification-assisted electrochemical sensors. Moreover, the silicon-based sensor features high specificity, allowing unambiguous discrimination of single-based mismatches. We further show that real-time DNA assembly is readily monitored via recording the intensity changes of current signals due to the robust thermal stability of the silicon-based electrode. The unprecedented advantages of the silicon-based electrochemical sensor would offer new opportunities for myriad sensing applications. (paper)

  9. Label-free detection of C-reactive protein using reflectometric interference spectroscopy-based sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Sakata, Yasuhiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kurihara, Yoshikazu [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); KONICA MINOLTA OPTO, Inc., 1 Sakura-machi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan); Ooya, Tooru [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takeuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: takeuchi@gold.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new RIfS-based label-free biosensing system for C-reactive protein was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicon-based inexpensive chips and the simple optical setup were employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Owing to the TMS treatment and the use of protein A, the sensitivity was enhanced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can be applied to other target as a substitute of SPR-based expensive sensors. - Abstract: Reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) is a label-free, time-resolved technique, and suitable for detecting antibody-antigen interaction. This work describes a continuous flow biosensor for C-reactive protein (CRP), involving an effective immobilization method of a monoclonal antibody against CRP (anti-CRP) to achieve highly sensitive RIfS-based detection of CRP. The silicon nitride-coated silicon chip (SiN chip) for the RIfS sensing was first treated with trimethylsilylchloride (TMS), followed by UV-light irradiation to in situ generation of homogeneous silanols on the surface. Following amination by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, carboxymethyldextran (CMD) was grafted, and subsequently, protein A was immobilized to create the oriented anti-CRP surface. The immobilization process of protein A and anti-CRP was monitored with the RIfS system by consecutive injections of an amine coupling reagent, protein A and anti-CRP, respectively, to confirm the progress of each step in real time. The sensitivity was enhanced when all of the processes were adopted, suggesting that the oriented immobilization of anti-CRP via protein A that was coupled with the grafted CMD on the aminated surface of TMS-treated SiN chip. The feasibility of the present sensing system was demonstrated on the detection of CRP, where the silicon-based inexpensive chips and the simple optical setup were employed. It can be applied to other target molecules in various fields of life science as a substitute of surface plasmon resonance

  10. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 μl (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  11. Rapid and label-free bioanalytical method of alpha fetoprotein detection using LSPR chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Jinwoon; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Heo, Nam Su; Oh, Seo Yeong; Lee, Hoomin; Lee, Go-Woon; Vilian, A. T. Ezhil; Han, Young-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Gi-bum; Kwon, Soonjo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2017-07-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a cancer marker, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma. Normal levels of AFP are less than 20 ng/mL; however, its levels can reach more than 400 ng/mL in patients with HCC. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been employed for clinical diagnosis of AFP; however, these methods are time consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we developed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based biosensor for simple and rapid detection of AFP. This biosensor consists of a UV-Vis spectrometer, a cuvette cell, and a biosensor chip nanopatterned with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In our LSPR biosensor, binding of AFP to the surface of the sensor chip led to an increasing magnitude of the LSPR signals, which was measured by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. Our LSPR biosensor showed sufficient detectability of AFP at concentrations of 1 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL. Moreover, the overall procedure for detection of AFP was completed within 20 min. This biosensor could also be utilized for a point of care test (POCT) by employing a portable UV-Vis spectrometer. Owing to the simplicity and rapidity of the detection process, our LSPR biosensor is expected to replace traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of diseases.

  12. Hall effect biosensors with ultraclean graphene film for improved sensitivity of label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Wu, Dongqin; Ye, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Tra, Vu Thanh; Wei, Qiuping; Fu, Li; Yu, Aimin; Li, Lain-Jong; Lin, Cheng-Te

    2018-01-15

    The quality of graphene strongly affects the performance of graphene-based biosensors which are highly demanded for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules, such as DNA. This work reported a novel transfer process for preparing a residue-free graphene film using a thin gold supporting layer. A Hall effect device made of this gold-transferred graphene was demonstrated to significantly enhance the sensitivity (≈ 5 times) for hybridization detection, with a linear detection range of 1pM to 100nM for DNA target. Our findings provide an efficient method to boost the sensitivity of graphene-based biosensors for DNA recognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Label free luminescence strategy for sensitive detection of ATP using aptamer-Ru(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Eththilu [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa Univesity, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramesh, Pandian [UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Departmento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [Department of Physical Che mistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-07-15

    A simple and sensitive aptamer-based luminescence strategy for ATP detection is developed using Ru(II) complexes as probe molecule. It is based on the fact that Ru(II)-dppz complexes show the light switching behavior with DNA aptamers and found to show significant luminescence spectral change on the addition of ATP molecules. The binding efficiencies of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP are calculated and compared. The structural change of aptamer is also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Moreover, the binding nature of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP is demonstrated by computational techniques. The proposed strategy was successfully applied to the detection of ATP.

  14. Label free luminescence strategy for sensitive detection of ATP using aptamer-Ru(II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Eththilu; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Ramdass, Arumugam; Ramesh, Pandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive aptamer-based luminescence strategy for ATP detection is developed using Ru(II) complexes as probe molecule. It is based on the fact that Ru(II)-dppz complexes show the light switching behavior with DNA aptamers and found to show significant luminescence spectral change on the addition of ATP molecules. The binding efficiencies of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP are calculated and compared. The structural change of aptamer is also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Moreover, the binding nature of aptamer with ATP, ADP and AMP is demonstrated by computational techniques. The proposed strategy was successfully applied to the detection of ATP.

  15. Label-free detection of sex determining region Y (SRY) via capacitive biosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa; Sapsanis, Christos; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the use of a simple fractal capacitive biosensor for the quantification and detection of sex-determining region Y (SRY) genes. This section of genetic code, which is found on the Y chromosome, finds

  16. In situ SERS detection of emulsifiers at lipid interfaces using label-free amphiphilic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Driver, Michael; Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Zheng, Jinkai; McClements, David Julian; He, Lili

    2014-10-21

    Herein, we fabricated amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that can self-assemble at oil-water interfaces. We applied those GNPs for in situ SERS detection of emulsifier molecules within the interfacial region of oil in water (O/W) emulsion systems.

  17. Label-Free Detection of Soybean Rust Spores using Photonic Crystal Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases affecting soybeans grown worldwide. The disease was reported for the first time in the United States in 2004. Early spore detection, prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, is critical to ef...

  18. Rapid and label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Marisa; Viezzi, Sara; Mazerat, Sandra; Marks, Robert S; Vidic, Jasmina

    2018-02-15

    Diagnostic systems that can deliver highly specific and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food and water are of particular interest in many fields including food safety, biosecurity and control of outbreaks. Our aim was the development of an electrochemical method based on DNA hybridization to detect HAV. A ssDNA probe specific for HAV (capture probe) was designed and tested on DNAs from various viral and bacterial samples using Nested-Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (nRT-PCR). To develop the electrochemical device, a disposable gold electrode was functionalized with the specific capture probe and tested on complementary ssDNA and on HAV cDNA. The DNA hybridization on the electrode was measured through the monitoring of the oxidative peak potential of the indicator tripropylamine by cyclic voltammetry. To prevent non-specific binding the gold surface was treated with 3% BSA before detection. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the efficiency of electrode functionalization and on-electrode hybridization. The proposed device showed a limit of detection of 0.65pM for the complementary ssDNA and 6.94fg/µL for viral cDNA. For a comparison, nRT-PCR quantified the target HAV cDNA with a limit of detection of 6.4fg/µL. The DNA-sensor developed can be adapted to a portable format to be adopted as an easy-to- use and low cost method for screening HAV in contaminated food and water. In addition, it can be useful for rapid control of HAV infections as it takes only a few minutes to provide the results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Label-free SERS detection of relevant bioanalytes on silver-coated carbon nanotubes: The case of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanles-Sobrido, Marcos; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Laura; Lorenzo-Abalde, Silvia; González-Fernández, África; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramón A.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2009-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy can be used for the label-free determination and quantification of relevant small biometabolites that are hard to identify by conventional immunological methods, in the absence of labelling. In this work, detection is based on monitoring the vibrational changes occurring at a specific biointerface (a monoclonal antibody, mAb) supported on silver-coated carbon nanotubes (CNT@Ag). Engineered CNT@Ag play a key role, as they offer a stable substrate to support the biointerface, with a high density of hot spots. Proof of concept is demonstrated through the analysis and quantification of the main cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine. These results open a new avenue toward the generation of portable sensors for fast ultradetection and quantification of relevant metabolites. The use of discrete particles (CNT@Ag@mAb) rather than rough films, or other conventional SERS supports, will also enable a safe remote interrogation of highly toxic sources in environmental problems or in biological fluids.Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy can be used for the label-free determination and quantification of relevant small biometabolites that are hard to identify by conventional immunological methods, in the absence of labelling. In this work, detection is based on monitoring the vibrational changes occurring at a specific biointerface (a monoclonal antibody, mAb) supported on silver-coated carbon nanotubes (CNT@Ag). Engineered CNT@Ag play a key role, as they offer a stable substrate to support the biointerface, with a high density of hot spots. Proof of concept is demonstrated through the analysis and quantification of the main cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine. These results open a new avenue toward the generation of portable sensors for fast ultradetection and quantification of relevant metabolites. The use of discrete particles (CNT@Ag@mAb) rather than rough films, or other conventional SERS supports, will also

  20. A novel microfluidic chip electrophoresis strategy for simultaneous, label-free, multi-protein detection based on a graphene energy transfer biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fengming; Zhao, Xiaochao; Wang, Jianshe; Yu, Shiyong; Deng, Yulin; Geng, Lina; Li, HuanJun

    2014-06-07

    A new type of high-throughput and parallel optical sensing platform with a single-color probe based on microfluidic chip electrophoresis combined with aptamer-carboxyfluorescein/graphene oxide energy transfer is reported here. Label-free protein multi-targets were detected, even in challenging complex samples without any pre-treatment.

  1. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets : A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol-modified probes, each of which specifically

  2. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokri, E. (Ehsan); M. Hosseini (Morteza); Davari, M.D. (Mehdi D.); Ganjali, M.R. (Mohammad R.); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which

  3. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Chistiakova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms.

  4. A novel label-free voltammetric immunosensor for the detection of {alpha}-fetoprotein using functional titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Wenbin [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Li Yan; Zhuo Ying [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive label-free voltammetric immunosensor was developed based on the functional titanium dioxide nanoparticles (PV-NTiP), which was prepared by capping 1,1'-bis-(2-phosphonoethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dibromide (PV) on the surface of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiP) with covalent attachment. The PV-NTiP has prominent biocompatibility, good electron transfer ability, primarily excellent adsorption, large specific surface area and positively charged environment. As a result, the negatively charged gold nanoparticles (NGP) could be adsorbed on the PV-NTiP modified electrode surface by electrostatic adsorption, and then to immobilize {alpha}-1-fetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP) for the assay of {alpha}-1-fetoprotein (AFP). The fabricated procedures and electrochemical behaviors of the immunosensor were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The anti-AFP/NGP/PV-NTiP modified electrode was sensitive to AFP in linear relation between 1.25 and 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.9982, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) is 0.6 ng/mL under the optimal conditions. In addition, the proposed immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, selectivity, stability and long-term maintenance of bioactivity and it may be used to immobilize other biomoleculars to develop biosensor for the detection of other antigens or biocompounds.

  5. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ertekin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1.

  6. Organic liquids-responsive β-cyclodextrin-functionalized graphene-based fluorescence probe: label-free selective detection of tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huawen; Xin, John H; Hu, Hong; Wang, Xiaowen; Lu, Xinkun

    2014-06-06

    In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, as evidenced by various characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent inclusion of Rhodamine B (RhB) into the inner cavities of the β-CD grafted on the graphene surfaces was achieved easily by a solution mixing method, which yielded the graphene-based fluorescent switch-on probe. In addition, the gradual and controllable quenching of RhB by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer from RhB to graphene during the process of stepwise accommodation of the RhB molecules into the β-CD-functionalized graphene was investigated in depth. A wide range of organic solvents was examined using the as-fabricated fluorescence probe, which revealed the highest sensitivity to tetrahydrofuran with the detection limit of about 1.7 μg/mL. Some insight into the mechanism of the different responsive behaviors of the fluorescence sensor to the examined targets was also described.

  7. Label-free and direct detection of C-reactive protein using reduced graphene oxide-nanoparticle hybrid impedimetric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Pyun, Jae-Chul; Min, Junhong; Cho, Sungbo

    2016-02-01

    For label-free and direct detection of C-reactive protein (CRP), an impedimetric sensor based on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode array functionalized with reduced graphene oxide-nanoparticle (rGO-NP) hybrid was fabricated and evaluated. Analytical measurements were performed to examine the properties of rGO-NP-modified ITO microelectrodes and to determine the influence upon sensory performance of using nanostructures modified for antibody immobilization and for recognition of CRP binding events. Impedimetric measurements in the presence of the redox couple [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) showed significant changes in charge transfer resistance upon binding of CRP. The impedance measurements were highly target specific, linear with logarithmic CRP concentrations in PBS and human serum across a 1 ng mL(-1) and 1000 ng mL(-1) range and associated with a detection limits of 0.06 and 0.08 ng mL(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry detection with microfluidic droplet array for label-free enzyme inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2014-01-07

    In this work, the combination of droplet-based microfluidics with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was achieved, for providing a fast separation and high-information-content detection method for the analysis of nanoliter-scale droplets with complex compositions. A novel interface method was developed using an oil-covered droplet array chip to couple with an LC/MS system via a capillary sampling probe and a 4 nL injection valve without the need of a droplet extraction device. The present system can perform multistep operations including parallel enzyme inhibition reactions in nanoliter droplets, 4 nL sample injection, fast separation with capillary LC, and label-free detection with ESI-MS, and has significant flexibility in the accurate addressing and sampling of droplets of interest on demand. The system performance was evaluated using angiotensin I and angiotensin II as model samples, and the repeatabilities of peak area for angiotensin I and angiotensin II were 2.7% and 7.5% (RSD, n = 4), respectively. The present system was further applied to the screening for inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) and measurement of the IC50 value of the inhibitor. The sample consumption for each droplet assay was 100 nL, which is reduced 10-100 times compared with conventional 384-multi-well plate systems usually used in high-throughput drug screening.

  9. A carbon nanotube screen-printed electrode for label-free detection of the human cardiac troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bárbara V M; Cavalcanti, Igor T; Silva, Mízia M S; Dutra, Rosa F

    2013-12-15

    Label-free immunosensor based on amine-functionalized carbon nanotubes screen-printed electrode is described for detection of the cardiac troponin T, an important marker of acute myocardial infarction. The disposable sensor was fabricated by tightly squeezing an adhesive carbon ink containing carbon nanotubes onto a polyethylene terephthalate substrate forming a thin film. The use of carbon nanotubes increased the reproducibility and stability of the sensor, and the amine groups permitted nonrandom immobilization of antibodies against cardiac troponin T. Amperometric responses were obtained by differential pulse voltammetry in presence of a ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox probe after troponin T incubation. The calibration curve indicated a linear response of troponin T between 0.0025 ng mL(-1) and 0.5 ng mL(-1), with a good correlation coefficient (r=0.995; p<0.0001, n=7). The limit of detection (0.0035 ng mL(-1) cardiac troponin T) was lower than any previously described by immunosensors and was comparable with conventional analytical methods. The high reproducibility and clinical range obtained using this immunosensor support its utility as a potential tool for point-of-care acute myocardial infarction diagnostic testing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok; Khare, Shashi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2014-11-01

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml-1 with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml-1.

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok; Khare, Shashi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml −1 with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml −1

  12. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: rajesh-csir@yahoo.com, E-mail: ashokigib@rediffmail.com [CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110007 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India); Khare, Shashi [National Centre for Disease Control, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110054 (India); Mulchandani, Ashok [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh-csir@yahoo.com, E-mail: ashokigib@rediffmail.com [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-11-24

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml{sup −1} with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml{sup −1}.

  13. Label-free fluorescence strategy for sensitive detection of adenosine triphosphate using a loop DNA probe with low background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunshui; Cai, Zhixiong; Wang, Yiru; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James; Chen, Xi

    2014-07-15

    A simple, rapid, label-free, and ultrasensitive fluorescence strategy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection was developed using a loop DNA probe with low background noise. In this strategy, a loop DNA probe, which is the substrate for both ligation and digestion enzyme reaction, was designed. SYBR green I (SG I), a double-stranded specific dye, was applied for the readout fluorescence signal. Exonuclease I (Exo I) and exonuclease III (Exo III), sequence-independent nucleases, were selected to digest the loop DNA probe in order to minimize the background fluorescence signal. As a result, in the absence of ATP, the loop DNA was completely digested by Exo I and Exo III, leading to low background fluorescence owing to the weak electrostatic interaction between SG I and mononucleotides. On the other hand, ATP induced the ligation of the nicking site, and the sealed loop DNA resisted the digestion of Exo I and ExoIII, resulting in a remarkable increase of fluorescence response. Upon background noise reduction, the sensitivity of the ATP determination was improved significantly, and the detection limitation was found to be 1.2 pM, which is much lower than that in almost all the previously reported methods. This strategy has promise for wide application in the determination of ATP.

  14. Organic Liquids-Responsive β-Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Graphene-Based Fluorescence Probe: Label-Free Selective Detection of Tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawen Hu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, as evidenced by various characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent inclusion of Rhodamine B (RhB into the inner cavities of the β-CD grafted on the graphene surfaces was achieved easily by a solution mixing method, which yielded the graphene-based fluorescent switch-on probe. In addition, the gradual and controllable quenching of RhB by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer from RhB to graphene during the process of stepwise accommodation of the RhB molecules into the β-CD-functionalized graphene was investigated in depth. A wide range of organic solvents was examined using the as-fabricated fluorescence probe, which revealed the highest sensitivity to tetrahydrofuran with the detection limit of about 1.7 μg/mL. Some insight into the mechanism of the different responsive behaviors of the fluorescence sensor to the examined targets was also described.

  15. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  16. Graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide for label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Pan, Genhua; Avent, Neil D; Lowry, Roy B; Madgett, Tracey E; Waines, Paul L

    2015-10-15

    A novel printed graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide was developed for the detection of a specific oligonucleotide sequence. The graphene oxide was immobilized onto the surface of a graphene electrode via π-π bonds and electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by cyclic voltammetry. A much higher redox current was observed from the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode, a 42% and 36.7% increase, respectively, in comparison with that of a bare printed graphene or reduced graphene oxide electrode. The good electron transfer activity is attributed to a combination of the large number of electroactive sites in reduced graphene oxide and the high conductivity nature of graphene. The probe ssDNA was further immobilized onto the surface of the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode via π-π bonds and then hybridized with its target cDNA. The change of peak current due to the hybridized dsDNA could be used for quantitative sensing of DNA concentration. It has been demonstrated that a linear range from 10(-7)M to 10(-12)M is achievable for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 gene with a detection limit of 1.58 × 10(-13)M as determined by three times standard deviation of zero DNA concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterned Array of Poly(ethylene glycol Silane Monolayer for Label-Free Detection of Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zida Rosly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the construction of arrays on silicon for naked-eye detection of DNA dengue was demonstrated. The array was created by exposing a polyethylene glycol (PEG silane monolayer to 254 nm ultraviolet (UV light through a photomask. Formation of the PEG silane monolayer and photomodifed surface properties was thoroughly characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and contact angle measurements. The results of XPS confirmed that irradiation of ultraviolet (UV light generates an aldehyde functional group that offers conjugation sites of amino DNA probe for detection of a specific dengue virus target DNA. Employing a gold enhancement process after inducing the electrostatic interaction between positively charged gold nanoparticles and the negatively charged target DNA hybridized to the DNA capture probe allowed to visualize the array with naked eye. The developed arrays demonstrated excellent performance in diagnosis of dengue with a detection limit as low as 10 pM. The selectivity of DNA arrays was also examined using a single base mismatch and noncomplementary target DNA.

  18. Graphene-Plasmonic Hybrid Platform for Label-Free SERS Biomedical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu

    Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has attracted explosive interest for the wealth of vibrational information it provides with minimal invasive effects to target analyte. Nanotechnology, especially in the form of noble metal nanoparticles exhibit unique electromagnetic and chemical characteristics that are explored to realize ultra-sensitive SERS detection in chemical and biological analysis. Graphene, atom-thick carbon monolayer, exhibits superior chemical stability and bio-compatibility. A combination of SERS-active metal nanostructures and graphene will create various synergies in SERS. The main objective of this research was to exploit the applications of the graphene-Au tip hybrid platform in SERS. The hybrid platform consists of a periodic Au nano-pyramid substrate to provide reproducible plasmonic enhancement, and the superimposed monolayer graphene sheet, serving as "built-in" Raman marker. Extensive theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the potentials of the hybrid platform as SERS substrate. Results from both Finite-Domain Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical simulation and Raman scattering of graphene suggested that the hybrid platform boosted a high density of hotspots yielding 1000 times SERS enhancement of graphene bands. Ultra-high sensitivity of the hybrid platform was demonstrated by bio-molecules including dye, protein and neurotransmitters. Dopamine and serotonin can be detected and distinguished at 10-9 M concentration in the presence of human body fluid. Single molecule detection was obtained using a bi-analyte technique. Graphene supported a vibration mode dependent SERS chemical enhancement of ˜10 to the analyte. Quantitative evaluation of hotspots was presented using spatially resolved Raman mapping of graphene SERS enhancement. Graphene plays a crucial role in quantifying SERS hotspots and paves the path for defining SERS EF that could be universally applied to various SERS systems. A reproducible and statistically

  19. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INNE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Lot 104-108, Tingkat 1, Block A, Taman Pertiwi Indah, Jalan Kangar-Alor Star, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Yusop, M H M [Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Bari, M F [School of Materials Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Seriab 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Islam, Kh N [Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hasan, M F, E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my [Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-05-13

    We used 40 {+-} 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 {sup 0}C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 {mu}g ml{sup -1} swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  20. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U; Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Yusop, M H M; Bari, M F; Islam, Kh N; Hasan, M F

    2011-01-01

    We used 40 ± 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 0 C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 μg ml -1 swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  1. Label Free Detection of L-Glutamate Using Microfluidic Based Thermal Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermoelectric biosensor for the detection of L-glutamate concentration was developed. The thermoelectric sensor is integrated into a micro-calorimeter which measures the heat produced by biochemical reactions. The device contains a single flow channel that is 120 µm high and 10 mm wide with two fluid inlets and one fluid outlet. An antimony-bismuth (Sb-Bi thermopile with high common mode rejection ratio is attached to the lower channel wall and measures the dynamic changes in the temperature when L-glutamate undergoes oxidative deamination in the presence of glutamate oxidase (GLOD. The thermopile has a Seebeck coefficient of ~7 µV·(m·K−1. The device geometry, together with hydrodynamic focusing, eliminates the need of extensive temperature control. Layer-by-layer assembly is used to immobilize GLOD on the surface of glass coverslips by alternate electrostatic adsorption of polyelectrolyte and GLOD. The impulse injection mode using a 6-port injection valve minimizes sample volume to 5 µL. The sensitivity of the sensor for glutamate is 17.9 nVs·mM−1 in the linear range of 0–54 mM with an R2 value of 0.9873. The lowest detection limit of the sensor for glutamate is 5.3 mM.

  2. Diazonium-based impedimetric aptasensor for the rapid label-free detection of Salmonella typhimurium in food sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheryan, Zahra; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio

    2016-06-15

    Fast and accurate detection of microorganisms is of key importance in clinical analysis and in food and water quality monitoring. Salmonella typhimurium is responsible for about a third of all cases of foodborne diseases and consequently, its fast detection is of great importance for ensuring the safety of foodstuffs. We report the development of a label-free impedimetric aptamer-based biosensor for S. typhimurium detection. The aptamer biosensor was fabricated by grafting a diazonium-supporting layer onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPEs), via electrochemical or chemical approaches, followed by chemical immobilisation of aminated-aptamer. FTIR-ATR, contact angle and electrochemical measurements were used to monitor the fabrication process. Results showed that electrochemical immobilisation of the diazonium-grafting layer allowed the formation of a denser aptamer layer, which resulted in higher sensitivity. The developed aptamer-biosensor responded linearly, on a logarithm scale, over the concentration range 1 × 10(1) to 1 × 10(8)CFU mL(-1), with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 × 10(1) CFU mL(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 CFU mL(-1). Selectivity studies showed that the aptamer biosensor could discriminate S. typhimurium from 6 other model bacteria strains. Finally, recovery studies demonstrated its suitability for the detection of S. typhimurium in spiked (1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)) apple juice samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free detection of gliadin food allergen mediated by real-time apta-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandro; Polo, Pedro Nadal; Henry, Olivier; Redondo, M Carmen Bermudo; Svobodova, Marketa; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The only effective treatment consists in a lifelong gluten-free diet, requiring the food industry to tightly control the gluten contents of their products. To date, several gluten quantification approaches using antibodies are available and recommended by the legal authorities, such as Codex Alimentarius. However, whilst these antibody-based tests exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, the production of antibodies inherently requires the killing of host animals and is time-consuming and relatively expensive. Aptamers are structured single-stranded nucleic acid ligands that bind with high affinity and specificity to their cognate target, and aiming for a cost-effective viable alternative to the use of antibodies. Herein, we report the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)-based selection of a DNA aptamer against gliadin from a combinatorial DNA library and its application in a novel detection assay. Taking into account the hydrophobic nature of the gliadin target, a microtitre plate format was exploited for SELEX, where the target was immobilised via hydrophobic interactions, thus exposing aptatopes accessible for interaction with the DNA library. Evolution was followed using surface plasmon resonance, and following eight rounds of SELEX, the enriched DNA pool was cloned, sequenced and a clear consensus motif was identified. An apta-PCR assay was developed where competition for the aptamer takes place between the surface-immobilised gliadin and gliadin in the target sample, akin to an ELISA competitive format where the more target present in the sample, the less aptamer will bind to the immobilised gliadin. Following competition, any aptamer bound to the immobilised gliadin was heat-eluted and quantitatively amplified using real-time PCR, achieving a detection limit of approx. 2 nM (100 ng mL(-1)). The specificity of the selected aptamer was

  4. Label Free Detection of Biomolecules Using Charge-Plasma-Based Gate Underlap Dielectric Modulated Junctionless TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Girish; Raj, Balwinder

    2018-05-01

    Nanoscale devices are emerging as a platform for detecting biomolecules. Various issues were observed during the fabrication process such as random dopant fluctuation and thermal budget. To reduce these issues charge-plasma-based concept is introduced. This paper proposes the implementation of charge-plasma-based gate underlap dielectric modulated junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (DM-JLTFET) for the revelation of biomolecule immobilized in the open cavity gate channel region. In this p+ source and n+ drain regions are introduced by employing different work function over the intrinsic silicon. Also dual material gate architecture is implemented to reduce short channel effect without abandoning any other device characteristic. The sensitivity of biosensor is studied for both the neutral and charge-neutral biomolecules. The effect of device parameters such as channel thickness, cavity length and cavity thickness on drain current have been analyzed through simulations. This paper investigates the performance of charge-plasma-based gate underlap DM-JLTFET for biomolecule sensing applications while varying dielectric constant, charge density at different biasing conditions.

  5. Autofluorescence lifetime metrology for label-free detection of cartilage matrix degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickdel, Mohammad B.; Lagarto, João. L.; Kelly, Douglas J.; Manning, Hugh B.; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Talbot, Clifford B.; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2014-03-01

    Degradation of articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolytic enzyme is the hallmark of arthritis that leads to joint destruction. Detection of early biochemical changes in cartilage before irreversible structural damages become apparent is highly desirable. Here we report that the autofluorescence decay profile of cartilage is significantly affected by proteolytic degradation of cartilage ECM and can be characterised by measurements of the autofluorescence lifetime (AFL). A multidimensional fluorometer utilizing ultraviolet excitation at 355 nm or 375 nm coupled to a fibreoptic probe was developed for single point time-resolved AFL measurements of porcine articular cartilage explants treated with different proteinases. Degradation of cartilage matrix components by treating with bacterial collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase 1, or trypsin resulted in significant reduction of AFL of the cartilage in both a dose and time dependent manner. Differences in cartilage AFL were also confirmed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Our data suggest that AFL of cartilage tissue is a potential non-invasive readout to monitor cartilage matrix integrity that may be utilized for diagnosis of arthritis as well as monitoring the efficacy of anti-arthritic therapeutic agents.

  6. Epi-detected quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopy for label-free imaging of the tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Stephen Hsu, Chin-Ying [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 119083 (Singapore)

    2015-01-19

    We present an epi-detected quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopic imaging technique (i.e., coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third-harmonic generation (THG), and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)) based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of the tooth. We demonstrate that high contrast ps-CARS images covering both the fingerprint (500–1800 cm{sup −1}) and high-wavenumber (2500–3800 cm{sup −1}) regions can be acquired to uncover the distributions of mineral and organic biomaterials in the tooth, while high quality TPEF, SHG, and THG images of the tooth can also be acquired under ps laser excitation without damaging the samples. The quadruple-modal nonlinear microscopic images (CARS/SHG/THG/TPEF) acquired provide better understanding of morphological structures and biochemical/biomolecular distributions in the dentin, enamel, and the dentin-enamel junction of the tooth without labeling, facilitating optical diagnosis and characterization of the tooth in dentistry.

  7. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metal nanoparticle for fluorescence cell imaging. ► Non-invasive emission detection of coenzyme in cell on time-resolved confocal microscope. ► Near-field interaction of flavin adenine dinucleotide with silver substrate. ► Isolation of emissions by coenzymes from cellular autofluorescence on fluorescence cell imaging. -- Abstract: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.

  8. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jian@cfs.bioment.umaryland.edu [Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Fu, Yi [Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Li, Ge [Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhao, Richard Y. [Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Microbiology-Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticle for fluorescence cell imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-invasive emission detection of coenzyme in cell on time-resolved confocal microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near-field interaction of flavin adenine dinucleotide with silver substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of emissions by coenzymes from cellular autofluorescence on fluorescence cell imaging. -- Abstract: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.

  9. Development of a Microfluidic-Based Optical Sensing Device for Label-Free Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs Through Their Lactic Acid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Keng Chiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a microfluidic-based optical sensing device for label-free detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs, a rare cell species in blood circulation. Based on the metabolic features of cancer cells, live CTCs can be quantified indirectly through their lactic acid production. Compared with the conventional schemes for CTC detection, this label-free approach could prevent the biological bias due to the heterogeneity of the surface antigens on cancer cells. In this study, a microfluidic device was proposed to generate uniform water-in-oil cell-encapsulating micro-droplets, followed by the fluorescence-based optical detection of lactic acid produced within the micro-droplets. To test its feasibility to quantify cancer cells, experiments were carried out. Results showed that the detection signals were proportional to the number of cancer cells within the micro-droplets, whereas such signals were insensitive to the existence and number of leukocytes within. To further demonstrate its feasibility for cancer cell detection, the cancer cells with known cell number in a cell suspension was detected based on the method. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the detected number and the real number of cancer cells. As a whole, the proposed method opens up a new route to detect live CTCs in a label-free manner.

  10. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  11. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-12-14

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.

  12. Real-Time, Label-Free Detection of Biomolecular Interactions in Sandwich Assays by the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in proteomics is to detect the real-time kinetics of diverse biomolecular interactions. Fluorescence, which requires extrinsic tags, is a commonly and widely used method because of its high convenience and sensitivity. However, in order to maintain the conformational and functional integrality of biomolecules, label-free detection methods are highly under demand. We have developed the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD technique for label-free, kinetic measurements of protein-biomolecule interactions. Incorporating the total internal refection geometry into the OI-RD technique, we are able to detect as low as 0.1% of a protein monolayer, and this sensitivity is comparable with other label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The unique advantage of OI-RD over SPR is no need for dielectric layers. Moreover, using a photodiode array as the detector enables multi-channel detection and also eliminates the over-time signal drift. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the OI-RD technique by measuring the kinetics of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions in sandwich assays.

  13. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-11-01

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (r

  14. Fully integrated graphene electronic biosensor for label-free detection of lead (II) ion based on G-quadruplex structure-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijun; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Yibo; Zhou, Xiaohong; Xiang, Yu; He, Miao; Zeng, Siyu

    2017-03-15

    This work presents a fully integrated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensor for the label-free detection of lead ions (Pb 2+ ) in aqueous-media, which first implements the G-quadruplex structure-switching biosensing principle in graphene nanoelectronics. We experimentally illustrate the biomolecular interplay that G-rich DNA single-strands with one-end confined on graphene surface can specifically interact with Pb 2+ ions and switch into G-quadruplex structures. Since the structure-switching of electrically charged DNA strands can disrupt the charge distribution in the vicinity of graphene surface, the carrier equilibrium in graphene sheet might be altered, and manifested by the conductivity variation of GFET. The experimental data and theoretical analysis show that our devices are capable of the label-free and specific quantification of Pb 2+ with a detection limit down to 163.7ng/L. These results first verify the signaling principle competency of G-quadruplex structure-switching in graphene electronic biosensors. Combining with the advantages of the compact device structure and convenient electrical signal, a label-free GFET biosensor for Pb 2+ monitoring is enabled with promising application potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quinone-Based Polymers for Label-Free and Reagentless Electrochemical Immunosensors: Application to Proteins, Antibodies and Pesticides Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Chau Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyquinone derivatives are widely recognized in the literature for their remarkable properties, their biocompatibility, simple synthesis, and easy bio-functionalization. We have shown that polyquinones present very stable electroactivity in neutral aqueous medium within the cathodic potential domain avoiding side oxidation of interfering species. Besides, they can act as immobilized redox transducers for probing biomolecular interactions in sensors. Our group has been working on devices based on such modified electrodes with a view to applications for proteins, antibodies and organic pollutants using a reagentless label-free electrochemical immunosensor format. Herein, these developments are briefly reviewed and put into perspective.

  16. A highly sensitive label-free electrochemical aptasensor for interferon-gamma detection based on graphene controlled assembly and nuclease cleavage-assisted target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Genping; Wang, Yonghong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Liu, Jinquan; Du, Yudan

    2013-06-15

    We report here a highly sensitive and label-free electrochemical aptasensing technology for detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) based on graphene controlled assembly and enzyme cleavage-assisted target recycling amplification strategy. In this work, in the absence of IFN-γ, the graphene could not be assembled onto the 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) modified gold electrode because the IFN-γ binding aptamer was strongly adsorbed on the graphene due to the strong π-π interaction. Thus the electronic transmission was blocked (eT OFF). However, the presence of target IFN-γ and DNase I led to desorption of aptamer from the graphene surface and further cleavage of the aptamer, thereby releasing the IFN-γ. The released IFN-γ could then re-attack other aptamers on the graphene, resulting in the successive release of the aptamers from the graphene. At the same time, the "naked" graphene could be assembled onto the MHA modified gold electrode with hydrophobic interaction and π-conjunction, mediating the electron transfer between the electrode and the electroactive indicator. Then, measurable electrochemical signals were generated (eT ON), which was related to the concentration of the IFN-γ. By taking advantages of graphene and enzyme cleavage-assisted target recycling amplification, the developed label-free electrochemical aptasensing technology showed a linear response to concentration of IFN-γ range from 0.1 to 0.7 pM. The detection limit of IFN-γ was determined to be 0.065 pM. Moreover, this aptasensor shows good selectivity toward the target in the presence of other relevant proteins. Our strategy thus opens new opportunities for label-free and amplified detection of other kinds of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shrink-induced graphene sensor for alpha-fetoprotein detection with low-cost self-assembly and label-free assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Shota; Zhang, Bo; Cui, Tianhong

    2017-12-01

    Combination of shrink induced nano-composites technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled graphene challenges controlling surface morphology. Adjusting shrink temperature achieves tunability on graphene surface morphology on shape memory polymers, and it promises to be an alternative in fields of high-surface-area conductors and molecular detection. In this study, self-assembled graphene on a shrink polymer substrate exhibits nanowrinkles after heating. Induced nanowrinkles on graphene with different shrink temperature shows distinct surface roughness and wettability. As a result, it becomes more hydrophilic with higher shrink temperatures. The tunable wettability promises to be utilized in, for example, microfluidic devices. The graphene on shrink polymer also exhibits capability of being used in sensing applications for pH and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection with advantages of label free and low cost, due to self-assembly technique, easy functionalization, and antigen-antibody reaction on graphene surface. The detection limit of AFP detection is down to 1 pg/mL, and therefore the sensor also has a significant potential for biosensing as it relies on low-cost self-assembly and label-free assay.

  18. A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on poly(2-aminobenzylamine) film modified screen-printed carbon electrode for label-free detection of human immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnin, Thitirat; Jumpathong, Watthanachai; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Ounnunkad, Kontad

    2018-08-01

    This work focuses on fabricating poly(2-aminobenzylamine)-modified screen-printed carbon electrode as an electrochemical immunosensor for the label-free detection of human immunoglobulin G. To selectively detect immunoglobulin G, the anti-immunoglobulin G antibody with high affinity to immunoglobulin G was covalently linked with the amine group of poly(2-aminobenzylamine) film-deposited screen-printed carbon electrode. The selectivity for immunoglobulin G was subsequently assured by being challenged with redox-active interferences and adventitious adsorption did not significantly interfere the analyte signal. To obviate the use of costly secondary antibody, the [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4-/3- redox probe was instead applied to measure the number of human immunoglobulin G through the immunocomplex formation that is quantitatively related to the level of the differential pulse voltammetric current. The resulting immunosensor exhibited good sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.15 ng mL -1 , limit of quantitation of 0.50 ng mL -1 and the linear range from 1.0 to 50 ng mL -1 . Given those striking analytical performances and the affordability arising from using cheap screen-printed carbon electrode with label-free detection, the immunosensor serves as a promising model for the next-step development of a diagnostic tool.

  19. Label-free genotyping of cytochrome P450 2D6*10 using ligation-mediated strand displacement amplification with DNAzyme-based chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Qi; Wu, Zhan; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Li-Juan; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2012-01-13

    Genotyping of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 2D6*10 (CYP2D6*10) plays an important role in pharmacogenomics, especially in clinical drug therapy of Asian populations. This work reported a novel label-free technique for genotyping of CYP2D6*10 based on ligation-mediated strand displacement amplification (SDA) with DNAzyme-based chemiluminescence detection. Discrimination of single-base mismatch is firstly accomplished using DNA ligase to generate a ligation product. The ligated product then initiates a SDA reaction to produce aptamer sequences against hemin, which can be probed by chemiluminescence detection. The proposed strategy is used for the assay of CYP2D6*10 target and the genomic DNA. The results reveal that the proposed technique displays chemiluminescence responses in linear correlation to the concentrations of DNA target within the range from 1 pM to 1 nM. A detection limit of 0.1 pM and a signal-to-background ratio of 57 are achieved. Besides such high sensitivity, the proposed CYP2D6*10 genotyping strategy also offers superb selectivity, great robustness, low cost and simplified operations due to its label-free, homogeneous, and chemiluminescence-based detection format. These advantages suggest this technique may hold considerable potential for clinical CYP2D6*10 genotyping and association studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative Study of Aptasensor Vs Immunosensor for Label-Free PSA Cancer Detection on GQDs-AuNRs Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Monika; Nirala, Narsingh R; Srivastava, S K; Prakash, Rajiv

    2018-01-31

    Label-free and sensitive detection of PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) is still a big challenge in the arena of prostate cancer diagnosis in males. We present a comparative study for label-free PSA aptasensor and PSA immunosensor for the PSA-specific monoclonal antibody, based on graphene quantum dots-gold nanorods (GQDs-AuNRs) modified screen-printed electrodes. GQDs-AuNRs composite has been synthesized and used as an electro-active material, which shows fast electron transfer and catalytic property. Aptamer or anti-PSA has immobilized onto the surface of modified screen printed electrodes. Three techniques are used simultaneously, viz. cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedence spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate the analytical performance of both PSA aptasensor and PSA immunosensor with its corresponding PSA antigen. Under optimum conditions, both sensors show comparable results with an almost same limit of detection (LOD) of 0.14 ng mL -1 . The results developed with aptasensor and anti-PSA is also checked through the detection of PSA in real samples with acceptable results. Our study suggests some advantages of aptasensor in terms of better stability, simplicity and cost effectiveness. Further our present work shows enormous potential of our developed sensors for real application using voltammetric and EIS techniques simultaneous to get reliable detection of the disease.

  1. Highly sensitive and label-free electrochemical detection of microRNAs based on triple signal amplification of multifunctional gold nanoparticles, enzymes and redox-cycling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Xia, Ning; Liu, Huiping; Kang, Xiaojing; Liu, Xiaoshuan; Xue, Chan; He, Xiaoling

    2014-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, serving as reliable molecular biomarkers. In this work, we presented a label-free and highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor for miRNAs detection with the triple signal amplification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenol (p-AP) redox cycling. The label-free strategy is based on the difference in the structures of RNA and DNA. Specifically, miRNAs were first captured by the pre-immobilized DNA probes on a gold electrode. Next, the cis-diol group of ribose sugar at the end of the miRNAs chain allowed 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)/biotin-modified multifunctional AuNPs (denoted as APBA-biotin-AuNPs) to be attached through the formation of a boronate ester covalent bond, which facilitated the capture of streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction. After the addition of the 4-aminophenylphosphate (p-APP) substrate, the enzymatic conversion from p-APP to p-AP occurred. The resulting p-AP could be cycled by a chemical reducing reagent after its electro-oxidization on the electrode (known as p-AP redox cycling), thus enabling an increase in the anodic current. As a result, the current increased linearly with the miRNAs concentration over a range of 10 fM-5 pM, and a detection limit of 3 fM was achieved. We believe that this work will be valuable for the design of new types of label-free and sensitive electrochemical biosensors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S; Svedendahl, M; Kaell, M; Gunnarsson, L; Dmitriev, A, E-mail: alexd@chalmers.s [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-10-28

    We present a simple and robust scheme for biosensing with an ultralow limit-of-detection down to several pg cm{sup -2} (or several tens of attomoles cm{sup -2}) based on optical label-free biodetection with localized surface plasmon resonances. The scheme utilizes cost-effective optical components and comprises a white light source, a properly functionalized sensor surface enclosed in a simple fluidics chip, and a spectral analyzer. The sensor surface is produced by a bottom-up nanofabrication technique with hole mask colloidal lithography. Despite its simplicity, the method is able to reliably detect protein-protein binding events at low picomolar and femtomolar concentrations, which is exemplified by the label-free detection of the extracellular adherence protein (EAP) found on the outer surface of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is believed to be a prostate cancer marker. These experiments pave the way towards an ultra-sensitive yet compact biodetection platform for point-of-care diagnostics applications.

  3. A regenerated electrochemical biosensor for label-free detection of glucose and urea based on conformational switch of i-motif oligonucleotide probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhong Feng; Chen, Dong Mei [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lei, Jing Lei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Hong Qun, E-mail: luohq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Nian Bing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Improving the reproducibility of electrochemical signal remains a great challenge over the past decades. In this work, i-motif oligonucleotide probe-based electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor is introduced for the first time as a regenerated sensing platform, which enhances the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, for label-free detection of glucose and urea. The addition of glucose or urea is able to activate glucose oxidase-catalyzed or urease-catalyzed reaction, inducing or destroying the formation of i-motif oligonucleotide probe. The conformational switch of oligonucleotide probe can be recorded by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thus, the difference of electron transfer resistance is utilized for the quantitative determination of glucose and urea. We further demonstrate that the E-DNA sensor exhibits high selectivity, excellent stability, and remarkable regenerated ability. The human serum analysis indicates that this simple and regenerated strategy holds promising potential in future biosensing applications. - Highlights: • Conformational switch of i-motif is used for the detection of glucose and urea. • The sensor can be regenerated. • The proposed method is successfully applied in real sample assay. • Our method is label-free and inexpensive.

  4. A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on carboxymethyl chitosan-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ziping; Liu, Hua; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-08-17

    In this work, we report a novel label-free fluorescence “turn off-on” biosensor for lectin detection. The highly sensitive and selective sensing system is based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CHIT), CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs). Firstly, CuInS{sub 2} QDs featuring carboxyl groups were directly synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method. Then, the carboxyl groups on the CuInS{sub 2} QDs surface were interacted with the amino groups (−NH{sub 2}), carboxyl groups (−COOH) and hydroxyl groups (−OH) within CM-CHIT polymeric chains via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding to form CM-CHIT-QDs assemblies. Introduction of Au NPs could quench the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs through electron and energy transfer. In the presence of lectin, lectin could bind exclusively with CM-CHIT-QDs by means of specific multivalent carbohydrate-protein interaction. Thus, the electron and energy transfer process between CM-CHIT-QDs and Au NPs was inhibited, and as a result, the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs was effectively “turned on”. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I{sub 0} (I and I{sub 0} were the fluorescence intensity of CM-CHIT-QDs-Au NPs in the presence and absence of lectin, respectively) and lectin concentration in the range of 0.2–192.5 nmol L{sup −1}, And the detection limit could be down to 0.08 nmol L{sup −1}. Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was employed for the determination of lectin in fetal bovine serum samples with satisfactory results. - Graphical abstract: A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan, CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots and gold nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A label-free near-infrared fluorescence “turn off-on” biosensor for detection of lectin was established. • The highly sensitive biosensor was based on the

  5. A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on carboxymethyl chitosan-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ziping; Liu, Hua; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report a novel label-free fluorescence “turn off-on” biosensor for lectin detection. The highly sensitive and selective sensing system is based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CHIT), CuInS_2 quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs). Firstly, CuInS_2 QDs featuring carboxyl groups were directly synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method. Then, the carboxyl groups on the CuInS_2 QDs surface were interacted with the amino groups (−NH_2), carboxyl groups (−COOH) and hydroxyl groups (−OH) within CM-CHIT polymeric chains via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding to form CM-CHIT-QDs assemblies. Introduction of Au NPs could quench the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs through electron and energy transfer. In the presence of lectin, lectin could bind exclusively with CM-CHIT-QDs by means of specific multivalent carbohydrate-protein interaction. Thus, the electron and energy transfer process between CM-CHIT-QDs and Au NPs was inhibited, and as a result, the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs was effectively “turned on”. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I_0 (I and I_0 were the fluorescence intensity of CM-CHIT-QDs-Au NPs in the presence and absence of lectin, respectively) and lectin concentration in the range of 0.2–192.5 nmol L"−"1, And the detection limit could be down to 0.08 nmol L"−"1. Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was employed for the determination of lectin in fetal bovine serum samples with satisfactory results. - Graphical abstract: A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan, CuInS_2 quantum dots and gold nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A label-free near-infrared fluorescence “turn off-on” biosensor for detection of lectin was established. • The highly sensitive biosensor was based on the inner filter effect of Au NPs on CM

  6. Sequence-specific label-free nucleic acid biosensor for the detection of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1a using a disposable pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Arslan, Halit

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple, sensitive, inexpensive, disposable and label-free electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor for the detection of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1a (HCV1a). The nucleic acid biosensor was designed with the amino-linked inosine-substituted 20-mer probes, which were immobilized onto a disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by covalent linking. The proposed nucleic acid biosensor was linear in the range of 0.05 and 0.75 μM, exhibiting a limit of detection of 54.9 nM. The single-stranded synthetic PCR product analogs of HCV1a were also detected with satisfactory results under optimal conditions, showing the potential application of this biosensor.

  7. A Label-Free Microelectrode Array Based on One-Step Synthesis of Chitosan–Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Thionine for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiren Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA has been an extensively used tumor marker responsible for clinical early diagnosis of cervical carcinomas, and pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer. Combined with micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS technology, it is important to develop a novel immune microelectrode array (MEA not only for rapid analysis of serum samples, but also for cell detection in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we depict a simple approach to modify chitosan–multi-walled carbon nanotubes–thionine (CS–MWCNTs–THI hybrid film through one-step electrochemical deposition and the CS-MWCNTs-THI hybrid films are successfully employed to immobilize anti-CEA for fabricating simple, label-free, and highly sensitive electro-chemical immune MEAs. The detection principle of immune MEA was based on the fact that the increasing formation of the antigen-antibody immunocomplex resulted in the decreased response currents and the relationship between the current reductions with the corresponding CEA concentrations was directly proportional. Experimental results indicated that the label-free MEA had good selectivity and the limit of detection for CEA is 0.5 pg/mL signal to noise ratio (SNR = 3. A linear calibration plot for the detection of CEA was obtained in a wide concentration range from 1 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL (r = 0.996. This novel MEA has potential applications for detecting CEA for the research on cancer cells and cancer tissue slices as well as for effective early diagnosis.

  8. New approach for monitoring fish stress: A novel enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting cortisol levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Ota, Shirei; Murata, Masataka; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Endo, Hideaki

    2017-07-15

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. As a well-known indicator of fish stress, a simple and rapid method for detecting cortisol changes especially sudden increases is desired. In this study, we describe an enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting fish cortisol levels. Detection of cortisol using amperometry was achieved by immobilizing both anti-cortisol antibody (selective detection of cortisol) and glucose oxidase (signal amplification and non-toxic measurement) on an Au electrode surface with a self-assembled monolayer. This system is based on the maximum glucose oxidation output current change induced by the generation of a non-conductive antigen-antibody complex, which depends on the levels of cortisol in the sample. The immunosensor responded to cortisol levels with a linear decrease in the current in the range of 1.25-200ngml -1 (R=0.964). Since the dynamic range of the sensor can cover the normal range of plasma cortisol in fish, the samples obtained from the fish did not need to be diluted. Further, electrochemical measurement of one sample required only ~30min. The sensor system was applied to determine the cortisol levels in plasma sampled from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which were then compared with levels of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). Values determined using both methods were well correlated. These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish without sample dilution. We also believe that the proposed system could be integrated in a miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and useful as a portable diagnostic in fish farms in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-cost label-free electrical detection of artificial DNA nanostructures using solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Joon; Jung, Joohye; Lee, Keun Woo; Yoon, Doo Hyun; Jung, Tae Soo; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-11-13

    A high-sensitivity, label-free method for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) was developed. Double-crossover (DX) DNA nanostructures with different concentrations of divalent Cu ion (Cu(2+)) were immobilized on an In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) back-channel surface, which changed the electrical performance of the IGZO TFTs. The detection mechanism of the IGZO TFT-based DNA biosensor is attributed to electron trapping and electrostatic interactions caused by negatively charged phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. Furthermore, Cu(2+) in DX DNA nanostructures generates a current path when a gate bias is applied. The direct effect on the electrical response implies that solution-processed IGZO TFTs could be used to realize low-cost and high-sensitivity DNA biosensors.

  10. Label-free and sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity via coupling DNA strand displacement reaction with enzymatic-aided amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Tao, Mangjuan; Shi, Zhilu; Zhang, Xiafei; Jin, Yan; Li, Baoxin

    2015-11-15

    Several fluorescence signal amplification strategies have been developed for sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) activity, but they need fluorescence dye labeled DNA probe. We have addressed the limitation and report here a label-free strategy for sensitive detection of PNK activity by coupling DNA strand displacement reaction with enzymatic-aided amplification. A hairpin oligonucleotide (hpDNA) with blunt ends was used as the substrate for T4 PNK phosphorylation. In the presence of T4 PNK, the stem of hpDNA was phosphorylated and further degraded by lambda exonuclease (λ exo) from 5' to 3' direction to release a single-stranded DNA as a trigger of DNA strand displacement reaction (SDR). The trigger DNA can continuously displace DNA P2 from P1/P2 hybrid with the help of specific cleavage of nicking endonuclease (Nt.BbvCI). Then, DNA P2 can form G-quadruplex in the presence of potassium ions and quadruplex-selective fluorphore, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), resulting in a significant increase in fluorescence intensity of NMM. Thus, the accumulative release of DNA P2 led to fluorescence signal amplification for determining T4 PNK activity with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-4) U/mL, which is superior or comparative with established approaches. By ingeniously utilizing T4 PNK-triggered DNA SDR, T4 PNK activity can be specifically and facilely studied in homogeneous solution containing complex matrix without any external fluorescence labeling. Moreover, the influence of different inhibitors on the T4 PNK activity revealed that it also can be explored to screen T4 PNK inhibitors. Therefore, this label-free amplification strategy presents a facile and cost-effective approach for nucleic acid phosphorylation related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extended Solution Gate OFET-based Biosensor for Label-free Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Detection with Polyethylene Glycol-Containing Bioreceptor Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Dailey, Jennifer; Li, Hui; Jang, Hyun-June; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Jeff Tza-Huei; Everett, Allen D; Katz, Howard E

    2017-05-25

    A novel organic field effect transistor (OFET) -based biosensor is described for label-free glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) detection. We report the first use of an extended solution gate structure where the sensing area and the organic semiconductor are separated, and a reference electrode is not needed. Different molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are mixed into the bio-receptor layer to help extend the Debye screening length. The drain current change was significantly increased with the help of higher molecular weight PEGs, as they are known to reduce the dielectric constant. We also investigated the sensing performance under different gate voltage (V g ). The sensitivity increased after we decreased V g from -5 V to -2 V, because the lower V g is much closer to the OFET threshold voltage and the influence of attached negatively charged proteins become more apparent. Finally, the selectivity experiments toward different interferents were performed. The stability and selectivity are promising for clinical applications.

  12. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ; Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A; Brolo, AG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF 2 = 0.57 and MCF7, SF 2 = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF 2 = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments

  13. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ [BC Cancer Agency — Vancouver Island Centre (Canada); Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A [Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria (Australia); Brolo, AG [Chemistry, University of Victoria (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  14. Detection of radiation-induced brain necrosis in live rats using label-free time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Ma, Htet S. W.; Sridharan, Shamira; Hansen, Katherine; Klich, Melanie; Perks, Julian; Kent, Michael; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fragoso, Ruben; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating radiation-induced necrosis from recurrent tumor in the brain remains a significant challenge to the neurosurgeon. Clinical imaging modalities are not able to reliably discriminate the two tissue types, making biopsy location selection and surgical management difficult. Label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques have previously been shown to be able to delineate human brain tumor from healthy tissues. Thus, fluorescence lifetime techniques represent a potential means to discriminate the two tissues in real-time during surgery. This study aims to characterize the endogenous fluorescence lifetime signatures from radiation induced brain necrosis in a tumor-free rat model. Fischer rats received a single fraction of 60 Gy of radiation to the right hemisphere using a linear accelerator. Animals underwent a terminal live surgery after gross necrosis had developed, as verified with MRI. During surgery, healthy and necrotic brain tissue was measured with a fiber optic needle connected to a multispectral fluorescence lifetime system. Measurements of the necrotic tissue showed a 48% decrease in intensity and 20% increase in lifetimes relative to healthy tissue. Using a support vector machine classifier and leave-one-out validation technique, the necrotic tissue was correctly classified with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Spectral contribution analysis also confirmed that the primary source of fluorescence contrast lies within the redox and bound-unbound population shifts of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A clinical trial is presently underway to measure these tissue types in humans. These results show for the first time that radiation-induced necrotic tissue in the brain contains significantly different metabolic signatures that are detectable with label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques.

  15. Enzyme-free and label-free ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA and adenosine triphosphate by dendritic DNA concatamer-based signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shufeng; Lin, Ying; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Chuanbin; Wei, Wenji; Wang, Li; Li, Feng

    2014-06-15

    Hybridization chain reaction (HCR) strategy has been well developed for the fabrication of various biosensing platforms for signal amplification. Herein, a novel enzyme-free and label-free ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensing platform for the detection of target DNA and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was firstly proposed, in which three auxiliary DNA probes were ingeniously designed to construct the dendritic DNA concatamer via HCR strategy and used as hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride (RuHex) carrier for signal amplification. With the developed dendritic DNA concatamer-based signal amplification strategy, the DNA biosensor could achieve an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA and ATP with a superior detection limit as low as 5 aM and 20 fM, respectively, and also demonstrate a high selectivity for DNA and ATP detection. The currently proposed dendritic DNA concatamer opens a promising direction to construct ultrasensitive DNA biosensing platform for biomolecular detection in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine, which offers the distinct advantages of simplicity and cost efficiency owing to no need of any kind of enzyme, chemical modification or labeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence detection of microRNA based on long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ting; Chen, Xian; Hong, Cheng-Yi; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrates the advantages of electrochemical detection and chemiluminescent techniques. The method has received particular attention because it is highly sensitive and selective, has a wide linear range but low reagent costs. The use of nanomaterials with their unique physical and chemical properties has led to new kinds of biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and stability. Compared to other nanomaterials, DNA nanostructures are more biocompatible, more hydrophilic, and thus less prone to nonspecific adsorption onto the electrode surface. We describe here a label-free and ultrasensitive ECL biosensor for detecting a cancer-associated microRNA at a femtomolar level. We have designed two auxiliary probes that cause the formation of a long-range self-assembly in the form of a μm-long 1-dimensional DNA concatamer. These can be used as carriers for signal amplification. The intercalation of the ECL probe Ru(phen) 3 2+ into the grooves of the concatamers leads to a substantial increase in ECL intensity. This amplified sensor shows high selectivity for discriminating complementary target and other mismatched RNAs. The biosensor enables the quantification of the expression of microRNA-21 in MCF-7 cells. It also displays very low limits of detection and provides an alternative approach for the detection of RNA or DNA detection in diagnostics and gene analysis. (author)

  17. Nanocomposites of gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide towards an stable label-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of cardiac marker troponin-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozhen; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Yin; Cao, Chaomin; Goldys, Ewa M

    2016-02-25

    A stable label-free amperometric immunosensor is presented based on gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanocomposites for detection of cardiac troponin-I in the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. For designing of the sensing platform, firstly the nanocomposites based on GO and AuNPs were prepared and anchored on electrode surfaces. The formed nanocomposites provided a platform with big surface area for loading anti-cTnI capture antibody, and worked as a bridge for fast electron transfer subsequently increased the sensitivity. Moreover, the linkages between AuNP, GO, and electrodes were based on covalent bonding by aryldiazonium salt coupling chemistry, which favors the stability of the sensing interface. Finally, the anti-cTnI detection antibody was immobilized on GO tailored with ferrocene molecules, functioning as the signal reporter for the detection of cTnI. The modification process was monitored using electrochemistry, SEM, XPS. The herein immunosensor demonstrates a good selectivity and high sensitivity against human-cTnI, and is capable of detecting cTnI at concentrations as low as 0.05 ng mL(-1), which is 100 times lower than that possible by conventional methods. It is potential to design the portable sensing platform based on AuNPs and GO nanocomposites for future point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. One-pot synthesis of strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS2 quantum dots for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ziping; Su, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, high quality DNA-CuInS 2 QDs are facilely synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal method with fluorescence quantum yield as high as 23.4%, and the strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS 2 QDs have been utilized as a novel fluorescent biosensor for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA. L-Cysteine (L-Cys) and a specific-sequence DNA are used as co-ligands to stabilize the CuInS 2 QDs. The specific-sequence DNA consists of two domains: phosphorothiolates domain (sulfur-containing variants of the usual phosphodiester backbone) controls the nanocrystal passivation and serves as a ligand, and the functional domain (non-phosphorothioates) controls the biorecognition. The as-prepared DNA-CuInS 2 QDs have high stability, good water-solubility and low toxicity. Under the optimized conditions, a linear correlation was established between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I 0 (I 0 is the original fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS 2 QDs, and I is the fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS 2 QDs/GO with the addition of various concentrations of anthrax lethal factor DNA) and the concentration of anthrax lethal factor DNA in the range of 0.029–0.733 nmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.013 nmol L −1 . The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of anthrax lethal factor DNA sequence in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Because of low toxicity and fine biocompatibility, DNA-CuInS 2 QDs also hold potential applications in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Strongly fluorescent DNA-QDs were successfully prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method with quantum yield up to 23.4%. • A biosensor for label-free detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA was established based on the as-prepared DNA-QDs. • The DNA sensor took advantage of the feature that ssDNA binds to GO with significantly higher affinity than dsDNA. • Good sensitivity and selectivity were obtained. • This method was utilized to detect

  19. One-pot synthesis of strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ziping; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-10-26

    Herein, high quality DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs are facilely synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal method with fluorescence quantum yield as high as 23.4%, and the strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs have been utilized as a novel fluorescent biosensor for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA. L-Cysteine (L-Cys) and a specific-sequence DNA are used as co-ligands to stabilize the CuInS{sub 2} QDs. The specific-sequence DNA consists of two domains: phosphorothiolates domain (sulfur-containing variants of the usual phosphodiester backbone) controls the nanocrystal passivation and serves as a ligand, and the functional domain (non-phosphorothioates) controls the biorecognition. The as-prepared DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs have high stability, good water-solubility and low toxicity. Under the optimized conditions, a linear correlation was established between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I{sub 0} (I{sub 0} is the original fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs, and I is the fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs/GO with the addition of various concentrations of anthrax lethal factor DNA) and the concentration of anthrax lethal factor DNA in the range of 0.029–0.733 nmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.013 nmol L{sup −1}. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of anthrax lethal factor DNA sequence in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Because of low toxicity and fine biocompatibility, DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs also hold potential applications in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Strongly fluorescent DNA-QDs were successfully prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method with quantum yield up to 23.4%. • A biosensor for label-free detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA was established based on the as-prepared DNA-QDs. • The DNA sensor took advantage of the feature that ssDNA binds to GO with significantly higher affinity than dsDNA. • Good sensitivity and selectivity were

  20. Indium-tin-oxide thin film transistor biosensors for label-free detection of avian influenza virus H5N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Di; Zhuo, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoai; Xu, Cheng; Jiang, Jie; Gao, Fu; Wan, Qing; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A highly selective label-free biosensor is established based on indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs). ► AI H5N1 virus was successfully detected through shift in threshold voltage and field-effect mobility of ITO TFT. ► The ITO TFT is applied in biosensor for the first time and shows good reusability and stability. ► Fabrication of the platform is simple with low cost, which is suitable for mass commercial production. -- Abstract: As continuous outbreak of avian influenza (AI) has become a threat to human health, economic development and social stability, it is urgently necessary to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus quickly. In this study, we fabricated indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs) on a glass substrate for the detecting of AI H5N1. The ITO TFT is fabricated by a one-shadow-mask process in which a channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes during magnetron sputtering deposition. Monoclonal anti-H5N1 antibodies specific for AI H5N1 virus were covalently immobilized on the ITO channel by (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The introduction of target AI H5N1 virus affected the electronic properties of the ITO TFT, which caused a change in the resultant threshold voltage (V T ) and field-effect mobility. The changes of I D –V G curves were consistent with an n-type field effect transistor behavior affected by nearby negatively charged AI H5N1 viruses. The transistor based sensor demonstrated high selectivity and stability for AI H5N1 virus sensing. The sensor showed linear response to AI H5N1 in the concentrations range from 5 × 10 −9 g mL −1 to 5 × 10 −6 g mL −1 with a detection limit of 0.8 × 10 −10 g mL −1 . Moreover, the ITO TFT biosensors can be repeatedly used through the washing processes. With its excellent electric properties and the potential for mass commercial production, ITO TFTs can be promising candidates for the

  1. Indium-tin-oxide thin film transistor biosensors for label-free detection of avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Di; Zhuo, Ming [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xiaoai [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Xu, Cheng; Jiang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Gao, Fu [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Taihong, E-mail: thwang@hnu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► A highly selective label-free biosensor is established based on indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs). ► AI H5N1 virus was successfully detected through shift in threshold voltage and field-effect mobility of ITO TFT. ► The ITO TFT is applied in biosensor for the first time and shows good reusability and stability. ► Fabrication of the platform is simple with low cost, which is suitable for mass commercial production. -- Abstract: As continuous outbreak of avian influenza (AI) has become a threat to human health, economic development and social stability, it is urgently necessary to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus quickly. In this study, we fabricated indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs) on a glass substrate for the detecting of AI H5N1. The ITO TFT is fabricated by a one-shadow-mask process in which a channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes during magnetron sputtering deposition. Monoclonal anti-H5N1 antibodies specific for AI H5N1 virus were covalently immobilized on the ITO channel by (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The introduction of target AI H5N1 virus affected the electronic properties of the ITO TFT, which caused a change in the resultant threshold voltage (V{sub T}) and field-effect mobility. The changes of I{sub D}–V{sub G} curves were consistent with an n-type field effect transistor behavior affected by nearby negatively charged AI H5N1 viruses. The transistor based sensor demonstrated high selectivity and stability for AI H5N1 virus sensing. The sensor showed linear response to AI H5N1 in the concentrations range from 5 × 10{sup −9} g mL{sup −1} to 5 × 10{sup −6} g mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.8 × 10{sup −10} g mL{sup −1}. Moreover, the ITO TFT biosensors can be repeatedly used through the washing processes. With its excellent electric properties and the potential for mass commercial production, ITO TFTs

  2. Label-free and reagentless electrochemical detection of PCR fragments using self-assembled quinone derivative monolayer: Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q D; March, G; Noel, V

    2012-01-01

    We report a signal-on, label-free and reagentless electrochemical DNA biosensor, based on a mixed self-assembled monolayer of thiolated hydroxynaphthoquinone and thiolated oligonucleotide. Electrochemical changes resulting from hybridization were evidenced with oligonucleotide targets (as models...

  3. Label-free impedimetric aptasensor for detection of femtomole level acetamiprid using gold nanoparticles decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Airong; Liu, Qian; Huan, Juan; Qian, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Qiu, Baijing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon (Au/MWCNT-rGONR) composites were synthesized by a one-pot reaction. By employing the resulting Au/MWCNT-rGONR composites as the support for aptamer immobilization, we developed an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for acetamiprid detection, which was based on that the variation of electron transfer resistance was relevant to the formation of acetamiprid-aptamer complex at the modified electrode surface. Compared with pure Au NPs and MWCNT-rGONR, the Au/MWCNT-rGONR composites modified electrode was the most sensitive aptasensing platform for the determination of acetamiprid. The proposed aptasensor displayed a linear response for acetamiprid in the range from 5×10(-14) M to 1×10(-5) M with an extremely low detection limit of 1.7×10(-14) M (S/N=3). In addition, this impedimetric aptasensor possessed great advantages including the simple operation process, low-cost, selectivity and sensitivity, which provided a promising model for the aptamer-based detection with a direct impedimetric method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Target recycling amplification for label-free and sensitive colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on un-modified aptamers and DNAzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Li, Jinfu; Zhou, Wenjiao; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2014-05-30

    Based on target recycling amplification, the development of a new label-free, simple and sensitive colorimetric detection method for ATP by using un-modified aptamers and DNAzymes is described. The association of the model target molecules (ATP) with the corresponding aptamers of the dsDNA probes leads to the release of the G-quadruplex sequences. The ATP-bound aptamers can be further degraded by Exonuclease III to release ATP, which can again bind the aptamers of the dsDNA probes to initiate the target recycling amplification process. Due to this target recycling amplification, the amount of the released G-quadruplex sequences is significantly enhanced. Subsequently, these G-quadruplex sequences bind hemin to form numerous peroxidase mimicking DNAzymes, which cause substantially intensified color change of the probe solution for highly sensitive colorimetric detection of ATP down to the sub-nanomolar (0.33nM) level. Our method is highly selective toward ATP against other control molecules and can be performed in one single homogeneous solution, which makes our sensing approach hold great potential for sensitive colorimetric detection of other small molecules and proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Target-induced structure switching of hairpin aptamers for label-free and sensitive fluorescent detection of ATP via exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunying; Xu, Jin; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2014-01-15

    In this work, we described the development of a new label-free, simple and sensitive fluorescent ATP sensing platform based on exonuclease III (Exo III)-catalyzed target recycling (ECTR) amplification and SYBR Green I indicator. The hairpin aptamer probes underwent conformational structure switching and re-configuration in the presence of ATP, which led to catalytic cleavage of the re-configured aptamers by Exo III to release ATP and to initiate the ECTR process. Such ECTR process resulted in the digestion of a significant number of the hairpin aptamer probes, leading to much less intercalation of SYBR Green I to the hairpin stems and drastic suppression of the fluorescence emission for sensitive ATP detection down to the low nanomolar level. Due to the highly specific affinity bindings between aptamers and ATP, the developed method exhibited excellent selectivity toward ATP against other analogous molecules. Besides, our ATP sensing approach used un-modified aptamer probes and could be performed in a "mix-and-detect" fashion in homogenous solutions. All these distinct advantages of the developed method thus made it hold great potential for the development of simple and robust sensing strategies for the detection of other small molecules. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Amplified and sensitive detection of microRNA from tumor cells is achieved. • Signal amplification is realized by two cascaded strand displacement reactions. • The developed sensor is selective and label-free without involving any enzymes.

  7. Homogeneous and label-free detection of microRNAs using bifunctional strand displacement amplification-mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-rong; Zhu, Guichi; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2014-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases including cancers. Here, we develop a homogeneous and label-free method for sensitive detection of let-7a miRNA based on bifunctional strand displacement amplification (SDA)-mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA). The binding of target miRNA with the linear template initiates the bifunctional SDA reaction, generating two different kinds of triggers which can hybridize with the linear template to initiate new rounds of SDA reaction for the production of more and more triggers. In the meantime, the released two different kinds of triggers can function as the first and the second primers, respectively, to initiate the HRCA reaction whose products can be simply monitored by a standard fluorometer with SYBR Green I as the fluorescent indicator. The proposed method exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of as low as 1.8 × 10(-13) M and a large dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude from 0.1 pM to 10 nM, and it can even discriminate the single-base difference among the miRNA family members. Moreover, this method can be used to analyze the total RNA samples from the human lung tissues and might be further applied for sensitive detection of various proteins, small molecules, and metal ions in combination with specific aptamers.

  8. Label-free electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cells based on extension reaction and intercalation of Ru(phen)3 (2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue; Yang, Linlin; Yue, Guiyin; Chen, Lifen; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-10-01

    Telomerase is one of the most common markers of human malignant tumors, such as uterine, stomach, esophageal, breast, colorectal, laryngeal squamous cell, thyroid, bladder, and so on. It is necessary to develop some sensitive but convenient detection methods for telomerase activity determination. In this study, a label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been fabricated to detect the activity of telomerase extracted from HeLa cells. Thiolated telomerase substrate (TS) primer was immobilized on the gold electrode surface through gold-sulfur (Au-S) interaction and then elongated by telomerase specifically. Then, it was hybridized with complementary DNA to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments on the electrode surface, and Ru(phen)3 (2+) has been intercalated into the dsDNA grooves to act as the ECL probe. The enhanced ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the number of HeLa cells in the range of 5∼5000 and with a detection limit of 2 HeLa cells. The proposed ECL biosensor has high specificity to telomerase in the presence of common interferents. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were HeLa cells. The proposed method provides a convenient approach for telomerase-related cancer screening or diagnosis.

  9. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fc-PAH was modified on the surface of graphene to prepare hybid nanocomposite (Fc-PAH-G). • A cytosensor was constructed with Fc-PAH-G, PSS and aptamer AS1411 by LBL technology. • The sensing interface introduced more redox probe and enhanced current signal on electrode. • The sensor showed a detection range of 10–10 6 cells/mL with a detection limit of 10 cells/mL. - Abstract: Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10 6 cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells

  10. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianshu [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Department of Chemistry, Physics and Applied Mathematics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Wang, Erkang, E-mail: ekwang@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2015-07-02

    Highlights: • Fc-PAH was modified on the surface of graphene to prepare hybid nanocomposite (Fc-PAH-G). • A cytosensor was constructed with Fc-PAH-G, PSS and aptamer AS1411 by LBL technology. • The sensing interface introduced more redox probe and enhanced current signal on electrode. • The sensor showed a detection range of 10–10{sup 6} cells/mL with a detection limit of 10 cells/mL. - Abstract: Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10{sup 6} cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells.

  11. A label-free aptamer-fluorophore assembly for rapid and specific detection of cocaine in biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Daniel; Yu, Haixiang; Xu, Xiaowen; Wu, Shuo; Liu, Ran; Debord, Joshua; Lou, Xinhui; Xiao, Yi

    2014-11-18

    We report a rapid and specific aptamer-based method for one-step cocaine detection with minimal reagent requirements. The feasibility of aptamer-based detection has been demonstrated with sensors that operate via target-induced conformational change mechanisms, but these have generally exhibited limited target sensitivity. We have discovered that the cocaine-binding aptamer MNS-4.1 can also bind the fluorescent molecule 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (ATMND) and thereby quench its fluorescence. We subsequently introduced sequence changes into MNS-4.1 to engineer a new cocaine-binding aptamer (38-GC) that exhibits higher affinity to both ligands, with reduced background signal and increased signal gain. Using this aptamer, we have developed a new sensor platform that relies on the cocaine-mediated displacement of ATMND from 38-GC as a result of competitive binding. We demonstrate that our sensor can detect cocaine within seconds at concentrations as low as 200 nM, which is 50-fold lower than existing assays based on target-induced conformational change. More importantly, our assay achieves successful cocaine detection in body fluids, with a limit of detection of 10.4, 18.4, and 36 μM in undiluted saliva, urine, and serum samples, respectively.

  12. Label-free electrochemical aptasensor constructed by layer-by-layer technology for sensitive and selective detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshu; Liu, Jiyang; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Dan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2015-07-02

    Here, a cytosensor was constructed with ferrocene-appended poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Fc-PAH) functionalized graphene (Fc-PAH-G), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and aptamer (AS1411) by layer-by-layer assembly technology. The hybrid nanocomposite Fc-PAH-G not only brings probes on the electrode and also promotes electron transfer between the probes and the substrate electrode. Meanwhile, LBL technology provides more effective probes to enhance amplified signal for improving the sensitivity of the detection. While AS1411 forming G-quardruplex structure and binding cancer cells, the current response of the sensing electrode decreased due to the insulating properties of cellular membrane. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to investigate the electrochemical detection of HeLa cells attributing to its sensitivity of the current signal change. The as-prepared aptasensor showed a high sensitivity and good stability, a widely detection range from 10 to 10(6) cells/mL with a detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL for the detection of cancer cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A Label Free Colorimetric Assay for the Detection of Active Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A by SNAP-25 Conjugated Colloidal Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gwenin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are one of the most potent toxins known to man. Current methods of detection involve the quantification of the toxin but do not take into account the percentage of the toxin that is active. At present the assay used for monitoring the activity of the toxin is the mouse bioassay, which is lengthy and has ethical issues due to the use of live animals. This report demonstrates a novel assay that utilises the endopeptidase activity of the toxin to detect Botulinum neurotoxin in a pharmaceutical sample. The cleaving of SNAP-25 is monitored via UV-Visible spectroscopy with a limit of detection of 373 fg/mL and has been further developed into a high throughput method using a microplate reader detecting down to 600 fg/mL of active toxin. The results show clear differences between the toxin product and the placebo, which contains the pharmaceutical excipients human serum albumin and lactose, showing that the assay detects the active form of the toxin.

  14. Label-free, electrochemical detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus DNA with reduced graphene oxide-modified electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhijuan

    2011-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-modified glassy carbon electrode is used to detect the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DNA by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Our experiments confirm that ssDNA, before and after hybridization with target DNA, are successfully anchored on the rGO surface. After the probe DNA, pre-adsorbed on rGO electrode, hybridizes with target DNA, the measured impedance increases dramatically. It provides a new method to detect DNA with high sensitivity (10-13M, i.e., 100 fM) and selectivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Epi-detecting label-free multimodal imaging platform using a compact diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreana, Marco; Le, Tuan; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an epi-detected multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy platform based on a compact and cost-effective laser source featuring simultaneous acquisition of signals arising from hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon fluorescence, and second harmonic...

  16. Label-Free and Multiplex Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk Using Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Sabina Rebe; Bremer, Maria G. E. G.; Haasnoot, Willem; Norde, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial drug residues in foods relies greatly on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is a need for a high-throughput screening method with a broad-spectrum detection range. This paper describes the development of a microarray biosensor, based on

  17. Label-Free and Multiplex Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk Using Imaging surface Plasmon Resonance-Based immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebe, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Haasnoot, W.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial drug residues in foods relies greatly on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is a need for a high-throughput screening method with a broad-spectrum detection range. This paper describes the development of a microarray biosensor, based on

  18. Simultaneous detection and serotyping of Salmonellae by immunomagnetic separation and label-free surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. are one of the leading causes of foodborne outbreaks in the United States and globally. Current detection and characterization techniques for Salmonellae are time consuming and costly, and rapid methods could greatly benefit outbreak investigation, new case prevention and disease tre...

  19. Label-Free Detection of Salivary Pepsin Using Gold Nanoparticle/Polypyrrole Nanocoral Modified Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyeon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of salivary pepsin has been given attention as a new diagnostic tool for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR disease, because saliva collection is non-invasive and relatively comfortable. In this study, we prepared polypyrrole nanocorals (PPNCs on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE by a soft template synthesis method, using β-naphthalenesulfonic acid (NSA (for short, PPNCs/SPCE. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were then decorated on PPNCs/SPCE by electrodeposition (for short, GNP/PPNCs/SPCE. To construct the immunosensor, pepsin antibody was immobilized on GNP/PPNCs/SPCE. Next, citric acid was applied to prevent non-specific binding and change the electrode surface charge before pepsin incubation. Electrochemical stepwise characterization was performed using cyclic voltammetry, and immunosensor response toward different pepsin concentrations was measured by differential pulsed voltammetry. As a result, our electrochemical immunosensor showed a sensitive detection performance toward pepsin with a linear range from 6.25 to 100 ng/mL and high specificity toward pepsin, as well as a low limit of detection of 2.2 ng/mL. Finally, we quantified the pepsin levels in saliva samples of LPR patients (n = 2, showing that the results were concordant with those of a conventional ELISA method. Therefore, we expect that this electrochemical immunosensor could be helpful for preliminarily diagnosing LPR through the detection of pepsin in saliva.

  20. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis.

  1. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Sun, Jinyang; Song, Yongxin; Xu, Yongyi; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2013-01-01

    Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina) were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis. PMID:24287532

  2. Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of Vanillin through Low-Defect Graphene Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyao Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is an excellent modifier for the surface modification of electrochemical electrodes due to its exceptional physical properties and, for the development of graphene-based chemical and biosensors, is usually coated on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs via drop casting. However, the ease of aggregation and high defect content of reduced graphene oxides degrade the electrical properties. Here, we fabricated low-defect graphene electrodes by catalytically thermal treatment of HPHT diamond substrate, followed by the electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs with an average size of ≈60 nm on the electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry. The Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes show a wide linear response range to vanillin from 0.2 to 40 µM with a low limit of detection of 10 nM. This work demonstrates the potential applications of graphene-based hybrid electrodes for highly sensitive chemical detection.

  3. Label-free detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals by integrating a competitive binding assay with a piezoelectric ceramic resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-sheng; Fong, Chi-Chun; Zou, Lan; Wong, Wing-Leung; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yang, Mengsu

    2014-03-15

    A piezoelectric biosensor for detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was developed by incorporating chemical/biochemical recognition elements on the ceramic resonator surface for competitive binding assays. A facile electrodeposition was employed to modify the sensor surface with Au nanoparticles, which increased the surface area and enhanced the binding capacity of the immobilized probes. Thiol-labeled long chain hydrocarbon with bisphenol A (BPA) as head group was synthesized and self-assembled on the Au nanoparticle surface as the sensing probes, which showed a linear response upon the binding of estrogen receptor (ER-α) ranging from 1 to 30 nM. Detection of estrone, 17β-estradiol and BPA was achieved by integrating a competitive binding assay with the piezoelectric sensor. In this detection scheme, different concentrations of EDCs were incubated with 30 nM of ER-α, and the un-bounded ER-α in the solution was captured by the probes immobilized on the ceramic resonator, which resulted in the frequency changes for different EDCs. The biosensor assay exhibited a linear response to EDCs with a low detection limit of 2.4-2.9 nM (S/N=3), and required only a small volume of sample (1.5 µl) with the assay time of 2h. The performance of the biosensor assay was also evaluated for rapid and facile determination of EDCs of environmental relevant concentrations in drinking water and seawater, and the recovery rate was in the range between 94.7% and 109.8%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The field effect transistor DNA biosensor based on ITO nanowires in label-free hepatitis B virus detecting compatible with CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohsen

    2018-05-15

    In this paper the field-effect transistor DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs) in label free approach has been fabricated. Because of ITO nanowires intensive conductance and functional modified surface, the probe immobilization and target hybridization were increased strongly. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement showed that ITO nanowires were crystalline and less than 50nm in diameter. The single-stranded hepatitis B virus DNA (SS-DNA) was immobilized as probe on the Au-modified nanowires. The DNA targets were measured in a linear concentration range from 1fM to 10µM. The detection limit of the DNA biosensor was about 1fM. The time of the hybridization process for defined single strand was 90min. The switching ratio of the biosensor between "on" and "off" state was ~ 1.1 × 10 5 . For sensing the specificity of the biosensor, non-complementary, mismatch and complementary DNA oligonucleotide sequences were clearly discriminated. The HBV biosensor confirmed the highly satisfied specificity for differentiating complementary sequences from non-complementary and the mismatch oligonucleotides. The response time of the DNA sensor was 37s with a high reproducibility. The stability and repeatability of the DNA biosensor showed that the peak current of the biosensor retained 98% and 96% of its initial response for measurements after three and five weeks, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A label-free colorimetric aptasensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of Pt (II) based on platinum (II)-oligonucleotide coordination induced gold nanoparticles aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Zhai, Qingfeng; Zhou, Weijun; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-11-15

    Herein, a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based label-free colorimetric aptasensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of Pt (II) was constructed for the first time. Four bases (G-G mismatch) mismatched streptavidin aptamer (MSAA) was used to protect AuNPs from salt-induced aggregation and recognize Pt (II) specifically. Only in the presence of Pt (II), coordination occurs between G-G bases and Pt (II), leading to the activation of streptavidin aptamer. Streptavidin coated magnetic beads (MBs) were used as separation agent to separate Pt (II)-coordinated MSAA. The residual less amount of MSAA could not efficiently protect AuNPs anymore and aggregation of AuNPs will produce a colorimetric product. With the addition of Pt (II), a pale purple-to-blue color variation could be observed by the naked eye. A detection limit of 150nM and a linear range from 0.6μM to 12.5μM for Pt (II) could be achieved without any amplification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Label-free colorimetric detection of mercury via Hg2+ ions-accelerated structural transformation of nanoscale metal-oxo clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; She, Shan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Wei, Yongge

    2015-11-01

    Mercury and its compounds are known to be extremely toxic but widely distributed in environment. Although many works have been reported to efficiently detect mercury, development of simple and convenient sensors is still longed for quick analyzing mercury in water. In this work, a nanoscale metal-oxo cluster, (n-Bu4N)2[Mo5NaO13(OCH3)4(NO)], (MLPOM), organically-derivatized from monolacunary Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate, is found to specifically react with Hg2+ in methanol/water via structural transformation. The MLPOM methanol solution displays a color change from purple to brown within seconds after being mixed with an aqueous solution containing Hg2+. By comparing the structure of polyoxomolybdate before and after reaction, the color change is revealed to be the essentially structural transformation of MLPOM accelerated by Hg2+. Based on this discovery, MLPOM could be utilized as a colorimetric sensor to sense the existence of Hg2+, and a simple and label-free method is developed to selectively detect aqueous Hg2+. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor has been applied to indicating mercury contamination in industrial sewage.

  7. Conducting electrospun fibres with polyanionic grafts as highly selective, label-free, electrochemical biosensor with a low detection limit for non-Hodgkin lymphoma gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr-Phillips, Thomas E; Aydemir, Nihan; Chan, Eddie Wai Chi; Barker, David; Malmström, Jenny; Plesse, Cedric; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2018-02-15

    A highly selective, label-free sensor for the non-Hodgkin lymphoma gene, with an aM detection limit, utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is presented. The sensor consists of a conducting electrospun fibre mat, surface-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes and a conducting polymer sensing element with covalently attached oligonucleotide probes. The sensor was fabricated from electrospun NBR rubber, embedded with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), followed by grafting poly(acrylic acid) brushes and then electrochemically polymerizing a conducting polymer monomer with ssDNA probe sequence pre-attached. The resulting non-Hodgkin lymphoma gene sensor showed a detection limit of 1aM (1 × 10 -18 mol/L), more than 400 folds lower compared to a thin-film analogue. The sensor presented extraordinary selectivity, with only 1%, 2.7% and 4.6% of the signal recorded for the fully non-complimentary, T-A and G-C base mismatch oligonucleotide sequences, respectively. We suggest that such greatly enhanced selectivity is due to the presence of negatively charged carboxylic acid moieties from PAA grafts that electrostatically repel the non-complementary and mismatch DNA sequences, overcoming the non-specific binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, Julien; Menut, Denis; Wodling, Pascal; Salmon, Laurent; Thro, Pierre-Yves; Chevillard, Sylvie; Ugolin, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 10 5 nucleotides/μm 2 (i.e. 2 x 10 13 phosphorus atoms/cm 2 ). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling

  9. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, Julien [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Menut, Denis [Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et des Interfaces, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Wodling, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Interaction Laser-Matiere, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Salmon, Laurent [Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et des Interfaces, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Thro, Pierre-Yves [Laboratoire d' Interaction Laser-Matiere, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Departement de Physico-Chimie, Gif sur Yvette (France); Chevillard, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ugolin, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)], E-mail: nugolin@cea.fr

    2008-04-15

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 10{sup 5} nucleotides/{mu}m{sup 2} (i.e. 2 x 10{sup 13} phosphorus atoms/cm{sup 2}). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling.

  10. Label-Free Sensors Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Cancer Risk Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Haslam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of label-free chemical vapour deposition (CVD graphene field effect transistor (GFET immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalised with a linker molecule to an immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. The binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show that annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection Based on Aggregation Induced Emission Fluorogen via Target-Triggered Hemin/G-Quadruplex-Catalyzed Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Gai, Panpan; Li, Feng

    2018-02-07

    Fluorescence biosensing strategy has drawn substantial attention due to their advantages of simplicity, convenience, sensitivity, and selectivity, but unsatisfactory structure stability, low fluorescence quantum yield, high cost of labeling, and strict reaction conditions associated with current fluorescence methods severely prohibit their potential application. To address these challenges, we herein propose an ultrasensitive label-free fluorescence biosensor by integrating hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed oxidation reaction with aggregation induced emission (AIE) fluorogen-based system. l-Cysteine/TPE-M, which is carefully and elaborately designed and developed, obviously contributes to strong fluorescence emission. In the presence of G-rich DNA along with K + and hemin, efficient destruction of l-cysteine occurs due to hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed oxidation reactions. As a result, highly sensitive fluorescence detection of G-rich DNA is readily realized, with a detection limit down to 33 pM. As a validation for the further development of the proposed strategy, we also successfully construct ultrasensitive platforms for microRNA by incorporating the l-cysteine/TPE-M system with target-triggered cyclic amplification reaction. Thus, this proposed strategy is anticipated to find use in basic biochemical research and clinical diagnosis.

  12. Label-free detection of glycoproteins by the lectin biosensor down to attomolar level using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertok, Tomas; Sediva, Alena; Katrlik, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Pavol; Mikula, Milan; Nosko, Martin; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present here an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on a lectin biorecognition capable to detect concentrations of glycoproteins down to attomolar (aM) level by investigation of changes in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On polycrystalline gold modified by an aminoalkanethiol linker layer, gold nanoparticles were attached. A Sambucus nigra agglutinin was covalently immobilised on a mixed self-assembled monolayer formed on gold nanoparticles and finally, the biosensor surface was blocked by poly(vinylalcohol). The lectin biosensor was applied for detection of sialic acid containing glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin. Building of a biosensing interface was carefully characterised by a broad range of techniques such as electrochemistry, EIS, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface plasmon resonance with the best performance of the biosensor achieved by application of HS-(CH2)11-NH2 linker and gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm. The lectin biosensor responded to an addition of fetuin (8.7% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (338 ± 11) Ω decade-1 and to asialofetuin (≤ 0.5% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (109 ± 10) Ω decade-1 with a blank experiment with oxidised asialofetuin (without recognisable sialic acid) revealing sensitivity of detection of (79 ± 13) Ω decade-1. These results suggest the lectin biosensor responded to changes in the glycan amount in a quantitative way with a successful validation by a lectin microarray. Such a biosensor device has a great potential to be employed in early biomedical diagnostics of diseases such as arthritis or cancer, which are connected to aberrant glycosylation of protein biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:23601864

  13. Development of a label-free gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric aptasensor for detection of human estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Rajesh; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for easily available and low-cost diagnostics has fuelled the development of aptasensors as platforms for rapid, sensitive, and point-of-care testing of target analytes. Recently, gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based aptasensors have attracted wide recognition owing to their color transition properties which allow real-time rapid sensing of targets. In this study, we utilized the color transition property of aptamer-functionalized AuNPs to detect and quantify estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a key biomarker protein in breast cancer. We found that the coating of AuNPs with unmodified ERα-RNA aptamer (GGGGUCAAGGUGACCCC) makes them resistant to salt-induced aggregation. However, addition of ERα to the aptamer-protected AuNPs results in their spontaneous aggregation as evident from a color transition from wine red to deep blue. On the basis of this, we developed an ERα aptasensor, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.64 and 2.16 ng/mL, respectively; the aptasensor can efficiently detect and quantify ERα in a working range of 10 ng/mL-5μg/mL protein. Validation of the aptasensor on cellular extracts of ERα-positive MCF-7 and ERα-deficient MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells showed a target-selective response in ERα-positive samples but not in cellular extracts of ERα-deficient breast cancer cells. Further, the small size and simple fabrication chemistry of aptamers provide an additional benefit to make the ERα aptasensor a potentially useful and cost-effective tool in point-of-care analyses of ERα.

  14. Label-free DNA hybridization detection and single base-mismatch discrimination using CE-ICP-MS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Sun, Shao-kai; Yang, Jia-lin; Jiang, Yan

    2011-12-07

    Detecting a specific DNA sequence and discriminating single base-mismatch is critical to clinical diagnosis, paternity testing, forensic sciences, food and drug industry, pathology, genetics, environmental monitoring, and anti-bioterrorism. To this end, capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is developed using the displacing interaction between the target ssDNA and the competitor Hg(2+) for the first time. The thymine-rich capture ssDNA 1 is interacted with the competitor Hg(2+), forming an assembled complex in a hairpin-structure between the thymine bases arrangement at both sides of the capture ssDNA 1. In the presence of a target ssDNA with stronger affinity than that of the competitor Hg(2+), the energetically favorable hybridization between capture ssDNA 1 and the target ssDNA destroys the hairpin-structure and releases the competitor as free Hg(2+), which was then read out and accurately quantified by CE-ICP-MS assay. Under the optimal CE separation conditions, free Hg(2+) ions and its capture ssDNA 1 adduct were baseline separated and detected on-line by ICP-MS; the increased peak intensity of free Hg(2+) against the concentration of perfectly complementary target ssDNA was linear over the concentration range of 30-600 nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 8 nmol L(-1) (3s, n = 11) in the pre-incubated mixture containing 1 μmol L(-1) Hg(2+) and 0.2 μmol L(-1) capture ssDNA 1. This new assay method is simple in design since any target ssDNA binding can in principle result in free Hg(2+) release by 6-fold Hg(2+) signal amplification, avoiding oligonucleotide labeling or assistance by excess signal transducer and signal reporter to read out the target. Due to element-specific detection of ICP-MS in our assay procedure, the interference from the autofluorescence of substrata was eliminated.

  15. Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of the Specific Oligonucleotide Sequence of Dengue Virus Type 1 on Pencil Graphite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elaine; Nascimento, Gustavo; Santana, Nataly; Ferreira, Danielly; Lima, Manoel; Natividade, Edna; Martins, Danyelly; Lima-Filho, José

    2011-01-01

    A biosensor that relies on the adsorption immobilization of the 18-mer single-stranded nucleic acid related to dengue virus gene 1 on activated pencil graphite was developed. Hybridization between the probe and its complementary oligonucleotides (the target) was investigated by monitoring guanine oxidation by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The pencil graphite electrode was made of ordinary pencil lead (type 4B). The polished surface of the working electrode was activated by applying a potential of 1.8 V for 5 min. Afterward, the dengue oligonucleotides probe was immobilized on the activated electrode by applying 0.5 V to the electrode in 0.5 M acetate buffer (pH 5.0) for 5 min. The hybridization process was carried out by incubating at the annealing temperature of the oligonucleotides. A time of five minutes and concentration of 1 μM were found to be the optimal conditions for probe immobilization. The electrochemical detection of annealing between the DNA probe (TS-1P) immobilized on the modified electrode, and the target (TS-1T) was achieved. The target could be quantified in a range from 1 to 40 nM with good linearity and a detection limit of 0.92 nM. The specificity of the electrochemical biosensor was tested using non-complementary sequences of dengue virus 2 and 3. PMID:22163916

  16. Highly sensitive and stable Ag@SiO2 nanocubes for label-free SERS-photoluminescence detection of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Kha; Su, Wei-Nien; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Rick, John; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence microscopy are a widely used biological and chemical characterization techniques. However, the peak overlapping in multiplexed experiments and rapid photobleaching of fluorescent organic dyes is still the limitations. When compared to Ag nanocubes (NCs), higher SERS sensitivities can be obtained with thin shelled silica Ag@SiO2 NCs, in contrast metal-enhanced photoluminescence (MEPL) is only found with NCs that have thicker silica shells. A 'dual functionality' represented by the simultaneous strengthening of SERS and MEPL signals can be achieved by mixing Ag@SiO2 NCs, with a silica shell thickness of 1.5 nm and 4.4 nm. This approach allows both the Ag@SiO2 NCs SERS and MEPL sensitivities to be maintained at 90% after 12 weeks of storage. Based on the distinguished detection of creatinine and flavin adenine dinucleotide in the mixture, the integration of SERS and MEPL together on a stable single plasmonic nanoparticle platform offers an opportunity to enhance both biomarker detection sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Label-free tungsten disulfide quantum dots as a fluorescent sensing platform for highly efficient detection of copper (II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xuan; He Da-Wei; Wang Yong-Sheng; Hu Yin; Fu Chen; Li Xue

    2017-01-01

    A fluorescent probe for the sensitive and selective determination of copper ion (Cu 2+ ) is presented. It is based on the use of tungsten disulfide quantum dots (WS 2 QDs) which is independent of the pH of solution and emits strong blue fluorescence. Copper ions could cause aggregation of the WS 2 QDs and lead to fluorescence quenching of WS 2 QDs. The change of fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of Cu 2+ , and the limit of detection is 0.4 μM. The fluorescent probe is highly selective for Cu 2+ over some potentially interfering ions. These results indicate that WS 2 QDs, as a fluorescent sensing platform, can meet the selective requirements for biomedical and environmental application. (paper)

  18. Graphene-interfaced electrical biosensor for label-free and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogenic E. coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Gurbuz, Yasar; Ozguz, Volkan; Niazi, Javed H; Qureshi, Anjum

    2017-05-15

    E. coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic bacteria responsible for serious foodborne outbreaks that causes diarrhoea, fever and vomiting in humans. Recent foodborne E. coli outbreaks has left a serious concern to public health. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for a simple, rapid and sensitive method for pathogen detection in contaminated foods. In this study, we developed a label-free electrical biosensor interfaced with graphene for sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria. This biosensor was fabricated by interfacing graphene with interdigitated microelectrodes of capacitors that were biofunctionalized with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibodies for sensitive pathogenic bacteria detection. Here, graphene nanostructures on the sensor surface provided superior chemical properties such as high carrier mobility and biocompatibility with antibodies and bacteria. The sensors transduced the signal based on changes in dielectric properties (capacitance) through (i) polarization of captured cell-surface charges, (ii) cells' internal bioactivity, (iii) cell-wall's electronegativity or dipole moment and their relaxation and (iv) charge carrier mobility of graphene that modulated the electrical properties once the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 captured on the sensor surface. Sensitive capacitance changes thus observed with graphene based capacitors were specific to E. coli O157:H7 strain with a sensitivity as low as 10-100 cells/ml. The proposed graphene based electrical biosensor provided advantages of speed, sensitivity, specificity and in-situ bacterial detection with no chemical mediators, represents a versatile approach for detection of a wide variety of other pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A sensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 based on 3D graphene with gold nanopaticle modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Bao, Jing; Zhao, Yanan; Huo, Danqun; Chen, Mei; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao; Hou, Changjun

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) serves as a powerful biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we report for the first time a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive and selective detection of tumor marker CYFRA21-1. In this work, three-dimensional graphene @ gold nanoparticles (3D-G@Au) nanocomposite was modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface to enhance the conductivity of immunosensor. The anti-CYFRA21-1 captured and fixed on the modified GCE through the cross-linking of chitosan (CS), glutaraldehyde (GA) and anti-CYFRA21-1. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak current change due to the specific interaction between anti-CYFRA21-1 and CYFRA21-1 on the modified electrode surface was utilized to detect CYFRA21-1. Under optimized conditions, the proposed electrochemical immunosensor was employed to detect CYFRA21-1 and exhibited a wide linear range of 0.25-800ngmL -1 and low detection limit of 100pgmL -1 (S/N = 3). Moreover, the recovery rates of serum samples were in the range from 95.2% to 108.7% and the developed immunosensor also shows a good correlation (less than 6.6%) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the detection of clinical serum samples. Therefore, it is expected that the proposed immunosensor based on a 3D-G@Au has great potential in clinical medical diagnosis of CYFRA21-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasensitive label-free detection of DNA hybridization by sapphire-based graphene field-effect transistor biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Zhang, Chao; Yue, Weiwei; Zou, Yan; Wang, Guiying; Liu, Huilan; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Mingzhen; Zhu, Zhanshou; Wang, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications for its unique properties. Because of one-atom layer structure, every atom of graphene is exposed to the environment, making the electronic properties of graphene are very sensitive to charged analytes. Therefore, graphene is an ideal material for transistors in high-performance sensors. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has been demonstrated the most successful method for fabricating large area graphene. However, the conventional CVD methods can only grow graphene on metallic substrate and the graphene has to be transferred to the insulating substrate for further device fabrication. The transfer process creates wrinkles, cracks, or tears on the graphene, which severely degrade electrical properties of graphene. These factors severely degrade the sensing performance of graphene. Here, we directly fabricated graphene on sapphire substrate by high temperature CVD without the use of metal catalysts. The sapphire-based graphene was patterned and make into a DNA biosensor in the configuration of field-effect transistor. The sensors show high performance and achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 100 fM (10-13 M), which is at least 10 times lower than prior transferred CVD G-FET DNA sensors. The use of the sapphire-based G-FETs suggests a promising future for biosensing applications.

  1. A multi-analyte biosensor for the simultaneous label-free detection of pathogens and biomarkers in point-of-need animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Melanie; Fechner, Peter; Gauglitz, Günter

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, a multi-analyte biosensor platform has been developed using the label-free 1-lambda-reflectometry technique. This platform is the first, which does not use imaging techniques, but is able to perform multi-analyte measurements. It is designed to be portable and cost-effective and therefore allows for point-of-need testing or on-site field-testing with possible applications in diagnostics. This work highlights the application possibilities of this platform in the field of animal testing, but is also relevant and transferable to human diagnostics. The performance of the platform has been evaluated using relevant reference systems like biomarker (C-reactive protein) and serology (anti-Salmonella antibodies) as well as a panel of real samples (animal sera). The comparison of the working range and limit of detection shows no loss of performance transferring the separate assays to the multi-analyte setup. Moreover, the new multi-analyte platform allows for discrimination between sera of animals infected with different Salmonella subtypes.

  2. Label-free and enzyme-free detection of transcription factors with graphene oxide fluorescence switch-based multifunctional G-quadruplex-hairpin probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Desong; Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Transcription factors (TFs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of a variety of essential cellular processes and some of them have been recognized as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets of some diseases. Sensitive and accurate detection of TFs is of great importance to better understanding their roles in gene regulation and evaluation of disease state. Here, we developed a simple, label-free and enzyme-free new fluorescent strategy for the detection of TFs by graphene oxide (GO) fluorescence switch-based multifunctional G-quadruplex-hairpin probe (MGHP). The MGHP possessed of three functions simultaneously, adsorbing onto GO with the loop part, binding to target with the stem part and serving as signal carrier with the terminal G-quadruplex. First, the MGHP was adsorbed quickly to GO. Next, the TF bound to the stem part of MGHP to form a huge target-MGHP complex, which led to desorption of the complex from GO. Finally, NMM was inserted into G-quadruplex in the complex to yield an enhanced fluorescence response. The GO used here, as a fluorescence switch, could quickly and efficiently quench the fluorescence of NMM inserted into the MGHP absorbed on the GO, guaranteeing a high signal-to-noise ratio. Sensitive detection of purified NF-κB p50 and HeLa cell nuclear extracts were achieved with detection limits of 0.2nM and 7.8ng/µL, respectively. Moreover, this proposed strategy could be used to screen inhibitors of NF-κB p50 activity. The strategy proposed here might offer a new potential approach for reliable quantification of TFs in clinical diagnostics and treatment research of some diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free colorimetric detection of Hg²⁺ based on Hg²⁺-triggered exonuclease III-assisted target recycling and DNAzyme amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wang; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Wei Tao; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2015-06-15

    This work reported a label-free colorimetric assay for sensitive detection of Hg(2+) based on Hg(2+)-triggered hairpin DNA probe (H-DNA) termini-binding and exonuclease Ш (Exo Ш)-assisted target recycling, as well as hemin/G-quadruplex (DNAzyme) signal amplification. The specific binding of free Hg(2+) with the thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches termini of H-DNA could immediately trigger the Exo Ш digestion, and then set free G-quadruplex segments and Hg(2+). The Exo Ш impellent recycling of ultratrace Hg(2+) produced numerous G-quadruplexes. The corresponding DNAzymes catalyzed efficiently the H2O2-mediated oxidation of the ABTS(2-) to the colored product in the presence of hemin. Using the color change as the output signal, and the Exo Ш-aided Hg(2+) recycling and DNAzyme as the signal amplifier, the ultrasensitive assay system successfully achieved visual detection of Hg(2+) as low as 1.0 nM by the naked eye, and was suitable for field monitoring. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 50.0 pM to 20.0 nM for Hg(2+) (R=0.9962) with a detection limit of 10.0 pM. Moreover, this proposed strategy showed excellent selectivity, portability and low-cost, and was successfully applied to colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) in laboratory tap water and Jialing river water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A quantum dot-aptamer beacon using a DNA intercalating dye as the FRET reporter: application to label-free thrombin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chun-Wei; Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Li, Yi-Shan; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2011-03-15

    A new quantum dot (QD)-aptamer (apt) beacon that acts by folding-induced dissociation of a DNA intercalating dye, BOBO-3(B), is demonstrated with label-free thrombin detection. The beacon, denoted as QD-apt:B, is constructed by (1) coupling of a single-stranded thrombin aptamer to Qdot 565 via EDC/Sulfo-NHS chemistry and (2) staining the duplex regions of the aptamer on QD with excess BOBO-3 before thrombin binding. When mixing a thrombin sample with QD-apt:B, BOBO-3 is competed away from the beacon due to target-induced aptamer folding, which then causes a decrease in QD fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-mediated BOBO-3 emission and achieves thrombin quantitation. In this work, the effects of Mg(2+), coupling time, and aptamer type on the beacon's performances are investigated and discussed thoroughly with various methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and two-color differential gel electrophoresis. Using the best aptamer beacon (HTQ37), we attain highly specific and wide-range detection (from nM to μM) of thrombin in buffer, and the beacon can sense nM-range thrombin in 15% diluted serum. Compared to the reported QD aptamer assays, our method is advantageous from the aspect of using a simple sensory unit design without losing the detection sensitivity. Therefore, we consider the QD-apt:B beacon a potential alternative to immuno-reagents and an effective tool to study nucleic acid folding on QD as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Signal-on electrochemical assay for label-free detection of TdT and BamHI activity based on grown DNA nanowire-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Lihua; Wang, Jiao; Rao, Jiajia; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical methods allow fast and inexpensive analysis of enzymatic activity. Here, a simple and yet efficient "signal-on" electrochemical assay for sensitive, label-free detection of DNA-related enzyme activity was established on the basis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension strategy. TdT, which is a template-independent DNA polymerase, can catalyze the sequential addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) at the 3'-OH terminus of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA); then, the TdT-yield T-rich DNA nanowires can be employed as the synthetic template of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs). Grown DNA nanowires-templated CuNCs (noted as DNA-CuNCs) were attached onto graphene oxide (GO) surface and exhibited unique electrocatalytic activity to H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor was utilized for quantitatively monitoring TdT activity, with the observed LOD of 0.1 U/mL. It also displayed high selectivity to TdT with excellent stability, and offered a facile, convenient electrochemical method for TdT-relevant inhibitors screening. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully used for BamHI activity detection, in which a new 3'-OH terminal was exposed by the digestion of a phosphate group. Ultimately, it has good prospects in DNA-related enzyme-based biochemical studies, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. Graphical Abstract Extraordinary TdT-generated DNA-CuNCs are synthesized and act as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensitive detection of TdT and BamHI activity in biological environments.

  6. A novel graphene-based label-free fluorescence 'turn-on' nanosensor for selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species in biological samples and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yaotang; Garg, Bhaskar; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2016-02-28

    A novel label-free fluorescence 'turn-on' nanosensor has been developed for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated species (Ps) in biological samples and living cells. The design strategy relies on the use of Ti(4+)-immobilized polydopamine (PDA) coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO@PDA-Ti(4+)) that serves as an attractive platform to bind riboflavin 5'-monophosphate molecules (FMNs) through ion-pair interactions between phosphate groups and Ti(4+). The as-prepared rGO@PDA-Ti(4+)-FMNs (nanosensor), fluoresce only weakly due to the ineffective Förster resonance energy transfer between the FMNs and rGO@PDA-Ti(4+). The experimental findings revealed that the microwave-assisted interaction of the nanosensor with α-, β-casein, ovalbumin, human serum, non-fat milk, egg white, and living cells (all containing Ps) releases FMNs (due to the high formation constant between phosphate groups and Ti(4+)), leading to an excellent fluorescence 'turn-on' response. The fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry were used to detect Ps both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under the optimized conditions, the nanosensor showed a detection limit of ca. 118.5, 28.9, and 54.8 nM for the tryptic digests of α-, β-casein and ovalbumin, respectively. Furthermore, the standard addition method was used as a bench-mark proof for phosphopeptide quantification in egg white samples. We postulate that the present quantitative assay for Ps holds tremendous potential and may pave the way to disease diagnostics in the near future.

  7. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-04-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which specifically binds at one half of the target introduced SH groups at both ends of dsDNA. Continuous disulfide bond formation at 3‧ and 5‧ terminals of targets leads to the self-assembly of dsDNAs into the sulfur- rich and flexible products with different lengths. These products have a high affinity for the surface of Au-NPs and efficiently protect the surface from salt induced aggregation. To evaluate the assay efficacy, a small part of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome was targeted, leading to a detection limit of about 5 × 10-9 mol.L-1 over a linear ranged from 20 × 10-9 to 10 × 10-7 mol.L-1. This approach also exhibits good reproducibility and recovery levels in the presence of plant total RNA or human plasma total circulating RNA extracts. Self-assembled targets can be then sensitively distinguished from non-assembled or mismatched targets after gel electrophoresis. The disulfide reaction method and integrating self-assembled DNAs/RNAs targets with bare AuNPs as a sensitive indicator provide us a powerful and simple visual detection tool for a wide range of applications.

  8. Label-Free Detection of Sequence-Specific DNA Based on Fluorescent Silver Nanoclusters-Assisted Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Liang; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-06-17

    We have developed a label-free method for sequence-specific DNA detection based on surface plasmon enhanced energy transfer (SPEET) process between fluorescent DNA/AgNC string and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). DNA/AgNC string, prepared by a single-stranded DNA template encoded two emitter-nucleation sequences at its termini and an oligo spacer in the middle, was rationally designed to produce bright fluorescence emission. The proposed method takes advantage of two strategies. The first one is the difference in binding properties of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) toward AuNPs. The second one is SPEET process between fluorescent DNA/AgNC string and AuNPs, in which fluorescent DNA/AgNC string can be spontaneously adsorbed onto the surface of AuNPs and correspondingly AuNPs serve as "nanoquencher" to quench the fluorescence of DNA/AgNC string. In the presence of target DNA, the sensing probe hybridized with target DNA to form duplex DNA, leading to a salt-induced AuNP aggregation and subsequently weakened SPEET process between fluorescent DNA/AgNC string and AuNPs. A red-to-blue color change of AuNPs and a concomitant fluorescence increase were clearly observed in the sensing system, which had a concentration dependent manner with specific DNA. The proposed method achieved a detection limit of ∼2.5 nM, offering the following merits of simple design, convenient operation, and low experimental cost because of no chemical modification, organic dye, enzymatic reaction, or separation procedure involved.

  9. A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on carboxymethyl chitosan-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziping; Liu, Hua; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang

    2016-08-17

    In this work, we report a novel label-free fluorescence "turn off-on" biosensor for lectin detection. The highly sensitive and selective sensing system is based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CHIT), CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs). Firstly, CuInS2 QDs featuring carboxyl groups were directly synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method. Then, the carboxyl groups on the CuInS2 QDs surface were interacted with the amino groups (NH2), carboxyl groups (COOH) and hydroxyl groups (OH) within CM-CHIT polymeric chains via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding to form CM-CHIT-QDs assemblies. Introduction of Au NPs could quench the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs through electron and energy transfer. In the presence of lectin, lectin could bind exclusively with CM-CHIT-QDs by means of specific multivalent carbohydrate-protein interaction. Thus, the electron and energy transfer process between CM-CHIT-QDs and Au NPs was inhibited, and as a result, the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs was effectively "turned on". Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I0 (I and I0 were the fluorescence intensity of CM-CHIT-QDs-Au NPs in the presence and absence of lectin, respectively) and lectin concentration in the range of 0.2-192.5 nmol L(-1), And the detection limit could be down to 0.08 nmol L(-1). Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was employed for the determination of lectin in fetal bovine serum samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanocomposites of gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide towards an stable label-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of cardiac marker troponin-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guozhen; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Yin; Cao, Chaomin; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    A stable label-free amperometric immunosensor is presented based on gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanocomposites for detection of cardiac troponin-I in the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. For designing of the sensing platform, firstly the nanocomposites based on GO and AuNPs were prepared and anchored on electrode surfaces. The formed nanocomposites provided a platform with big surface area for loading anti-cTnI capture antibody, and worked as a bridge for fast electron transfer subsequently increased the sensitivity. Moreover, the linkages between AuNP, GO, and electrodes were based on covalent bonding by aryldiazonium salt coupling chemistry, which favors the stability of the sensing interface. Finally, the anti-cTnI detection antibody was immobilized on GO tailored with ferrocene molecules, functioning as the signal reporter for the detection of cTnI. The modification process was monitored using electrochemistry, SEM, XPS. The herein immunosensor demonstrates a good selectivity and high sensitivity against human-cTnI, and is capable of detecting cTnI at concentrations as low as 0.05 ng mL −1 , which is 100 times lower than that possible by conventional methods. It is potential to design the portable sensing platform based on AuNPs and GO nanocomposites for future point-of-care diagnostics. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on GO and AuNPs were prepared and anchored on the electrode surfaces covalently to form a stable sensing interface. • The anti-cTnI detection antibody was immobilized on GO tailored with ferrocene molecules, functioning as the signal reporter for the detection of cTnI. • The detectable concentration of cTnI is 0.05 ng mL -1 in buffer with the assay time of less than 5 min. • The herein simple and novel approach for fabrication of AuNP and graphene based platform is promising for future fabrication of point-of-care devices.

  11. Europium-decorated graphene quantum dots as a fluorescent probe for label-free, rapid and sensitive detection of Cu(2+) and L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liping; Song, Xinhong; Chen, Yiying; Rong, Mingcong; Wang, Yiru; Zhao, Li; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-03

    In this work, europium-decorated graphene quantum dots (Eu-GQDs) were prepared by treating three-dimensional Eu-decorated graphene (3D Eu-graphene) via a strong acid treatment. Various characterizations revealed that Eu atoms were successfully complexed with the oxygen functional groups on the surface of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the atomic ratio of 2.54%. Compared with Eu free GQDs, the introduction of Eu atoms enhanced the electron density and improved the surface chemical activities of Eu-GQDs. Therefore, the obtained Eu-GQDs were used as a novel "off-on" fluorescent probe for the label-free determination of Cu(2+) and l-cysteine (L-Cys) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The fluorescence intensity of Eu-GQDs was quenched in the presence of Cu(2+) owing to the coordination reaction between Cu(2+) and carboxyl groups on the surface of the Eu-GQDs. The fluorescence intensity of Eu-GQDs recovered with the subsequent addition of L-Cys because of the strong affinity of Cu(2+) to L-Cys via the Cu-S bond. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence variation of the proposed approach had a good linear relationship in the range of 0.1-10 μM for Cu(2+) and 0.5-50 μM for L-Cys with corresponding detection limits of 0.056 μM for Cu(2+) and 0.31 μM for L-Cys. The current approach also displayed a special response to Cu(2+) and L-Cys over the other co-existing metal ions and amino acids, and the results obtained from buffer-diluted serum samples suggested its applicability in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Europium-decorated graphene quantum dots as a fluorescent probe for label-free, rapid and sensitive detection of Cu{sup 2+} and L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Liping [College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002 (China); Song, Xinhong; Chen, Yiying; Rong, Mingcong; Wang, Yiru [Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis & Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Zhao, Li; Zhao, Tingting [Xiamen Huaxia College, Xiamen, 361024 (China); Chen, Xi, E-mail: xichen@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis & Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China)

    2015-09-03

    In this work, europium-decorated graphene quantum dots (Eu-GQDs) were prepared by treating three-dimensional Eu-decorated graphene (3D Eu-graphene) via a strong acid treatment. Various characterizations revealed that Eu atoms were successfully complexed with the oxygen functional groups on the surface of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the atomic ratio of 2.54%. Compared with Eu free GQDs, the introduction of Eu atoms enhanced the electron density and improved the surface chemical activities of Eu-GQDs. Therefore, the obtained Eu-GQDs were used as a novel “off-on” fluorescent probe for the label-free determination of Cu{sup 2+} and L-cysteine (L-Cys) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The fluorescence intensity of Eu-GQDs was quenched in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} owing to the coordination reaction between Cu{sup 2+} and carboxyl groups on the surface of the Eu-GQDs. The fluorescence intensity of Eu-GQDs recovered with the subsequent addition of L-Cys because of the strong affinity of Cu{sup 2+} to L-Cys via the Cu–S bond. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence variation of the proposed approach had a good linear relationship in the range of 0.1–10 μM for Cu{sup 2+} and 0.5–50 μM for L-Cys with corresponding detection limits of 0.056 μM for Cu{sup 2+} and 0.31 μM for L-Cys. The current approach also displayed a special response to Cu{sup 2+} and L-Cys over the other co-existing metal ions and amino acids, and the results obtained from buffer-diluted serum samples suggested its applicability in biological samples. - Highlights: • The europium-decorated graphene quantum dots (Eu-GQDs) have been successfully prepared. • Various characterizations results proved that Eu atoms were successfully introduced into graphene quantum dots. • The introduced Eu atoms changed the electron density and surface chemical activities of Eu-GQDs. • Eu-GQDs were used as an “off-on” fluorescent probe for Cu{sup 2+} and L-cysteine detection

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy Images Label-Free, Drug Encapsulated Nanoparticles In Vivo and Detects Difference in Tissue Mechanical Properties of Treated and Untreated: A Tip for Nanotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprou, Dimitrios A.; Venkatpurwar, Vinod; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming the intractable challenge of imaging of label-free, drug encapsulated nanoparticles in tissues in vivo would directly address associated regulatory concerns over 'nanotoxicology'. Here we demonstrate the utility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for visualising label-free, drug encapsulated polyester particles of ∼280 nm distributed within tissues following their intravenous or peroral administration to rodents. A surprising phenomenon, in which the tissues' mechanical stiffness was directly measured (also by AFM) and related to the number of embedded nanoparticles, was utilised to generate quantitative data sets for nanoparticles localisation. By coupling the normal determination of a drug's pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with post-sacrifice measurement of nanoparticle localisation and number, we present for the first time an experimental design in which a single in vivo study relates the PK/PD of a nanomedicine to its toxicokinetics. PMID:23724054

  14. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  15. Quantitative and Label-Free Detection of Protein Kinase A Activity Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Kyaw, Yi Mon Ei; Tan, Eddie Khay Ming; Bekale, Laurent; Kang, Malvin Wei Cherng; Kim, Susana Soo-Yeon; Tan, Ivan; Lam, Kong-Peng; Kah, James Chen Yong

    2018-04-26

    The activity of extracellular protein kinase A (PKA) is known to be a biomarker for cancer. However, conventional PKA assays based on colorimetric, radioactive, and fluorometric techniques suffer from intensive labeling-related preparations, background interference, photobleaching, and safety concerns. While surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based assays have been developed for various enzymes to address these limitations, their use in probing PKA activity is limited due to subtle changes in the Raman spectrum with phosphorylation. Here, we developed a robust colloidal SERS-based scheme for label-free quantitative measurement of PKA activity using gold nanostars (AuNS) as a SERS substrate functionalized with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-kemptide (Kem) bioconjugate (AuNS-BSA-Kem), where BSA conferred colloidal stability and Kem is a high-affinity peptide substrate for PKA. By performing principle component analysis (PCA) on the SERS spectrum, we identified two Raman peaks at 725 and 1395 cm -1 , whose ratiometric intensity change provided a quantitative measure of Kem phosphorylation by PKA in vitro and allowed us to distinguish MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells known to overexpress extracellular PKA catalytic subunits from noncancerous human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) based on their PKA activity in cell culture supernatant. The outcome demonstrated potential application of AuNS-BSA-Kem as a SERS probe for cancer screening based on PKA activity.

  16. Microneedle pH Sensor: Direct, Label-Free, Real-Time Detection of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Bladder pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Miyakoda, Kousei; Saito, Asuka; Yasoda, Yutaka; Kajiwara, Kagemasa; Kimura, Minoru; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-07-05

    Acid-base homeostasis (body pH) inside the body is precisely controlled by the kidneys and lungs and buffer systems, such that even a minor pH change could severely affect many organs. Blood and urine pH tests are common in day-to-day clinical trials and require little effort for diagnosis. There is always a great demand for in vivo testing to understand more about body metabolism and to provide effective diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we report the simple fabrication of microneedle-based direct, label-free, and real-time pH sensors. The reference and working electrodes were Ag/AgCl thick films and ZnO thin films on tungsten (W) microneedles, respectively. The morphological and structural characteristics of microneedles were carefully investigated through various analytical methods. The developed sensor exhibited a Nernstian response of -46 mV/pH. Different conditions were used to test the sensor to confirm their accuracy and stability, such as various buffer solutions, with respect to time, and we compared the reading with commercial pH electrodes. Besides that, the fabricated microneedle sensor ability is proven by in vivo testing in mouse cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bladders. The pH sensor procedure reported here is totally reversible, and results were reproducible after several rounds of testing.

  17. Label-free monitoring of diffusion in microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Kristensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Label-free, real-time detection of concentration gradients is demonstrated in a microfluidic H-filter, using an integrated photonic crystal slab sensor to monitor sample refractive index with spatial resolution. The recorded diffusion profiles reveal root-mean-square diffusion lengths for non...

  18. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  19. A label-free photoelectrochemical biosensor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator detection based on a g-C3N4/CdS nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Pei; Chen, Jing-Shuai; Mao, Chang-Jie; Niu, He-Lin; Song, Ji-Ming; Jin, Bao-Kang

    2018-09-26

    Herein, we established a novel ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for detecting urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), based on a g-C 3 N 4 /CdS nanocomposite. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thus indicating that the nanocomposite was prepared successfully. In the typical process, the prepared nanocomposite was deposited on the surface of a bare FTO electrode. After being air-dried, the g-C 3 N 4 /CdS nanocomposite modified electrode was successively incubated with antibody against urokinase-type plasminogen activator and the blocking agent BSA to produce a photoelectrochemical biosensor for u-PA. In the presence of target u-PA antigen, the photocurrent response of the prepared biosensor electrode decreased significantly. The proposed novel photoelectrochemical biosensor exhibited good sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility for u-PA detection, and a low detection limit of 33 fg mL -1 , ranging from 1 μg mL -1 -0.1 pg mL -1 . The proposed strategy should provide a promising method for detection of other biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optofluidic ring resonator sensor for sensitive label-free detection of breast cancer antigen CA15-3 in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Dale, Paul S.; Fan, Xudong

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide. Because of its great impact on society, a lot of research funding has been used to develop novel detection tools for aiding breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this work, we demonstrated a simple, fast, and sensitive detection of circulating breast cancer biomarker CA15-3 with opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensors. The OFRR sensor employs a thin-walled capillary with wall thickness less than 4 μm. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the optical ring resonator, in which the light circulates in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The capillary wall is thin enough that the evanescent field of the WGM extends into the capillary core and responds to refractive index changes in the capillary core or close to its interior surface. The WGM spectral position will change when the biomolecules bind to the surface, yielding quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction. Here, the direct immunoassay method was employed for the detection of CA15-3 antigen without any signal amplification steps. The sensor performance in both PBS buffer and human serum were investigated, respectively. The experimental detection limit was 5 units/mL in PBS buffer and 30 units/mL for CA15-3 spiked in serum, both of which satisfied clinical diagnosis requirements. The potential use of the OFRR as the point-of-care device for breast cancer detection was tested by measuring the CA15-3 level in blood samples collected from stage IV breast cancer patients and the results were compared with standard clinical test.

  1. Label-free turn-on fluorescent detection of melamine based on the anti-quenching ability of Hg 2+ to gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haichao; Shi, Yan; Wang, Yilin; Sun, Yujing; Hu, Jingting; Ni, Pengjuan; Li, Zhuang

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we proposed a facile, environmentally friendly and cost-effective assay for melamine with BSA-stabilized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as a fluorescence reader. Melamine, which has a multi-nitrogen heterocyclic ring, is prone to coordinate with Hg(2+). This property causes the anti-quenching ability of Hg(2+) to AuNCs through decreasing the metallophilic interaction between Hg(2+) and Au(+). By this method, detection limit down to 0.15 µM is obtained, which is approximately 130 times lower than that of the US food and Drug Administration estimated melamine safety limit of 20 µM. Furthermore, several real samples spiked with melamine, including raw milk and milk powder, are analyzed using the sensing system with excellent recoveries. This gold-nanocluster-based fluorescent method could find applications in highly sensitive detection of melamine in real samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-photon excitation in chip electrophoresis enabling label-free fluorescence detection in non-UV transparent full-body polymer chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, David; Belder, Detlev

    2015-12-01

    One of the most commonly employed detection methods in microfluidic research is fluorescence detection, due to its ease of integration and excellent sensitivity. Many analytes though do not show luminescence when excited in the visible light spectrum, require suitable dyes. Deep-ultraviolet (UV) excitation (electrophoresis of small aromatic compounds. Various polymers, such as poly(methyl methacrylate), cyclic olefin polymer, and copolymer as well as poly(dimethylsiloxane) were investigated and compared with respect to achievable LOD and ruggedness against photodamage. To demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the method was also applied to the determination of serotonin and tryptamine in fruit samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Label-Free Platform for MicroRNA Detection Based on the Fluorescence Quenching of Positively Charged Gold Nanoparticles to Silver Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangmin; Cheng, Zhiyuan; Ma, Haiyan; Li, Zongbing; Xue, Ning; Wang, Po

    2018-01-16

    A novel strategy was developed for microRNA-155 (miRNA-155) detection based on the fluorescence quenching of positively charged gold nanoparticles [(+)AuNPs] to Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs). In the designed system, DNA-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) were introduced as fluorescent probes, and DNA-RNA heteroduplexes were formed upon the addition of target miRNA-155. Meanwhile, the (+)AuNPs could be electrostatically adsorbed on the negatively charged single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or DNA-RNA heteroduplexes to quench the fluorescence signal. In the presence of duplex-specific nuclease (DSN), DNA-RNA heteroduplexes became a substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA strand to yield a fluorescence signal due to the diffusion of AgNCs away from (+)AuNPs. Under the optimal conditions, (+)AuNPs displayed very high quenching efficiency to AgNCs, which paved the way for ultrasensitive detection with a low detection limit of 33.4 fM. In particular, the present strategy demonstrated excellent specificity and selectivity toward the detection of target miRNA against control miRNAs, including mutated miRNA-155, miRNA-21, miRNA-141, let-7a, and miRNA-182. Moreover, the practical application value of the system was confirmed by the evaluation of the expression levels of miRNA-155 in clinical serum samples with satisfactory results, suggesting that the proposed sensing platform is promising for applications in disease diagnosis as well as the fundamental research of biochemistry.

  4. Introducing Ratiometric Fluorescence to MnO2 Nanosheet-Based Biosensing: A Simple, Label-Free Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor Programmed by Cascade Logic Circuit for Ultrasensitive GSH Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Shang, Changshuai; Gu, Wenling; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-08-09

    Glutathione (GSH) plays crucial roles in various biological functions, the level alterations of which have been linked to varieties of diseases. Herein, we for the first time expanded the application of oxidase-like property of MnO 2 nanosheet (MnO 2 NS) to fluorescent substrates of peroxidase. Different from previously reported fluorescent quenching phenomena, we found that MnO 2 NS could not only largely quench the fluorescence of highly fluorescent Scopoletin (SC) but also surprisingly enhance that of nonfluorescent Amplex Red (AR) via oxidation reaction. If MnO 2 NS is premixed with GSH, it will be reduced to Mn 2+ and lose the oxidase-like property, accompanied by subsequent increase in SC's fluorescence and decrease in AR's. On the basis of the above mechanism, we construct the first MnO 2 NS-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for ultrasensitive and selective detection of GSH. Notably, this ratiometric sensor is programmed by the cascade logic circuit (an INHIBIT gate cascade with a 1 to 2 decoder). And a linear relationship between ratiometric fluorescent intensities of the two substrates and logarithmic values of GSH's concentrations is obtained. The detection limit of GSH is as low as 6.7 nM, which is much lower than previous ratiometric fluorescent sensors, and the lowest MnO 2 NS-based fluorescent GSH sensor reported so far. Furthermore, this sensor is simple, label-free, and low-cost; it also presents excellent applicability in human serum samples.

  5. Conjugated polymer with carboxylate groups-Hg2 + system as a turn-on fluorescence probe for label-free detection of cysteine-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Hongyu; Guan, Mingming; Liu, Jilin; Shan, Hongyan; Fei, Qiang; Huan, Yanfu; Feng, Guodong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a turn on fluorescent sensor, based on Hg2 + coordination conjugated polymer, was developed to detect cysteine-containing compounds. The fluorescence of conjugated polymer (poly(2,5-bis (sodium 4-oxybutyrate) -1,4 - phenylethynylene-alt-1,4-phenyleneethynylene; PPE-OBS) would be quenched by Hg2 + because of the coordination-induced aggregation and electron transfers of PPE-OBS toward Hg2 +. When there were some cysteine-containing compounds in PPE-OBS-Hg2 + system, the fluorescence of PPE-OBS would be recovered. It indicated that the PPE-OBS-Hg2 + system could be used to detect cysteine-containing compounds. Under the optimized conditions, the experiment results showed that there were particularly linear range, high sensitivity and selectivity over other amino acids. The limit of detection (LOD) of cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) were 0.725 μmol L- 1, 0.982 μmol L- 1 and 1.21 μmol L- 1 by using this sensor. In addition, Cys standard recovery in several green tea drink and honey samples was also demonstrated. The recovery of Cys was range from 96.3 to 105.0% and RSD was less than 3.25%. The satisfactory results demonstrated that the proposed method could be as a potential fluorescent method for determining cysteine-containing compounds in real samples.

  6. A potential fluorescent probe: Maillard reaction product from glutathione and ascorbic acid for rapid and label-free dual detection of Hg(2+) and biothiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiang Xue; Song, Xiao Fang; Shi, Yan; Gao, Zhong Feng; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-07-15

    Maillard reactions and their fluorescent products have drawn much attention in the fields of food and life science, however, the application of fluorescent products separated from the reaction as an indicator for detection of certain substances in sensor field has not been mentioned. In this article, we report on an easy-to-synthesize and water-soluble fluorescent probe separated from the typical Maillard reaction products of glutathione and ascorbic acid, with excellent stability and high quantum yield (18.2%). The further application of the probe has been explored for dual detection of Hg(2+) and biothiols including cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione, which is based on Hg(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching of the Maillard reaction fluorescent products (MRFPs) and the fluorescence recovery as the introduction of biothiols. This sensing system exhibits a good selectivity and sensitivity, and the linear ranges for Hg(2+), cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione are 0.05-12, 0.5-10, 0.3-20, and 0.3-20μM, respectively. The detection limits for Hg(2+), cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione are 22, 47, 96, and 30nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. Furthermore, the practical applications of this sensor for Hg(2+) and biothiols determination in water samples and human plasma sample have been demonstrated with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Label-free aptamer-based colorimetric detection of mercury ions in aqueous media using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Li, Baoxin; Qi, Yingying; Jin, Yan [Shaanxi Normal University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Xi' an (China)

    2009-04-15

    We report a simple and sensitive aptamer-based colorimetric detection of mercury ions (Hg{sup 2+}) using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe. It is based on the fact that bare gold nanoparticles interact differently with short single-strand DNA and double-stranded DNA. The anti-Hg{sup 2+} aptamer is rich in thymine (T) and readily forms T-Hg{sup 2+}-T configuration in the presence of Hg{sup 2+}. By measuring color change or adsorption ratio, the bare gold nanoparticles can effectively differentiate the Hg{sup 2+}-induced conformational change of the aptamer in the presence of a given salt with high concentration. The assay shows a linear response toward Hg{sup 2+} concentration through a five-decade range of 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. Even with the naked eye, we could identify micromolar Hg{sup 2+} concentrations within minutes. By using the spectrometric method, the detection limit was improved to the nanomolar range (0.6 nM). The assay shows excellent selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} over other metal cations including K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The major advantages of this Hg{sup 2+} assay are its water-solubility, simplicity, low cost, visual colorimetry, and high sensitivity. This method provides a potentially useful tool for the Hg{sup 2+} detection. (orig.)

  8. Ranking Fragment Ions Based on Outlier Detection for Improved Label-Free Quantification in Data-Independent Acquisition LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Aivett; Zhang, Ying; Varesio, Emmanuel; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Data-independent acquisition LC-MS/MS techniques complement supervised methods for peptide quantification. However, due to the wide precursor isolation windows, these techniques are prone to interference at the fragment ion level, which in turn is detrimental for accurate quantification. The “non-outlier fragment ion” (NOFI) ranking algorithm has been developed to assign low priority to fragment ions affected by interference. By using the optimal subset of high priority fragment ions these interfered fragment ions are effectively excluded from quantification. NOFI represents each fragment ion as a vector of four dimensions related to chromatographic and MS fragmentation attributes and applies multivariate outlier detection techniques. Benchmarking conducted on a well-defined quantitative dataset (i.e. the SWATH Gold Standard), indicates that NOFI on average is able to accurately quantify 11-25% more peptides than the commonly used Top-N library intensity ranking method. The sum of the area of the Top3-5 NOFIs produces similar coefficients of variation as compared to the library intensity method but with more accurate quantification results. On a biologically relevant human dendritic cell digest dataset, NOFI properly assigns low priority ranks to 85% of annotated interferences, resulting in sensitivity values between 0.92 and 0.80 against 0.76 for the Spectronaut interference detection algorithm. PMID:26412574

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymer based quartz crystal microbalance sensor system for sensitive and label-free detection of synthetic cannabinoids in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battal, Dilek; Akgönüllü, Semra; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2018-07-15

    Herein, we prepared a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-073, JWH-073 butanoic acid, JWH-018 and JWH-018 pentanoic acid,) detection. Firstly, the synthetic cannabinoid (SCs) imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) nanoparticles were synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization system. The SCs-imprinted nanoparticles were first characterized by SEM, TEM, zeta-size and FTIR-ATR analysis and then were dropped onto the gold QCM surface. The SCs-imprinted QCM sensor was characterized by an ellipsometer, contact angle, and AFM. The limit of detection was found as 0.3, 0.45, 0.4, 0.2 pg/mL JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-018 pentanoic acid and JWH-073 butanoic acid, respectively. The selectivity of the SCs-imprinted QCM sensor was shown by using JWH-018, JWH-018 pentanoic acid, JWH-073 and JWH-073 butanoic acid. According to the results, the SCs-imprinted QCM sensors show highly selective and sensitive in a broad range of synthetic cannabinoid concentrations (0.0005-1.0 ng/mL) in both aqueous and synthetic urine solutions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single-Use Disposable Electrochemical Label-Free Immunosensor for Detection of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molazemhosseini, Alireza; Magagnin, Luca; Vena, Pasquale; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2016-07-01

    A single-use disposable in vitro electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of HbA1c in undiluted human serum using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was developed. A three-electrode configuration electrochemical biosensor consisted of 10-nm-thin gold film working and counter electrodes and a thick-film printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Micro-fabrication techniques including sputtering vapor deposition and thick-film printing were used to fabricate the biosensor. This was a roll-to-roll cost-effective manufacturing process making the single-use disposable in vitro HbA1c biosensor a reality. Self-assembled monolayers of 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were employed to covalently immobilize anti-HbA1c on the surface of gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the excellent coverage of MPA-SAM and the upward orientation of carboxylic groups. The hindering effect of HbA1c on the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide electron transfer reaction was exploited as the HbA1c detection mechanism. The biosensor showed a linear range of 7.5-20 µg/mL of HbA1c in 0.1 M PBS. Using undiluted human serum as the test medium, the biosensor presented an excellent linear behavior (R² = 0.999) in the range of 0.1-0.25 mg/mL of HbA1c. The potential application of this biosensor for in vitro measurement of HbA1c for diabetic management was demonstrated.

  11. Single-Use Disposable Electrochemical Label-Free Immunosensor for Detection of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Molazemhosseini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-use disposable in vitro electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of HbA1c in undiluted human serum using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV was developed. A three-electrode configuration electrochemical biosensor consisted of 10-nm-thin gold film working and counter electrodes and a thick-film printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Micro-fabrication techniques including sputtering vapor deposition and thick-film printing were used to fabricate the biosensor. This was a roll-to-roll cost-effective manufacturing process making the single-use disposable in vitro HbA1c biosensor a reality. Self-assembled monolayers of 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA were employed to covalently immobilize anti-HbA1c on the surface of gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirmed the excellent coverage of MPA-SAM and the upward orientation of carboxylic groups. The hindering effect of HbA1c on the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide electron transfer reaction was exploited as the HbA1c detection mechanism. The biosensor showed a linear range of 7.5–20 µg/mL of HbA1c in 0.1 M PBS. Using undiluted human serum as the test medium, the biosensor presented an excellent linear behavior (R2 = 0.999 in the range of 0.1–0.25 mg/mL of HbA1c. The potential application of this biosensor for in vitro measurement of HbA1c for diabetic management was demonstrated.

  12. A label-free multi-functionalized electrochemical aptasensor based on a Fe_3O_4@3D-rGO@plasma-polymerized (4-vinyl pyridine) nanocomposite for the sensitive detection of proteins in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Shaoming; Dong, Xiaodong; Liu, Shunli; Penng, Donglai; He, Linghao; Wang, Minghua; Fu, Guodong; Feng, Xiaozhong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a novel label-free electrochemical aptasensor for detecting proteins in whole blood based on a three-component nanocomposite, in which ferriferrous oxide and three-dimensional graphene nanocomposite were modified with the plasma-polymerized 4-vinyl pyridine (Fe_3O_4@3D-rGO@PP4VP). In this novel sensing strategy, large amounts of amino groups in PP4VP facilitated the immobilization of aptamer strands via the strong electrostatic interaction between positively charged ammonium groups of the nanocomposites and negatively charged phosphate groups of aptamers. In the presence of thrombin, LYS (LYS), and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), the adsorbed aptamer strands on the developed nanocomposite surface caught the targeted proteins at the electrode interface. The aptamer preferred to be a barrier for electrons and inhibited electron transfer, leading to the decreased peak current of cyclic voltammetry measurements and the increased electron transfer resistance of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The determination of the thrombin, PDGF-BB, and LYS concentrations with this novel strategy showed low detection limits of 4.5, 29.4, and 14 pg·mL"−"1, and the analytical ranges extend from 0.01 to 50, 0.1 to 100, and 0.1 to 200 ng·mL"−"1, respectively. The resultant aptasensor exhibited high selectivity, acceptable reproducibility, and stability toward thrombin. The aptasensor could be used to detect thrombin in whole blood samples, thereby suggesting its possible application in clinical settings.

  13. Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Bañuls, María José; González-Pedro, Victoria; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Maquieira, A; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate label-free molecule detection by using an integrated biosensor based on a Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2) slot-waveguide microring resonator. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA molecular binding events on the sensor surface are monitored through the measurement of resonant wavelength shifts with varying biomolecule concentrations. The biosensor exhibited sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.2 nm/(ng/mm(2)) for the detection of anti-BSA and BSA, respectively. The estimated detection limits are 28 and 16 pg/mm(2) for anti-BSA and BSA, respectively, limited by wavelength resolution.

  14. Label-free room-temperature phosphorescence turn-on detection of tiopronin based on Cu{sup 2+}-modulated homocysteine-capped manganese doped zinc sulfide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan; Fan, Zhefeng, E-mail: crush_bc@163.com

    2015-04-15

    A label-free turn-on room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) sensor for tiopronin based on Cu{sup 2+}-modulated homocysteine (Hcy)-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was described in this paper. The RTP of Hcy-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs can be effectively quenched by Cu{sup 2+} due to the binding of Cu{sup 2+} to the Hcy on the surface of the QDs and the electron transfer generated from the photoexcited QDs to Cu{sup 2+}. The high affinity of tiopronin to Cu{sup 2+} enables the dissociation of the ion from the surface of the QDs, thereby forming a stable complex with tiopronin in the solution, and recovering the RTP of the QDs. The Cu{sup 2+}-induced RTP quenching and subsequent tiopronin-induced RTP recovery for MPA-capped ZnS QDs provide a solid basis for the present RTP sensor based on QDs for the detection of tiopronin. The detection limit for tiopronin is 0.18 ng mL{sup −1}, the relative standard deviations is 1.9%, and the recovery of urine and serum samples with tiopronin addition range from 96% to 106% under optimal conditions. The proposed method was successfully applied to biological fluids and obtained satisfactory results. - Highlights: • The high water-solubility Mn-doped-QDs with good RTP property was synthesized. • The RTP intensity of the QDs could be effectively quenched by Cu{sup 2+} ions. • Cu{sup 2+} ions were selectively separated from the QDs by tiopronin. • The RTP of the Cu{sup 2+}-modulated QDs was restored by tiopronin. • The tiopronin sensor was applied to biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  15. Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, P Haring; Brucherseifer, M; Nagel, M; Kurz, H; Bosserhoff, A; Buettner, R

    2002-01-01

    A label-free sensing approach for the label-free characterization of genetic material with terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves is presented. Time-resolved THz analysis of polynucleotides demonstrates a strong dependence of the complex refractive index of DNA molecules in the THz frequency range on their hybridization state. By monitoring THz signals one can thus infer the binding state (hybridized or denatured) of oligo- and polynucleotides, enabling the label-free determination the genetic composition of unknown DNA sequences. A broadband experimental proof-of-principle in a free-space analytic configuration, as well as a higher-sensitivity approach using integrated THz sensors reaching femtomol detection levels and demonstrating the capability to detect single-base mutations, are presented. The potential application for next generation high-throughput label-free genetic analytic systems is discussed

  16. Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, P Haring [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Brucherseifer, M [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Nagel, M [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Kurz, H [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bosserhoff, A [Institut fuer Pathologie, Universitaet Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Buettner, R [Institut fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2002-11-07

    A label-free sensing approach for the label-free characterization of genetic material with terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves is presented. Time-resolved THz analysis of polynucleotides demonstrates a strong dependence of the complex refractive index of DNA molecules in the THz frequency range on their hybridization state. By monitoring THz signals one can thus infer the binding state (hybridized or denatured) of oligo- and polynucleotides, enabling the label-free determination the genetic composition of unknown DNA sequences. A broadband experimental proof-of-principle in a free-space analytic configuration, as well as a higher-sensitivity approach using integrated THz sensors reaching femtomol detection levels and demonstrating the capability to detect single-base mutations, are presented. The potential application for next generation high-throughput label-free genetic analytic systems is discussed.

  17. A Fast, Sensitive and Label Free Electrochemical DNA Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Elling; Lee Yokeling; Chong Serchoong

    2006-01-01

    A label free and sensitive DNA/RNA silicon based electrochemical microsensor array was developed by using thin film of the conducting polymer polypyrrole doped with an oligonucleotide probe. The electrochemical potential pulse amperometry technique was used for a biowarfare pathogen target DNA detection. The electrical potential assistanted DNA hybridisation method was applied. The sensor signal was increased by increasing the electrical potential assistanted DNA hybridisation time. It was possible to detect 0.34pmol and 0.072fmol of complementary oligonucleotide target in 0.1ml in seconds by using unpolished and polished gold electrode respectively. The probe preparation was also in seconds time, comparing indirect electrochemical DNA sensor, it has a fast sensor preparation as well as sensor response and label free advantages. The silicon microfabrication technique was used for this sensor array fabrication, which holds the potential to integrate with sensor electrical circuits. The conducting polymer polypyrrole was electrochemically deposited on each electrode respectively which has a possibility to dope the different DNA probe into the individual electrode to form a sensor array

  18. Progress of new label-free techniques for biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Wang, Yajun; Feng, Qiliang; Wei, Ye; Ji, Jianlong; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The detection techniques used in biosensors can be broadly classified into label-based and label-free. Label-based detection relies on the specific properties of labels for detecting a particular target. In contrast, label-free detection is suitable for the target molecules that are not labeled or the screening of analytes which are not easy to tag. Also, more types of label-free biosensors have emerged with developments in biotechnology. The latest developed techniques in label-free biosensors, such as field-effect transistors-based biosensors including carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensors, graphene field-effect transistor biosensors and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors, magnetoelastic biosensors, optical-based biosensors, surface stress-based biosensors and other type of biosensors based on the nanotechnology are discussed. The sensing principles, configurations, sensing performance, applications, advantages and restriction of different label-free based biosensors are considered and discussed in this review. Most concepts included in this survey could certainly be applied to the development of this kind of biosensor in the future.

  19. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  20. Label-Free Raman Imaging to Monitor Breast Tumor Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubuc, John

    Methods built on Raman spectroscopy have shown major potential in describing and discriminating between malignant and benign specimens. Accurate, real-time medical diagnosis benefits in substantial improvements through this vibrational optical method. Not only is acquisition of data possible in milliseconds and analysis in minutes, Raman allows concurrent detection and monitoring of all biological components. Besides validating a significant Raman signature distinction between non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) and tumorigenic (MCF-7) breast epithelial cells, this study reveals a label-free method to assess overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in tumor cells. EGFR overexpression sires Raman features associated with phosphorylated threonine and serine, and modifications of DNA/RNA characteristics. Investigations by gel electrophoresis reveal EGF induction of phosphorylated Akt, agreeing with the Raman results. The analysis presented is a vital step toward Raman-based evaluation of EGF receptors in breast cancer cells. With the goal of clinically applying Raman-guided methods for diagnosis of breast tumors, the current results lay the basis for proving label-free optical alternatives in making prognosis of the disease.

  1. Label-free surface plasmon sensing towards cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Goutham

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a conventional, home-built SPR bio-sensor to demonstrate bio-sensing applications. This emphasizes the understanding of basic concepts of Surface Plasmon Resonance and various interrogation techniques. Intensity Modulation was opted to perform the label-free SPR bio-sensing experiments due to its cost-efficient and compact setup. Later, label-free surface plasmon sensing was carried out to study and understand the bio-molecular interactions between (1). BSA and Anti BSA molecules and (2). Exosome/Liposome on thin metal (Au) films. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles present in bodily fluids like blood, saliva, urine, epididymal fluid containing miRNAs, RNA, proteins, etc., at stable quantities during normal health conditions. The exosomes comprise varied constituents based on their cell origin from where they are secreted and is specific to that particular origin. However an exacerbated release is observed during tumor or cancer conditions. This increased level of exosomes present in the sample, can be detected using the SPR bio-sensor demonstrated in this thesis and effective thickness of adsorption on Au surface can be estimated. Also, chemically synthesized liposome particles were studied to determine if they can generate an equivalent sensor response to that of exosomes to consider them as an alternate. Finally a 10ppb Mercury (Hg) sensing was performed as part of Environment Monitoring application and results have been tabulated and compared.

  2. Toward microfluidic sperm refinement: continuous flow label-free analysis and sorting of sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Dekker, Stefan; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript reports upon the development of a microfluidic setup to detect and sort sperm cells from polystyrene beads label-free and non-invasively. Detection is performed by impedance analysis. When sperm cells passed the microelectrodes, the recorded impedance (19.6 ± 5.7 Ω) was higher

  3. Label-free SERS in biological and biomedical applications: Recent progress, current challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Shan; Jahn, Izabella Jolan; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    To achieve an insightful look within biomolecular processes on the cellular level, the development of diseases as well as the reliable detection of metabolites and pathogens, a modern analytical tool is needed that is highly sensitive, molecular-specific and exhibits fast detection. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is known to meet these requirements and, within this review article, the recent progress of label-free SERS in biological and biomedical applications is summarized and discussed. This includes the detection of biomolecules such as metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins. Further, the characterization and identification of microorganisms has been achieved by label-free SERS-based approaches. Eukaryotic cells can be characterized by SERS in order to gain information about the outer cell wall or to detect intracellular molecules and metabolites. The potential of SERS for medically relevant detection schemes is emphasized by the label-free detection of tissue, the investigation of body fluids as well as applications for therapeutic and illicit drug monitoring. The review article is concluded with an evaluation of the recent progress and current challenges in order to highlight the direction of label-free SERS in the future.

  4. Hybrid integrated label-free chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

    2014-03-26

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach.

  5. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach. PMID:24675757

  6. Nanophotonic label-free biosensors for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocarro-Ruiz, Blanca; Fernández-Gavela, Adrián; Herranz, Sonia; Lechuga, Laura M

    2017-06-01

    The field of environmental monitoring has experienced a substantial progress in the last years but still the on-site control of contaminants is an elusive problem. In addition, the growing number of pollutant sources is accompanied by an increasing need of having efficient early warning systems. Several years ago biosensor devices emerged as promising environmental monitoring tools, but their level of miniaturization and their fully operation outside the laboratory prevented their use on-site. In the last period, nanophotonic biosensors based on evanescent sensing have emerged as an outstanding choice for portable point-of-care diagnosis thanks to their capability, among others, of miniaturization, multiplexing, label-free detection and integration in lab-on-chip platforms. This review covers the most relevant nanophotonic biosensors which have been proposed (including interferometric waveguides, grating-couplers, microcavity resonators, photonic crystals and localized surface plasmon resonance sensors) and their recent application for environmental surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Mehrabani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits. This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach.

  8. Label-Free Raman Imaging to Monitor Breast Tumor Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S; Ciubuc, John D; Parra, Karla; Manciu, Marian; Bennet, Kevin E; Valenzuela, Paloma; Sundin, Emma M; Durrer, William G; Reza, Luis; Francia, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Although not yet ready for clinical application, methods based on Raman spectroscopy have shown significant potential in identifying, characterizing, and discriminating between noncancerous and cancerous specimens. Real-time and accurate medical diagnosis achievable through this vibrational optical method largely benefits from improvements in current technological and software capabilities. Not only is the acquisition of spectral information now possible in milliseconds and analysis of hundreds of thousands of data points achieved in minutes, but Raman spectroscopy also allows simultaneous detection and monitoring of several biological components. Besides demonstrating a significant Raman signature distinction between nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) and tumorigenic (MCF-7) breast epithelial cells, our study demonstrates that Raman can be used as a label-free method to evaluate epidermal growth factor activity in tumor cells. Comparative Raman profiles and images of specimens in the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor show important differences in regions attributed to lipid, protein, and nucleic acid vibrations. The occurrence, which is dependent on the presence of epidermal growth factor, of new Raman features associated with the appearance of phosphothreonine and phosphoserine residues reflects a signal transduction from the membrane to the nucleus, with concomitant modification of DNA/RNA structural characteristics. Parallel Western blotting analysis reveals an epidermal growth factor induction of phosphorylated Akt protein, corroborating the Raman results. The analysis presented in this work is an important step toward Raman-based evaluation of biological activity of epidermal growth factor receptors on the surfaces of breast cancer cells. With the ultimate future goal of clinically implementing Raman-guided techniques for the diagnosis of breast tumors (e.g., with regard to specific receptor activity), the current results just lay the foundation for

  9. Development of a free-solution SERS-based assay for point-of-care oral cancer biomarker detection using DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungyub; Locke, Andrea K.; Oaks, Luke A.; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Coté, Gerard L.

    2018-02-01

    It is estimated that the number of new cases of oral cancers worldwide is 529,000 and more than 300,000 deaths each year. The five-year survival rate remains about 50%, and the low survival rate is believed to be due to delayed detection. The primary detection method is through a comprehensive clinical examination by a dentist followed by a biopsy of suspicious lesions. Systematic review and meta-analysis have revealed that clinical examination alone may not be sufficient to cause the clinician to perform a biopsy or refer for biopsy for early detection of OSCC. Therefore, a non-invasive, point-of-Care (POC) detection with high sensitivity and specificity for early detection would be urgently needed, and using salivary biomarkers would be an ideal technology for it. S100 calcium binding protein P (S100P) mRNA presenting in saliva is a potential biomarker for detection of oral cancer. Further, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been shown to be a promising POC diagnostic technique. In this research, a SERS-based assay using oligonucleotide strains was developed for the sensitive and rapid detection of S100P. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a SERS substrate were used for the conjugation with one of two unique 24 base pair oligonucleotides, referred to as left and right DNA probes. A Raman reporter molecule, malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC), was bound to left-probe-conjugated AuNPs. UV-vis spectroscopy was employed to monitor the conjugation of DNA probes to AuNPs. The hybridization of S100P target to DNA-conjugated AuNPs in sandwich-assay format was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and shown to yield and R2 of 0.917 across the range of 0-200 nM and a limit of detection of 3 nM.

  10. Functionalized Polymer Microgel Particles Enable Customizable Production of Label-Free Sensor Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifson, Mark A; Carter, Jared A; Miller, Benjamin L

    2015-08-04

    Probe molecule immobilization onto surfaces is a critical step in the production of many analytical devices, including labeled and label-free microarrays. New methods to increase the density and uniformity of probe deposition have the potential to significantly enhance the ultimate limits of detection and reproducibility. Hydrogel-based materials have been employed in the past to provide a 3D protein-friendly surface for deposition of antibodies and nucleic acids. However, these methods are susceptible to variation during polymerization of the hydrogel scaffold and provide limited opportunities for tuning deposition parameters on an antibody-by-antibody basis. In this work, a versatile hydrogel nanoparticle deposition method was developed for the production of label-free microarrays and tested in the context of antibody-antigen binding. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoparticles (PNIPAM) were conjugated to antibodies using an avidin/biotin system and deposited onto surfaces using a noncontact printing system. After drying, these gel spots formed uniform and thin layers <10 nm in height. The conjugates were characterized with dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We tested this format in the context of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) detection via arrayed imaging reflectometry (AIR), a label-free protein microarray method. This method of probe molecule deposition should be generally useful in the production of microarrays for label-free detection.

  11. Phase sensitive spectral domain interferometry for label free biomolecular interaction analysis and biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirvi, Sajal

    Biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA) plays vital role in wide variety of fields, which include biomedical research, pharmaceutical industry, medical diagnostics, and biotechnology industry. Study and quantification of interactions between natural biomolecules (proteins, enzymes, DNA) and artificially synthesized molecules (drugs) is routinely done using various labeled and label-free BIA techniques. Labeled BIA (Chemiluminescence, Fluorescence, Radioactive) techniques suffer from steric hindrance of labels on interaction site, difficulty of attaching labels to molecules, higher cost and time of assay development. Label free techniques with real time detection capabilities have demonstrated advantages over traditional labeled techniques. The gold standard for label free BIA is surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) that detects and quantifies the changes in refractive index of the ligand-analyte complex molecule with high sensitivity. Although SPR is a highly sensitive BIA technique, it requires custom-made sensor chips and is not well suited for highly multiplexed BIA required in high throughput applications. Moreover implementation of SPR on various biosensing platforms is limited. In this research work spectral domain phase sensitive interferometry (SD-PSI) has been developed for label-free BIA and biosensing applications to address limitations of SPR and other label free techniques. One distinct advantage of SD-PSI compared to other label-free techniques is that it does not require use of custom fabricated biosensor substrates. Laboratory grade, off-the-shelf glass or plastic substrates of suitable thickness with proper surface functionalization are used as biosensor chips. SD-PSI is tested on four separate BIA and biosensing platforms, which include multi-well plate, flow cell, fiber probe with integrated optics and fiber tip biosensor. Sensitivity of 33 ng/ml for anti-IgG is achieved using multi-well platform. Principle of coherence multiplexing for multi

  12. Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Sridharan, Shamira; Liang, Jon; Luo, Zelun; Han, Kevin; Macias, Virgilia; Shah, Anish; Patel, Roshan; Tangella, Krishnarao; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    The current practice of surgical pathology relies on external contrast agents to reveal tissue architecture, which is then qualitatively examined by a trained pathologist. The diagnosis is based on the comparison with standardized empirical, qualitative assessments of limited objectivity. We propose an approach to pathology based on interferometric imaging of "unstained" biopsies, which provides unique capabilities for quantitative diagnosis and automation. We developed a label-free tissue scanner based on "quantitative phase imaging," which maps out optical path length at each point in the field of view and, thus, yields images that are sensitive to the "nanoscale" tissue architecture. Unlike analysis of stained tissue, which is qualitative in nature and affected by color balance, staining strength and imaging conditions, optical path length measurements are intrinsically quantitative, i.e., images can be compared across different instruments and clinical sites. These critical features allow us to automate the diagnosis process. We paired our interferometric optical system with highly parallelized, dedicated software algorithms for data acquisition, allowing us to image at a throughput comparable to that of commercial tissue scanners while maintaining the nanoscale sensitivity to morphology. Based on the measured phase information, we implemented software tools for autofocusing during imaging, as well as image archiving and data access. To illustrate the potential of our technology for large volume pathology screening, we established an "intrinsic marker" for colorectal disease that detects tissue with dysplasia or colorectal cancer and flags specific areas for further examination, potentially improving the efficiency of existing pathology workflows.

  13. Label-free in situ SERS imaging of biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wagner, Michael; Szkola, Agathe; Horn, Harald; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2010-08-12

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a promising technique for the chemical characterization of biological systems. It yields highly informative spectra, can be applied directly in aqueous environment, and has high sensitivity in comparison with normal Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, SERS imaging can provide chemical information with spatial resolution in the micrometer range (chemical imaging). In this paper, we report for the first time on the application of SERS for in situ, label-free imaging of biofilms and demonstrate the suitability of this technique for the characterization of the complex biomatrix. Biofilms, being communities of microorganisms embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), represent the predominant mode of microbial life. Knowledge of the chemical composition and the structure of the biofilm matrix is important in different fields, e.g., medicine, biology, and industrial processes. We used colloidal silver nanoparticles for the in situ SERS analysis. Good SERS measurement reproducibility, along with a significant enhancement of Raman signals by SERS (>10(4)) and highly informative SERS signature, enables rapid SERS imaging (1 s for a single spectrum) of the biofilm matrix. Altogether, this work illustrates the potential of SERS for biofilm analysis, including the detection of different constituents and the determination of their distribution in a biofilm even at low biomass concentration.

  14. Label-free all-electronic biosensing in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael A.

    Label-free, all-electronic detection techniques offer great promise for advancements in medical and biological analysis. Electrical sensing can be used to measure both interfacial and bulk impedance changes in conducting solutions. Electronic sensors produced using standard microfabrication processes are easily integrated into microfluidic systems. Combined with the sensitivity of radiofrequency electrical measurements, this approach offers significant advantages over competing biological sensing methods. Scalable fabrication methods also provide a means of bypassing the prohibitive costs and infrastructure associated with current technologies. We describe the design, development and use of a radiofrequency reflectometer integrated into a microfluidic system towards the specific detection of biologically relevant materials. We developed a detection protocol based on impedimetric changes caused by the binding of antibody/antigen pairs to the sensing region. Here we report the surface chemistry that forms the necessary capture mechanism. Gold-thiol binding was utilized to create an ordered alkane monolayer on the sensor surface. Exposed functional groups target the N-terminus, affixing a protein to the monolayer. The general applicability of this method lends itself to a wide variety of proteins. To demonstrate specificity, commercially available mouse anti- Streptococcus Pneumoniae monoclonal antibody was used to target the full-length recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A, type 2 strain D39 expressed by Streptococcus Pneumoniae. We demonstrate the RF response of the sensor to both the presence of the surface decoration and bound SPn cells in a 1x phosphate buffered saline solution. The combined microfluidic sensor represents a powerful platform for the analysis and detection of cells and biomolecules.

  15. Robust label-free biosensing using microdisk laser arrays with on-chip references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondimu, S F; Hippler, M; Hussal, C; Hofmann, A; Krämmer, S; Lahann, J; Kalt, H; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2018-02-05

    Whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microdisk lasers show great potential for highly sensitive label-free detection in large-scale sensor arrays. However, when used in practical applications under normal ambient conditions, these devices suffer from temperature fluctuations and photobleaching. Here we demonstrate that these challenges can be overcome by a novel referencing scheme that allows for simultaneous compensation of temperature drift and photobleaching. The technique relies on reference structures protected by locally dispensed passivation materials, and can be scaled to extended arrays of hundreds of devices. We prove the viability of the concept in a series of experiments, demonstrating robust and sensitive label-free detection over a wide range of constant or continuously varying temperatures. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first demonstration of biosensing in active WGM devices with simultaneous compensation of both photobleaching and temperature drift.

  16. Label-free and selective nonlinear fiber-optical biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Heuck, Mikkel; Agger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the inherent nonlinearity of a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) may be used to achieve label-free selective biosensing, thereby eliminating the need for post-processing of the fiber. This first nonlinear biosensor utilizes a change in the modulational instability (MI) gain...... for optimizing the sensitivity. The nonlinear sensor shows a sensitivity of around 10.4nm/nm, defined as the shift in resonance wavelength per nm biolayer, which is a factor of 7.5 higher than the hitherto only demonstrated label-free MOF biosensor....

  17. Label-Free Electrochemical Immunoassay for C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madasamy Thangamuthu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most expressed proteins in blood during acute phase inflammation, and its minute level increase has also been recognized for the clinical diagnosis of cardio vascular diseases. Unfortunately, the available commercial immunoassays are labour intensive, require large sample volumes, and have practical limitations, such as low stability and high production costs. Hence, we have developed a simple, cost effective, and label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the measurement of CRP in a drop of serum sample using an immunosensor strip made up of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE modified with anti-CRP functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The measurement relies on the decrease of the oxidation current of the redox indicator Fe3+/Fe2+, resulting from the immunoreaction between CRP and anti-CRP. Under optimal conditions, the present immunoassay measures CRP in a linear range from 0.4–200 nM (0.047–23.6 µg mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.15 nM (17 ng mL−1, S/N = 3 and sensitivity of 90.7 nA nM−1, in addition to a good reproducibility and storage stability. The analytical applicability of the presented immunoassay is verified by CRP measurements in human blood serum samples. This work provides the basis for a low-priced, safe, and easy-to-use point-of-care immunosensor assay to measure CRP at clinically relevant concentrations.

  18. A label-free, fluorescence based assay for microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sanjun

    DNA chip technology has drawn tremendous attention since it emerged in the mid 90's as a method that expedites gene sequencing by over 100-fold. DNA chip, also called DNA microarray, is a combinatorial technology in which different single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules of known sequences are immobilized at specific spots. The immobilized ssDNA strands are called probes. In application, the chip is exposed to a solution containing ssDNA of unknown sequence, called targets, which are labeled with fluorescent dyes. Due to specific molecular recognition among the base pairs in the DNA, the binding or hybridization occurs only when the probe and target sequences are complementary. The nucleotide sequence of the target is determined by imaging the fluorescence from the spots. The uncertainty of background in signal detection and statistical error in data analysis, primarily due to the error in the DNA amplification process and statistical distribution of the tags in the target DNA, have become the fundamental barriers in bringing the technology into application for clinical diagnostics. Furthermore, the dye and tagging process are expensive, making the cost of DNA chips inhibitive for clinical testing. These limitations and challenges make it difficult to implement DNA chip methods as a diagnostic tool in a pathology laboratory. The objective of this dissertation research is to provide an alternative approach that will address the above challenges. In this research, a label-free assay is designed and studied. Polystyrene (PS), a commonly used polymeric material, serves as the fluorescence agent. Probe ssDNA is covalently immobilized on polystyrene thin film that is supported by a reflecting substrate. When this chip is exposed to excitation light, fluorescence light intensity from PS is detected as the signal. Since the optical constants and conformations of ssDNA and dsDNA (double stranded DNA) are different, the measured fluorescence from PS changes for the same

  19. Au nanoparticles grafted on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as effective SERS substrates for label-free detection of the 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jingjing; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Zhenli; Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn

    2016-04-07

    Several methods and materials have been explored for the sensitive and practicable detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it is still a challenge to develop simple and cost-effective sensing techniques for PAHs. Herein we report the synthesis and construction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au SERS substrate. This magnetic substrate was composed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres and Au NPs. The size, morphology, and surface composition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au were characterized by multiple complimentary techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The spatial distributions of electro-magnetic field enhancement around Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au was calculated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. As a result of its remarkable sensitivity, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au-based SERS assay has been applied to detect the 16 EPA priority PAHs. The LODs achieved by our method (100–5 nM, 16.6–1.01 μg L{sup −1}) make it promising for the rapid screening of highly contaminated cases. As a proof-of-concept study, the substrate was applied in SERS sensing of PAHs in river matrix. The 16 PAHs could be differentiated based upon their characteristic SERS peaks. Most importantly, the detection was successfully conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer, which could be used for on-site monitoring of PAHs. - Highlights: • SERS detection of the 16 EPA priority PAHs was conducted. • The satellite-core structure lead to high SERS enhancement by confined hotspots. • The approach does not require expensive instrumentation or large sample volumes. • The effective protocol is useful for the identification of hydrophobic molecules.

  20. A label-free ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of viable Salmonella enteritidis using enzyme-induced cascade two-stage toehold strand-displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui; Ma, Suzhen; Men, Shuai; Li, Qingzhou; Yang, Xin; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Anyun

    2016-06-15

    The harm of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis ) to public health mainly by contaminating fresh food and water emphasizes the urgent need for rapid detection techniques to help control the spread of the pathogen. In this assay, an newly designed capture probe complex that contained specific S. enteritidis-aptamer and hybridized signal target sequence was used for viable S. enteritidis recognition directly. In the presence of the target S. enteritidis, single-stranded target sequences were liberated and initiated the replication-cleavage reaction, producing numerous G-quadruplex structures with a linker on the 3'-end. And then, the sensing system took innovative advantage of quadratic linker-induced strand-displacement for the first time to release target sequence in succession, leading to the cyclic reuse of the target sequences and cascade signal amplification, thereby achieving the successive production of G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binded to these G-quadruplex structures and generated significantly enhanced fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of S. enteritidis down to 60 CFU/mL with a linear range from 10(2) to 10(7)CFU/mL. By coupling the cascade two-stage target sequences-recyclable toehold strand-displacement with aptamer-based target recognition successfully, it is the first report on a novel non-label, modification-free and DNA extraction-free ultrasensitive fluorescence biosensor for detecting viable S. enteritidis directly, which can discriminate from dead S. enteritidis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of serum fractionation methods by data independent label-free proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baiwir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial methods efficiency to raw serum analysis using label-free proteomics. The variability of the protein quantities determined for each process was similar to the unprefractionated serum. A 49% increase in protein identifications and 12.2% of reliable quantification were obtained. A 61 times lower limit of protein quantitation was reached compared to protein concentrations observed in raw serum. The concentrations of detected proteins were confronted to estimated reference values.

  2. Aptamer and 5-fluorouracil dual-loading Ag2S quantum dots used as a sensitive label-free probe for near-infrared photoluminescence turn-on detection of CA125 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Gong, Jun; Huang, Wenxue

    2017-06-15

    In this article, Ag 2 S quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by a facile aqueous synthesis method, using thiourea as a new sulfur precursor. Based on electrostatic interactions, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) was combined with the aptamer of CA125 antigen to fabricate aptamer/5-Fu complex. The surface of as-prepared Ag 2 S QDs was modified with polyethylenimine, followed by combination with the aptamer/5-Fu complex to form Ag 2 S QDs/aptamer/5-Fu hybrids. During the combination of Ag 2 S QDs with aptamer/5-Fu complex, near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) of QDs (peaked at 850nm) was markedly reduced under excitation at 625nm, attributed to photo-induced electron transfer from QDs to 5-Fu. However, the addition of CA125 induced obvious NIR PL recovery, which was ascribed to the strong binding affinity of CA125 with its aptamer, and the separation of aptamer/5-Fu complex from the surface of QDs. Hence, the Ag 2 S QDs/aptamer/5-Fu hybrids were developed as a novel NIR PL turn-on probe of CA125. In the concentration range of [CA125] from 0.1 to 10 6 ngmL -1 , there were a good linear relationship between NIR PL intensities of Ag 2 S QDs and Log[CA125], and a low limit of detection of 0.07ngmL -1 . Experimental results revealed the highly selective and sensitive NIR PL responses of this probe to CA125, over other potential interferences. In real human body fluids, this probe also exhibited superior analytical performance, together with high detection recoveries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple and label-free electrochemical impedance Amelogenin gene hybridization biosensing based on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Rajabzadeh, Nooshin; Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2014-08-15

    The increasing desire for sensitive, easy, low-cost, and label free methods for the detection of DNA sequences has become a vital matter in biomedical research. For the first time a novel label-free biosensor for sensitive detection of Amelogenin gene (AMEL) using reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/RGO) has been developed. In this work, detection of DNA hybridization of the target and probe DNA was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The optimum conditions were found for the immobilization of probe on RGO surface and its hybridization with the target DNA. CV and EIS carried out in an aqueous solution containing [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox pair have been used for the biosensor characterization. The biosensor has a wide linear range from 1.0×10(-20) to 1.0×10(-14)M with the lower detection limit of 3.2×10(-21)M. Moreover, the present electrochemical detection offers some unique advantages such as ultrahigh sensitivity, simplicity, and feasibility for apparatus miniaturization in analytical tests. The excellent performance of the biosensor is attributed to large surface-to-volume ratio and high conductivity of RGO, which enhances the probe absorption and promotes direct electron transfer between probe and the electrode surface. This electrochemical DNA sensor could be used for the detection of specific ssDNA sequence in real biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 6. Label-free selective plane illumination microscopy of tissue samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muteb Alharbi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Overall this method meets the demands of the current needs for 3D imaging tissue samples in a label-free manner. Label-free Selective Plane Microscopy directly provides excellent information about the structure of the tissue samples. This work has highlighted the superiority of Label-free Selective Plane Microscopy to current approaches to label-free 3D imaging of tissue.

  5. The beauty of being (label)-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate; Deery, Michael J.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Ralser, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA) and data independent (SWATH) acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides. PMID:24741437

  6. Photonic Biosensor Chips for Label-Free Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin

    Optical fibers are ideal for transmission of light due to their low loss. This is less important for optical sensors where chemical compatibility, size and price are more important. These parameters can be optimized by using planar integrated optics and fabrication methods from the semiconductor...... industry with adaptations to satisfy the requirements of biosensors....

  7. Label-free electrochemical detection of singlet oxygen protein damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Veronika; Gimenez, R.E.; Černocká, Hana; Trujillo, D.C.; Tulli, F.; Zanini, V.I.P.; Paleček, Emil; Borsarelli, C.D.; Ostatná, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 187, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 662-669 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00956S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : singlet oxygen protein damage * surface-attached protein stability * mercury and carbon electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  8. Responsive Hydrogels for Label-Free Signal Transduction within Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Gawel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have found wide application in biosensors due to their versatile nature. This family of materials is applied in biosensing either to increase the loading capacity compared to two-dimensional surfaces, or to support biospecific hydrogel swelling occurring subsequent to specific recognition of an analyte. This review focuses on various principles underpinning the design of biospecific hydrogels acting through various molecular mechanisms in transducing the recognition event of label-free analytes. Towards this end, we describe several promising hydrogel systems that when combined with the appropriate readout platform and quantitative approach could lead to future real-life applications.

  9. Recognizing different tissues in human fetal femur cartilage by label-free Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstar, Aliz; Leijten, Jeroen; van Leuveren, Stefan; Hilderink, Janneke; Otto, Cees; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the composition of bone and cartilage is determined by standard histological methods. We used Raman microscopy, which provides a molecular "fingerprint" of the investigated sample, to detect differences between the zones in human fetal femur cartilage without the need for additional staining or labeling. Raman area scans were made from the (pre)articular cartilage, resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones of growth plate and endochondral bone within human fetal femora. Multivariate data analysis was performed on Raman spectral datasets to construct cluster images with corresponding cluster averages. Cluster analysis resulted in detection of individual chondrocyte spectra that could be separated from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) spectra and was verified by comparing cluster images with intensity-based Raman images for the deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) band. Specific dendrograms were created using Ward's clustering method, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the separated and averaged Raman spectra of cells and ECM of all measured zones. Overall (dis)similarities between measured zones were effectively visualized on the dendrograms and main spectral differences were revealed by PCA allowing for label-free detection of individual cartilaginous zones and for label-free evaluation of proper cartilaginous matrix formation for future tissue engineering and clinical purposes.

  10. 3D label-free prostate specific antigen (PSA) immunosensor based on graphene-gold composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Sun Kyung; Chang, Hankwon; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-01-15

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of PSA is reported. This unique immunosensor is equipped with a highly conductive graphene (GR)-based gold (Au) composite modified electrode. The GR-based Au composite is prepared using aerosol spray pyrolysis and the morphology of the composite is the shape of a crumpled GR ball decorated with Au nanoparticles. Unlike the previous research, this novel 3D immunosensor functions very well over a broad linear range of 0-10 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.59 ng/mL; furthermore, it exhibits a significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward PSA. The highest rate of current change with respect to the PSA concentration is 5 μA/(ng/mL). Satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the 3D immunosensor are also exhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly stable porous silicon-carbon composites as label-free optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chun Kwan; Kelly, Timothy L; Sailor, Michael J; Li, Yang Yang

    2012-12-21

    A stable, label-free optical biosensor based on a porous silicon-carbon (pSi-C) composite is demonstrated. The material is prepared by electrochemical anodization of crystalline Si in an HF-containing electrolyte to generate a porous Si template, followed by infiltration of poly(furfuryl) alcohol (PFA) and subsequent carbonization to generate the pSi-C composite as an optically smooth thin film. The pSi-C sensor is significantly more stable toward aqueous buffer solutions (pH 7.4 or 12) compared to thermally oxidized (in air, 800 °C), hydrosilylated (with undecylenic acid), or hydrocarbonized (with acetylene, 700 °C) porous Si samples prepared and tested under similar conditions. Aqueous stability of the pSi-C sensor is comparable to related optical biosensors based on porous TiO(2) or porous Al(2)O(3). Label-free optical interferometric biosensing with the pSi-C composite is demonstrated by detection of rabbit IgG on a protein-A-modified chip and confirmed with control experiments using chicken IgG (which shows no affinity for protein A). The pSi-C sensor binds significantly more of the protein A capture probe than porous TiO(2) or porous Al(2)O(3), and the sensitivity of the protein-A-modified pSi-C sensor to rabbit IgG is found to be ~2× greater than label-free optical biosensors constructed from these other two materials.

  12. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadar Dudekula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides. A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis. Keywords: Spleen, Rat, Protein extraction, Label-free quantitative proteomics

  13. Ultrasensitive Sensing Material Based on Opal Photonic Crystal for Label-Free Monitoring of Transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Enqi; Peng, Yuan; Zhang, Xihao; Bai, Jialei; Song, Yanqiu; He, Houluo; Fan, Longxing; Qu, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhixian; Liu, Ying; Ning, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    A new opal photonic crystal (PC) sensing material, allowing label-free detection of transferrin (TRF), is proposed in the current study. This photonic crystal was prepared via a vertical convective self-assembly method with monodisperse microspheres polymerized by methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA). FTIR, TG, and DLS were used to characterize the components and particle size of the monodisperse microspheres. SEM was used to observe the morphology of the PC. The diffraction peak intensity decreases as the TRF concentration increase. This was due to the combination of TRF to the boronic acid group of the photonic crystal. After condition optimization, a standard curve was obtained and the linear range of TRF concentration was from 2 × 10 -3 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. Measurement of TRF concentration in simulated urine sample was also investigated using the sensing material. The results indicated that the PC provided a cheap, label-free, and easy-to-use alternative for TRF determination in clinical diagnostics.

  14. Automated selected reaction monitoring software for accurate label-free protein quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Waldemarson, Sofia; Hansson, Karin; James, Peter; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2012-07-06

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a mass spectrometry method with documented ability to quantify proteins accurately and reproducibly using labeled reference peptides. However, the use of labeled reference peptides becomes impractical if large numbers of peptides are targeted and when high flexibility is desired when selecting peptides. We have developed a label-free quantitative SRM workflow that relies on a new automated algorithm, Anubis, for accurate peak detection. Anubis efficiently removes interfering signals from contaminating peptides to estimate the true signal of the targeted peptides. We evaluated the algorithm on a published multisite data set and achieved results in line with manual data analysis. In complex peptide mixtures from whole proteome digests of Streptococcus pyogenes we achieved a technical variability across the entire proteome abundance range of 6.5-19.2%, which was considerably below the total variation across biological samples. Our results show that the label-free SRM workflow with automated data analysis is feasible for large-scale biological studies, opening up new possibilities for quantitative proteomics and systems biology.

  15. Comparison of a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Method Based on Peptide Ion Current Area to the Isotope Coded Affinity Tag Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ah Goo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several research groups have published methods for the determination of proteomic expression profiling by mass spectrometry without the use of exogenously added stable isotopes or stable isotope dilution theory. These so-called label-free, methods have the advantage of allowing data on each sample to be acquired independently from all other samples to which they can later be compared in silico for the purpose of measuring changes in protein expression between various biological states. We developed label free software based on direct measurement of peptide ion current area (PICA and compared it to two other methods, a simpler label free method known as spectral counting and the isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT method. Data analysis by these methods of a standard mixture containing proteins of known, but varying, concentrations showed that they performed similarly with a mean squared error of 0.09. Additionally, complex bacterial protein mixtures spiked with known concentrations of standard proteins were analyzed using the PICA label-free method. These results indicated that the PICA method detected all levels of standard spiked proteins at the 90% confidence level in this complex biological sample. This finding confirms that label-free methods, based on direct measurement of the area under a single ion current trace, performed as well as the standard ICAT method. Given the fact that the label-free methods provide ease in experimental design well beyond pair-wise comparison, label-free methods such as our PICA method are well suited for proteomic expression profiling of large numbers of samples as is needed in clinical analysis.

  16. Carbon nanostructure-based field-effect transistors for label-free chemical/biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, PingAn; Zhang, Jia; Li, Le; Wang, Zhenlong; O'Neill, William; Estrela, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells.

  17. Asynchronous Magnetic Bead Rotation (AMBR Microviscometer for Label-Free DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzi Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic bead, as expected theoretically. Simple optical measurement of asynchronous microbead motion determines solution viscosity precisely in microscale volumes, thus allowing an estimate of DNA concentration or average fragment length. The response of the AMBR microviscometer yields reproducible measurement of DNA solutions, enzymatic digestion reactions, and PCR systems at template concentrations across a 5000-fold range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of viscosity-based DNA detection using AMBR in microscale aqueous volumes.

  18. Nanosensors for label-free measurement of sodium ion fluxes of neuronal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebinoga, Michael, E-mail: michael.gebinoga@tu-ilmenau.de [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Silveira, Liele; Cimalla, Irina [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Dumitrescu, Andreea [University of Pennsylvania - School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6391 (United States); Kittler, Mario; Luebbers, Benedikt; Becker, Annette [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Lebedev, Vadim [Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Physics, Tullastr. 7, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Schober, Andreas [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    Novel nanosensors based on aluminium gallium nitrides (AlGaN/GaN) high electron mobility transistors have been of high interest during the last years, especially for their electrical characteristics as open gate field effect transistors. These nanosensors provide a valuable tool for high content screening in drug discovery, cell monitoring and liquid analyses focusing on applications of electrochemical detection technology. Our own measurements with these sensors confirm their pH sensitivity and in addition the possibility of detection of other ions in aqueous media. These measurements deal with the reactions of NG 108-15 (mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid) neuronal cells in response to different acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Our experimental approach shows some advantages. The first advantage is the label-free measurement of ion fluxes, and another advantage is the possibility non-destructively to estimate cell signals.

  19. Nanosensors for label-free measurement of sodium ion fluxes of neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebinoga, Michael; Silveira, Liele; Cimalla, Irina; Dumitrescu, Andreea; Kittler, Mario; Luebbers, Benedikt; Becker, Annette; Lebedev, Vadim; Schober, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Novel nanosensors based on aluminium gallium nitrides (AlGaN/GaN) high electron mobility transistors have been of high interest during the last years, especially for their electrical characteristics as open gate field effect transistors. These nanosensors provide a valuable tool for high content screening in drug discovery, cell monitoring and liquid analyses focusing on applications of electrochemical detection technology. Our own measurements with these sensors confirm their pH sensitivity and in addition the possibility of detection of other ions in aqueous media. These measurements deal with the reactions of NG 108-15 (mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid) neuronal cells in response to different acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Our experimental approach shows some advantages. The first advantage is the label-free measurement of ion fluxes, and another advantage is the possibility non-destructively to estimate cell signals.

  20. Biosensor for label-free DNA quantification based on functionalized LPGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helena M R; Moreira, Luis; Pereira, Leonor; Jorge, Pedro; Gouveia, Carlos; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Fernandes, José R A

    2016-10-15

    A label-free fiber optic biosensor based on a long period grating (LPG) and a basic optical interrogation scheme using off the shelf components is used for the detection of in-situ DNA hybridization. A new methodology is proposed for the determination of the spectral position of the LPG mode resonance. The experimental limit of detection obtained for the DNA was 62±2nM and the limit of quantification was 209±7nM. The sample specificity was experimentally demonstrated using DNA targets with different base mismatches relatively to the probe and was found that the system has a single base mismatch selectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-Time Label-Free Direct Electronic Monitoring of Topoisomerase Enzyme Binding Kinetics on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Laura; Tesauro, Cinzia; Kurkina, Tetiana; Fiorani, Paola; Yu, Hak Ki; Knudsen, Birgitta R; Kern, Klaus; Desideri, Alessandro; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2015-11-24

    Monolayer graphene field-effect sensors operating in liquid have been widely deployed for detecting a range of analyte species often under equilibrium conditions. Here we report on the real-time detection of the binding kinetics of the essential human enzyme, topoisomerase I interacting with substrate molecules (DNA probes) that are immobilized electrochemically on to monolayer graphene strips. By monitoring the field-effect characteristics of the graphene biosensor in real-time during the enzyme-substrate interactions, we are able to decipher the surface binding constant for the cleavage reaction step of topoisomerase I activity in a label-free manner. Moreover, an appropriate design of the capture probes allows us to distinctly follow the cleavage step of topoisomerase I functioning in real-time down to picomolar concentrations. The presented results are promising for future rapid screening of drugs that are being evaluated for regulating enzyme activity.

  2. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  3. Spiked proteomic standard dataset for testing label-free quantitative software and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Ramus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes a controlled, spiked proteomic dataset for which the “ground truth” of variant proteins is known. It is based on the LC-MS analysis of samples composed of a fixed background of yeast lysate and different spiked amounts of the UPS1 mixture of 48 recombinant proteins. It can be used to objectively evaluate bioinformatic pipelines for label-free quantitative analysis, and their ability to detect variant proteins with good sensitivity and low false discovery rate in large-scale proteomic studies. More specifically, it can be useful for tuning software tools parameters, but also testing new algorithms for label-free quantitative analysis, or for evaluation of downstream statistical methods. The raw MS files can be downloaded from ProteomeXchange with identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD001819. Starting from some raw files of this dataset, we also provide here some processed data obtained through various bioinformatics tools (including MaxQuant, Skyline, MFPaQ, IRMa-hEIDI and Scaffold in different workflows, to exemplify the use of such data in the context of software benchmarking, as discussed in details in the accompanying manuscript [1]. The experimental design used here for data processing takes advantage of the different spike levels introduced in the samples composing the dataset, and processed data are merged in a single file to facilitate the evaluation and illustration of software tools results for the detection of variant proteins with different absolute expression levels and fold change values.

  4. Label-free electrochemical biosensing of small-molecule inhibition on O-GlcNAc glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Gu, Yuxin; Wan, Bin; Ren, Xiaomin; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2017-09-15

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) plays a critical role in modulating protein function in many cellular processes and human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes, and has emerged as a promising new target. Specific inhibitors of OGT could be valuable tools to probe the biological functions of O-GlcNAcylation, but a lack of robust nonradiometric assay strategies to detect glycosylation, has impeded efforts to identify such compounds. Here we have developed a novel label-free electrochemical biosensor for the detection of peptide O-GlcNAcylation using protease-protection strategy and electrocatalytic oxidation of tyrosine mediated by osmium bipyridine as a signal reporter. There is a large difference in the abilities of proteolysis of the glycosylated and the unglycosylated peptides by protease, thus providing a sensing mechanism for OGT activity. When the O-GlcNAcylation is achieved, the glycosylated peptides cannot be cleaved by proteinase K and result in a high current response on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. However, when the O-GlcNAcylation is successfully inhibited using a small molecule, the unglycosylated peptides can be cleaved easily and lead to low current signal. Peptide O-GlcNAcylation reaction was performed in the presence of a well-defined small-molecule OGT inhibitor. The results indicated that the biosensor could be used to screen the OGT inhibitors effectively. Our label-free electrochemical method is a promising candidate for protein glycosylation pathway research in screening small-molecule inhibitors of OGT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel label-free biosensing technology for monitoring of aqueous solutions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Florian; Bielecki, Robert; Follonier, Stephane; Dorokhin, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Waste water, drinking water and other industrial water sources are more and more/increasingly polluted with a large variety of contaminants, such as pesticides or residuals of pharmaceuticals. These compounds can impact human and animal organisms and lead to serious health issues. Today, in order to analyze the presence and quantity of the abovementioned micropollutants, samples are typically sent to specialized centralized laboratories and their processing may take up to several days. In order to meet the demand for continuous and consistent monitoring of aqueous solutions we propose a novel label-free technology system comprising proprietary chip and reader device designs. The core of the system is constituted by a planar-grated-waveguide (PGW) chip. Label-free biosensors, based on PGWs are sensitive to effective refractive index changes caused by the adsorption of biomolecules (micropollutants) onto the sensor surface or due to refractive index changes of the bulk solution. The presented reader device operates with a novel readout concept based on a scanning MEMS mirror for the angular interrogation of input grating couplers at a high repetition rate. The reader has fully integrated optics, electronics and fluidics and at the same time consumes limited energy (portable, field use ready). In the recent experiments, the effectiveness of the technology has been demonstrated with various liquids and bioassays showing (i) an excellent refractometric sensitivity with a limit of detection towards effective refractive index changes of ▵neff < 2 x 10-7, and (ii) the capability to perform affinity measurements for large (<150 kDa) and small (<250 Da) molecules.

  6. Label free sensing of creatinine using a 6 GHz CMOS near-field dielectric immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, S; Warsinke, A; Tientcheu, Ch M; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Wenger, Ch

    2015-05-07

    In this work we present a CMOS high frequency direct immunosensor operating at 6 GHz (C-band) for label free determination of creatinine. The sensor is fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process. The report also demonstrates the ability to immobilize creatinine molecules on a Si3N4 passivation layer of the standard BiCMOS/CMOS process, therefore, evading any further need of cumbersome post processing of the fabricated sensor chip. The sensor is based on capacitive detection of the amount of non-creatinine bound antibodies binding to an immobilized creatinine layer on the passivated sensor. The chip bound antibody amount in turn corresponds indirectly to the creatinine concentration used in the incubation phase. The determination of creatinine in the concentration range of 0.88-880 μM is successfully demonstrated in this work. A sensitivity of 35 MHz/10 fold increase in creatinine concentration (during incubation) at the centre frequency of 6 GHz is gained by the immunosensor. The results are compared with a standard optical measurement technique and the dynamic range and sensitivity is of the order of the established optical indication technique. The C-band immunosensor chip comprising an area of 0.3 mm(2) reduces the sensing area considerably, therefore, requiring a sample volume as low as 2 μl. The small analyte sample volume and label free approach also reduce the experimental costs in addition to the low fabrication costs offered by the batch fabrication technique of CMOS/BiCMOS process.

  7. A comprehensive evaluation of popular proteomics software workflows for label-free proteome quantification and imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välikangas, Tommi; Suomi, Tomi; Elo, Laura L

    2017-05-31

    Label-free mass spectrometry (MS) has developed into an important tool applied in various fields of biological and life sciences. Several software exist to process the raw MS data into quantified protein abundances, including open source and commercial solutions. Each software includes a set of unique algorithms for different tasks of the MS data processing workflow. While many of these algorithms have been compared separately, a thorough and systematic evaluation of their overall performance is missing. Moreover, systematic information is lacking about the amount of missing values produced by the different proteomics software and the capabilities of different data imputation methods to account for them.In this study, we evaluated the performance of five popular quantitative label-free proteomics software workflows using four different spike-in data sets. Our extensive testing included the number of proteins quantified and the number of missing values produced by each workflow, the accuracy of detecting differential expression and logarithmic fold change and the effect of different imputation and filtering methods on the differential expression results. We found that the Progenesis software performed consistently well in the differential expression analysis and produced few missing values. The missing values produced by the other software decreased their performance, but this difference could be mitigated using proper data filtering or imputation methods. Among the imputation methods, we found that the local least squares (lls) regression imputation consistently increased the performance of the software in the differential expression analysis, and a combination of both data filtering and local least squares imputation increased performance the most in the tested data sets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Label-free immunosensor based on Pd nanoplates for amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Li, He; Zhang, Yihe; Wei, Qin; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Du, Bin

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, Pd nanoplates were used as a kind of electrode materials for fabrication of an electrochemical immunosensor, which was applied for detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Thanks to the unique structure and properties of Pd nanoplates, the antibody of AFP (Ab) was effectively immobilized onto the surface of the Pd nanoplates modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Moreover, the good electrochemical properties of Pd nanoplates greatly improved the electronic transmission rate and enhanced the electrochemical signal, which led to an increase of the detection sensitivity. Based on the specific antibody-antigen interaction, a label-free immunosensor based on Pd nanoplates was developed for sensing of AFP. The current method allows us to detect AFP over a wide concentration range from 0.01 to 75.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL. The proposed immunosensor has been used to determine AFP in human serum with satisfactory results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Label-Free Biosensors Based on Bimodal Waveguide (BiMW) Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Sonia; Gavela, Adrián Fernández; Lechuga, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    The bimodal waveguide (BiMW) sensor is a novel common path interferometric transducer based on the evanescent field detection principle, which in combination with a bio-recognition element allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-free scheme. Due to its inherent high sensitivity it has great potential to become a powerful analytical tool for monitoring substances of interest in areas such as environmental control, medical diagnostics and food safety, among others. The BiMW sensor is fabricated using standard silicon-based technology allowing cost-effective production, and meeting the requirements of portability and disposability necessary for implementation in a point-of-care (POC) setting.In this chapter we describe the design and fabrication of the BiMW transducer, as well as its application for bio-sensing purposes. We show as an example the biosensor capabilities two different applications: (1) the immunodetection of Irgarol 1051 biocide useful in the environmental field, and (2) the detection of human growth hormone as used in clinical diagnostics. The detection is performed in real time by monitoring changes in the intensity pattern of light exiting the BiMW transducer resulting from antigen-antibody interactions on the surface of the sensor.

  10. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biconically Tapered Fiber Optic Probes for Rapid Label-Free Immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Miller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report use of U-shaped biconically tapered optical fibers (BTOF as probes for label-free immunoassays. The tapered regions of the sensors were functionalized by immobilization of immunoglobulin-G (Ig-G and tested for detection of anti-IgG at concentrations of 50 ng/mL to 50 µg/mL. Antibody-antigen reaction creates a biological nanolayer modifying the waveguide structure leading to a change in the sensor signal, which allows real-time monitoring. The kinetics of the antibody (mouse Ig-G-antigen (rabbit anti-mouse IgG reactions was studied. Hydrofluoric acid treatment makes the sensitive region thinner to enhance sensitivity, which we confirmed by experiments and simulations. The limit of detection for the sensor was estimated to be less than 50 ng/mL. Utilization of the rate of the sensor peak shift within the first few minutes of the antibody-antigen reaction is proposed as a rapid protein detection method.

  12. Graphene oxide based photoinduced charge transfer label-free near-infrared fluorescent biosensor for dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Yan, Xiu-Ping; Meng, Kang; Wang, Shu-Feng

    2011-11-15

    While the super fluorescence quenching capacity of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively employed to develop fluorescent sensors, their own unique fluorescence and its potential for chemo-/biosensing have seldom been explored. Here we report a GO-based photoinduced charge transfer (PCT) label-free near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent biosensor for dopamine (DA). The multiple noncovalent interactions between GO and DA and the ultrafast decay at the picosecond range of the near-IR fluorescence of GO resulted in effective self-assembly of DA molecules on the surface of GO, and significant fluorescence quenching, allowing development of a PCT-based biosensor with direct readout of the near-IR fluorescence of GO for selective and sensitive detection of DA. The developed method gave a detection limit of 94 nM and a relative standard deviation of 2.0% for 11 replicate detections of 2.0 μM DA and was successfully applied to the determination of DA in biological fluids with quantitative recovery (98-115%).

  13. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  14. Label-free and substrate-free potentiometric aptasensing using polycation-sensitive membrane electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiawang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xuewei; Qin, Wei

    2012-02-21

    A potentiometric label-free and substrate-free (LFSF) aptasensing strategy which eliminates the labeling, separation, and immobilization steps is described in this paper. An aptamer binds specifically to a target molecule via reaction incubation, which could induce a change in the aptamer conformation from a random coil-like configuration to a rigid folded structure. Such a target binding-induced aptamer conformational change effectively prevents the aptamer from electrostatically interacting with the protamine binding domain. This could either shift the response curve for the potentiometric titration of the aptamer with protamine as monitored by a conventional polycation-sensitive membrane electrode or change the current-dependent potential detected by a protamine-conditioned polycation-sensitive electrode with the pulsed current-driven ion fluxes of protamine across the polymeric membrane. Using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a model analyte, the proposed concept offers potentiometric detection of ATP down to the submicromolar concentration range and has been applied to the determination of ATP in HeLa cells. In contrast to the current LFSF aptasensors based on optical detection, the proposed strategy allows the LFSF biosensing of aptamer/target binding events in a homogeneous solution via electrochemical transduction. It is anticipated that the proposed strategy will lay a foundation for development of potentiometric sensors for LFSF aptasensing of a variety of analytes where target binding-induced conformational changes such as the formation of folded structures and the opening of DNA hairpin loops are involved.

  15. Label-free proteome profiling reveals developmental-dependent patterns in young barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar-Schoenefeld, Stephanie; Merx, Kathleen; Jozefowicz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Anja; Seiffert, Udo; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-06-30

    Due to its importance as a cereal crop worldwide, high interest in the determination of factors influencing barley grain quality exists. This study focusses on the elucidation of protein networks affecting early grain developmental processes. NanoLC-based separation coupled to label-free MS detection was applied to gain insights into biochemical processes during five different grain developmental phases (pre-storage until storage phase, 3days to 16days after flowering). Multivariate statistics revealed two distinct developmental patterns during the analysed grain developmental phases: proteins showed either highest abundance in the middle phase of development - in the transition phase - or at later developmental stages - within the storage phase. Verification of developmental patterns observed by proteomic analysis was done by applying hypothesis-driven approaches, namely Western Blot analysis and enzyme assays. High general metabolic activity of the grain with regard to protein synthesis, cell cycle regulation, defence against oxidative stress, and energy production via photosynthesis was observed in the transition phase. Proteins upregulated in the storage phase are related towards storage protein accumulation, and interestingly to the defence of storage reserves against pathogens. A mixed regulatory pattern for most enzymes detected in our study points to regulatory mechanisms at the level of protein isoforms. In-depth understanding of early grain developmental processes of cereal caryopses is of high importance as they influence final grain weight and quality. Our knowledge about these processes is still limited, especially on proteome level. To identify key mechanisms in early barley grain development, a label-free data-independent proteomics acquisition approach has been applied. Our data clearly show, that proteins either exhibit highest expression during cellularization and the switch to the storage phase (transition phase, 5-7 DAF), or during storage

  16. Direct, Label-Free, and Rapid Transistor-Based Immunodetection in Whole Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Sanz, Óscar; Andoy, Nesha M; Filipiak, Marcin S; Haustein, Natalie; Tarasov, Alexey

    2017-09-22

    Transistor-based biosensors fulfill many requirements posed upon transducers for future point-of-care diagnostic devices such as scalable fabrication and label-free and real-time quantification of chemical and biological species with high sensitivity. However, the short Debye screening length in physiological samples (<1 nm) has been a major drawback so far, preventing direct measurements in serum. In this work, we demonstrate how tailoring the sensing surface with short specific biological receptors and a polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) can strongly enhance the sensor response. In addition, the sensor performance can be dramatically improved if the measurements are performed at elevated temperatures (37 °C instead of 21 °C). With this novel approach, highly sensitive and selective detection of a representative immunosensing parameter-human thyroid-stimulating hormone-is shown over a wide measuring range with subpicomolar detection limits in whole serum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct immunodetection in whole serum using transistor-based biosensors, without the need for sample pretreatment, labeling, or washing steps. The presented sensor is low-cost, can be easily integrated into portable diagnostics devices, and offers a competitive performance compared to state-of-the-art central laboratory analyzers.

  17. Development of an enrofloxacin immunosensor based on label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Way-Shyan

    2009-06-30

    Enrofloxacin is the most widespread antibiotic in the fluoroquinolone family. As such, the development of a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of trace amounts of enrofloxacin is an important issue in the health field. The interaction of the enrofloxacin antigen to a specific antibody (Ab) immobilized on an 11-mercapto-undecanoic acid-coated gold electrode was quantified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two equivalent circuits were separately used to interpret the obtained impedance spectra. These circuits included one resistor in series with one parallel circuit comprised of a resistor and a capacitor (1R//C), and one resistor in series with two parallel RC circuits (2R//C). The results indicate that the antigen-antibody reaction analyzed using the 1R//C circuit provided a more sensitive resistance increment against the enrofloxacin concentration than that of the 2R//C circuit. However, the 2R//C circuit provided a better fitting for impedance spectra, and therefore supplies more detailed results of the enrofloxacin-antibody interaction, causing the increase of electron transfer resistance selectively to the modified layer, and not the electrical double layer. The antibody-modified electrode allowed for analysis of the dynamic linear range of 1-1000 ng/ml enrofloxacin with a detection limit of 1 ng/ml. The reagentless and label-free impedimetric immunosensors provide a simple and sensitive detection method for the specific determination of enrofloxacin.

  18. Silicon photonic resonator for label-free bio-sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsom, Suruk; Mankong, Ukrit; Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Ittipratheep, Nattapol; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2018-03-01

    In medical diagnostics there is an increasing demand for biosensors that can specifically detect biological analytes in a fluid. Especially label-free sensing, consistings of a transducer with biorecognition molecules immobilized on its surface without relying on fluorescent dye. In this paper we study the design and fabrication of a silicon nanowire photonic ring resonator and its feasibility as a biosensor. We have simulated and fabricated racetrack ring resonators which have a few tenths of micrometer gap, up to 0.5 μm between the input / output waveguides and the resonators. It is found that the devices can be designed with large Q factors. Sensitivity to biomaterial detection has been simulated for antibody (goat anti-mouse IgG) - antigen (mouse IgG) using 3-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain technique. The simulated results show that the ring resonator has a response 15 nm resonance shift per refractive index unit. Antibody coating method is also discussed in this paper which can be applied to other antibody-antigen types.

  19. Label-Free Imaging of Umbilical Cord Tissue Morphology and Explant-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raf Donders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ detection of MSCs remains difficult and warrants additional methods to aid with their characterization in vivo. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (TPM and second harmonic generation (SHG could fill this gap. Both techniques enable the detection of cells and extracellular structures, based on intrinsic properties of the specific tissue and intracellular molecules under optical irradiation. TPM imaging and SHG imaging have been used for label-free monitoring of stem cells differentiation, assessment of their behavior in biocompatible scaffolds, and even cell tracking in vivo. In this study, we show that TPM and SHG can accurately depict the umbilical cord architecture and visualize individual cells both in situ and during culture initiation, without the use of exogenously applied labels. In combination with nuclear DNA staining, we observed a variance in fluorescent intensity in the vessel walls. In addition, antibody staining showed differences in Oct4, αSMA, vimentin, and ALDH1A1 expression in situ, indicating functional differences among the umbilical cord cell populations. In future research, marker-free imaging can be of great added value to the current antigen-based staining methods for describing tissue structures and for the identification of progenitor cells in their tissue of origin.

  20. A universal and label-free impedimetric biosensing platform for discrimination of single nucleotide substitutions in long nucleic acid strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M; Martin, Christopher P; Armas, Stephanie M; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y

    2018-06-30

    We report a label-free universal biosensing platform for highly selective detection of long nucleic acid strands. The sensor consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) probe and two adaptor strands that form a 4J structure in the presence of a specific DNA/RNA analyte. The sensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] redox couple in solution. An increase in charge transfer resistance (R CT ) was observed upon 4J structure formation, the value of which depends on the analyte length. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to further characterize the sensor and monitor the electrochemical reaction in conjunction with thickness measurements of the mixed DNA monolayer obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition, the electron transfer was calculated at the electrode/electrolyte interface using a rotating disk electrode. Limits of detection in the femtomolar range were achieved for nucleic acid targets of different lengths (22 nt, 60 nt, 200 nt). The sensor produced only a background signal in the presence of single base mismatched analytes, even in hundred times excess in concentration. This label-free and highly selective biosensing platform is versatile and can be used for universal detection of nucleic acids of varied lengths which could revolutionize point of care diagnostics for applications such as bacterial or cancer screening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Label-free evaluation of hepatic microvesicular steatosis with multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Hepatic microvesicular steatosis is a hallmark of drug-induced hepatotoxicity and early-stage fatty liver disease. Current histopathology techniques are inadequate for the clinical evaluation of hepatic microvesicular steatosis. In this paper, we explore the use of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy for the detection and characterization of hepatic microvesicular steatosis. We show that CARS microscopy is more sensitive than Oil Red O histology for the detection of microvesicular steatosis. Computer-assisted analysis of liver lipid level based on CARS signal intensity is consistent with triglyceride measurement using a standard biochemical assay. Most importantly, in a single measurement procedure on unprocessed and unstained liver tissues, multimodal CARS imaging provides a wealth of critical information including the detection of microvesicular steatosis and quantitation of liver lipid content, number and size of lipid droplets, and lipid unsaturation and packing order of lipid droplets. Such information can only be assessed by multiple different methods on processed and stained liver tissues or tissue extracts using current standard analytical techniques. Multimodal CARS microscopy also permits label-free identification of lipid-rich non-parenchymal cells. In addition, label-free and non-perturbative CARS imaging allow rapid screening of mitochondrial toxins-induced microvesicular steatosis in primary hepatocyte cultures. With its sensitivity and versatility, multimodal CARS microscopy should be a powerful tool for the clinical evaluation of hepatic microvesicular steatosis.

  2. Self-reference and random sampling approach for label-free identification of DNA composition using plasmonic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2018-05-09

    The analysis of DNA has led to revolutionary advancements in the fields of medical diagnostics, genomics, prenatal screening, and forensic science, with the global DNA testing market expected to reach revenues of USD 10.04 billion per year by 2020. However, the current methods for DNA analysis remain dependent on the necessity for fluorophores or conjugated proteins, leading to high costs associated with consumable materials and manual labor. Here, we demonstrate a potential label-free DNA composition detection method using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in which we identify the composition of cytosine and adenine within single strands of DNA. This approach depends on the fact that there is one phosphate backbone per nucleotide, which we use as a reference to compensate for systematic measurement variations. We utilize plasmonic nanomaterials with random Raman sampling to perform label-free detection of the nucleotide composition within DNA strands, generating a calibration curve from standard samples of DNA and demonstrating the capability of resolving the nucleotide composition. The work represents an innovative way for detection of the DNA composition within DNA strands without the necessity of attached labels, offering a highly sensitive and reproducible method that factors in random sampling to minimize error.

  3. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Employing integrated nano- and microfluidic circuits for detecting and characterizing biological compounds through resistive pulse sensing technology is a vibrant area of research at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Resistive pulse sensing platforms can be customized to study virtually any particle of choice which can be threaded through a fluidic channel and enable label-free single-particle interrogation with the primary read-out signal being an electric current fingerprint. The ability to perform label-free molecular screening with single-molecule and even single binding site resolution makes resistive pulse sensing technology a powerful tool for analyzing the smallest units of biological systems and how they interact with each other on a molecular level. This task is at the core of experimental systems biology and in particular ‘omics research which in combination with next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug discovery and design forms the foundation of a novel disruptive medical paradigm commonly referred to as personalized medicine or precision medicine. DNA-sequencing has approached the 1000-Dollar-Genome milestone allowing for decoding a complete human genome with unmatched speed and at low cost. Increased sequencing efficiency yields massive amounts of genomic data. Analyzing this data in combination with medical and biometric health data eventually enables understanding the pathways from individual genes to physiological functions. Access to this information triggers fundamental questions for doctors and patients alike: what are the chances of an outbreak for a specific disease? Can individual risks be managed and if so how? Which drugs are available and how should they be applied? Could a new drug be tailored to an individual’s genetic predisposition fast and in an affordable way? In order to provide answers and real-life value to patients, the rapid evolvement of novel computing approaches for analyzing big data in

  5. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S; Kim, S C; Schieber, C; Kannam, S; Gunn, N; Moore, S; Scott, D; Bathgate, R; Skafidas, S; Wagner, J M

    2015-05-08

    Employing integrated nano- and microfluidic circuits for detecting and characterizing biological compounds through resistive pulse sensing technology is a vibrant area of research at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Resistive pulse sensing platforms can be customized to study virtually any particle of choice which can be threaded through a fluidic channel and enable label-free single-particle interrogation with the primary read-out signal being an electric current fingerprint. The ability to perform label-free molecular screening with single-molecule and even single binding site resolution makes resistive pulse sensing technology a powerful tool for analyzing the smallest units of biological systems and how they interact with each other on a molecular level. This task is at the core of experimental systems biology and in particular 'omics research which in combination with next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug discovery and design forms the foundation of a novel disruptive medical paradigm commonly referred to as personalized medicine or precision medicine. DNA-sequencing has approached the 1000-Dollar-Genome milestone allowing for decoding a complete human genome with unmatched speed and at low cost. Increased sequencing efficiency yields massive amounts of genomic data. Analyzing this data in combination with medical and biometric health data eventually enables understanding the pathways from individual genes to physiological functions. Access to this information triggers fundamental questions for doctors and patients alike: what are the chances of an outbreak for a specific disease? Can individual risks be managed and if so how? Which drugs are available and how should they be applied? Could a new drug be tailored to an individual's genetic predisposition fast and in an affordable way? In order to provide answers and real-life value to patients, the rapid evolvement of novel computing approaches for analyzing big data in

  6. An aggregated perylene-based broad-spectrum, efficient and label-free quencher for multiplexed fluorescent bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Rong; Lv, Yi-Fan; Wu, Yuan; Liang, Hao; Huan, Shuang-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2014-08-15

    Fluorescent sensing systems based on the quenching of fluorophores have found wide applications in bioassays. An efficient quencher will endow the sensing system a high sensitivity. The frequently used quenchers are based on organic molecules or nanomaterials, which usually need tedious synthesizing and modifying steps, and exhibit different quenching efficiencies to different fluorophores. In this work, we for the first time report that aggregated perylene derivative can serve as a broad-spectrum and label-free quencher that is able to efficiently quench a variety of fluorophores, such as green, red and far red dyes labeled on DNA. By choosing nucleases as model biomolecules, such a broad-spectrum quencher was then employed to construct a multiplexed bioassay platform through a label-free manner. Due to the high quenching efficiency of the aggregated perylene, the proposed platform could detect nuclease with high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 0.03U/mL for EcoRV, and 0.05U/mL for EcoRI. The perylene quencher does not affect the activity of nuclease, which makes it possible to design post-addition type bioassay platform. Moreover, the proposed platform allows simultaneous and multicolor analysis of nucleases in homogeneous solution, demonstrating its value of potential application in rapid screening of multiple bio-targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Description of an Advantageous Optical Label-Free Biosensing Interferometric Read-Out Method to Measure Biological Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Holgado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report a new, simple, and reliable optical read-out detection method able to assess Rotavirus present in human sera as well as in the viral pollution sources. It is based on the interference of two interferometers used as biophotonic transducers. The method significantly improves the optical label-free biosensing response measuring both, the concentration of the AgR and its corresponding size. Two different immunoassays were carried out: Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA, and the recognition by its antibody (anti-BSA; and Rotavirus (AgR and the recognition by its antibody (anti-AgR. In the cases studied, and using as model interferometer a simple Fabry-Perot transducer, we demonstrate a biosensing enhancement of two orders of magnitude in the Limit of Detection (LoD. In fact, this read-out optical method may have significant implications to enhance other optical label-free photonic transducers reported in the scientific literature.

  8. Label-Free Raman Hyperspectral Imaging of Single Cells Cultured on Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Faris; Sicilia, Giovanna; Shipp, Dustin W; Marlow, Maria; Notingher, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    While Raman hyperspectral imaging has been widely used for label-free mapping of biomolecules in cells, these measurements require the cells to be cultured on weakly Raman scattering substrates. However, many applications in biological sciences and engineering require the cells to be cultured on polymer substrates that often generate large Raman scattering signals. Here, we discuss the theoretical limits of the signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman spectra of cells in the presence of polymer signals and how optical aberrations may affect these measurements. We show that Raman spectra of cells cultured on polymer substrates can be obtained using automatic subtraction of the polymer signals and demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in two important applications: tissue engineering and in vitro toxicology screening of drugs. Apart from their scientific and technological importance, these applications are examples of the two most common measurement configurations: (1) cells cultured on an optically thick polymer substrate measured using an immersion/dipping objective; and (2) cells cultured on a transparent polymer substrate and measured using an inverted optical microscope. In these examples, we show that Raman hyperspectral data sets with sufficient quality can be successfully acquired to map the distribution of common biomolecules in cells, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, as well as detecting the early stages of apoptosis. We also discuss strategies for further improvements that could expand the application of Raman hyperspectral imaging on polymer substrates even further in biomedical sciences and engineering.

  9. Impedimetric Label-Free Immunosensor on Disposable Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malvano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An impedimetric label-free immunosensor on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE for quantitative determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA has been developed. After modification of the SPCE surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, the anti-OTA was immobilized on the working electrode through a cysteamine layer. After each coating step, the modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The capacitance was chosen as the best parameter that describes the reproducible change in electrical properties of the electrode surface at different OTA concentrations and it was used to investigate the analytical parameters of the developed immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor showed a linear relationship between 0.3 and 20 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL, making it suitable to control OTA content in many common food products. Lastly, the immunosensor was used to measure OTA in red wine samples and the results were compared with those registered with a competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2 μg/kg, which represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for common food products.

  10. Real-time image processing for label-free enrichment of Actinobacteria cultivated in picolitre droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Emerson; Brandes, Susanne; Tovar, Miguel; Martin, Karin; Mech, Franziska; Horbert, Peter; Henkel, Thomas; Figge, Marc Thilo; Roth, Martin

    2013-09-21

    The majority of today's antimicrobial therapeutics is derived from secondary metabolites produced by Actinobacteria. While it is generally assumed that less than 1% of Actinobacteria species from soil habitats have been cultivated so far, classic screening approaches fail to supply new substances, often due to limited throughput and frequent rediscovery of already known strains. To overcome these restrictions, we implement high-throughput cultivation of soil-derived Actinobacteria in microfluidic pL-droplets by generating more than 600,000 pure cultures per hour from a spore suspension that can subsequently be incubated for days to weeks. Moreover, we introduce triggered imaging with real-time image-based droplet classification as a novel universal method for pL-droplet sorting. Growth-dependent droplet sorting at frequencies above 100 Hz is performed for label-free enrichment and extraction of microcultures. The combination of both cultivation of Actinobacteria in pL-droplets and real-time detection of growing Actinobacteria has great potential in screening for yet unknown species as well as their undiscovered natural products.

  11. Using label-free screening technology to improve efficiency in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Reena; Cooper, Matthew A

    2012-02-01

    Screening assays have traditionally utilized reporter labels to quantify biological responses relevant to the disease state of interest. However, there are limitations associated with the use of labels that may be overcome with temporal measurements possible with label-free. This review comprises general and system-specific information from literature searches using PubMed, published books and the authors' personal experience. This review highlights the label-free approaches in the context of various applications. The authors also note technical issues relevant to the development of label-free assays and their application to HTS. The limitations associated with the use of transfected cell lines and the use of label-based assays are gradually being realized. As such, greater emphasis is being placed on label-free biophysical techniques using native cell lines. The introduction of 96- and 384-well plate label-free systems is helping to broker a wider acceptance of these approaches in high-throughput screening. However, potential users of the technologies remain skeptical, primarily because the physical basis of the signals generated, and their contextual relevance to cell biology and signal transduction, has not been fully elucidated. Until this is done, these new technology platforms are more likely to complement, rather than replace, traditional screening platforms.

  12. Extracting histones for the specific purpose of label-free MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Elisabeth; Van Steendam, Katleen; Scheerlinck, Ellen; Vossaert, Liesbeth; Meert, Paulien; Stella, Martina; Willems, Sander; De Clerck, Laura; Dhaenens, Maarten; Deforce, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    Extracting histones from cells is the first step in studies that aim to characterize histones and their post-translational modifications (hPTMs) with MS. In the last decade, label-free quantification is more frequently being used for MS-based histone characterization. However, many histone extraction protocols were not specifically designed for label-free MS. While label-free quantification has its advantages, it is also very susceptible to technical variation. Here, we adjust an established histone extraction protocol according to general label-free MS guidelines with a specific focus on minimizing sample handling. These protocols are first evaluated using SDS-PAGE. Hereafter, a selection of extraction protocols was used in a complete histone workflow for label-free MS. All protocols display nearly identical relative quantification of hPTMs. We thus show that, depending on the cell type under investigation and at the cost of some additional contaminating proteins, minimizing sample handling can be done during histone isolation. This allows analyzing bigger sample batches, leads to reduced technical variation and minimizes the chance of in vitro alterations to the hPTM snapshot. Overall, these results allow researchers to determine the best protocol depending on the resources and goal of their specific study. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002885. © 2016 The Authors. Proteomics Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Exploration of two-dimensional bio-functionalized phosphorene nanosheets (black phosphorous) for label free haptoglobin electro-immunosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Satish K.; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2018-04-01

    We report on the development of an antibody-functionalized interface based on electrochemically active liquid-exfoliated two-dimensional phosphorene (Ph) nanosheets—also known as black phosphorous nanosheets—for the label-free electrochemical immunosensing of a haptoglobin (Hp) biomarker, a clinical marker of severe inflammation. The electrodeposition has been achieved over the screen-printed electrode (SPE) using liquid-assisted ultrasonically exfoliated black phosphorus nanosheets. Subsequently, Ph-SPEs bioconjugated with Hp antibodies (Ab), using electrostatic interactions via a poly-L-lysine linker for biointerface development. Electrochemical analysis demonstrates that the Ab-modified Ph-SPEs (Ab@Ph-SPE) exhibit enhanced electroconducting behavior as compared to the pristine electrodes. This Ab-functionalized phosphorene-based electrochemical immunosensor platform has demonstrated remarkable sensitivity and specificity, having a dynamic linear response range from 0.01-10 mg ml-1 for Hp in standard and serum samples with a low detection limit (˜0.011 mg ml-1) using the label-free electrochemical technique. The sensor electrodes were also studied with other closely relative interferents to investigate cross reactivity and specificity. This strategy opens up avenues to POC (point-of-care) and on-farm livestock disease monitoring technologies for multiplexed diagnosis in complex biological samples such as serum. The technique is simple in fabrication and provides an analytical response in less than 60 s.

  14. Classification of M1/M2-polarized human macrophages by label-free hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Mozetic, Pamela; Fioramonti, Marco; Iuliani, Michele; Ribelli, Giulia; Pantano, Francesco; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Businaro, Luca; Selci, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto

    2017-08-21

    The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs. M2 polarization by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Following PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis has been implemented for semi-automatic classification of macrophagic polarization from HSI data. Our results confirm the possibility to perform single-cell-level in vitro classification of M1 vs. M2 macrophages in a non-invasive and label-free manner with a high accuracy (above 98% for cells deriving from the same donor), supporting the idea of applying the technique to the study of complex interacting cellular systems, such in the case of tumour-immunity in vitro models.

  15. Label-Free Virus Capture and Release by a Microfluidic Device Integrated with Porous Silicon Nanowire Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yiqiu; Tang, Yi; Yu, Xu; Wan, Yuan; Chen, Yizhu; Lu, Huaguang; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2017-02-01

    Viral diseases are perpetual threats to human and animal health. Detection and characterization of viral pathogens require accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic assays. For field and clinical samples, the sample preparation procedures limit the ultimate performance and utility of the overall virus diagnostic protocols. This study presents the development of a microfluidic device embedded with porous silicon nanowire (pSiNW) forest for label-free size-based point-of-care virus capture in a continuous curved flow design. The pSiNW forests with specific interwire spacing are synthesized in situ on both bottom and sidewalls of the microchannels in a batch process. With the enhancement effect of Dean flow, this study demonstrates that about 50% H5N2 avian influenza viruses are physically trapped without device clogging. A unique feature of the device is that captured viruses can be released by inducing self-degradation of the pSiNWs in physiological aqueous environment. About 60% of captured viruses can be released within 24 h for virus culture, subsequent molecular diagnosis, and other virus characterization and analyses. This device performs viable, unbiased, and label-free virus isolation and release. It has great potentials for virus discovery, virus isolation and culture, functional studies of virus pathogenicity, transmission, drug screening, and vaccine development. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Discovering the enzyme mimetic activity of metal-organic framework (MOF) for label-free and colorimetric sensing of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yingjing; Binyam, Atsebeha; Liu, Misha; Wu, Yinan; Li, Fengting

    2016-12-15

    A label-free sensing strategy based on the enzyme-mimicking activity of MOF was demonstrated for colorimetric detection of biomolecules. Firstly obvious blue color was observed due to the high efficiency of peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Fe-MIL-88A (an ion-based MOF material) toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Then in the presence of target biomolecule and corresponding aptamer, the mimetic activity of Fe-MIL-88A can be strongly inhibited and used directly to realize the colorimetric detection. On the basis of the interesting findings, we designed a straightforward, label-free and sensitive colorimetric method for biomolecule detection by using the enzyme mimetic property of MOF coupling with molecular recognition element. Compared with the existed publications, our work breaks the routine way by setting up an inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer hybrid platform for colorimetric determination of biomolecules, expanding the targets scope from H2O2 or glucose to biomolecules. As a proof of concept, thrombin and thrombin aptamer was used as a model analyte. The limit of detection of 10nM can be achieved with naked eyes and ultrahigh selectivity of thrombin toward numerous interfering substances with 10-fold concentration was demonstrated significantly. Of note, the method was further applied for the detection of thrombin in human serum samples, showing the results in agreement with those values obtained in an immobilization buffer by the colorimetric method. This inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer sensing strategy may in principle be universally applicable for the detection of a range of environmental or biomedical molecules of interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Fang, Ye

    2011-07-01

    We describe a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) method to assess the pharmacology of drugs at the β2-adrenergic receptor. This method combines dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays using an array of probe molecule-hijacked cells with similarity analysis. The whole cell DMR assays track cell system-based, ligand-directed, and kinetics-dependent biased activities of the drugs, and translates their on-target pharmacology into numerical descriptors which are subject to similarity analysis. We demonstrate that the approach establishes an effective link between the label-free pharmacology and in vivo therapeutic indications of drugs.

  18. iTRAQ-Based and Label-Free Proteomics Approaches for Studies of Human Adenovirus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Hung V.; Grossmann, Jonas; Gehrig, Peter; Roschitzki, Bernd; Schlapbach, Ralph; Greber, Urs F.; Hemmi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Both isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and label-free methods are widely used for quantitative proteomics. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of these proteomics approaches based on large datasets from biological samples. iTRAQ-label-based and label-free quantitations were compared using protein lysate samples from noninfected human lung epithelial A549 cells and from cells infected for 24 h with human adenovirus type 3 or type 5. Either iTRAQ-label-based or lab...

  19. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  20. Label-free biosensing with functionalized nanopipette probes

    OpenAIRE

    Umehara, Senkei; Karhanek, Miloslav; Davis, Ronald W.; Pourmand, Nader

    2009-01-01

    Nanopipette technology can uniquely identify biomolecules such as proteins based on differences in size, shape, and electrical charge. These differences are determined by the detection of changes in ionic current as the proteins interact with the nanopipette tip coated with probe molecules. Here we show that electrostatic, biotin-streptavidin, and antibody-antigen interactions on the nanopipette tip surface affect ionic current flowing through a 50-nm pore. Highly charged polymers interacting...

  1. Label-free biosensing with functionalized nanopipette probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Senkei; Karhanek, Miloslav; Davis, Ronald W; Pourmand, Nader

    2009-03-24

    Nanopipette technology can uniquely identify biomolecules such as proteins based on differences in size, shape, and electrical charge. These differences are determined by the detection of changes in ionic current as the proteins interact with the nanopipette tip coated with probe molecules. Here we show that electrostatic, biotin-streptavidin, and antibody-antigen interactions on the nanopipette tip surface affect ionic current flowing through a 50-nm pore. Highly charged polymers interacting with the glass surface modulated the rectification property of the nanopipette electrode. Affinity-based binding between the probes tethered to the surface and their target proteins caused a change in the ionic current due to a partial blockade or an altered surface charge. These findings suggest that nanopipettes functionalized with appropriate molecular recognition elements can be used as nanosensors in biomedical and biological research.

  2. [Photometric determination of captopril using label-free silver nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Yan, Hong-Tao

    2013-04-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of captopril is presented in the present paper. It is based on the fact that captopril can induce the aggregation of AgNPs, thereby resulting in their yellow-to-red color change and the absorbance decrease at lambda395 nm. The mechanism of the aggregation effect was discussed in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of determination of captopril was 1-35 microg x mL(-1) with correction coefficient 0.998 4. The detection limit of the method for captopril was 0.7 microg x mL(-1). The method has been applied to the determination of captopril in tablets with satisfactory result.

  3. Lab-on-a-chip for label free biological semiconductor analysis of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Minghui; Sun, Steven; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new lab-on-a-chip (LOC) which utilizes a biological semiconductor (BSC) transducer for label free analysis of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) (or other biological interactions) directly and electronically. BSCs are new transducers based on electrical percolation through a

  4. Scaffold-free, label-free and nozzle-free biofabrication technology using magnetic levitational assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Vladislav A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Bulanova, Elena A; Karalkin, Pavel A; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Norkin, Nikita E; Knyazeva, Alisa D; Gryadunova, Anna A; Petrov, Oleg F; Vasiliev, M M; Myasnikov, Maxim; Chernikov, Valery P; Kasyanov, Vladimir A; Marchenkov, Artem Yu; Brakke, Kenneth A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Demirci, Utkan; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2018-05-31

    Tissue spheroids have been proposed as building blocks in 3D biofabrication. Conventional magnetic force-driven 2D patterning of tissue spheroids requires prior cell labeling by magnetic nanoparticles, meanwhile a label-free approach for 3D magnetic levitational assembly has been introduced. Here we present first-time report on rapid assembly of 3D tissue construct using scaffold-free, nozzle-free and label-free magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids. Chondrospheres of standard size, shape and capable to fusion have been biofabricated from primary sheep chondrocytes using non-adhesive technology. Label-free magnetic levitation was performed using a prototype device equipped with permanent magnets in presence of gadolinium (Gd3+) in culture media, which enables magnetic levitation. Mathematical modeling and computer simulations were used for prediction of magnetic field and kinetics of tissue spheroids assembly into 3D tissue constructs. First, we used polystyrene beads to simulate the assembly of tissue spheroids and to determine the optimal settings for magnetic levitation in presence of Gd3+. Second, we proved the ability of chondrospheres to assemble rapidly into 3D tissue construct in the permanent magnetic field in the presence of Gd3+. Thus, scaffold- and label-free magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids is a promising approach for rapid 3D biofabrication and attractive alternative to label-based magnetic force-driven tissue engineering. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Label-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Yuan, Wu; Vlachos, Kyriakos

    2011-01-01

    We present experimentally feasible designs of a dual-core microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF), which can act as a highly sensitive, label-free, and selective biosensor. An immobilized antigen sensing layer on the walls of the holes in the mPOF provides the ability to selectively capture...

  6. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  7. High throughput label-free platform for statistical bio-molecular sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, Filippo; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Sensors are crucial in many daily operations including security, environmental control, human diagnostics and patient monitoring. Screening and online monitoring require reliable and high-throughput sensing. We report on the demonstration of a high-throughput label-free sensor platform utilizing...

  8. Polymer dual ring resonators for label-free optical biosensing using microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Muhammad H M; Glidle, Andrew; Sorel, Marc; Reboud, Julien; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2013-04-18

    We demonstrate a polymer resonator microfluidic biosensor that overcomes the complex manufacturing procedures required to fabricate traditional devices. In this new format, we show that a gapless light coupling photonic configuration, fabricated in SU8 polymer, can achieve high sensitivity, label-free chemical sensing in solution and high sensitivity biological sensing, at visible wavelengths.

  9. An ultrasensitive label-free electrochemiluminescent immunosensor for measuring Cry1Ab level and genetically modified crops content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongfei; Wen, Luke; Wu, Yuhua; Fu, Zhifeng; Wu, Gang

    2017-11-15

    The development of genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crops has aroused great public concern about the risks on the eco-environment resulting from a release of toxic Cry proteins (such as Cry1Ab) to the soil. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to measure the Cry proteins level and the GM crops content. Here, we have tested for the first time a method that uses novel carbon nanospheres (CNPs) label-free electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunosensor for the ultrasensitive quantification of Cry1Ab and GM crops. In this work, novel CNPs were prepared from printer toner with a very facile approach, and linked with anti-Cry1Ab antibodies to modify a golden working electrode. The immunoreaction between Cry1Ab and its antibody formed an immunocomplex on the bioreceptor region of the sensor, which inhibited electron transfer between the electrode surface and the ECL substance, leading to a decrease of ECL response. Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated label-free ECL immunosensor determined Cry1Ab down to 3.0pgmL -1 within a linear range of 0.010-1.0ngmL -1 , showing significant improvement of sensitivity than that of most previous reports. Meanwhile, the proposed method was successfully applied for GM rice BT63 and GM maize MON810 detections down to 0.010% and 0.020%, respectively. Due to its outstanding advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple fabrication, rapid detection, and low cost, the developed method can be considered as a powerful and pioneering tool for GM crops detection. Its use can also be extended to other toxin protein sensing in foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rapid label-free profiling of oral cancer biomarker proteins using nano-UPLC-Q-TOF ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Ala F; Williams, Brad J; Yaworksy, Dustin C; Patel, Vyomesh; Rusling, James F

    2016-03-01

    It has become quite clear that single cancer biomarkers cannot in general provide high sensitivity and specificity for reliable clinical cancer diagnostics. This paper explores the feasibility of rapid detection of multiple biomarker proteins in model oral cancer samples using label-free protein relative quantitation. MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics offer a rapid alternative that bypasses the need for stable isotope containing compounds to chemically bind and label proteins. Total protein content in oral cancer cell culture conditioned media was precipitated, subjected to proteolytic digestion, and then analyzed using a nano-UPLC (where UPLC is ultra-performance liquid chromatography) coupled to a hybrid Q-Tof ion-mobility mass spectrometry (MS). Rapid, simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple possible cancer biomarker proteins was achieved. In a comparative study between cancer and noncancer samples, approximately 952 proteins were identified using a high-throughput 1D ion mobility assisted data independent acquisition (IM-DIA) approach. As we previously demonstrated that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were readily detected in oral cancer cell conditioned media(1), we targeted these biomarker proteins to validate our approach. Target biomarker protein IL-8 was found between 3.5 and 8.8 fmol, while VEGF-A was found at 1.45 fmol in the cancer cell media. Overall, our data suggest that the nano-UPLC-IM-DIA bioassay is a feasible approach to identify and quantify proteins in complex samples without the need for stable isotope labeling. These results have significant implications for rapid tumor diagnostics and prognostics by monitoring proteins such as IL-8 and VEGF-A implicated in cancer development and progression. The analysis in tissue or plasma is not possible at this time, but the subsequent work would be needed for validation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A label-free nanostructured plasmonic biosensor based on Blu-ray discs with integrated microfluidics for sensitive biodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A; Estevez, M-Carmen; Peláez-Gutierrez, E Cristina; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; García-Hernandez, M Carmen; Imbaud, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2017-10-15

    Nanostructure-based plasmonic biosensors have quickly positioned themselves as interesting candidates for the design of portable optical biosensor platforms considering the potential benefits they can offer in integration, miniaturization, multiplexing, and real-time label-free detection. We have developed a simple integrated nanoplasmonic sensor taking advantage of the periodic nanostructured array of commercial Blu-ray discs. Sensors with two gold film thicknesses (50 and 100nm) were fabricated and optically characterized by varying the oblique-angle of the incident light in optical reflectance measurements. Contrary to the use normal light incidence previously reported with other optical discs, we observed an enhancement in sensitivity and a narrowing of the resonant linewidths as the light incidence angle was increased, which could be related to the generation of Fano resonant modes. The new sensors achieve a figure of merit (FOM) up to 35 RIU -1 and a competitive bulk limit of detection (LOD) of 6.3×10 -6 RIU. These values significantly improve previously reported results obtained with normal light incidence reflectance measurements using similar structures. The sensor has been combined with versatile, simple, ease to-fabricate microfluidics. The integrated chip is only 1cm 2 (including a PDMS flow cell with a 50µm height microfluidic channel fabricated with double-sided adhesive tape) and all the optical components are mounted on a 10cm×10cm portable prototype, illustrating its facile miniaturization, integration and potential portability. Finally, to assess the label-free biosensing capability of the new sensor, we have evaluated the presence of specific antibodies against the GTF2b protein, a tumor-associate antigen (TAA) related to colorectal cancer. We have achieved a LOD in the pM order and have assessed the feasibility of directly measuring biological samples such as human serum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Epsilon-Q: An Automated Analyzer Interface for Mass Spectral Library Search and Label-Free Protein Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-12-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a widely used proteome analysis tool for biomedical science. In an MS-based bottom-up proteomic approach to protein identification, sequence database (DB) searching has been routinely used because of its simplicity and convenience. However, searching a sequence DB with multiple variable modification options can increase processing time, false-positive errors in large and complicated MS data sets. Spectral library searching is an alternative solution, avoiding the limitations of sequence DB searching and allowing the detection of more peptides with high sensitivity. Unfortunately, this technique has less proteome coverage, resulting in limitations in the detection of novel and whole peptide sequences in biological samples. To solve these problems, we previously developed the "Combo-Spec Search" method, which uses manually multiple references and simulated spectral library searching to analyze whole proteomes in a biological sample. In this study, we have developed a new analytical interface tool called "Epsilon-Q" to enhance the functions of both the Combo-Spec Search method and label-free protein quantification. Epsilon-Q performs automatically multiple spectral library searching, class-specific false-discovery rate control, and result integration. It has a user-friendly graphical interface and demonstrates good performance in identifying and quantifying proteins by supporting standard MS data formats and spectrum-to-spectrum matching powered by SpectraST. Furthermore, when the Epsilon-Q interface is combined with the Combo-Spec search method, called the Epsilon-Q system, it shows a synergistic function by outperforming other sequence DB search engines for identifying and quantifying low-abundance proteins in biological samples. The Epsilon-Q system can be a versatile tool for comparative proteome analysis based on multiple spectral libraries and label-free quantification.

  13. A label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics analysis of rice grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hee-Jong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a great deal of rice proteomic research has been conducted, there are relatively few studies specifically addressing the rice grain proteome. The existing rice grain proteomic researches have focused on the identification of differentially expressed proteins or monitoring protein expression patterns during grain filling stages. Results Proteins were extracted from rice grains 10, 20, and 30 days after flowering, as well as from fully mature grains. By merging all of the identified proteins in this study, we identified 4,172 non-redundant proteins with a wide range of molecular weights (from 5.2 kDa to 611 kDa and pI values (from pH 2.9 to pH 12.6. A Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis for the 4,172 proteins revealed that 52 categories were enriched, including the carbohydrate metabolic process, transport, localization, lipid metabolic process, and secondary metabolic process. The relative abundances of the 1,784 reproducibly identified proteins were compared to detect 484 differentially expressed proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis and Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis revealed that proteins involved in the metabolic process were enriched through all stages of development, suggesting that proteome changes occurred even in the desiccation phase. Interestingly, enrichments of proteins involved in protein folding were detected in the desiccation phase and in fully mature grain. Conclusion This is the first report conducting comprehensive identification of rice grain proteins. With a label free shotgun proteomic approach, we identified large number of rice grain proteins and compared the expression patterns of reproducibly identified proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis, Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis, and the analysis of composite expression profiles revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, we

  14. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their cardiac derivatives using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J W; Lieu, D K; Huser, T R; Li, R A

    2008-09-08

    Self-renewable, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs), providing an unlimited source of cells for transplantation therapies. However, unlike certain cell lineages such as hematopoietic cells, CMs lack specific surface markers for convenient identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Identification by immunostaining of cardiac-specific proteins such as troponin requires permeabilization, which renders the cells unviable and non-recoverable. Ectopic expression of a reporter protein under the transcriptional control of a heart-specific promoter for identifying hESC-derived CMs (hESC-CMs) is useful for research but complicates potential clinical applications. The practical detection and removal of undifferentiated hESCs in a graft, which may lead to tumors, is also critical. Here, we demonstrate a non-destructive, label-free optical method based on Raman scattering to interrogate the intrinsic biochemical signatures of individual hESCs and their cardiac derivatives, allowing cells to be identified and classified. By combining the Raman spectroscopic data with multivariate statistical analysis, our results indicate that hESCs, human fetal left ventricular CMs, and hESC-CMs can be identified by their intrinsic biochemical characteristics with an accuracy of 96%, 98% and 66%, respectively. The present study lays the groundwork for developing a systematic and automated method for the non-invasive and label-free sorting of (i) high-quality hESCs for expansion, and (ii) ex vivo CMs (derived from embryonic or adult stem cells) for cell-based heart therapies.

  15. Non-invasive in vivo characterization of skin wound healing using label-free multiphoton microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jake D.; Majid, Fariah; Ramser, Hallie; Quinn, Kyle P.

    2017-02-01

    Non-healing ulcerative wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers, are challenging to diagnose and treat due to their numerous possible etiologies and the variable efficacy of advanced wound care products. Thus, there is a critical need to develop new quantitative biomarkers and diagnostic technologies that are sensitive to wound status in order to guide care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of label-free multiphoton microscopy for characterizing wound healing dynamics in vivo and identifying potential differences in diabetic wounds. We isolated and measured an optical redox ratio of FAD/(NADH+FAD) autofluorescence to provide three-dimensional maps of local cellular metabolism. Using a mouse model of wound healing, in vivo imaging at the wound edge identified a significant decrease in the optical redox ratio of the epidermis (p≤0.0103) between Days 3 through 14 compared to Day 1. This decrease in redox ratio coincided with a decrease in NADH fluorescence lifetime and thickening of the epithelium, collectively suggesting a sensitivity to keratinocyte hyperproliferation. In contrast to normal wounds, we have found that keratinocytes from diabetic wounds remain in a proliferative state at later time points with a lower redox ratio at the wound edge. Microstructural organization and composition was also measured from second harmonic generation imaging of collagen and revealed differences between diabetic and non-diabetic wounds. Our work demonstrates label-free multiphoton microscopy offers potential to provide non-invasive structural and functional biomarkers associated with different stages of skin wound healing, which may be used to detect delayed healing and guide treatment.

  16. Label free imaging of cell-substrate contacts by holographic total internal reflection microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Biagio; Gennari, Oriella; Marchesano, Valentina; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    The study of cell adhesion contacts is pivotal to understand cell mechanics and interaction at substrates or chemical and physical stimuli. We designed and built a HoloTIR microscope for label-free quantitative phase imaging of total internal reflection. Here we show for the first time that HoloTIR is a good choice for label-free study of focal contacts and of cell/substrate interaction as its sensitivity is enhanced in comparison with standard TIR microscopy. Finally, the simplicity of implementation and relative low cost, due to the requirement of less optical components, make HoloTIR a reasonable alternative, or even an addition, to TIRF microscopy for mapping cell/substratum topography. As a proof of concept, we studied the formation of focal contacts of fibroblasts on three substrates with different levels of affinity for cell adhesion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Artificial intelligence in label-free microscopy biological cell classification by time stretch

    CERN Document Server

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces time-stretch quantitative phase imaging (TS-QPI), a high-throughput label-free imaging flow cytometer developed for big data acquisition and analysis in phenotypic screening. TS-QPI is able to capture quantitative optical phase and intensity images simultaneously, enabling high-content cell analysis, cancer diagnostics, personalized genomics, and drug development. The authors also demonstrate a complete machine learning pipeline that performs optical phase measurement, image processing, feature extraction, and classification, enabling high-throughput quantitative imaging that achieves record high accuracy in label -free cellular phenotypic screening and opens up a new path to data-driven diagnosis. • Demonstrates how machine learning is used in high-speed microscopy imaging to facilitate medical diagnosis; • Provides a systematic and comprehensive illustration of time stretch technology; • Enables multidisciplinary application, including industrial, biomedical, and artificial intell...

  18. Label-free and live cell imaging by interferometric scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Il-Buem; Moon, Hyeon-Min; Joo, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon; Hong, Seok-Cheol; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-03-14

    Despite recent remarkable advances in microscopic techniques, it still remains very challenging to directly observe the complex structure of cytoplasmic organelles in live cells without a fluorescent label. Here we report label-free and live-cell imaging of mammalian cell, Escherischia coli , and yeast, using interferometric scattering microscopy, which reveals the underlying structures of a variety of cytoplasmic organelles as well as the underside structure of the cells. The contact areas of the cells attached onto a glass substrate, e.g. , focal adhesions and filopodia, are clearly discernible. We also found a variety of fringe-like features in the cytoplasmic area, which may reflect the folded structures of cytoplasmic organelles. We thus anticipate that the label-free interferometric scattering microscopy can be used as a powerful tool to shed interferometric light on in vivo structures and dynamics of various intracellular phenomena.

  19. Optimization of High-Q Coupled Nanobeam Cavity for Label-Free Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yaseen, Mohammad; Yang, Yi-Chun; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigated the lateral coupling between photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam (NB) cavities, pursuing high sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) label-free biosensor. We numerically carried out 3D finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) and the finite element method (FEM) simulations. We showed that when two PhC NB cavities separated by a small gap are evanescently coupled, the variation in the gap width significantly changes the coupling efficiency between the ...

  20. A multi-center study benchmarks software tools for label-free proteome quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Ludovic C; Bernhardt, Oliver M.; MacLean, Brendan; Röst, Hannes L.; Tate, Stephen A.; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Reiter, Lukas; Distler, Ute; Rosenberger, George; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Tenzer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The consistent and accurate quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics depends on the performance of instruments, acquisition methods and data analysis software. In collaboration with the software developers, we evaluated OpenSWATH, SWATH2.0, Skyline, Spectronaut and DIA-Umpire, five of the most widely used software methods for processing data from SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra), a method that uses data-independent acquisition (DIA) for label-free protein quantification. We analyzed high-complexity test datasets from hybrid proteome samples of defined quantitative composition acquired on two different MS instruments using different SWATH isolation windows setups. For consistent evaluation we developed LFQbench, an R-package to calculate metrics of precision and accuracy in label-free quantitative MS, and report the identification performance, robustness and specificity of each software tool. Our reference datasets enabled developers to improve their software tools. After optimization, all tools provided highly convergent identification and reliable quantification performance, underscoring their robustness for label-free quantitative proteomics. PMID:27701404

  1. A multicenter study benchmarks software tools for label-free proteome quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro; Kuharev, Jörg; Gillet, Ludovic C; Bernhardt, Oliver M; MacLean, Brendan; Röst, Hannes L; Tate, Stephen A; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Reiter, Lukas; Distler, Ute; Rosenberger, George; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Aebersold, Ruedi; Tenzer, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Consistent and accurate quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics depends on the performance of instruments, acquisition methods and data analysis software. In collaboration with the software developers, we evaluated OpenSWATH, SWATH 2.0, Skyline, Spectronaut and DIA-Umpire, five of the most widely used software methods for processing data from sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH)-MS, which uses data-independent acquisition (DIA) for label-free protein quantification. We analyzed high-complexity test data sets from hybrid proteome samples of defined quantitative composition acquired on two different MS instruments using different SWATH isolation-window setups. For consistent evaluation, we developed LFQbench, an R package, to calculate metrics of precision and accuracy in label-free quantitative MS and report the identification performance, robustness and specificity of each software tool. Our reference data sets enabled developers to improve their software tools. After optimization, all tools provided highly convergent identification and reliable quantification performance, underscoring their robustness for label-free quantitative proteomics.

  2. freeQuant: A Mass Spectrometry Label-Free Quantification Software Tool for Complex Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; Li, Zhenye; Pan, Chao; Duan, Huilong

    2015-01-01

    Study of complex proteome brings forward higher request for the quantification method using mass spectrometry technology. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry label-free quantification tool for complex proteomes, called freeQuant, which integrated quantification with functional analysis effectively. freeQuant consists of two well-integrated modules: label-free quantification and functional analysis with biomedical knowledge. freeQuant supports label-free quantitative analysis which makes full use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectral count, protein sequence length, shared peptides, and ion intensity. It adopts spectral count for quantitative analysis and builds a new method for shared peptides to accurately evaluate abundance of isoforms. For proteins with low abundance, MS/MS total ion count coupled with spectral count is included to ensure accurate protein quantification. Furthermore, freeQuant supports the large-scale functional annotations for complex proteomes. Mitochondrial proteomes from the mouse heart, the mouse liver, and the human heart were used to evaluate the usability and performance of freeQuant. The evaluation showed that the quantitative algorithms implemented in freeQuant can improve accuracy of quantification with better dynamic range.

  3. Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737

  4. Label-Free Alignment of Nonmagnetic Particles in a Small Uniform Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Wang, Ying; Wu, Rui Ge; Wang, Z P; Ramanujan, R V

    2018-01-01

    Label-free manipulation of biological entities can minimize damage, increase viability and improve efficiency of subsequent analysis. Understanding the mechanism of interaction between magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in an inverse ferrofluid can provide a mechanism of label-free manipulation of such entities in a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic force, induced by relative magnetic susceptibility difference between nonmagnetic particles and surrounding magnetic particles as well as particle-particle interaction were studied. Label-free alignment of nonmagnetic particles can be achieved by higher magnetic field strength (Ba), smaller particle spacing (R), larger particle size (rp1), and higher relative magnetic permeability difference between particle and the surrounding fluid (Rμr). Rμr can be used to predict the direction of the magnetic force between both magnetic and nonmagnetic particles. A sandwich structure, containing alternate layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic particle chains, was studied. This work can be used for manipulation of nonmagnetic particles in lab-on-a-chip applications.

  5. Conductometric investigation of salt-free solutions of polyriboguanylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.G.; Davydova, O.V.; Kargov, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    Salt-free solutions of various ionic forms of polyriboguanylic acid (poly(G)) were studied by the methods of conductometry and spectroscopy of annular dichroism. The Manning approach was employed to calculate transport characteristics and structural parameters of poly(G) on the basis of spectra permit putting poly(G) salts in two groups: the first one comprising NH 4 + -, Rb + -, K + -, Na + -, the second one - Cs + -, and Li + -poly(G). The assumption is made that Li + and Cs + ions, bound with concrete groups of polyanion in a specific way, can promote formation of a stable structure different from the one observed in the presence of the first group counterions. 25 refs., 3 figs

  6. Fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for remote label-free sensing of medical device surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Moinuddin; Tan, Xin; Welle, Elissa; Ilev, Ilko

    2013-05-01

    As a potential major source of biochemical contamination, medical device surfaces are of critical safety concerns in the clinical practice and public health. The development of innovative sensing methods for accurate and real-time detection of medical device surface contamination is essential to protect patients from high risk infection. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative fiber-optic Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy based sensing approach for remote, non-contact, and label-free detection of biochemical contaminants in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) region. The sensing probe is designed using mid-IR hollow fibers and FTIR measurements are carried out in reflection mode. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and bacterial endotoxin of different concentrations under thoroughly dry condition are used to evaluate the detection sensitivity. The devised system can identify ≤0.0025% (≤4 × 1011 molecules) BSA and 0.5% (0.5 EU/ml) endotoxin concentration. The developed sensing approach may be applied to detect various pathogens that pose public health threats.

  7. Application of a Label-Free Immunosensor for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp Cultivation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyapoka, Thanyaporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Bunsanong, Nittaya; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera

    2015-10-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen affecting the shrimp industry worldwide. In a preliminary study, WSSV binding protein (WBP) was specifically bound to the VP26 protein of WSSV. Therefore, we have developed the label-free affinity immunosensor using the WBP together with anti-GST-VP26 for quantitative detection of WSSV in shrimp pond water. When the biological molecules were immobilized on a gold electrode to form a self-assembled monolayer, it was then used to detect WSSV using a flow injection system with optimized conditions. Binding between the different copies of WSSV and the immobilized biological molecules was detected by an impedance change (ΔZ″) in real time. The sensitivity of the developed immunosensor was in the linear range of 1.6 × 10(1)-1.6 × 10(6) copies/μl. The system was highly sensitive for the analysis of WSSV as shown by the lack of impedance change when using yellow head virus (YHV). The developed immunosensor could be reused up to 37 times (relative standard deviation (RSD), 3.24 %) with a good reproducibility of residual activity (80-110 %). The immunosensor was simple to operate, reliable, reproducible, and could be applied for the detection and quantification of WSSV in water during shrimp cultivation.

  8. Quantitative Experimental Determination of Primer-Dimer Formation Risk by Free-Solution Conjugate Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Samantha M.; Leitner, Thomas; Barron, Annelise E.

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcodes are short, unique ssDNA primers that “mark” individual biomolecules. To gain better understanding of biophysical parameters constraining primer-dimer formation between primers that incorporate barcode sequences, we have developed a capillary electrophoresis method that utilizes drag-tag-DNA conjugates to quantify dimerization risk between primer-barcode pairs. Results obtained with this unique free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE) approach are useful as quantitatively precise input data to parameterize computation models of dimerization risk. A set of fluorescently labeled, model primer-barcode conjugates were designed with complementary regions of differing lengths to quantify heterodimerization as a function of temperature. Primer-dimer cases comprised two 30-mer primers, one of which was covalently conjugated to a lab-made, chemically synthesized poly-N-methoxyethylglycine drag-tag, which reduced electrophoretic mobility of ssDNA to distinguish it from ds primer-dimers. The drag-tags also provided a shift in mobility for the dsDNA species, which allowed us to quantitate primer-dimer formation. In the experimental studies, pairs of oligonucleotide primer-barcodes with fully or partially complementary sequences were annealed, and then separated by free-solution conjugate CE at different temperatures, to assess effects on primer-dimer formation. When less than 30 out of 30 basepairs were bonded, dimerization was inversely correlated to temperature. Dimerization occurred when more than 15 consecutive basepairs formed, yet non-consecutive basepairs did not create stable dimers even when 20 out of 30 possible basepairs bonded. The use of free-solution electrophoresis in combination with a peptoid drag-tag and different fluorophores enabled precise separation of short DNA fragments to establish a new mobility shift assay for detection of primer-dimer formation. PMID:22331820

  9. A cascade autocatalytic strand displacement amplification and hybridization chain reaction event for label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemical nucleic acid biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying; Xin, Chen; Zhao, Jikuan; Liu, Shufeng

    2018-04-23

    Herein, an autocatalytic strand displacement amplification (ASDA) strategy was proposed for the first time, which was further ingeniously coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) event for the isothermal, label-free and multiple amplification toward nucleic acid detection. During the ASDA module, the target recognition opens the immobilized hairpin probe (IP) and initiates the annealing of the auxiliary DNA strand (AS) with the opened IP for the successive polymerization and nicking reaction in the presence of DNA polymerase and nicking endonuclease. This induces the target recycling and generation of a large amount of intermediate DNA sequences, which can be used as target analogy to execute the autocatalytic strand displacement amplification. Simultaneously, the introduced AS strand can propagate the HCR between two hairpins (H1 and H2) to form a linear DNA concatamer with cytosine (C)-rich loop region, which can facilitate the in-situ synthesis of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) as electrochemical tags for further amplification toward target responses. With current cascade ASDA and HCR strategy, the detection of target DNA could be achieved with a low detection limit of about 0.16 fM and a good selectivity. The developed biosensor also exhibits the distinct advantages of flexibility and simplicity in probe design and biosensor fabrication, and label-free electrochemical detection, thus opens a promising avenue for the detection of nucleic acid with low abundance in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High sensitivity and high Q-factor nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity for real-time and label-free sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Daquan [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Kita, Shota; Wang, Cheng; Lončar, Marko [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Liang, Feng; Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States); Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-08-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a label-free sensor based on nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity (NPQC). The NPQC possesses both high sensitivity and high Q-factor. We achieved sensitivity (S) of 451 nm/refractive index unit and Q-factor >7000 in water at telecom wavelength range, featuring a sensor figure of merit >2000, an order of magnitude improvement over the previous photonic crystal sensors. In addition, we measured the streptavidin-biotin binding affinity and detected 10 ag/mL concentrated streptavidin in the phosphate buffered saline solution.

  11. Electrochemical label-free and sensitive nanobiosensing of DNA hybridization by graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahour, F; Shamsi, A

    2017-09-01

    Based on the strong interaction between single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) and graphene material, we have constructed a novel label-free electrochemical biosensor for rapid and facile detection of short sequences ss-DNA molecules related to hepatitis C virus 1a using graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode. The sensing mechanism is based on the superior adsorption of single-stranded DNA to GO over double stranded DNA (ds-DNA). The intrinsic guanine oxidation signal measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been used for duplex DNA formation detection. The probe ss-DNA adsorbs onto the surface of GO via the π- π* stacking interactions leading to a strong background guanine oxidation signal. In the presence of complementary target, formation of helix which has weak binding ability to GO induced ds-DNA to release from the electrode surface and significant variation in differential pulse voltammetric response of guanine bases. The results indicated that the oxidation peak current was proportional to the concentration of complementary strand in the range of 0.1 nM-0.5 μM with a detection limit of 4.3 × 10 -11  M. The simple fabricated electrochemical biosensor has high sensitivity, good selectivity, and could be applied as a new platform for a range of target molecules in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Label-free electrochemical immunoassay for neuron specific enolase based on 3D macroporous reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Chunhua; Dou, Li; Cui, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    The content of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum is considered to be an essential indicator of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Here, a novel label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of NSE based on the three dimensionally macroporous reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (3DM rGO/PANI) film has been proposed. The 3DM rGO/PANI film was constructed by electrochemical co-deposition of GO and aniline into the interspaces of a sacrificial silica opal template modified Au slice. During the co-deposition, GO was successfully reduced by aniline and PANI could be deposited on the surfaces of rGO sheets. The ratio of rGO and PANI in the composite was also optimized to achieve the maximum electrochemical performance. The 3DM rGO/PANI composite provided larger specific surface area for the antibody immobilization, exhibited enhanced conductivity for electron transfer, and more important was that PANI acted as the electroactive probe for indicating the NSE concentration. Under the optimal conditions, a linear current response of PANI to NSE concentration was obtained over 0.5 pg mL -1 -10.0 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.1 pg mL -1 . Moreover, the immunosensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration, and was employed to detect NSE in clinical serum specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facile synthesis of cuprous oxide nanowires decorated graphene oxide nanosheets nanocomposites and its application in label-free electrochemical immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Ma, Hongmin; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2017-01-15

    In this work, the assembly between one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials was achieved by a simple method. Cuprous oxide nanowires decorated graphene oxide nanosheets (Cu 2 O@GO) nanocomposites were synthesized for the first time by a simple electrostatic self-assembly process. The nanostructure was well confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images. Taking advantages of good electrocatalytic activity and high specific surface area of Cu 2 O@GO nanocomposites, a label-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed by employing Cu 2 O@GO as signal amplification platform for the quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). In addition, toluidine blue (TB) was used as the electron transfer mediator to provide the electrochemical signal, which was adsorbed on graphene oxide nanosheets (GO NSs) by electrostatic attraction. The detection mechanism was based on the monitoring of the electrochemical current response change of TB by the square wave voltammetry (SWV) when immunoreaction occurred on the surface of electrode. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor displayed a high sensitivity and a low detection limit. This designed method may provide an effective method in the clinical diagnosis of AFP and other tumor markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasmonic nanoparticles-decorated diatomite biosilica: extending the horizon of on-chip chromatography and label-free biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Li, Erwen; Squire, Kenny; Liu, Ye; Wu, Bo; Cheng, Li-Jing; Wang, Alan X

    2017-11-01

    Diatomite consists of fossilized remains of ancient diatoms and is a type of naturally abundant photonic crystal biosilica with multiple unique physical and chemical functionalities. In this paper, we explored the fluidic properties of diatomite as the matrix for on-chip chromatography and, simultaneously, the photonic crystal effects to enhance the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensing. The plasmonic nanoparticle-decorated diatomite biosilica provides a lab-on-a-chip capability to separate and detect small molecules from mixture samples with ultra-high detection sensitivity down to 1 ppm. We demonstrate the significant potential for biomedical applications by screening toxins in real biofluid, achieving simultaneous label-free biosensing of phenethylamine and miR21cDNA in human plasma with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time demonstration to detect target molecules from real biofluids by on-chip chromatography-SERS techniques. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms by label-free real-time plasmonic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, César S; Carrascosa, L G; Bonnal, S; Valcárcel, J; Lechuga, L M

    2016-04-15

    Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors enables cells to generate different protein outputs from the same gene depending on their developmental or homeostatic status. Its deregulation is strongly linked to disease onset and progression. Current methodologies for monitoring alternative splicing demand elaborate procedures and often present difficulties in discerning between closely related isoforms, e.g. due to cross-hybridization during their detection. Herein, we report a general methodology using a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor for label-free monitoring of alternative splicing events in real-time, without any cDNA synthesis or PCR amplification requirements. We applied this methodology to RNA isolated from HeLa cells for the quantification of alternatively spliced isoforms of the Fas gene, involved in cancer progression through regulation of programmed cell death. We demonstrate that our methodology is isoform-specific, with virtually no cross-hybridization, achieving limits of detection (LODs) in the picoMolar (pM) range. Similar results were obtained for the detection of the BCL-X gene mRNA isoforms. The results were independently validated by RT-qPCR, with excellent concordance in the determination of isoform ratios. The simplicity and robustness of this biosensor technology can greatly facilitate the exploration of alternative splicing biomarkers in disease diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface stress sensor based on MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity for label-free biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Hizawa, Takeshi; Misawa, Nobuo; Taki, Miki; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a surface stress sensor based on a microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity by using Au half-mirrors, for highly sensitive label-free biosensing. When the target molecule is adsorbed by the antigen-antibody reaction onto a movable membrane with a thin Au film, which acts as an upper mirror of the optical interferometer, the amount of deflection of the movable membrane deflected by the change in surface stress can be detected with high sensitivity. To improve the signal at the small membrane deflection region of this biosensor resulting in detection of low concentration molecules, by integrating 50 nm-thick Au half-mirrors, the wavelength selectivity of the optical interferometer has been successfully improved 6.6 times. Furthermore, the peak shift in the reflection spectrum due to the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) antigen with a concentration of 10 ng ml-l by the antigen-antibody reaction was spectroscopically measured on the fabricated optical interferometer, and the deflection amount of the movable membrane after 10 min treatment was 2.4 times larger than that of nonspecific adsorption with the avidin molecules. This result indicated that the proposed sensor can be used for selective detection of low-concentration target antigen molecules.

  17. Label-free sensitive luminescence biosensor for immunoglobulin G based on Ag6Au6 ethisterone cluster-estrogen receptor α aggregation and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nannan; Guo, Wenjing; Lin, Zhixiang; Wei, Qiaohua; Chen, Guonan

    2018-08-01

    A specific and label-free "on-off-on" luminescence biosensor based on a novel heterometallic cluster [Ag 6 Au 6 (ethisterone) 12 ]-estrogen receptor α (Ag 6 Au 6 Eth-ERα) aggregation utilizing graphene oxide (GO) as a quencher to lead a small background signal was firstly constructed to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) with a simple process and high selectivity. The efficient photoluminescent (PL) Ag 6 Au 6 Eth-ERα aggregation is strongly quenched by GO. In the presence of IgG, the PL of this system will be restored, and perceivable by human eyes under UV lamp excitation (365 nm). The quenching mechanism of GO on Ag 6 Au 6 Eth-ERα and enhancement mechanism of IgG on Ag 6 Au 6 Eth-ERα-GO were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the biosensor for high sensitive IgG detection expressed a wider linear range of 0.0078-10 ng/mL and a lower detection limit of 0.65 pg/mL with good stability and repeatability, which provided a new approach for label-free IgG detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-Time and Label-Free Chemical Sensor-on-a-chip using Monolithic Si-on-BaTiO3 Mid-Infrared waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiening; Li, Leigang; Zhang, Bruce; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Pao Tai

    2017-07-19

    Chip-scale chemical detection is demonstrated by using mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) waveguides on an epitaxial barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BTO) thin film. The highly c-axis oriented BTO film was grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and it exhibits a broad transparent window from λ = 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The waveguide structure was fabricated by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and a sharp fundamental waveguide mode has been observed. By scanning the spectrum within the characteristic absorption regime, our mid-IR waveguide successfully perform label-free monitoring of various organic solvents. The real-time heptane detection is accomplished by measuring the intensity attenuation at λ = 3.0-3.2 μm, which is associated with -CH absorption. While for methanol detection, we track the -OH absorption at λ = 2.8-2.9 μm. Our monolithic Si-on-BTO waveguides establish a new sensor platform that enables integrated photonic device for label-free chemical detection.

  19. Label-free single-cell separation and imaging of cancer cells using an integrated microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antfolk, Maria; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Koizumi, Saori

    2017-01-01

    , an integrated system is presented that efficiently eliminates this risk by integrating label-free separation with single cell arraying of the target cell population, enabling direct on-chip tumor cell identification and enumeration. Prostate cancer cells (DU145) spiked into a sample with whole blood...... a fully integrated system for rapid label-free separation and on-chip phenotypic characterization of circulating tumor cells from peripheral venous blood in clinical practice....

  20. A new strategy for label-free electrochemical immunoassay based on “gate-effect” of β-cyclodextrin modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Huan [College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Li, Jianping, E-mail: likianping@263.net [College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhang, Yun; Pan, Hongcheng [College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Xu, Guobao, E-mail: guobaoxu@ciac.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-05

    A novel label-free electrochemical immunoassay was developed for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection via using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) assembled layer created gates for the electron transfer of probe. To construct the sensor, a gold electrode was self-assembled with monoclonal anti-PSA antibody labeled 6-mercapto-β-cyclodextrin. Interspaces among β-CD molecules in the layer were automatically formed on gold electrode, which act as the channel of the electron transfer of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} probe. When PSA bind with anti-PSA, it can block these channels on the electrode surface due to their steric hindrance effect, resulting in the decrease in redox current of the probe. Through such a gate-controlled effect, ultra trace amount of PSA may make the currents change greatly after the immunoreaction, which enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio to achieve the amplification effect. By evaluating the logarithm of PSA concentrations, the immunosensor had a good linear response to the current changes with a detection limit of 0.3 pg/mL (S/N = 3) when PSA concentration ranged from 1.0 pg/mL to 1.0 ng/mL. The label-free immunosensor exhibited satisfactory performances in sensitivity, repeatability as well as specificity. - Highlights: • A label-free PSA immunoassay was developed based on “gate-effect” amplification. • Interspaces among β-CD assembled for [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} electron transfer were controlled by the immunoreaction. • Higher sensitivity was achieved with time and cost saving principle.

  1. Design Optimization of Structural Parameters for Highly Sensitive Photonic Crystal Label-Free Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ah Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV, full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1 the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2 the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3 the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU−1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm.

  2. Design optimization of structural parameters for highly sensitive photonic crystal label-free biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jonghyun; Han, Yun-ah; Kim, Seok-min

    2013-03-07

    The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC) label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV), full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1) the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2) the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3) the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU-1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm.

  3. Micro-bead injection spectroscopy for label-free automated determination of immunoglobulin G in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Inês I; Magalhães, Luís M; Barreiros, Luisa; Reis, Salette; Lima, José L F C; Segundo, Marcela A

    2018-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) represents the major fraction of antibodies in healthy adult human serum, and deviations from physiological levels are a generic marker of disease corresponding to different pathologies. Therefore, screening methods for IgG evaluation are a valuable aid to diagnostics. The present work proposes a rapid, automatic, and miniaturized method based on UV-vis micro-bead injection spectroscopy (μ-BIS) for the real-time determination of human serum IgG with label-free detection. Relying on attachment of IgG in rec-protein G immobilized in Sepharose 4B, a bioaffinity column is automatically assembled, where IgG is selectively retained and determined by on-column optical density measurement. A "dilution-and-shoot" approach (50 to 200 times) was implemented without further sample treatment because interferences were flushed out of the column upon sample loading, with minimization of carryover and cross-contamination by automatically discarding the sorbent (0.2 mg) after each determination. No interference from human serum albumin at 60 mg mL -1 in undiluted sample was found. The method allowed IgG determination in the range 100-300 μg mL -1 (corresponding to 5.0-60 mg mL -1 in undiluted samples), with a detection limit of 33 μg mL -1 (1.7 mg mL -1 for samples, dilution factor of 50). RSD values were time-to-result decreased from several hours to times, showing the potential of the proposed approach as a point-of-care method. Graphical abstract Micro-Bead Injection Spectroscopy method for real time, automated and label-free determination of total serum human Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The method was designed for Lab-on-Valve (LOV) platforms using a miniaturised protein G bioaffinity separative approach. IgG are separated from serum matrix components upon quantification with low non-specific binding in less than 5 min.

  4. Direct identification of amyloids by label-free quantitative LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Danielsen, Heidi Nolsøe; Hansen, Susan Hove

    adhesive and therefore bind to pipette tips and other consumables. Pure cultures, large sample volumes and high productivity of amyloids are therefore required for successful purification. We here present a quantitative proteomics technique that allow direct identification of functional amyloid candidates......Direct identification of amyloids by label-free quantitative LC-MS H. N. Danielsen, S. H. Hansen, F.-A. Herbst, P. H. Nielsen, M. S. Dueholm Amyloids are highly ordered fibrillar protein polymers used by organisms from all domains of life due to their exceptional properties. We have previously...... in complex samples based on their structural stability in the presence of increasing concentrations of formic acid....

  5. Label-Free Quantitation of Ribosomal Proteins from Bacillus subtilis for Antibiotic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäkermann, Sina; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia E

    2017-01-01

    Current research is focusing on ribosome heterogeneity as a response to changing environmental conditions and stresses, such as antibiotic stress. Altered stoichiometry and composition of ribosomal proteins as well as association of additional protein factors are mechanisms for shaping the protein expression profile or hibernating ribosomes. Here, we present a method for the isolation of ribosomes to analyze antibiotic-induced changes in the composition of ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis or other bacteria. Ribosomes and associated proteins are isolated by ultracentrifugation and proteins are identified and quantified using label-free mass spectrometry.

  6. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-08

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  7. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  8. Label-free visualization of ultrastructural features of artificial synapses via cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Yam, Patricia T; Madwar, Carolin; Bostina, Mihnea; Rouiller, Isabelle; Colman, David R; Lennox, R Bruce

    2011-12-21

    The ultrastructural details of presynapses formed between artificial substrates of submicrometer silica beads and hippocampal neurons are visualized via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The silica beads are derivatized by poly-d-lysine or lipid bilayers. Molecular features known to exist at presynapses are clearly present at these artificial synapses, as visualized by cryo-EM. Key synaptic features such as the membrane contact area at synaptic junctions, the presynaptic bouton containing presynaptic vesicles, as well as microtubular structures can be identified. This is the first report of the direct, label-free observation of ultrastructural details of artificial synapses.

  9. Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Winnard, Paul T; Dasari, Sidarth; Kominsky, Scott L; Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi; Raman, Venu; Barman, Ishan

    2018-01-21

    Breast neoplasms frequently colonize bone and induce development of osteolytic bone lesions by disrupting the homeostasis of the bone microenvironment. This degenerative process can lead to bone pain and pathological bone fracture, a major cause of cancer morbidity and diminished quality of life, which is exacerbated by our limited ability to monitor early metastatic disease in bone and assess fracture risk. Spurred by its label-free, real-time nature and its exquisite molecular specificity, we employed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to assess and quantify early metastasis driven biochemical alterations to bone composition. As early as two weeks after intracardiac inoculations of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in NOD-SCID mice, Raman spectroscopic measurements in the femur and spine revealed consistent changes in carbonate substitution, overall mineralization as well as crystallinity increase in tumor-bearing bones when compared with their normal counterparts. Our observations reveal the possibility of early stage detection of biochemical changes in the tumor-bearing bones - significantly before morphological variations are captured through radiographic diagnosis. This study paves the way for a better molecular understanding of altered bone remodeling in such metastatic niches, and for further clinical studies with the goal of establishing a non-invasive tool for early metastasis detection and prediction of pathological fracture risk in breast cancer.

  10. A Flexible Label-Free Biosensor Sensitive and Selective to TNF-a: Application for Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullatif BARAKET

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that is characterized by elevated circulating levels for chronic heart failure (CHF and left ventricular assisted device (LVAD implantation patients, respectively. Therefore, a rapid and ease-of-use diagnostic tool is required to monitor LVAD patients at a high risk of mortality during early expression of an inflammatory storm. In this paper, we report on the quantitative electrochemical detection of human TNF-a with its corresponding antibody (Ab immobilized onto the functionalized biosensor surface. The label-free biosensor was fabricated on a gold surface that was deposited on a flexible polyimide (PI substrate. The interfacial properties of the functionalized flexible gold electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV in the presence of Fe(CN64-/3- as the redox-active species. Afterwards, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS technique was used to determine the TNF-a concentrations. EIS results confirmed that the developed flexible biosensor can accurately detect TNF-a with a good sensitivity in the dynamic range of 0.1 pg/mL to 0.5 ng/mL. Overall, the developed flexible biosensor was easy to fabricate and the results demonstrate a good selectivity in the presence of other cytokines such as interleukin: (IL-10 and (IL-1.

  11. Application on Gold Nanoparticles-Dotted 4-Nitrophenylazo Graphene in a Label-Free Impedimetric Deoxynivalenol Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Edozie Sunday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a new concept to construct a label-free electrochemical inhibition-based immunosensor for the detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON in cereal samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of tris(bipyridine ruthenium (II chloride was used as a marker enhanced with gold nanoparticles-dotted 4-nitrophenylazo functionalized graphene (AuNp/G/PhNO2 nanocatalyst mediated in Nafion on a glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized conditions, the formation of immunocomplexes inhibited electron flow and increased the charge transfer resistance of the sensing interface linearly. The change in impedance was proportional to DON concentrations in the range of 6–30 ng/mL with a sensitivity and detection limit of 32.14 ΩL/ng and 0.3 µg/mL, respectively, which compares favorably with the ELISA result. The proposed sensor had a stability of 80.3%, good precision and selectivity in DON standard solution containing different interfering agents, indicating promising application prospect for this strategy in designing impedimetric, electrochemiluminescent, voltammetric or amperometric sensors.

  12. Gold/silver/gold trilayer films on nanostructured polycarbonate substrates for direct and label-free nanoplasmonic biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A; Estévez, M-Carmen; Vázquez-García, Marc; Berenguel-Alonso, Miguel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Lechuga, Laura M

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasmooth gold/silver/gold trilayer nanostructured plasmonic sensors were obtained using commercial Blu-ray optical discs as nanoslits-based flexible polymer substrates. A thin gold film was used as an adhesion and nucleation layer to improve the chemical stability and reduce the surface roughness of the overlying silver film, without increasing ohmic plasmon losses. The structures were physically and optically characterized and compared with nanostructures of single gold layer. Ultrasmooth and chemically stable trilayer nanostructures with a surface roughness <0.5 nm were obtained following a simple and reproducible fabrication process. They showed a figure of merit (FOM) value up to 69.2 RIU -1 which is significantly higher (more than 95%) than the gold monolayer counterpart. Their potential for biosensing was demonstrated by employing the trilayer sensor for the direct and refractometric (label-free) detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) biomarker in undiluted urine achieving a Limit of Detection (LOD) in the pM order. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Triangular dislocation: an analytical, artefact-free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas R.

    2015-05-01

    Displacements and stress-field changes associated with earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and human activity are often simulated using numerical models in an attempt to understand the underlying processes and their governing physics. The application of elastic dislocation theory to these problems, however, may be biased because of numerical instabilities in the calculations. Here, we present a new method that is free of artefact singularities and numerical instabilities in analytical solutions for triangular dislocations (TDs) in both full-space and half-space. We apply the method to both the displacement and the stress fields. The entire 3-D Euclidean space {R}3 is divided into two complementary subspaces, in the sense that in each one, a particular analytical formulation fulfils the requirements for the ideal, artefact-free solution for a TD. The primary advantage of the presented method is that the development of our solutions involves neither numerical approximations nor series expansion methods. As a result, the final outputs are independent of the scale of the input parameters, including the size and position of the dislocation as well as its corresponding slip vector components. Our solutions are therefore well suited for application at various scales in geoscience, physics and engineering. We validate the solutions through comparison to other well-known analytical methods and provide the MATLAB codes.

  14. Label-free in situ imaging of oil body dynamics and chemistry in germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschatko, Gustav; Billecke, Nils; Schwendy, Sascha; Jaurich, Henriette; Bonn, Mischa; Vilgis, Thomas A; Parekh, Sapun H

    2016-10-01

    Plant oleosomes are uniquely emulsified lipid reservoirs that serve as the primary energy source during seed germination. These oil bodies undergo significant changes regarding their size, composition and structure during normal seedling development; however, a detailed characterization of these oil body dynamics, which critically affect oil body extractability and nutritional value, has remained challenging because of a limited ability to monitor oil body location and composition during germination in situ Here, we demonstrate via in situ, label-free imaging that oil bodies are highly dynamic intracellular organelles that are morphologically and biochemically remodelled extensively during germination. Label-free, coherent Raman microscopy (CRM) combined with bulk biochemical measurements revealed the temporal and spatial regulation of oil bodies in native soya bean cotyledons during the first eight days of germination. Oil bodies undergo a cycle of growth and shrinkage that is paralleled by lipid and protein compositional changes. Specifically, the total protein concentration associated with oil bodies increases in the first phase of germination and subsequently decreases. Lipids contained within the oil bodies change in saturation and chain length during germination. Our results show that CRM is a well-suited platform to monitor in situ lipid dynamics and local chemistry and that oil bodies are actively remodelled during germination. This underscores the dynamic role of lipid reservoirs in plant development. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Compact 3D printed module for fluorescence and label-free imaging using evanescent excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vikas; Gupta, Shalini; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is widely used for selective excitation and high-resolution imaging of fluorophores, and more recently label-free nanosized objects, with high vertical confinement near a liquid-solid interface. Traditionally, high numerical aperture objectives (>1.4) are used to simultaneously generate evanescent waves and collect fluorescence emission signals which limits their use to small area imaging (filters to prevent specular reflection within the objective lenses. We have developed a compact 3D module called cTIRF that can generate evanescent waves in microscope glass slides via a planar waveguide illumination. The module can be attached as a fixture to any existing optical microscope, converting it into a TIRF and enabling high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) fluorescence imaging using any magnification objective. As the incidence optics is perpendicular to the detector, label-free evanescent scattering-based imaging of submicron objects can also be performed without using emission filters. SNR is significantly enhanced in this case as compared to cTIRF alone, as seen through our model experiments performed on latex beads and mammalian cells. Extreme flexibility and the low cost of our approach makes it scalable for limited resource settings.

  16. Probing Xylan-Specific Raman Bands for Label-Free Imaging Xylan in Plant Cell Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining; Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Tucker, Melvin P.; Vinzant, Todd; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-06-15

    Xylan constitutes a significant portion of biomass (e.g. 22% in corn stover used in this study). Xylan is also an important source of carbohydrates, besides cellulose, for renewable and sustainable energy applications. Currently used method for the localization of xylan in biomass is to use fluorescence confocal microscope to image the fluorescent dye labeled monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to xylan. With the rapid adoption of the Raman-based label-free chemical imaging techniques in biology, identifying Raman bands that are unique to xylan would be critical for the implementation of the above label-free techniques for in situ xylan imaging. Unlike lignin and cellulose that have long be assigned fingerprint Raman bands, specific Raman bands for xylan remain unclear. The major challenge is the cellulose in plant cell wall, which has chemical units highly similar to that of xylan. Here we report using xylanase to specifically remove xylan from feedstock. Under various degree of xylan removal, with minimum impact to other major cell wall components, i.e. lignin and cellulose, we have identified Raman bands that could be further tested for chemical imaging of xylan in biomass in situ.

  17. A Label Free Disposable Device for Rapid Isolation of Rare Tumor Cells from Blood by Ultrasounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of blood samples as liquid biopsy is a label-free method for cancer diagnosis that offers benefits over traditional invasive biopsy techniques. Cell sorting by acoustic waves offers a means to separate rare cells from blood samples based on their physical properties in a label-free, contactless and biocompatible manner. Herein, we describe a flow-through separation approach that provides an efficient separation of tumor cells (TCs from white blood cells (WBCs in a microfluidic device, “THINUS-Chip” (Thin-Ultrasonic-Separator-Chip, actuated by ultrasounds. We introduce for the first time the concept of plate acoustic waves (PAW applied to acoustophoresis as a new strategy. It lies in the geometrical chip design: different to other microseparators based on either bulk acoustic waves (BAW or surface waves (SAW, SSAW and tSAW, it allows the use of polymeric materials without restrictions in the frequency of work. We demonstrate its ability to perform high-throughput isolation of TCs from WBCs, allowing a recovery rate of 84% ± 8% of TCs with a purity higher than 80% and combined viability of 85% at a flow rate of 80 μL/min (4.8 mL/h. The THINUS-Chip performs cell fractionation with low-cost manufacturing processes, opening the door to possible easy printing fabrication.

  18. A graphene oxide-based sensing platform for the label-free assay of DNA sequence and exonuclease activity via long range resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yixuan; Tian, Jianniao; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Yanchun; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Shulin

    2013-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was introduced as an efficient quencher for label-free and sensitive detection of DNA. Probe DNA (pDNA) was mixed with ethidium bromide (EB) and graphene oxide (GO). The interaction between EB and GO led to the fluorescent quenching. Upon the recognition of the target, EB was intercalated into duplex DNA and kept away from GO, which significantly hindered the long range resonance energy transfer (LrRET) from EB to GO and, thus, increased the fluorescence of EB. The changes in fluorescent intensity produced a novel method for sensitivity, and specificity detection of the target. Based on the structure-switching of aptamers, this strategy could be conveniently extended for detection of other biomolecules, which had been demonstrated by the detection of exonuclease activity.

  19. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Leite, Thiago Falda; Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  20. The proteome of human liver peroxisomes: identification of five new peroxisomal constituents by a label-free quantitative proteomics survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    Full Text Available The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or β-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD(+ becomes regenerated during fatty acid β-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease.

  1. Selection of specific aptamer against enrofloxacin and fabrication of graphene oxide based label-free fluorescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Somayeh; Ramezani, Mohammad; Nabavinia, Maryam Sadat; Soheili, Vahid; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-05-15

    Specific ssDNA aptamers for the antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENR) were isolated from an enriched nucleotide library by SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) method with high binding affinity. After seven rounds, five aptamers were selected and identified. Apt58 with highest affinity and sensitivity (K d  = 14.19 nM) was employed to develop a label-free fluorescent biosensing approach based on aptamer, graphene oxide (GO) and native fluorescence of ENR for determination of ENR residue in raw milk samples. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear range was from 5 nM to 250 nM and LOD was calculated to be 3.7 nM, and the recovery rate was between 94.1% and 108.5%. The integration of aptamer and GO in this bioassay provides a promising way for rapid, sensitive and cost-effective detection of ENR in real samples like raw milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Label-free potentiometric biosensor based on solid-contact for determination of total phenols in honey and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Patrícia Ferrante; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Bastos

    2017-03-01

    We developed a label-free potentiometric biosensor using tyrosinase extracted from Musa acuminata and immobilized by covalent bond on a surface of a solid-contact transducer. The transducer was manufactured containing two layers. The first layer contained a blend of poly(vinyl) chloride carboxylated (PVC-COOH), graphite and potassium permanganate. On this layer, we deposited a second layer containing just a mixture of poly(vinyl chloride) carboxylated and graphite. On the last layer of the transducer, we immobilized the tyrosinase enzyme by reaction with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The solid-contact potentiometric biosensor presented at low detection limit of 7.3×10 -7 M and a linear range to catechol concentration between 9.3×10 -7 M and 8.3×10 -2 M. This biosensor was applied to determine the amount of total phenols in different samples of honey and propolis. The results agreed with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-Free Carbon-Dots-Based Ratiometric Fluorescence pH Nanoprobes for Intracellular pH Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jingfang; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Liu, Jinquan; Tang, Jinlu; Yang, Xue; Huang, Jin

    2016-08-02

    Measuring pH in living cells is of great importance for better understanding cellular functions as well as providing pivotal assistance for early diagnosis of diseases. In this work, we report the first use of a novel kind of label-free carbon dots for intracellular ratiometric fluorescence pH sensing. By simple one-pot hydrothermal treatment of citric acid and basic fuchsin, the carbon dots showing dual emission bands at 475 and 545 nm under single-wavelength excitation were synthesized. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence intensities of the as-synthesized carbon dots at the two emissions are pH-sensitive simultaneously. The intensity ratio (I475 nm/I545 nm) is linear against pH values from 5.2 to 8.8 in buffer solution, affording the capability as ratiometric probes for intracellular pH sensing. It also displays that the carbon dots show excellent reversibility and photostability in pH measurements. With this nanoprobe, quantitative fluorescence imaging using the ratio of two emissions (I475 nm/I545 nm) for the detection of intracellular pH were successfully applied in HeLa cells. In contrast to most of the reported nanomaterials-based ratiometric pH sensors which rely on the attachment of additional dyes, these carbon-dots-based ratiometric probes are low in toxicity, easy to synthesize, and free from labels.

  4. Label-free electrical determination of trypsin activity by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Serr, Andreas; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-10-08

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based thin film resistor is employed for the label-free determination of enzymatic activity. We demonstrate that enzymes, which cleave biological polyelectrolyte substrates, can be detected by the sensor. As an application, we consider the serine endopeptidase trypsin, which cleaves poly-L-lysine (PLL). We show that PLL adsorbs quasi-irreversibly to the sensor and is digested by trypsin directly at the sensor surface. The created PLL fragments are released into the bulk solution due to kinetic reasons. This results in a measurable change of the surface potential allowing for the determination of trypsin concentrations down to 50 ng mL(-1). Chymotrypsin is a similar endopeptidase with a different specificity, which cleaves PLL with a lower efficiency as compared to trypsin. The activity of trypsin is analyzed quantitatively employing a kinetic model for enzyme-catalyzed surface reactions. Moreover, we have demonstrated the specific inactivation of trypsin by a serine protease inhibitor, which covalently binds to the active site of the enzyme.

  5. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Quecine

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus. NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  6. Label-free DNA quantification via a 'pipette, aggregate and blot' (PAB) approach with magnetic silica particles on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Alsamarri, Hussein; Lounsbury, Jenny A; Haversitick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2013-03-07

    Reliable measurement of DNA concentration is essential for a broad range of applications in biology and molecular biology, and for many of these, quantifying the nucleic acid content is inextricably linked to obtaining optimal results. In its most simplistic form, quantitative analysis of nucleic acids can be accomplished by UV-Vis absorbance and, in more sophisticated format, by fluorimetry. A recently reported new concept, the 'pinwheel assay', involves a label-free approach for quantifying DNA through aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field. Here, we describe a simplified version of that assay adapted for execution using only a pipet and filter paper. The 'pipette, aggregate, and blot' (PAB) approach allows DNA to induce bead aggregation in a pipette tip through exposure to a magnetic field, followed by dispensing (blotting) onto filter paper. The filter paper immortalises the extent of aggregation, and digital images of the immortalized bead conformation, acquired with either a document scanner or a cell phone camera, allows for DNA quantification using a noncomplex algorithm. Human genomic DNA samples extracted from blood are quantified with the PAB approach and the results utilized to define the volume of sample used in a PCR reaction that is sensitive to input mass of template DNA. Integrating the PAB assay with paper-based DNA extraction and detection modalities has the potential to yield 'DNA quant-on-paper' devices that may be useful for point-of-care testing.

  7. A new application of scanning electrochemical microscopy for the label-free interrogation of antibody-antigen interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Joanne L.; Davis, Frank; Collyer, Stuart D. [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Higson, Seamus P.J., E-mail: s.p.j.higson@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-18

    Within this work we present a 'proof of principle' study for the use of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to detect and image biomolecular interactions in a label-free assay as a potential alternative to current fluorescence techniques. Screen-printed carbon electrodes were used as the substrate for the deposition of a dotted array, where the dots consist of biotinylated polyethyleneimine. These were then further derivatised, first with neutravidin and then with a biotinylated antibody to the protein neuron specific enolase (NSE). SECM using a ferrocene carboxylic acid mediator showed clear differences between the array and the surrounding unmodified carbon. Imaging of the arrays before and following exposure to various concentrations of the antigen showed clear evidence for specific binding of the NSE antigen to the antibody derivatised dots. Non-specific binding was quantified. Control experiments with other proteins showed only non-specific binding across the whole of the substrate, thereby confirming that specific binding does occur between the antibody and antigen at the surface of the dots. Binding of the antigen was accompanied by a measured increase in current response, which may be explained in terms of protein electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions to the mediator, thereby increasing the localised mediator flux. A calibration curve was obtained between 500 fg mL{sup -1} to 200 pg mL{sup -1} NSE which demonstrated a logarithmic relationship between the current change upon binding and antigen concentration without the need for any labelling of the substrate.

  8. Low-Cost Label-Free Biosensing Bimetallic Cellulose Strip with SILAR-Synthesized Silver Core-Gold Shell Nanoparticle Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Anbok; Choi, Samjin

    2017-06-20

    We introduce a label-free biosensing cellulose strip sensor with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-encoded bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles. Bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of a synthesis of core Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) and a synthesis of shell gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were fabricated on a cellulose substrate by two-stage successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. The bimetallic nanoparticle-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects were theoretically verified by computational calculations with finite element models of optimized bimetallic nanoparticles interacting with an incident laser source. Well-dispersed raspberry-like bimetallic nanoparticles with highly polycrystalline structure were confirmed through X-ray and electron analyses despite ionic reaction synthesis. The stability against silver oxidation and high sensitivity with superior SERS enhancement factor (EF) of the low-cost SERS-encoded cellulose strip, which achieved 3.98 × 10 8 SERS-EF, 6.1%-RSD reproducibility, and <10%-degraded sustainability, implicated the possibility of practical applications in high analytical screening methods, such as single-molecule detection. The remarkable sensitivity and selectivity of this bimetallic biosensing strip in determining aquatic toxicities for prohibited drugs, such as aniline, sodium azide, and malachite green, as well as monitoring the breast cancer progression for urine, confirmed its potential as a low-cost label-free point-of-care test chip for the early diagnosis of human diseases.

  9. Label-Free and Real-Time Monitor of Binding and Dissociation Processes between Protein A and Swine IgG by Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li-Ping; Liu Shuang; Dai Jun; Lu Hui-Bin; Jin Kui-Juan; Yang Guo-Zhen; Wu Lin; Liu Guo-Zhen; Wei Han-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Life science has a need for detection methods that are label-free and real-time. In this paper, we have selected staphylococcal protein A (SPA) and swine immunoglobulin G (IgG), and monitor the bindings between SPA and swine IgG with different concentrations, as well as the dissociations of SPA-swine IgG complex in different pH values of phosphate buffer by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) in a label-free and real-time fashion. We obtain the ON and OFF reaction dynamic curves corresponding to the bindings and dissociations of SPA and swine IgG. Through our analysis of the experimental results, we have been able to obtain the damping coefficients and the dissociation time of SPA and swine IgG for different pH values of the phosphate buffer. The results prove that the OIRD technique is a competing method for monitoring the dynamic processes of biomolecule interaction and achieving the quantitative information of reaction kinetics. (general)

  10. Rapid label-free identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistant strains by the drop-coating deposition surface-enhanced Raman scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Youjin; Kim, Young Jin; Kang, Heeyoon; Choi, Samjin; Lee, Hee Joo

    2017-08-01

    Although many methodologies have been developed to identify unknown bacteria, bacterial identification in clinical microbiology remains a complex and time-consuming procedure. To address this problem, we developed a label-free method for rapidly identifying clinically relevant multilocus sequencing typing-verified quinolone-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. We also applied the method to identify three strains from colony samples, ATCC70063 (control), ST11 and ST15; these are the prevalent quinolone-resistant K. pneumoniae strains in East Asia. The colonies were identified using a drop-coating deposition surface-enhanced Raman scattering (DCD-SERS) procedure coupled with a multivariate statistical method. Our workflow exhibited an enhancement factor of 11.3 × 106 to Raman intensities, high reproducibility (relative standard deviation of 7.4%), and a sensitive limit of detection (100 pM rhodamine 6G), with a correlation coefficient of 0.98. All quinolone-resistant K. pneumoniae strains showed similar spectral Raman shifts (high correlations) regardless of bacterial type, as well as different Raman vibrational modes compared to Escherichia coli strains. Our proposed DCD-SERS procedure coupled with the multivariate statistics-based identification method achieved excellent performance in discriminating similar microbes from one another and also in subtyping of K. pneumoniae strains. Therefore, our label-free DCD-SERS procedure coupled with the computational decision supporting method is a potentially useful method for the rapid identification of clinically relevant K. pneumoniae strains.

  11. Pyrrolidinyl PNA polypyrrole/silver nanofoam electrode as a novel label-free electrochemical miRNA-21 biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangkamano, Tawatchai; Numnuam, Apon; Limbut, Warakorn; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2018-04-15

    A label-free electrochemical miRNA biosensor was developed based on a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA)/polypyrrole (PPy)/silver nanofoam (AgNF) modified electrode. The AgNF was electrodeposited as redox indicator on a gold electrode, which was then functionalized with an electropolymerized layer of PPy, a conducting polymer, to immobilize the PNA probes. The fabrication process was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biosensor was used to detect miRNA-21, a biomarker abnormally expressed in most cancers. The signal was monitored by the change in current of the AgNF redox reaction before and after hybridization using cyclic voltammetry. Two PNA probe lengths were investigated and the longer probe exhibited a better performance. Nucleotide overhangs on the electrode side affected the signal more than overhangs on the solution side due to the greater insulation of the sensing surface. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical signal was proportional to miRNA-21 concentrations between 0.20fM and 1.0nM, with a very low detection limit of 0.20fM. The biosensor showed a high specificity which could discriminate between complementary, single-, doubled-base mismatched, and non-complementary targets. Three out of the seven tested plasma samples provided detectable concentrations (63 ± 4, 111 ± 4 and 164 ± 7fM). The sensor also showed good recoveries (81-119%). The results indicated the possibilities of this biosensor for analysis without RNA extraction and/or amplification, making the sensor potentially useful for both the prognosis and diagnosis of cancer in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Label-free proteomic analysis of intestinal mucosa proteins in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guilan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Naeem, Sajid; Li, Li; Kong, Xianghui

    2017-07-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases in common carp Cyprinus carpio, a major cultured fish in northern regions of China, constantly result in significant economic losses. Until now, information proteomic on immune defence remains limited. In the present study, a profile of intestinal mucosa immune response in Cyprinus carpio was investigated after 0, 12, 36 and 84 h after challenging tissues with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1.4 × 10 8  CFU/mL. Proteomic profiles in different samples were compared using label-free quantitative proteomic approach. Based on MASCOT database search, 1149 proteins were identified in samples after normalisation of proteins. Treated groups 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) were first clustered together and then clustered with control (C group). The distance between C and treated group 3 (T3) represented the maxima according to hierarchical cluster analysis. Therefore, comparative analysis between C and T3 was selected in the following analysis. A total of 115 proteins with differential abundance were detected to show conspicuous expressing variances. A total of 52 up-regulated proteins and 63 down-regulated proteins were detected in T3. Gene ontology analysis showed that identified up-regulated differentially expressed proteins in T3 were mainly localised in the hemoglobin complex, and down-regulated proteins in T3 were mainly localised in the major histocompatibility complex II protein complex. Forty-six proteins of differential abundance (40% of 115) were involved in immune response, with 17 up-regulated and 29 down-regulated proteins detected in T3. This study is the first to report proteome response of carp intestinal mucosa against A. hydrophila infection; information obtained contribute to understanding defence mechanisms of carp intestinal mucosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-Time Label-Free Detection of Suspicious Powders Using Noncontact Optical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    PCA). Care was taken to ensure that all microbes were vetted to be pure and well washed of media . This process is described in detail in...surface. The color rendition on Fig. 8 is determined by the RGB position in a chemometric space determined by a band difference analysis ( BDA ...Band Difference Analysis ( BDA ) chemometric-space spatial maps of dilute streaks of 4 microbes on a stainless steel substrate. BS= B. subtilis, EC= E

  14. Label free targeted detection and quantification of celiac disease immunogenic epitopes by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Nessen, M.A.; America, A.H.P.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a food-related disease caused by certain gluten peptides containing T-cell stimulating epitopes from wheat, rye, and barley. CD-patients have to maintain a gluten-free diet and are therefore dependent on reliable testing and labeling of gluten-free products. So far, the

  15. Label-Free Detection of Insulin and Glucagon within Human Islets of Langerhans Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, J.; Otto, Cornelis; Slump, Cornelis H.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Engelse, M.A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, E.J.P.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic transplantation of donor islets of Langerhans is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. It is of critical importance to accurately monitor islet quality before transplantation, which is currently done by standard histological methods that are performed off-line and

  16. Noninvasive Label-Free Detection of Micrometastases in the Lymphatics with Ultrasound-Guided Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    imaging can be used to guide dissection. We have also successfully integrated a programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ) and tunable pulsed...Mobile HE) with the programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ). We have synchronized the signals to enable interleaved acquisition of US...transducer (L11-4v, Verasonics Inc.) and build a housing which effectively couples fiber optic light delivery. o What opportunities for training and

  17. Modeling the microscopic electrical properties of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) for label-free biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino; Cataldo, Rosella; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Giotta, Livia; Guascito, Maria Rachele

    2017-02-01

    Aptamers are chemically produced oligonucleotides, able to bind a variety of targets such as drugs, proteins and pathogens with high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, aptamers are largely employed for producing label-free biosensors (aptasensors), with significant applications in diagnostics and drug delivery. In particular, the anti-thrombin aptamers are biomolecules of high interest for clinical use, because of their ability to recognize and bind the thrombin enzyme. Among them, the DNA 15-mer aptamer (TBA), has been widely explored around the possibility of using it in aptasensors. This paper proposes a microscopic model of the electrical properties of TBA and of the aptamer-thrombin complex, combining information from both structure and function, following the issues addressed in an emerging branch of electronics known as proteotronics. The theoretical results are compared and validated with measurements reported in the literature. Finally, the model suggests resistance measurements as a novel tool for testing aptamer-target affinity.

  18. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G; Wei, J; Zheng, Z; Ye, J; Zeng, S

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM. (letters)

  19. Improvements in low-cost label-free QPI microscope for live cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniya, C.; Towers, C. E.; Towers, D. P.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports an improvement in the development of a low-cost QPI microscope offering new capabilities in term of phase measurement accuracy for label-free live samples in the longer term (i.e., hours to days). The spatially separated scattered and non-scattered image light fields are reshaped in the Fourier plane and modulated to form an interference image at a CCD camera. The apertures that enable these two beams to be generated have been optimised by means of laser-cut apertures placed on the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer and has improved the phase measuring and reconstruction capability of the QPI microscope. The microscope was tested with transparent onion cells as an object of interest.

  20. Design of a Label-Free, Distributed Bragg Grating Resonator Based Dielectric Waveguide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kehl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a resonant, dielectric waveguide device based on distributed Bragg gratings for label-free biosensing applications. The refractive index sensitive optical transducer aims at improving the performance of planar waveguide grating sensor systems with limited Q-factor and dynamic range by combing the advantages of resonant cavities, such as a multitude of resonance peaks with high finesse, with the manageable complexity of waveguide grating couplers. The general sensor concept is introduced and supported by theoretical considerations as well as numerical simulations based on Coupled Mode Theory. In contrast to a single Bragg grating reflector, the presented Fabry-Pérot type distributed Bragg resonator exhibits an extended measurement range as well as relaxed fabrication tolerances. The resulting, relatively simple sensor structure can be fabricated with standard lithographic means and is independent of expensive light-sources and/or detectors, making an affordable but sensitive device, potentially suitable for point-of-care applications.

  1. Label-Free Imaging and Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Sperm Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Managò, Stefano; De Angelis, Annalisa; Sirleto, Luigi; Coppola, Giuseppe; De Luca, Anna Chiara

    2015-01-01

    A full label-free morphological and biochemical characterization is desirable to select spermatozoa during preparation for artificial insemination. In order to study these fundamental parameters, we take advantage of two attractive techniques: digital holography (DH) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). DH presents new opportunities for studying morphological aspect of cells and tissues non-invasively, quantitatively and without the need for staining or tagging, while RS is a very specific technique allowing the biochemical analysis of cellular components with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In this paper, morphological and biochemical bovine sperm cell alterations were studied using these techniques. In addition, a complementary DH and RS study was performed to identify X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells. We demonstrate that the two techniques together are a powerful and highly efficient tool elucidating some important criterions for sperm morphological selection and sex-identification, overcoming many of the limitations associated with existing protocols. PMID:25836358

  2. Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Le, Thuc T.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-04-01

    A multimodal nonlinear optical imaging system that integrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on the same platform was developed and applied to visualize single cells and extracellular matrix in fresh carotid arteries. CARS signals arising from CH 2-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the arterial wall. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are also rich in CH 2 bonds. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. Label-free imaging of significant components of arterial tissues suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  3. Novel redox species polyaniline derivative-Au/Pt as sensing platform for label-free electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liyuan; Shan, Jiao; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang, E-mail: mazhanfang@cnu.edu.cn

    2016-03-10

    A novel electrochemical redox-active nanocomposite was synthesized by a one-pot method using N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylediamine as monomer, and HAuCl{sub 4} and K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} as co-oxidizing agents. The as-prepared poly(N,N′-diphenyl-p-phenylediamine)-Au/Pt exhibited admirable electrochemical redox activity at 0.15 V, excellent H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrocatalytic ability and favorable electron transfer ability. Based on these, the evaluation of the composite as sensing substrate for label-free electrochemical immunosensing to the sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 199 was described. This technique proved to be a prospective detection tool with a wide liner range from 0.001 U mL{sup −1} to 40 U mL{sup −1}, and a low detection limit of 2.3 × 10{sup −4} U mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3). In addition, this method was used for the analysis of human serum sample, and good agreement was obtained between the values and those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, implying the potential application in clinical research. Importantly, the strategy of the present substrate could be extended to other polymer-based nanocomposites such as polypyrrole derivatives or polythiophene derivatives, and this could be of great significance for the electrochemical immunoassay. - Highlights: • A novel electrochemical redox composite PPPD-Au/Pt was synthesized by one-pot method. • PPPD-Au/Pt was used as sensing substrate for label-free electrochemical immunosensor. • The immunosensor showed wide detection range and ultralow detection limit for the detection of CA199.

  4. Large area, label-free imaging of extracellular matrix using telecentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal Onufrak, Michelle A.; Konger, Raymond L.; Kim, Young L.

    2017-02-01

    Subtle alterations in stromal tissue structures and organizations within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been observed in several types of tissue abnormalities, including early skin cancer and wounds. Current microscopic imaging methods often lack the ability to accurately determine the extent of malignancy over a large area, due to their limited field of view. In this research we focus on the development of simple mesoscopic (i.e. between microscopic and macroscopic) biomedical imaging device for non-invasive assessment of ECM alterations over a large, heterogeneous area. In our technology development, a telecentric lens, commonly used in machine vision systems but rarely used in biomedical imaging, serves as a key platform to visualize alterations in tissue microenvironments in a label-free manner over a clinically relevant area. In general, telecentric imaging represents a simple, alternative method for reducing unwanted scattering or diffuse light caused by the highly anisotropic scattering properties of biological tissue. In particular, under telecentric imaging the light intensity backscattered from biological tissue is mainly sensitive to the scattering anisotropy factor, possibly associated with the ECM. We demonstrate the inherent advantages of combining telecentric lens systems with hyperspectral imaging for providing optical information of tissue scattering in biological tissue of murine models, as well as light absorption of hemoglobin in blood vessel tissue phantoms. Thus, we envision that telecentric imaging could potentially serve for simple site-specific, tissue-based assessment of stromal alterations over a clinically relevant field of view in a label-free manner, for studying diseases associated with disruption of homeostasis in ECM.

  5. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the novel signal amplification system of AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles functionalized polymer nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Yang, Yuying; Tan, Zhaoling; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Daopeng; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui

    2018-04-30

    A sensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor was designed using a novel signal amplification system for quantitative detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) supported surfactant-free AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles (AuPdCu/N-GQDs), which featured with good conductivity and excellent catalytic properties for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), was synthesized by a simple and benign hydrothermal procedure. At the same time, the electroactive polymer nanospheres (PS) was synthesized by infinite coordination polymers of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, which could play as carrier and electronic mediator to load AuPdCu/N-GQDs. The PS not only improved the ability to load antibodies because of the good biocompatibility, but also accelerated electron transport of the electrode interface attribute to plentiful ferrocene unit. Thus, the prepared AuPdCu/N-GQDs@PS has abilities of good biocompatibility, catalytic activity and electrical conductivity to be applied as transducing materials to amplify electrochemical signal in detection of HBsAg. Under optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability in the detection of HBsAg. A linear relationship between current signals and the concentrations of HBsAg was obtained in the range from 10fg/mL to 50ng/mL and the detection limit of HBsAg was 3.3fg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the designed immunosensor with excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability shows excellent performance in detection of human serum samples. Furthermore, this label-free electrochemical immunosensor has promising application in clinical diagnosis of HBsAg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coreactant-free and Label-free Eletrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Copeptin Based on Luminescent Immuno-Gold Nanoassemblys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhili; Shu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Qiaoshi; Cui, Hua

    2018-04-25

    In this work, the eletrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of Cu 2+ /cysteine complexes and N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) functionalized gold nanoparticles combined with chitosan (Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a double-step potential, which exhibited excellent ECL properties without any coreactant. It was found that the ECL intensity of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS could increase at least one order of magnitude compared with that of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs. Furthermore, a coreactant-free and label-free ECL immunosensor has been established for the determination of early acute myocardial infarction biomarker copeptin based on luminescent immuno-gold nanoassemblys consisting of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS and immuno-gold nanoparticles prepared by connecting copeptin antibody with trisodium citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles. In the presence of copeptin, an obvious decrease in ECL intensity was observed due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex, which could be used for the determination of copeptin in the range of 2.0×10 -14 -1.0×10 -11 mol/L with a detection limit of 5.18×10 -15 mol/L. The detection limit of the ECL immunosensor is at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of sandwich immunoassays based on labeling technology. And the ECL immunosensor does not need any coreactant, and avoids complicated labeling and purification procedure. It is ultrasensitive, simple, specific and low-cost. This work reveals that the proposed luminescent immuno-gold nanoassemblys are ideal nanointerfaces for the construction of immunosensors. The proposed strategy may be used for the determination of other antigens if corresponding antibodies are available.

  7. Plasma-treated polystyrene film that enhances binding efficiency for sensitive and label-free protein biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bihong [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Shaopeng [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Lusheng [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Mo; Zhou, Wenfei; Tyagi, Deependra [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Rd., 19(A), Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Jinsong, E-mail: jizhu88@gmail.com [National Center for NanoScience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • A simple and robust plasma-treated ultrathin polystyrene film surface was developed for protein biosensing. • The surface was optimized by evaluating up to 120 types of fabrication parameters with high-throughput analytical methods. • The optimized surface showed a 620% improvement of the protein detection signal and 210% protein binding per immobilized protein ligand compared with a self-assembled monolayer surface. - Abstract: A plasma-treated ultrathin polystyrene (PS) film surface was explored as a simple, robust, and low-cost surface chemistry solution for protein biosensing applications. This surface could dramatically improve the binding efficiency of the protein–protein interactions, which is defined as the binding signal per immobilized ligand. The PS-modified protein biosensor was readily fabricated by spin coating and plasma treatment. Various parameters for fabrication, including the concentration of the PS solution, rate of spin coating, and duration of plasma treatment, were systematically optimized based on the improvement of fluorescence signal yielded by the microfluidic network-aided fluorescence immunoassay. The performance of the label-free protein detection on the optimized surfaces was further evaluated by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). PS surfaces with optimal fabrication parameters exhibited up to an 620% enhancement of the protein binding response and approximately 210% of the protein binding per immobilized protein ligand compared with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surface of 11-mercapto undecanoic acid (MUA). The relationship between the fabrication parameters used and changes to the surface chemistry and the morphological properties were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was revealed that the morphological changes observed in the plasma-treated PS film were the dominant factor for the

  8. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from lung cancer patients using label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmmier, Abduladim; O'Brien, Michael Emmet; Lynch, Vincent; Clynes, Martin; Morgan, Ross; Dowling, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women throughout the world. The need to detect lung cancer at an early, potentially curable stage, is essential and may reduce mortality by 20%. The aim of this study was to identify distinct proteomic profiles in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and plasma that are able to discriminate individuals with benign disease from those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using label-free mass spectrometry analysis of BALF during discovery-phase analysis, a significant number of proteins were found to have different abundance levels when comparing control to adenocarcinoma (AD) or squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCC). Validation of candidate biomarkers identified in BALF was performed in a larger cohort of plasma samples by detection with enzyme-linked immunoassay. Four proteins (Cystatin-C, TIMP-1, Lipocalin-2 and HSP70/HSPA1A) were selected as a representative group from discovery phase mass spectrometry BALF analysis. Plasma levels of TIMP-1, Lipocalin-2 and Cystatin-C were found to be significantly elevated in AD and SqCC compared to control. The results presented in this study indicate that BALF is an important proximal biofluid for the discovery and identification of candidate lung cancer biomarkers. There is good correlation between the trend of protein abundance levels in BALF and that of plasma which validates this approach to develop a blood biomarker to aid lung cancer diagnosis, particularly in the era of lung cancer screening. The protein signatures identified also provide insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with lung malignancy.

  9. A label-free luminescent switch-on assay for ATP using a G-quadruplex-selective iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ho; Lu, Lihua; Wang, Modi; Mak, Tsun-Yin; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Tang, Fung-Kit; Leung, Chung-Hang; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Yu, Zhiling; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the G-quadruplex-selective property of a luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complex for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous solution. The ATP-binding aptamer was employed as the ATP recognition unit, while the iridium(III) complex was used to monitor the formation of the G-quadruplex structure induced by ATP. The sensitivity and fold enhancement of the assay were higher than those of the previously reported assay using the organic dye crystal violet as a fluorescent probe. This label-free luminescent switch-on assay exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards ATP with a limit of detection of 2.5 µM.

  10. A label-free luminescent switch-on assay for ATP using a G-quadruplex-selective iridium(III complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Ho Leung

    Full Text Available We report herein the G-quadruplex-selective property of a luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III complex for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP in aqueous solution. The ATP-binding aptamer was employed as the ATP recognition unit, while the iridium(III complex was used to monitor the formation of the G-quadruplex structure induced by ATP. The sensitivity and fold enhancement of the assay were higher than those of the previously reported assay using the organic dye crystal violet as a fluorescent probe. This label-free luminescent switch-on assay exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards ATP with a limit of detection of 2.5 µM.

  11. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-10-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of "G-quadruplex" in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched "G-quadruplex lanterns" were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10 -17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  12. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA/Exonuclease III (Exo III-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  13. Gold surface supported spherical liposome-gold nano-particle nano-composite for label free DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvana, M; Narayanan, J Shankara; Dharuman, V; Teng, W; Hahn, J H; Jayakumar, K

    2013-03-15

    Immobilization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) liposome-gold nano-particle (DOPE-AuNP) nano-composite covalently on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on gold surface is demonstrated for the first time for electrochemical label free DNA sensing. Spherical nature of the DOPE on the MPA monolayer is confirmed by the appearance of sigmoidal voltammetric profile, characteristic behavior of linear diffusion, for the MPA-DOPE in presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) redox probes. The DOPE liposome vesicle fusion is prevented by electroless deposition of AuNP on the hydrophilic amine head groups of the DOPE. Immobilization of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) is made via simple gold-thiol linkage for DNA hybridization sensing in the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-). The sensor discriminates the hybridized (complementary target hybridized), un-hybridized (non-complementary target hybridized) and single base mismatch target hybridized surfaces sensitively and selectively without signal amplification. The lowest target DNA concentration detected is 0.1×10(-12)M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques are used for DNA sensing on DOPE-AuNP nano-composite. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV) spectroscopic techniques are used to understand the interactions between the DOPE, AuNP and ssDNA. The results indicate the presence of an intact and well defined spherical DOPE-AuNP nano-composite on the gold surface. The method could be applied for fabrication of the surface based liposome-AuNP-DNA composite for cell transfection studies at reduced reagents and costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Label-free tracking of single extracellular vesicles in a nano-fluidic optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Edwin; Weidlich, Stefan; Lahini, Yoav; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schmidt, Markus A.; Faez, Sanli; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are abundantly present in human body fluids. Since the size, concentration and composition of these vesicles change during disease, vesicles have promising clinical applications, including cancer diagnosis. However, since ~70% of the vesicles have a diameter <70 nm, detection of single vesicles remains challenging. Thus far, vesicles <70 nm have only be studied by techniques that require the vesicles to be adhered to a surface. Consequently, the majority of vesicles have never been studied in their physiological environment. We present a novel label-free optical technique to track single vesicles <70 nm in suspension. Method: Urinary vesicles were contained within a single-mode light-guiding silica fiber containing a 600 nm nano-fluidic channel. Light from a diode laser (660 nm wavelength) was coupled to the fiber, resulting in a strongly confined optical mode in the nano-fluidic channel, which continuously illuminated the freely diffusing vesicles inside the channel. The elastic light scattering from the vesicles, in the direction orthogonal to the fiber axis, was collected using a microscope objective (NA=0.95) and imaged with a home-built microscope. Results: We have tracked single urinary vesicles as small as 35 nm by elastic light scattering. Please note that vesicles are low-refractive index (n<1.4) particles, which we confirmed by combining data on thermal diffusion and light scattering cross section. Conclusions: For the first time, we have studied vesicles <70 nm freely diffusing in suspension. The ease-of-use and performance of this technique support its potential for vesicle-based clinical applications.

  15. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  16. Label-free in vivo in situ diagnostic imaging by cellular metabolism quantification with a flexible multiphoton endomicroscope (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Pierre; Hage, Charles-Henri; Fabert, Marc; Brevier, Julien; O'Connor, Rodney P.; Bardet-Coste, Sylvia M.; Habert, Rémi; Braud, Flavie; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Louradour, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a cutting edge imaging modality leading to increasing advances in biology and also in the clinical field. To use it at its full potential and at the very heart of clinical practice, there have been several developments of fiber-based multiphoton microendoscopes. The application for those probes is now limited by few major restrictions, such as the difficulty to collect autofluorescence signals from tissues and cells theses being inherently weak (e.g. the ones from intracellular NADH or FAD metabolites). This limitation reduces the usefulness of microendoscopy in general, effectively restraining it to morphological imaging modality requiring staining of the tissues. Our aim is to go beyond this limitation, showing for the first time label-free cellular metabolism monitoring, in vivo in situ in real time. The experimental setup is an upgrade of a recently published one (Ducourthial et.al, Scientific Reports, 2016) where femtosecond pulse fiber delivery is further optimized thank's to a new transmissive-GRISM-based pulse stretcher permitting high energy throughput and wide bandwidth. This device allows fast sequential operation with two different excitation wavelengths for efficient two-photon excited NADH and FAD autofluorescence endoscopic detection (i.e. 860 nm for FAD and 760 nm for NADH), enabling cellular optical redox ratio quantification at 8 frames/s. The obtained results on cell models in vitro and also on animal models in vivo (e.g. neurons of a living mouse) prove that we accurately assess the level of NADH and FAD at subcellular resolution through a 3-meters-long fiber with our miniaturized probe (O.D. =2.2 mm).

  17. Suppression of resonance Raman scattering via ground state depletion towards sub-diffraction-limited label-free microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieger, S.; Fischedick, M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Fallnich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of the suppression of spontaneous Raman scattering via ground state depletion. The concept of Raman suppression can be used to achieve sub-diffraction-limited resolution in label-free microscopy by exploiting spatially selective signal suppression

  18. Electrokinetic label-free screening chip: a marriage of multiplexing and high throughput analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Carlen, Edwin; Bomer, Johan G.; Wijnperle, Daniël; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2010-01-01

    We present an electrokinetic label-free biomolecular screening chip (Glass/PDMS) to screen up to 10 samples simultaneously using surface plasmon resonance imaging (iSPR). This approach reduces the duration of an experiment when compared to conventional experimental methods. This new device offers a

  19. Universal chitosan-assisted synthesis of Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals for label-free in situ SERS monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Lu, Zhicheng; Liu, Jiawei; Li, Qin; Liu, Chen; Foda, Mohamed F; Han, Heyou

    2015-12-07

    A universal chitosan-assisted method was developed to synthesize various Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals, in which chelation probably plays a vital role. The as-prepared Ag/Pd heterostructured nanocrystals show outstanding properties when used as bifunctional nanocomposites in label-free in situ SERS monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reaction.

  20. Applying label-free dynamic mass redistribution assay for studying endogenous FPR1 receptor signalling in human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanna B; Gloriam, David E; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The label-free dynamic mass redistribution-based assay (DMR) is a powerful method for studying signalling pathways of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Herein we present the label-free DMR assay as a robust readout for pharmacological characterization of formyl peptide receptors...... (FPRs) in human neutrophils. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from fresh human blood and their responses to FPR1 and FPR2 agonists, i.e. compound 43, fMLF and WKYMVm were measured in a label-free DMR assay using Epic Benchtop System from Corning®. Obtained DMR traces were used to calculate agonist...... potencies. RESULTS: The potencies (pEC50) of fMLF, WKYMVm and compound 43, determined on human neutrophils using the label-free DMR assay were 8.63, 7.76 and 5.92, respectively. The DMR response to fMLF, but not WKYMVm and compound 43 could be blocked by the FPR1-specific antagonist cyclosporin H...

  1. Functionalizable low-fouling coatings for label-free biosensing in complex biological media: advances and applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Brynda, Eduard; Homola, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 14 (2015), s. 3927-3953 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Label-free optical biosensors * Polymer brushes * Blood plasma Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  2. The goat (Capra hircus) mammary gland secretory tissue proteome as influenced by weight loss: A study using label free proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ferreira, Ana M.; Nanni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a significant limitation to animal production. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Herein, label free proteomics was used to characterize the effects of SWL in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptatio...

  3. Use of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy to monitor label-free interaction between molecular recognition elements and erythropoietin on a gold-coated polycarbonate platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Chen, Yeng; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2014-08-01

    Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Label-free imaging of brain and brain tumor specimens with combined two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xingfu; Wu, Zanyi; Du, Huiping; Wang, Shu; Li, Lianhuang; Fang, Na; Lin, Peihua; Chen, Jianxin; Kang, Dezhi; Zhuo, Shuangmu

    2017-10-01

    Label-free imaging techniques are gaining acceptance within the medical imaging field, including brain imaging, because they have the potential to be applied to intraoperative in situ identifications of pathological conditions. In this paper, we describe the use of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in combination for the label-free detection of brain and brain tumor specimens; gliomas. Two independently detecting channels were chosen to subsequently collect TPEF/SHG signals from the specimen to increase TPEF/SHG image contrasts. Our results indicate that the combined TPEF/SHG microscopic techniques can provide similar rat brain structural information and produce a similar resolution like conventional H&E staining in neuropathology; including meninges, cerebral cortex, white-matter structure corpus callosum, choroid plexus, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellar cortex. It can simultaneously detect infiltrating human brain tumor cells, the extracellular matrix collagen fiber of connective stroma within brain vessels and collagen depostion in tumor microenvironments. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio and collagen content can be extracted as quantitative indicators for differentiating brain gliomas from healthy brain tissues. With the development of two-photon fiberscopes and microendoscope probes and their clinical applications, the combined TPEF and SHG microcopy may become an important multimodal, nonlinear optical imaging approach for real-time intraoperative histological diagnostics of residual brain tumors. These occur in various brain regions during ongoing surgeries through the method of simultaneously identifying tumor cells, and the change of tumor microenvironments, without the need for the removal biopsies and without the need for tissue labelling or fluorescent markers.

  5. Comparative study of label and label-free techniques using shotgun proteomics for relative protein quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Marcus O D; Wetterhall, Magnus; Kultima, Kim; Artemenko, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    The analytical performance of three different strategies, iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification), dimethyl labeling (DML) and label free (LF) for relative protein quantification using shotgun proteomics have been evaluated. The methods have been explored using samples containing (i) Bovine proteins in known ratios and (ii) Bovine proteins in known ratios spiked into Escherichia coli. The latter case mimics the actual conditions in a typical biological sample with a few differentially expressed proteins and a bulk of proteins with unchanged ratios. Additionally, the evaluation was performed on both QStar and LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometers. LF LTQ-FTICR was found to have the highest proteome coverage while the highest accuracy based on the artificially regulated proteins was found for DML LTQ-FTICR (54%). A varying linearity (k: 0.55-1.16, r(2): 0.61-0.96) was shown for all methods within selected dynamic ranges. All methods were found to consistently underestimate Bovine protein ratios when matrix proteins were added. However, LF LTQ-FTICR was more tolerant toward a compression effect. A single peptide was demonstrated to be sufficient for a reliable quantification using iTRAQ. A ranking system utilizing several parameters important for quantitative proteomics demonstrated that the overall performance of the five different methods was; DML LTQ-FTICR>iTRAQ QStar>LF LTQ-FTICR>DML QStar>LF QStar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry.

  7. Minimizing technical variation during sample preparation prior to label-free quantitative mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, E; Dhaenens, M; Van Soom, A; Peelman, L; De Sutter, P; Van Steendam, K; Deforce, D

    2015-12-01

    Sample preparation is the crucial starting point to obtain high-quality mass spectrometry data and can be divided into two main steps in a bottom-up proteomics approach: cell/tissue lysis with or without detergents and a(n) (in-solution) digest comprising denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and digesting of the proteins. Here, some important considerations, among others, are that the reagents used for sample preparation can inhibit the digestion enzyme (e.g., 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS] and 0.5 M guanidine HCl), give rise to ion suppression (e.g., polyethylene glycol [PEG]), be incompatible with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (e.g., SDS), and can induce additional modifications (e.g., urea). Taken together, all of these irreproducible effects are gradually becoming a problem when label-free quantitation of the samples is envisioned such as during the increasingly popular high-definition mass spectrometry (HDMS(E)) and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) data-independent acquisition strategies. Here, we describe the detailed validation of a reproducible method with sufficient protein yield for sample preparation without any known LC-MS/MS interfering substances by using 1% sodium deoxycholate (SDC) during both cell lysis and in-solution digest. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Niehage

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2% or high (10% serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention.

  9. Label-free imaging of gold nanoparticles in single live cells by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Qian, Wei; Shao, Xia; Xie, Zhixing; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Bing; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored as a model nanostructure in nanomedicine and have been widely used to provide advanced biomedical research tools in diagnostic imaging and therapy. Due to the necessity of targeting AuNPs to individual cells, evaluation and visualization of AuNPs in the cellular level is critical to fully understand their interaction with cellular environment. Currently imaging technologies, such as fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy all have advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we synthesized AuNPs by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation, modified their surface chemistry through sequential bioconjugation, and targeted the functionalized AuNPs with individual cancer cells. Based on their high optical absorption contrast, we developed a novel, label-free imaging method to evaluate and visualize intracellular AuNPs using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Preliminary study shows that the PAM imaging technique is capable of imaging cellular uptake of AuNPs in vivo at single-cell resolution, which provide an important tool for the study of AuNPs in nanomedicine.

  10. Label-free imaging of mammalian cell nucleoli by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, H Georg; Konorov, Stanislav O; Piret, James M; Blades, Michael W; Turner, Robin F B

    2013-06-21

    The nucleolus is a prominent subnuclear structure whose major function is the transcription and assembly of ribosome subunits. The size of the nucleolus varies with the cell cycle, proliferation rate and stress. Changes in nucleolar size, number, chemical composition, and shape can be used to characterize malignant cells. We used spontaneous Raman microscopy as a label-free technique to examine nucleolar spatial and chemical features. Raman images of the 1003 cm(-1) phenylalanine band revealed large, well-defined subnuclear protein structures in MFC-7 breast cancer cells. The 783 cm(-1) images showed that nucleic acids were similarly distributed, but varied more in intensity, forming observable high-intensity regions. High subnuclear RNA concentrations were observed within some of these regions as shown by 809 cm(-1) Raman band images. Principal component analyses of sub-images and library spectra validated the subnuclear presence of RNA. They also revealed that an actin-like protein covaried with DNA within the nucleolus, a combination that accounted for 64% or more of the spectral variance. Embryonic stem cells are another rapidly proliferating cell type, but their nucleoli were not as large or well defined. Estimating the size of the larger MCF-7 nucleolus was used to show the utility of Raman microscopy for morphometric analyses. It was concluded that imaging based on Raman microscopy provides a promising new method for the study of nucleolar function and organization, in the evaluation of drug and experimental effects on the nucleolus, and in clinical diagnostics and prognostics.

  11. Low cost label-free live cell imaging for biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniya, C.; Towers, C. E.; Towers, D. P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the progress to develop a practical phase measuring microscope offering new capabilities in terms of phase measurement accuracy and quantification of cell:cell interactions over the longer term. A novel, low cost phase interference microscope for imaging live cells (label-free) is described. The method combines the Zernike phase contrast approach with a dual mirror design to enable phase modulation between the scattered and un-scattered optical fields. Two designs are proposed and demonstrated, one of which retains the common path nature of Zernike's original microscopy concept. In both setups the phase shift is simple to control via a piezoelectric driven mirror in the back focal plane of the imaging system. The approach is significantly cheaper to implement than those based on spatial light modulators (SLM) at approximately 20% of the cost. A quantitative assessment of the performance of a set of phase shifting algorithms is also presented, specifically with regard to broad bandwidth illumination in phase contrast microscopy. The simulation results show that the phase measurement accuracy is strongly dependent on the algorithm selected and the optical path difference in the sample.

  12. Review of Transducer Principles for Label-Free Biomolecular Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Vörös

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biomolecular interaction analysis is an important technique to study the chemical binding between e.g., protein and protein or protein and small molecule in real-time. The parameters obtained with this technique, such as the affinity, are important for drug development. While the surface plasmon resonance (SPR instruments are most widely used, new types of sensors are emerging. These developments are generally driven by the need for higher throughput, lower sample consumption or by the need of complimentary information to the SPR data. This review aims to give an overview about a wide range of sensor transducers, the working principles and the peculiarities of each technology, e.g., concerning the set-up, sensitivity, sensor size or required sample volume. Starting from optical technologies like the SPR and waveguide based sensors, acoustic sensors like the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM and the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR, calorimetric and electrochemical sensors are covered. Technologies long established in the market are presented together with those newly commercially available and with technologies in the early development stage. Finally, the commercially available instruments are summarized together with their sensitivity and the number of sensors usable in parallel and an outlook for potential future developments is given.

  13. Label-free, single-object sensing with a microring resonator: FDTD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan T; Norwood, Robert A

    2013-01-14

    Label-free, single-object sensing with a microring resonator is investigated numerically using the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A pulse with ultra-wide bandwidth that spans over several resonant modes of the ring and of the sensing object is used for simulation, enabling a single-shot simulation of the microring sensing. The FDTD simulation not only can describe the circulation of the light in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microring and multiple interactions between the light and the sensing object, but also other important factors of the sensing system, such as scattering and radiation losses. The FDTD results show that the simulation can yield a resonant shift of the WGM cavity modes. Furthermore, it can also extract eigenmodes of the sensing object, and therefore information from deep inside the object. The simulation method is not only suitable for a single object (single molecule, nano-, micro-scale particle) but can be extended to the problem of multiple objects as well.

  14. Label-free silicon photonic biosensor system with integrated detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongjin; Mestas, Santano P.; Yuan, Guangwei; Safaisini, Rashid; Dandy, David S.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated, inexpensive, label-free photonic waveguide biosensor system with multi-analyte capability has been implemented on a silicon photonics integrated circuit from a commercial CMOS line and tested with nanofilms. The local evanescent array coupled (LEAC) biosensor is based on a new physical phenomenon that is fundamentally different from the mechanisms of other evanescent field sensors. Increased local refractive index at the waveguide’s upper surface due to the formation of a biological nanofilm causes local modulation of the evanescent field coupled into an array of photodetectors buried under the waveguide. The planar optical waveguide biosensor system exhibits sensitivity of 20%/nm photocurrent modulation in response to adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers less than 3 nm thick. In addition to response to BSA, an experiment with patterned photoresist as well as beam propagation method simulations support the evanescent field shift principle. The sensing mechanism enables the integration of all optical and electronic components for a multi-analyte biosensor system on a chip. PMID:19606292

  15. Label-free quantitative proteome analysis of the surface-bound salivary pellicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, Judith; Trautmann, Simone; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Hannig, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The salivary pellicle, covering natural as well as restored tooth surfaces in the oral cavity as an immobilized protein-rich layer, acts as an important physico-chemical and biological mediator at the tooth-saliva-interface. For the first time, the pellicle's proteome of individual volunteers were analyzed separately on three consecutive days and the relative protein abundance determined by a label-free quantitative nano-LC-MS/MS approach. A total of 72 major proteins were identified in the initial pellicles formed intraorally on dental ceramic specimens already after 3min with high inter-individual and inter-day consistency. In comparison, significant differences in protein abundance were evident between subjects, thus indicating unique individual pellicle profiles. Furthermore, the relative protein abundance in pellicles was compared to the proteome pattern in the corresponding saliva samples of the same individuals to provide first data on significantly enriched and depleted salivary proteins (p <0.05) within the surface-bound salivary pellicle. Our findings reveal the initial adsorption of salivary proteins at the solid-liquid interface to be a rapid, highly selective, and reproducible process leading to the immobilization of a broad range of protective proteins and enzymes on the substratum surface within a few minutes. This provides evidence that the pellicle layer might be physiologically functional even without further maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic evaluation of normalization methods in quantitative label-free proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välikangas, Tommi; Suomi, Tomi; Elo, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    To date, mass spectrometry (MS) data remain inherently biased as a result of reasons ranging from sample handling to differences caused by the instrumentation. Normalization is the process that aims to account for the bias and make samples more comparable. The selection of a proper normalization method is a pivotal task for the reliability of the downstream analysis and results. Many normalization methods commonly used in proteomics have been adapted from the DNA microarray techniques. Previous studies comparing normalization methods in proteomics have focused mainly on intragroup variation. In this study, several popular and widely used normalization methods representing different strategies in normalization are evaluated using three spike-in and one experimental mouse label-free proteomic data sets. The normalization methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to reduce variation between technical replicates, their effect on differential expression analysis and their effect on the estimation of logarithmic fold changes. Additionally, we examined whether normalizing the whole data globally or in segments for the differential expression analysis has an effect on the performance of the normalization methods. We found that variance stabilization normalization (Vsn) reduced variation the most between technical replicates in all examined data sets. Vsn also performed consistently well in the differential expression analysis. Linear regression normalization and local regression normalization performed also systematically well. Finally, we discuss the choice of a normalization method and some qualities of a suitable normalization method in the light of the results of our evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Magnified Image Spatial Spectrum (MISS) microscopy for nanometer and millisecond scale label-free imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Ma, Lihong; Lee, Young Jae; Kandel, Mikhail; Min, Eunjung; Jung, Woonggyu; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel

    2018-03-01

    Label-free imaging of rapidly moving, sub-diffraction sized structures has important applications in both biology and material science, as it removes the limitations associated with fluorescence tagging. However, unlabeled nanoscale particles in suspension are difficult to image due to their transparency and fast Brownian motion. Here we describe a novel interferometric imaging technique referred to as Magnified Image Spatial Spectrum (MISS) microscopy, which overcomes these challenges. The MISS microscope provides quantitative phase information and enables dynamic light scattering investigations with an overall optical path length sensitivity of 0.95 nm at 833 frames per second acquisition rate. Using spatiotemporal filtering, we find that the sensitivity can be further pushed down to 0.001-0.01 nm. We demonstrate the instrument's capability through colloidal nanoparticle sizing down to 20 nm diameter and measurements of live neuron membrane dynamics. MISS microscopy is implemented as an upgrade module to an existing microscope, which converts it into a powerful light scattering instrument. Thus, we anticipate that MISS will be adopted broadly for both material and life sciences applications.

  18. Label-free silicon photonic biosensor system with integrated detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongjin; Mestas, Santano P; Yuan, Guangwei; Safaisini, Rashid; Dandy, David S; Lear, Kevin L

    2009-08-07

    An integrated, inexpensive, label-free photonic waveguide biosensor system with multi-analyte capability has been implemented on a silicon photonics integrated circuit from a commercial CMOS line and tested with nanofilms. The local evanescent array coupled (LEAC) biosensor is based on a new physical phenomenon that is fundamentally different from the mechanisms of other evanescent field sensors. Increased local refractive index at the waveguide's upper surface due to the formation of a biological nanofilm causes local modulation of the evanescent field coupled into an array of photodetectors buried under the waveguide. The planar optical waveguide biosensor system exhibits sensitivity of 20%/nm photocurrent modulation in response to adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers less than 3 nm thick. In addition to response to BSA, an experiment with patterned photoresist as well as beam propagation method simulations support the evanescent field shift principle. The sensing mechanism enables the integration of all optical and electronic components for a multi-analyte biosensor system on a chip.

  19. Label free quantitative proteomics analysis on the cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Zhu, Y; Fang, S; Li, S; Liu, S

    2017-05-20

    Quantitative proteomics has been made great progress in recent years. Label free quantitative proteomics analysis based on the mass spectrometry is widely used. Using this technique, we determined the differentially expressed proteins in the cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells COC1 and cisplatin-resistant cells COC1/DDP before and after the application of cisplatin. Using the GO analysis, we classified those proteins into different subgroups bases on their cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. We also used KEGG pathway analysis to determine the key signal pathways that those proteins were involved in. There are 710 differential proteins between COC1 and COC1/DDP cells, 783 between COC1 and COC1/DDP cells treated with cisplatin, 917 between the COC1/DDP cells and COC1/DDP cells treated with LaCl3, 775 between COC1/DDP cells treated with cisplatin and COC1/DDP cells treated with cisplatin and LaCl3. Among the same 411 differentially expressed proteins in cisplatin-sensitive COC1 cells and cisplain-resistant COC1/DDP cells before and after cisplatin treatment, 14% of them were localized on the cell membrane. According to the KEGG results, differentially expressed proteins were classified into 21 groups. The most abundant proteins were involved in spliceosome. This study lays a foundation for deciphering the mechanism for drug resistance in ovarian tumor.

  20. Label-free recognition of drug resistance via impedimetric screening of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Eker

    Full Text Available We present a novel study on label-free recognition and distinction of drug resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7 DOX from their parental cells (MCF-7 WT via impedimetric measurements. Drug resistant cells exhibited significant differences in their dielectric properties compared to wild-type cells, exerting much higher extracellular resistance (Rextra . Immunostaining revealed that MCF-7 DOX cells gained a much denser F-actin network upon acquiring drug resistance indicating that remodeling of actin cytoskeleton is probably the reason behind higher Rextra , providing stronger cell architecture. Moreover, having exposed both cell types to doxorubicin, we were able to distinguish these two phenotypes based on their substantially different drug response. Interestingly, impedimetric measurements identified a concentration-dependent and reversible increase in cell stiffness in the presence of low non-lethal drug doses. Combined with a profound frequency analysis, these findings enabled distinguishing distinct cellular responses during drug exposure within four concentration ranges without using any labeling. Overall, this study highlights the possibility to differentiate drug resistant phenotypes from their parental cells and to assess their drug response by using microelectrodes, offering direct, real-time and noninvasive measurements of cell dependent parameters under drug exposure, hence providing a promising step for personalized medicine applications such as evaluation of the disease progress and optimization of the drug treatment of a patient during chemotherapy.

  1. Label-free investigation of the effects of lithium niobate polarization on cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Gennari, O.; Paturzo, M.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of contact area is pivotal to understand how biomaterials properties influence cell adhesion. In particular, the influence of surface charges is well-known but still controversial, especially when new functional materials and methods are introduced. Here, we use for the first time Holographic Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (HoloTIRM) to study the influence of the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) on the adhesion properties of fibroblast cells. The selective illumination of a very thin region directly above the substrate, achieved by Total Internal Reflection, provides high-contrast images of the contact regions. Holographic recording, on the other hand, allows for label-free quantitative phase imaging of the contact areas between cells and LN. Phase signal is more sensitive in the first 100nm and, thus more reliable in order to locate focal contacts. This work shows that cells adhering on negatively polarized LN present a significant increase of the contact area in comparison with cells adhering on the positively polarized LN substrate, as well as an intensification of contact vicinity. This confirms the potential of LN as a platform for investigating the role of charges on cellular processes. The similarity of cell adhesion behavior on negatively polarized LN and glass control also confirms the possibility to use LN as an active substrate without impairing cell behavior.

  2. Label-free in vivo optical imaging of functional microcirculations within meninges and cortex in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Wang, Ruikang K

    2010-12-15

    Abnormal microcirculation within meninges is common in many neurological diseases. There is a need for an imaging method that is capable of monitoring dynamic meningeal microcirculations, preferably decoupled from cortical blood flow. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a recently developed label-free imaging method capable of producing 3D images of dynamic blood perfusion within micro-circulatory tissue beds at an imaging depth up to ∼2 mm, with an unprecedented imaging sensitivity to blood flow at ∼4 μm/s. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of OMAG in imaging the detailed blood flow distributions, at a capillary level resolution, within the meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact. Using a thrombotic mouse model, we show that the OMAG can yield longitudinal measurements of meningeal vascular responses to the insult and can decouple these responses from those in the cortex, giving valuable information regarding the localized hemodynamics along with the dynamic formation of thrombotic event. The results indicate that OMAG can be a useful tool to study therapeutic strategies in preclinical animal models in order to mitigate various pathologies that are mainly related to the meningeal circulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time monitoring and manipulation of single bio-molecules in free solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hung-Wing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The observation and manipulation of single biomolecules allow their dynamic behaviors to be studied to provide insight into molecular genetics, biochip assembly, biosensor design, DNA biophysics. In a PDMS/glass microchannel, a nonuniform electroosmotic flow (EOF) was created. By using a scanning confocal fluorescence microscope and total internal-reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM), we demonstrated that negatively charged DNA molecules were focused by the nonuniform EOF into a thin layer at the glass surface. This phenomenon was applied to selectively detect target DNA molecules without requiring the separation of excessive probes and can be applied continuously to achieve high throughput. A variable-angle-TIRFM was constructed for imaging single DNA molecule dynamics at a solid/liquid interface. Implications we have are that the measured intensities cannot be used directly to determine the distances of molecules from the surface and the experimental counting results depict the distance-dependent dynamics of molecules near the surface; Molecules at low ionic strengths experience electrostatic repulsion at distances much further away from the surface than the calculated thickness of the electrical double layer. {delta}-DNA was employed as a nanoprobe for different functionalized surfaces to elucidate adsorption in chromatography. The 12-base unpaired ends of this DNA provide exposed purine and pyrimidine groups for adsorption. Patterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and patterns of metal oxides are generated. By recording the real-time dynamic motion of DNA molecules at the SAMs/aqueous interface, the various parameters governing the retention of an analyte during chromatographic separation can be studied. Even subtle differences among adsorptive forces can be revealed. Dynamic conformational changes of the prosthetic group, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), in flavoprotein NADH peroxidase, in thioredoxin reductase, and in free solution were monitored

  4. Experimental design and data-analysis in label-free quantitative LC/MS proteomics: A tutorial with MSqRob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeminne, Ludger J E; Gevaert, Kris; Clement, Lieven

    2018-01-16

    Label-free shotgun proteomics is routinely used to assess proteomes. However, extracting relevant information from the massive amounts of generated data remains difficult. This tutorial provides a strong foundation on analysis of quantitative proteomics data. We provide key statistical concepts that help researchers to design proteomics experiments and we showcase how to analyze quantitative proteomics data using our recent free and open-source R package MSqRob, which was developed to implement the peptide-level robust ridge regression method for relative protein quantification described by Goeminne et al. MSqRob can handle virtually any experimental proteomics design and outputs proteins ordered by statistical significance. Moreover, its graphical user interface and interactive diagnostic plots provide easy inspection and also detection of anomalies in the data and flaws in the data analysis, allowing deeper assessment of the validity of results and a critical review of the experimental design. Our tutorial discusses interactive preprocessing, data analysis and visualization of label-free MS-based quantitative proteomics experiments with simple and more complex designs. We provide well-documented scripts to run analyses in bash mode on GitHub, enabling the integration of MSqRob in automated pipelines on cluster environments (https://github.com/statOmics/MSqRob). The concepts outlined in this tutorial aid in designing better experiments and analyzing the resulting data more appropriately. The two case studies using the MSqRob graphical user interface will contribute to a wider adaptation of advanced peptide-based models, resulting in higher quality data analysis workflows and more reproducible results in the proteomics community. We also provide well-documented scripts for experienced users that aim at automating MSqRob on cluster environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of an efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free enzyme immunoassay using two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jin-Bao; Tang, Ying; Yang, Hong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free EIA is proposed. • Divalent biotinylated AP and monovalent biotinylated ZZ were prepared via Avitag–BirA system. • The above site-specific biotinylated fusion proteins form complex via SA–biotin interaction. • The mechanism relies on the ZZ–Avi-B/SA/AP–(Avi-B) 2 complex. • The analytical signals are enhanced (32-fold) by the proposed strategy. - Abstract: Constructing a recombinant protein between a reporter enzyme and a detector protein to produce a homogeneous immunological reagent is advantageous over random chemical conjugation. However, the approach hardly recombines multiple enzymes in a difunctional fusion protein, which results in insufficient amplification of the enzymatic signal, thereby limiting its application in further enhancement of analytical signal. In this study, two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins, namely, divalent biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and monovalent biotinylated ZZ domain, were produced by employing the Avitag–BirA system. Through the high streptavidin (SA)–biotin interaction, the divalent biotinylated APs were clustered in the SA–biotin complex and then incorporated with the biotinylated ZZ. This incorporation results in the formation of a functional macromolecule that involves numerous APs, thereby enhancing the enzymatic signal, and in the production of several ZZ molecules for the interaction with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The advantage of this signal amplification strategy is demonstrated through ELISA, in which the analytical signal was substantially enhanced, with a 32-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared with the ZZ–AP fusion protein approach. The proposed immunoassay without chemical modification can be an alternative strategy to enhance the analytical signals in various applications involving immunosensors and diagnostic chips, given that the label-free IgG antibody is suitable for

  6. Development of an efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free enzyme immunoassay using two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jin-Bao [School of Pharmacy, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Tang, Ying [Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261041 (China); Yang, Hong-Ming, E-mail: yanghongming2006@sohu.com [School of Pharmacy, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • An efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free EIA is proposed. • Divalent biotinylated AP and monovalent biotinylated ZZ were prepared via Avitag–BirA system. • The above site-specific biotinylated fusion proteins form complex via SA–biotin interaction. • The mechanism relies on the ZZ–Avi-B/SA/AP–(Avi-B){sub 2} complex. • The analytical signals are enhanced (32-fold) by the proposed strategy. - Abstract: Constructing a recombinant protein between a reporter enzyme and a detector protein to produce a homogeneous immunological reagent is advantageous over random chemical conjugation. However, the approach hardly recombines multiple enzymes in a difunctional fusion protein, which results in insufficient amplification of the enzymatic signal, thereby limiting its application in further enhancement of analytical signal. In this study, two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins, namely, divalent biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and monovalent biotinylated ZZ domain, were produced by employing the Avitag–BirA system. Through the high streptavidin (SA)–biotin interaction, the divalent biotinylated APs were clustered in the SA–biotin complex and then incorporated with the biotinylated ZZ. This incorporation results in the formation of a functional macromolecule that involves numerous APs, thereby enhancing the enzymatic signal, and in the production of several ZZ molecules for the interaction with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The advantage of this signal amplification strategy is demonstrated through ELISA, in which the analytical signal was substantially enhanced, with a 32-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared with the ZZ–AP fusion protein approach. The proposed immunoassay without chemical modification can be an alternative strategy to enhance the analytical signals in various applications involving immunosensors and diagnostic chips, given that the label-free IgG antibody is suitable

  7. Heparin molecularly imprinted polymer thin flm on gold electrode by plasma-induced graft polymerization for label-free biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihara, Kouhei; Hikichi, Atsushi; Arita, Tomohiko; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Yoshimi, Yasuo

    2018-03-20

    Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an important biomaterial having biological and therapeutic functionalities such as anticoagulation, regeneration, and protein stabilization. This study addresses a label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor for heparin detection based on a macromolecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as an artificial recognition element. We demonstrate the novel strategy for MIP in the form of thin film on a gold (Au) electrode with the plasma-induced graft polymerization (PIP) technique. The procedure of PIP is as follows: (i) Hexamethyldisiloxane plasma-polymerized thin film (PPF) as a pre-coating scaffold of active species for PIP (post-polymerization) is deposited on an Au electrode. (ii) The PPF/Au electrode is soaked in an water solution containing heparin (template), (2-(methacryloxy)-ethyl)trimethylammonium chloride acrylamide (functional monomer), acrylamide, and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (crosslinker). Double bonds of monomer and crosslinker attacked by residually active species in pre-coating PPF cause radical chain reaction. Consequently, a growing polymer network of 20 nm thickness of PIP-MIP thin film is formed and grafted on the PPF/Au surface. (iii) The PIP-MIP/PPF/Au is washed by sodium chloride solution so as to remove the template. Non-imprinted polymer (NIP) is carried out like the same procedure without a template. The AFM, XPS, and QCM measurements show that the PIP process facilitates macromolecularly surface imprinting of template heparin where the template is easily removed and is rapidly rebound to PIP-MIP without a diffusional barrier. The heparin-PIP-MIP specifically binds to heparin compared with heparin analog chondroitin sulfate C (selective factor: 4.0) and a detectable range of heparin in the presence of CS (0.1 wt%) was 0.001-0.1 wt%. The PIP-NIP does not show selectivity between them. The evaluated binding kinetics are association (k a  = 350 ± 100 M -1  s -1

  8. A label-free photoelectrochemical cocaine aptasensor based on an electropolymerized ruthenium-intercalator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddache, Fatima; Le Goff, Alan; Spinelli, Nicolas; Gairola, Priyanka; Gorgy, Karine; Gondran, Chantal; Defrancq, Eric; Cosnier, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodes were modified by an electrogenerated Ru(II) complex which demonstrates photosensitive properties and intercalating properties towards the stem-loop base pairing domain of cocaine aptamers. • Cocaine aptamers were immobilized as mono-and double-fragment which showed different behaviour towards photocurrent generation. • The binding of aptamer could be followed by photelectrochemistry and modelized using a Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. • Using the double-fragment aptamer, a label-free photoelectrochemical aptasensor was designed, exhibiting a LOD of 10 nmol L −1 and linear range of 1 10 −8 –5 10 −4 mol L −1 . - Abstract: A photoelectrode was designed by electrodeposition of a pyrrole monomer modified with a polypyridyl Ru(II) complex bearing benzo[i]dipyrido-[3,2-a:2′.3′-c]phenazine (dppn) ligand. Owing to the intercalating properties of these immobilized complexes towards DNA double helix, cocaine aptamer was immobilized on the modified electrodes thanks to its stem-loop configuration in order to design a photoelectrochemical cocaine aptasensor. Especially using a double-fragment aptamer strategy, the binding of cocaine and the formation of the aptamer/cocaine complex was successfully observed and modeled by a Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm, giving access to an apparent dissociation constant K d of 3.8 mmol L −1 . The photoelectrochemical aptasensor exhibits a LOD of 10 nmol L −1 and linear range of 1 10 −8 –5 10 −4 mol L −1 .

  9. Assigning Significance in Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics to Include Single-Peptide-Hit Proteins with Low Replicates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qingbo

    2010-01-01

    When sample replicates are limited in a label-free proteomics experiment, selecting differentially regulated proteins with an assignment of statistical significance remains difficult for proteins with a single-peptide hit or a small fold-change. This paper aims to address this issue. An important component of the approach employed here is to utilize the rule of Minimum number of Permuted Significant Pairings (MPSP) to reduce false positives. The MPSP rule generates permuted sample pairings fr...

  10. LFQuant: a label-free fast quantitative analysis tool for high-resolution LC-MS/MS proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jiyang; Xu, Changming; Li, Ning; Liu, Hui; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Yunping; Xie, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    Database searching based methods for label-free quantification aim to reconstruct the peptide extracted ion chromatogram based on the identification information, which can limit the search space and thus make the data processing much faster. The random effect of the MS/MS sampling can be remedied by cross-assignment among different runs. Here, we present a new label-free fast quantitative analysis tool, LFQuant, for high-resolution LC-MS/MS proteomics data based on database searching. It is designed to accept raw data in two common formats (mzXML and Thermo RAW), and database search results from mainstream tools (MASCOT, SEQUEST, and X!Tandem), as input data. LFQuant can handle large-scale label-free data with fractionation such as SDS-PAGE and 2D LC. It is easy to use and provides handy user interfaces for data loading, parameter setting, quantitative analysis, and quantitative data visualization. LFQuant was compared with two common quantification software packages, MaxQuant and IDEAL-Q, on the replication data set and the UPS1 standard data set. The results show that LFQuant performs better than them in terms of both precision and accuracy, and consumes significantly less processing time. LFQuant is freely available under the GNU General Public License v3.0 at http://sourceforge.net/projects/lfquant/. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Live Imaging of Cellular Internalization of Single Colloidal Particle by Combined Label-Free and Fluorescence Total Internal Reflection Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Gerard D; Vllasaliu, Driton; Falcone, Franco H; Somekh, Michael G; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2015-11-02

    In this work we utilize the combination of label-free total internal reflection microscopy and total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRM/TIRF) microscopy to achieve a simultaneous, live imaging of single, label-free colloidal particle endocytosis by individual cells. The TIRM arm of the microscope enables label free imaging of the colloid and cell membrane features, while the TIRF arm images the dynamics of fluorescent-labeled clathrin (protein involved in endocytosis via clathrin pathway), expressed in transfected 3T3 fibroblasts cells. Using a model polymeric colloid and cells with a fluorescently tagged clathrin endocytosis pathway, we demonstrate that wide field TIRM/TIRF coimaging enables live visualization of the process of colloidal particle interaction with the labeled cell structure, which is valuable for discerning the membrane events and route of colloid internalization by the cell. We further show that 500 nm in diameter model polystyrene colloid associates with clathrin, prior to and during its cellular internalization. This association is not apparent with larger, 1 μm in diameter colloids, indicating an upper particle size limit for clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  12. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications. PMID:26525841

  13. Dynamic nano-imaging of label-free living cells using electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Kanamori, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taichi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Lin, Sheng; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2015-11-03

    Optical microscopes are effective tools for cellular function analysis because biological cells can be observed non-destructively and non-invasively in the living state in either water or atmosphere condition. Label-free optical imaging technique such as phase-contrast microscopy has been analysed many cellular functions, and it is essential technology for bioscience field. However, the diffraction limit of light makes it is difficult to image nano-structures in a label-free living cell, for example the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi body and the localization of proteins. Here we demonstrate the dynamic imaging of a label-free cell with high spatial resolution by using an electron beam excitation-assisted optical (EXA) microscope. We observed the dynamic movement of the nucleus and nano-scale granules in living cells with better than 100 nm spatial resolution and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) around 10. Our results contribute to the development of cellular function analysis and open up new bioscience applications.

  14. Whole-organ atlas imaged by label-free high-resolution photoacoustic microscopy assisted by a microtome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Hsu, Hsun-Chia; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Shi, Junhui; Chen, Ruimin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Wang, Lihong V.

    2018-02-01

    In biomedical imaging, all optical techniques face a fundamental trade-off between spatial resolution and tissue penetration. Therefore, obtaining an organelle-level resolution image of a whole organ has remained a challenging and yet appealing scientific pursuit. Over the past decade, optical microscopy assisted by mechanical sectioning or chemical clearing of tissue has been demonstrated as a powerful technique to overcome this dilemma, one of particular use in imaging the neural network. However, this type of techniques needs lengthy special preparation of the tissue specimen, which hinders broad application in life sciences. Here, we propose a new label-free three-dimensional imaging technique, named microtomy-assisted photoacoustic microscopy (mPAM), for potentially imaging all biomolecules with 100% endogenous natural staining in whole organs with high fidelity. We demonstrate the first label-free mPAM, using UV light for label-free histology-like imaging, in whole organs (e.g., mouse brains), most of them formalin-fixed and paraffin- or agarose-embedded for minimal morphological deformation. Furthermore, mPAM with dual wavelength illuminations is also employed to image a mouse brain slice, demonstrating the potential for imaging of multiple biomolecules without staining. With visible light illumination, mPAM also shows its deep tissue imaging capability, which enables less slicing and hence reduces sectioning artifacts. mPAM could potentially provide a new insight for understanding complex biological organs.

  15. Electrochemically reduced graphene–gold nano particle composite on indium tin oxide for label free immuno sensing of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharuman, Venkataraman; Hahn, Jong Hoon; Jayakumar, Kumarasamy; Teng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Label free immunosensing of estradiol is demonstrated using graphene–AuNP composite fabricated on ITO transducer. •Continuous potential cycling reduction method selectively reduces the acid groups of the graphene oxide at pH 6.5. •The AuNP deposition induces change in the graphene orientation on the ITO surface and enhances the charge transport. -- Abstract: Electro reduced graphene and gold nano particle (ErG/AuNP) composite is prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) surface. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques reveals the formation of vertical and flat oriented ErG films on the ITO. The AuNP deposition changes the flat oriented ErGs into vertical orientation indicated by the FESEM. Coherent interactions between the ITO, ErG and AuNPs are responsible for the discrete formation of vertical oriented hetero structures of ErG–AuNP composite on the ITO. Electrochemical properties are investigated using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− and [Ru(NH 3 )] 2+/3+ redox probes using cyclic voltammetry (CV). While the [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− shows fast reversible behavior, the [Ru(NH 3 )] 2+/3+ reveals very slow charge transport on both ErG and ErG/AuNP films indicating the multi and compact graphene layer posses positive charge at pH 6.5 used for preparing these composites. Immuno sensing of breast cancer inducing hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) is demonstrated in presence of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . Estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) antigens are used as the controls. The near vertical immobilization of anti-estradiol-antibody enhances the lowest detection limit of 0.1 fmol and dynamic range of 1 × 10 −3 –0.1 × 10 −12 M without any signal amplifiers. These results prove that the acid group of the GO is reduced selectively in controlled way by simple potential

  16. Label-Free Analysis of Cellular Lipid Droplet Formation by Non-Linear Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schie, Iwan W.

    Cellular lipid droplets (LD) are cellular organelles that can be found in every cell type. Recent research indicates that cellular LD are involved in a large number of cellular metabolic functions, such as lipid metabolism, protection from lipotoxicity, protein storage and degradation, and many more. LD formation is frequently associated with adverse health effects, i.e. alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes type-2, as well as many cardiovascular disorders. Despite their wide presence, LDs are the least studied and most poorly understood cellular organelles. Typically, LDs are investigated using fluorescence-based techniques that require staining with exogenous fluorophores. Other techniques, e.g. biochemical assays, require the destruction of cells that prohibit the analysis of living cells. Therefore, in my thesis research I developed a novel compound fast-scanning nonlinear optical microscope equipped with the ability to also acquire Raman spectra at specific image locations. This system allows us to image label-free cellular LD formation in living cells and analyze the composition of single cellular LDs. Images can be acquired at near video-rate (˜16 frames/s). Furthermore, the system has the ability to acquire very large images of tissue of up to 7.5x15 cm2 total area by stitching together scans with dimensions of 1x1 mm2 in less than 1 minute. The system also enables the user to acquire Raman spectra from points of interest in the multiphoton images and provides chemically-specific data from sample volumes as small as 1 femtoliter. In my thesis I used this setup to determine the effects of VLDL lipolysis products on primary rat hepatocytes. By analyzing the Raman spectra and comparing the peak ratios for saturated and unsaturated fatty acid it was determined that the small cellular LD are highly saturated, while large cellular LDs contain mostly unsaturated lipids. Furthermore, I established a method to determine the specific contribution

  17. A highly sensitive and specific capacitive aptasensor for rapid and label-free trace analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Chen, Jiangang; Eda, Shigotoshi; Najafi Aghdam, Esmaeil; Badri Ghavifekr, Habib

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, highly sensitive, specific and low-cost capacitive affinity biosensor is presented here for label-free and single step detection of Bisphenol A (BPA). The sensor design allows rapid prototyping at low-cost using printed circuit board material by benchtop equipment. High sensitivity detection is achieved through the use of a BPA-specific aptamer as probe molecule and large electrodes to enhance AC-electroelectrothermal effect for long-range transport of BPA molecules toward electrode surface. Capacitive sensing technique is used to determine the bounded BPA level by measuring the sample/electrode interfacial capacitance of the sensor. The developed biosensor can detect BPA level in 20s and exhibits a large linear range from 1 fM to 10 pM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 152.93 aM. This biosensor was applied to test BPA in canned food samples and could successfully recover the levels of spiked BPA. This sensor technology is demonstrated to be highly promising and reliable for rapid, sensitive and on-site monitoring of BPA in food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  19. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS), Phase I

    Data.gov (Unite