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Sample records for fraser river sockeye

  1. 78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Area. The regulations close the U.S. portion of the Fraser River Panel Area to U.S. sockeye and...

  2. Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: a life cycle perspective using expert judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, Tim; Wilmot, Sarah; Healey, Michael; Hinch, Scott

    2010-12-01

    Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups; they are also of huge ecological significance throughout the Fraser Basin. The potential for altered aquatic habitat and temperature regimes due to climate change is an important concern for Fraser River sockeye salmon. This paper characterizes the vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to future climate change using an approach that is novel on three counts. First, previous efforts to assess the vulnerability of salmon to climate change have largely focused on only part of the life cycle, whereas we consider climate vulnerability at all stages in the life cycle. Second, we use the available scientific literature to provide a basis for structuring and eliciting judgments from fisheries science and management experts who research and manage these systems. Third, we consider prospects for mitigating the effects of climate change on sockeye salmon. Tests showed that participants' judgments differentiated in statistically significant ways among questions that varied in terms of life stages, spawning regions and climate scenarios. The consensus among participants was that Fraser River sockeye are most vulnerable to climate change during the egg and returning adult stages of the life cycle. A high temperature scenario was seen as imposing the greatest risk on sockeye stocks, particularly those that migrate to the upper reaches of the Fraser River system and spawn earlier in the summer. The inability to alter water temperature and the highly constrained nature of sockeye management, with competing gear types and sequential fisheries over a long distance, suggest the potential to mitigate adverse effects is limited. Fraser River sockeye already demonstrate a great deal of adaptive capacity in utilizing heterogeneous habitats in different river sub-basins. This adaptability points to the

  3. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... orders of the Commission's Fraser River Panel for U.S. sockeye and pink salmon fisheries in the Fraser... and pink salmon Tribal and non-Tribal commercial fishing unless opened by Panel orders that are...

  4. Modelling the Future Hydroclimatology of the Lower Fraser River and its Impacts on the Spawning Migration Survival of Sockeye Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, M. J.; Ferrari, M. R.; Miller, J. R.; Patterson, D. A.; Russell, G. L.; Farrell, A.P.; Hinch, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Short episodic high temperature events can be lethal for migrating adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We downscaled temperatures for the Fraser River, British Columbia to evaluate the impact of climate warming on the frequency of exceeding thermal thresholds associated with salmon migratory success. Alarmingly, a modest 1.0 C increase in average summer water temperature over 100 years (1981-2000 to 2081-2100) tripled the number of days per year exceeding critical salmonid thermal thresholds (i.e. 19.0 C). Refined thresholds for two populations (Gates Creek and Weaver Creek) of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were defined using physiological constraint models based on aerobic scope. While extreme temperatures leading to complete aerobic collapse remained unlikely under our warming scenario, both populations were increasingly forced to migrate upriver at reduced levels of aerobic performance (e.g. in 80% of future simulations, => 90% of salmon encountered temperatures exceeding population specific thermal optima for maximum aerobic scope; T(sub opt)) = 16.3 C for Gates Creek and T(sub sopt)=14.5 C for Weaver Creek). Assuming recent changes to river entry timing persist, we also predicted dramatic increases in the probability of freshwater mortality for Weaver Creek salmon due to reductions in aerobic, and general physiological, performance (e.g. in 42% of future simulations =>50% of Weaver Creek fish exceeded temperature thresholds associated with 0 - 60% of maximum aerobic scope). Potential for adaptation via directional selection on run-timing was more evident for the Weaver Creek population. Early entry Weaver Creek fish experienced 25% (range: 15 - 31%) more suboptimal temperatures than late entrants, compared with an 8% difference (range: 0 - 17%) between early and late Gates Creek fish. Our results emphasize the need to consider daily temperature variability in association with population-specific differences in behaviour and physiological

  5. Infection of gill and kidney of Fraser River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), by Parvicapsula minibicornis and its effect on host physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, M J; Lovy, J; Patterson, D A

    2010-09-01

    Adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), migrating upstream in the Fraser River, British Columbia, are exposed to the myxozoan parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis when they enter the river from the ocean. Infections are initially localized in the kidney but have recently been associated with branchitis in one population. Adult fish from five locations in the watershed were sampled to determine whether branchitis was widespread. P. minibicornis infections in kidney glomeruli were prevalent in all samples except for a sample of fish that had just entered the Fraser River from the ocean. For fish captured in spawning streams, parasites were observed in the renal tubules and gill, and branchitis was observed in 70% of fish. Plasma osmolality was negatively correlated with the number of parasites in the kidney tubules, which we hypothesize to be caused by the breach of glomerular membranes as the parasite leaves the fish. Plasma lactate values increased with increasing levels of pathology in gills. These findings support the hypothesis that P. minibicornis impacts the physiology of migrating fish, which may in turn affect the likelihood that adults will be able to migrate and spawn successfully.

  6. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  7. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  8. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  10. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  11. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  12. 75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, Word... effective date of the inseason orders would not allow fishers appropriately controlled access to...

  13. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande...

  14. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  15. Count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), River Temperature, and River Height in the Pilgrim River, Nome, Alaska, 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset is the daily count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) passing through a fish counting weir on the Pilgrim River from 2003 to 2014. Also, included in...

  16. Trace Element Signatures of Particles in the Fraser River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Menard, O.; Kieffer, B.; Francois, R. H.; Weis, D. A.; Pcigr

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of trace element transport via particles at the estuarine boundary is critical to understanding the processes involved in translating these signatures to the ocean. The Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest river by volume flowing from the Pacific coast and dumps 20 million tons of sediment into the ocean per year, yet its trace elements have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to determine the Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb signatures of suspended matter in the Fraser River estuary. We collected 20L water samples at 3m depth at 12 locations along the north arm of the Fraser River, along the salinity gradient from freshwater to saline water approaching open straight values of ~25 per mil. Samples were allowed to settle and then filtered. Settled particulate matter was taken from each sample and digested in high-pressure vessels. Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb were separated using ion exchange chromatography columns. Sr and Nd isotopes were analyzed on a TIMS (Thermo Finnigan Triton-TI); Hf and Pb were measured with a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma). The measured ratios were 87Sr/86Sr = 0.71051 to 0.71289, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51203 to 0.51221 and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28253 to 0.28267 in the river and 0.70961, 0.51220 and 0.28273 respectively in the open straight. They reflect the local terrane compositions [2.3]. The collected particles have relatively radiogenic signatures compared with those obtained by Cameron and Hattori [1] between Lillooet and Hope but similar to those from higher in the river, i.e. they have a signature similar to older terranes drained by the Fraser headwaters. Between Hope and Vancouver, the Fraser River drains younger mantle-derived batholiths (Coast Belt). Therefore a more juvenile signature was expected for the particles collected at the mouth of the river. A possible explanation for this unexpected radiogenic signature is a difference in flow rate between the 1993 sampling (~3000m3/s) and ours in 2010 (~5500m3/s). The

  17. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  18. Estimation of late run sockeye salmon spawning distribution in the Chignik River watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Chignik River watershed are an important species for commercial and subsistence harvest. Recently, subsistence fishers in...

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  3. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  6. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  7. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  8. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  10. Roberts Bank: Ecological crucible of the Fraser River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Terri F.; Elner, Robert W.; O'Neill, Jennifer D.

    2013-08-01

    Roberts Bank, part of the Fraser River delta system on Canada's Pacific coast, is a dynamic estuarine environment supporting important fisheries as well as internationally significant populations of migratory shorebirds. The 8000 ha bank environment comprises a complex of riparian boundaries, intertidal marshes, mud and sand flats, eelgrass meadows, macroalgae and biofilms. Anthropogenic developments (a ferry causeway in 1961 and a port causeway in 1969) have been responsible for changes in tidal flow patterns, tidal elevation, sediment transport and the net expansion of eelgrass beds. The goals of the present study were to (1) directly compare geotechnical properties spanning each side of the coalport causeway, and (2) enhance our understanding of the intercauseway ecosystem under a high-resolution sampling design. Sediment properties (grain size, porosity, organic content, and chlorophyll) and biological communities (eelgrass, macrofauna (0.5-1.0 mm) and meiofauna (0.063-0.5 mm)) were surveyed in 1997 at three stations outside the intercauseway area and three lateral transects spanning the intercauseway tidal flat at tidal heights representing three different habitats: biofilm, Zostera japonica, and Zostera marina. A fine-silt organic-rich porous deposit was observed on the shoreward north side of the coalport causeway relative to the south counterpart, suggesting that consolidation and erosion processes could likely not keep pace with the deposition of Fraser River silt. High chlorophyll levels were found in the protected shoreward northern border of the ferry causeway where fine sands dominate and higher water transparency exists, owing to the redirection of the silt-laden river plume by the coalport causeway. Principle Components Analysis revealed a positive relationship between these porous, organic-rich sediments and cumacean abundance in all regions where eelgrass was absent, including the north side of the coalport causeway. Further, a positive

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance (Jason Lance); Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  20. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravecek, Jay J.

    1997-07-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

  1. Radio telemetry data - Characterizing migration and survival for juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin and Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project estimates survival and characterizes the migration of juvenile sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin in central Idaho and Lower Granite...

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  4. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  6. Effects of human population growth on the Fraser and Okanagan River systems, Canada: a comparative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcote, T G

    1996-10-01

    The author compares the impact of human population growth on the Fraser and Okanagan river systems in Canada. The effects "on water, fisheries and other aquatic resources of the two basins are explored along with possibilities and suggestions for their sustainable development. The latter, despite some glimmers of hope, will not be tenable without major changes in public attitude, in government policy at all levels, and in other measures which to many may seem impossible." excerpt

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  8. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.

    1995-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. In 1994, the authors estimated the total September Redfish Lake O. nerka population at 51,529 fish (95% CI, {+-} 33,179). The Alturas Lake O. nerka population was estimated at 5,785 fish ({+-} 6,919). The total density and biomass of Alturas Lake was estimated at 27 fish/hectare ({+-} 33) and 0.7 kg/hectare, respectively. The total O. nerka population estimate for Pettit Lake was 14,743 fish ({+-} 3,683). Stanley Lake O. nerka total population size, density, and biomass was estimated at 2,695 fish ({+-} 963), 37 fish/hectare ({+-} 13), and 0.5 kg/hectare, respectively. Estimated numbers of O. nerka outmigrant smolts passing Redfish Lake Creek and Salmon River trapping sites increased in 1994. The authors estimated 1,820 (90% CI 1,229--2,671) and 945 (90% CI 331--13,000) smolts left Redfish and Alturas lakes, respectively. The total PIT tag detection rate at mainstem dams for Redfish Lake outmigrants was 21% in 1994. No Alturas Lake outmigrants were detected at any of the downstream facilities with detection capabilities (zero of 50 fish).

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  11. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  13. A critical perspective on 1-D modeling of river processes : gravel load and aggradation in lower Fraser River.

    OpenAIRE

    R.; Ferguson; Church, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how well a width-averaged morphodynamic model can simulate gravel transport and aggradation along a highly irregular 38-km reach of lower Fraser River and discuss critical issues in this type of modeling. Bed load equations with plausible parameter values predict a gravel input consistent with direct measurements and a sediment budget. Simulations using spatially varying channel width, and forced by dominant discharge or a 20-year hydrograph, match the observed downstream finin...

  14. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Duane D. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  16. Genetic Analysis of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka), 2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Joyce; Powell, Madison

    2003-12-01

    A total of 1720 Oncorhynchus nerka tissue samples from 40 populations were characterized using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms). Analysis of anadromous sockeye populations indicated the historical presence of four major maternal lineages. Thirty-five composite mitochondrial haplotypes were observed from the 40 populations of O. nerka sampled throughout the Pacific Northwest. Six of these composite haplotypes ranged in frequency from 7-26% overall and were commonly observed in most populations. The six haplotypes together comprised 90% of the sampled O. nerka. An average of 4.6 composite haplotypes were observed per population. Genetic markers used were satisfactory in separating Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye, residual sockeye and outmigrants from the sympatric kokanee population that spawns in the Fishhook Creek tributary. Outmigrants appear to be primarily composed of progeny from resident residual sockeye, and captively-reared progeny of the captive broodstock program. Thus, residual sockeye may be considered a suitable source of genetic variation to maintain genetic diversity among captive broodstocks of anadromous sockeye. Fishhook Creek kokanee are genetically diverse and during spawning, are temporally and spatially isolated from the residual sockeye population. Eleven composite haplotypes were observed in the kokanee population. The unusually high number of haplotypes is most likely a consequence of periodic stocking of Redfish Lake with kokanee from other sources. Genetic data from Redfish Lake creel samples taken during 1996-1999 putatively indicate the incidental take of a listed resident sockeye.

  17. Reconstructing a sediment pulse: Modeling the effect of placer mining on Fraser River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, R. I.; Church, M.; Rennie, C. D.; Venditti, J. G.

    2015-07-01

    Gold mining along 525 km of the Fraser River between 1858 and 1909 added an estimated 1.1 × 108 t of tailings, half gravel and the rest finer, to the river's natural sediment load. We simulate the response using a 1-D multigrain size morphodynamic model. Since premining conditions are unknown and modern data are insufficient for tuning the process representation, we devised a novel modeling strategy which may be useful in other data-poor applications. We start the model from a smoothed version of the modern longitudinal profile with bed grain size distributions optimized to match alternative assumptions about natural sediment supply and compare runs that include mining with control runs that can be used to quantify the effects of deficiencies in process representation and initialization. Simulations with an appropriate choice of natural supply rate closely match the best available test data, which consist of a detailed 1952-1999 gravel budget for the distal part of the model domain. The simulations suggest that the main response to mining was rapid bed fining, which allowed a major increase in bed load transport rate with only slight (~0.1 m) mean aggradation within the mining region and most of the excess sediment exported well beyond the mountain front within the mining period or soon afterward. We compare this pattern of response by a large, powerful river with previous case studies of river adjustment to sediment supply change.

  18. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  19. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  20. Recovery of sockeye salmon in the Elwha River, Washington, after dam removal: Dependence of smolt production on the resumption of anadromy by landlocked kokanee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adam G.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Beauchamp, David A.; Paradis, Rebecca; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are adept at colonizing habitat that has been reopened to anadromous passage. Sockeye Salmon O. nerka are unique in that most populations require lakes to fulfill their life history. Thus, for Sockeye Salmon to colonize a system, projects like dam removals must provide access to lakes. However, if the lakes contain landlocked kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon), the recovery of Sockeye Salmon could be mediated by interactions between the two life history forms and the processes associated with the resumption of anadromy. Our objective was to evaluate the extent to which estimates of Sockeye Salmon smolt production and recovery are sensitive to the resumption of anadromy by kokanee after dam removal. We informed the analysis based on the abiotic and biotic features of Lake Sutherland, which was recently opened to passage after dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington. We first developed maximum expectations for the smolt-producing capacity of Lake Sutherland by using two predictive models developed from Sockeye Salmon populations in Alaska and British Columbia: one model was based on the mean seasonal biomass of macrozooplankton, and the other was based on the euphotic zone volume of the lake. We then constructed a bioenergetics-based simulation model to evaluate how the capacity of Lake Sutherland to rear yearling smolts could change with varying degrees of anadromy among O. nerka fry. We demonstrated that (1) the smolt-producing capacity of a nursery lake for juvenile Sockeye Salmon changes in nonlinear ways with changes in smolt growth, mortality, and the extent to which kokanee resume anadromy after dam removal; (2) kokanee populations may be robust to changes in abundance after dam removal, particularly if lakes are located higher in the watershed on tributaries separate from where dams were removed; and (3) the productivity of newly establishing Sockeye Salmon can vary considerably depending on whether the population becomes

  1. Flow and suspended sediment transport through the gravel-sand transition in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Fraser River, British Columbia is a large alluvial channel that features an abrupt gravel-sand transition that occurs due to a dramatic slope change and the ocean base-level control. There have been no previous observations of the sediment dynamics through transitions in rivers of this scale. I examine the spatial and temporal changes in flow and the suspended sediment transport regime through the transition using hydro-acoustics in an attempt to test the hypothesis that sand in the grave...

  2. The Stability of Fine-grained Sediments from the Fraser River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, C. L.; Feeney, T.; Sutherland, T. F.; Luternauer, J. L.

    1997-10-01

    The stability and erodibility of benthic fine-grained sediments on the foreshore and upper foreslope of the Fraser River delta were measured using the in situbenthic flume—Sea Carousel. The erosion threshold [τ c(0)], which varied between 0·11 and 0·50 Pa, was inversely related to erosion rate. It was also proportional to sediment wet bulk density (ρ b) in the form: τ c(0)=7×10 -4 ρ b-0·47. This trend agreed with those obtained from four other sites across Canada that encompassed a wide range in sediment densities: 1000Academic Press Limited Three erosion types were observed: Type IA erosion was a surface phenomenon caused by the presence of a thin organic ' fluff ' layer. It occurred at current speeds less than 0·3 m s -1. Type 1B erosion (asymptotically decaying with time) characterized the mid-portions of each erosion time series, and occurred at current speeds of 0·3-0·9 m s -1. Type I/II erosion (transitional) was largely found on the foreslope, and occurred at current speeds in excess of 0·8 m s -1. The erosion process began in all cases under turbulent transitional flows. The change from Type I to Type II erosion corresponded to the onset of turbulent rough flows (60result of entrainment of small aggregates and flocs, whereas Type II erosion was the result of enlargement of surface irregularities, and subsequent undercutting and release of large aggregates. Mean erosion rate ( Em) was independent of either azimuthal current speed or bed shear stress. It was largely constant throughout each deployment and varied between 1·4 and 7·4×10 -4 kg m -2 s -1.

  3. Fraser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kumari M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  4. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-06

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Fraser River watershed, Colorado : assessment of available water-quantity and water-quality data through water year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    1999-01-01

    The water-quantity and water-quality data for the Fraser River watershed through water year 1997 were compiled for ground-water and surface-water sites. In order to assess the water-quality data, the data were related to land use/land cover in the watershed. Data from 81 water-quantity and water-quality sites, which consisted of 9 ground-water sites and 72 surface-water sites, were available for analysis. However, the data were limited and frequently contained only one or two water-quality analyses per site.The Fraser River flows about 28 miles from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to the confluence with the Colorado River. Ground-water resources in the watershed are used for residential and municipal drinking-water supplies. Surface water is available for use, but water diversions in the upper parts of the watershed reduce the flow in the river. Land use/land cover in the watershed is predominantly forested land, but increasing urban development has the potential to affect the quantity and quality of the water resources.Analysis of the limited ground-water data in the watershed indicates that changes in the land use/land cover affect the shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data from eight shallow monitoring wells in the alluvial aquifer show that iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level. Radon concentrations from these monitoring wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level. The proposed radon contaminant level is currently being revised. The presence of volatile organic compounds at two monitoring wells in the watershed indicates that land use affects the shallow ground water. In addition, bacteria detected in three samples are at concentrations that would be a concern for public health if the water was to be used as a drinking supply. Methylene blue active substances were detected in the ground water at some sites and are a

  6. Seasonal hydrology drives rapid shifts in the flux and composition of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and major and trace ions in the Fraser River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Bulygina, E.; Galy, V.; Lamborg, C. H.; Ganguli, P. M.; Montluçon, D. B.; Marsh, S.; Gillies, S. L.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Luymes, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rapid changes in the volume and sources of discharge during the spring freshet lead to pronounced variations in biogeochemical properties in snowmelt-dominated river basins. We used daily sampling during the onset of the freshet in the Fraser River (southwestern Canada) in 2013 to identify rapid changes in the flux and composition of dissolved material, with a focus on dissolved organic matter (DOM). Previous time series sampling (at twice monthly frequency) of dissolved inorganic species in the Fraser River has revealed smooth seasonal transitions in concentrations of major ions and tracers of water and dissolved load sources between freshet and base flow periods. In contrast, daily sampling reveals a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (200 to 550 μmol L-1) occurring over a matter of days, accompanied by a shift in DOM optical properties, indicating a transition towards higher molecular weight, more aromatic DOM composition. Comparable changes in DOM composition, but not concentration, occur at other times of year, underscoring the role of seasonal climatology in DOM cycling. A smaller data set of total and dissolved Hg concentrations also showed variability during the spring freshet period, although dissolved Hg dynamics appear to be driven by factors beyond DOM as characterized here. The time series records of DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations indicate that the Fraser River exports 0.25-0.35 % of its annual basin net primary productivity. The snowmelt-dominated hydrology, forested land cover, and minimal reservoir impoundment of the Fraser River may influence the DOC yield of the basin, which is high relative to the nearby Columbia River and of similar magnitude to that of the Yukon River to the north. Anticipated warming and decreased snowfall due to climate changes in the region may cause an overall decrease in DOM flux from the Fraser River to the coastal ocean in coming decades

  7. Continental and oceanographic data information system, codis version 1.0: Protocols, software, compilation and appraisal of meta-data of organic contaminants in the Fraser River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyles, T.M.; King, B.; West, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Description of the continental and oceanographic data information system (CODIS), a PC-based index that searches, reports, and maps information on organic contaminants in the Fraser River Basin. The report also documents the historical development of CODIS, the protocol used to evaluate the quality of the organic data, and the software development and cataloguing process used for inputting the data.

  8. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  9. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network...... of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where...... was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third...

  10. Fraser syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay A

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is a rare disorder with only a few cases having been described in Indian literature. We report here a case of a patient aged 16 yr present with primary amenorrhea which is a very unusual mode of presentation. Multiple associated anomalies were present including those of eyelids, eyebrow, face, fingers and genitalia. Chromosome analysis revealed a normal female karyotype. Pituitary gonadotropins were within normal range.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, David; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID

    1996-05-01

    This report contains studies which are part of the Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Attention is focused on population monitoring studies in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. The Physical, Geochemical and Microbial Conditions and Processes in the Hyporheic Zone of a Large Tidally Influenced River: The Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, M.; Roschinski, T.; Ross, K.; Leslie, S.; William, M.; Beckie, R.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes that occur in the hyporheic zone of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia. The large flows of between 2000 and 10000 cubic meters per second, the 10 15 m deep, 250 m wide channel, the 1 m tidal fluctuations, the localized scour and redeposition of sediments during freshet and the strong geochemical contrast between groundwater and surface water distinguish this investigation from studies on smaller channels and streams and required the development of novel characterization tools and strategies. The geochemistry of water samples collected with a push-in profiler, bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurements collected with a push-in tool and hydraulic head measurements indicate that groundwater principally discharges into the river approximately 100 m offshore in a 10 m wide band. River water and groundwater mix to a maximum depth of between 0.75 and 1.5 m. While hydraulic heads show strong tidal reversals, bulk EC profiles show only moderate changes during the tidal cycle. It was hypothesized that high iron (10's mg/L of Fe(II)) in reduced groundwater would precipitate from solution as secondary iron-oxide phases in the zone where groundwater mixes with aerobic river water. Sediments were collected with a freeze-shoe corer and depth profiles through the hyporheic zone and into the underlying aquifer were analyzed by selective extractions. The 15-30 mg/g of total extractable iron in both the aquifer and hyporheic zone is relatively high. The lack of noticeable iron accumulation in the hyporheic zone may indicate that iron precipitates on shallow sediments that are subsequently scoured from the river bed during freshet. Microbial DNA from sediments was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and showed a relatively diverse community structure but an overall low biomass.

  13. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  14. Coherent Flow Structures and Suspension Events over Low-angle Dunes: Fraser River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. W.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Hendershot, M. L.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing observations show that dunes with low-angle lee-sides (MBES) while an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) simultaneously provided flow and suspended sediment measurements over a range of flows through tidal cycles. At high tide, river flow nearly ceases and a salt wedge enters the channel, forcing plumes of salt water towards the surface into the downstream moving fresh water above as the wedge moves upstream over the dunes. The salt wedge persists in the channel causing stratification in water column and one-sided instabilities along the saline-fresh water interface until the late in the falling tide. At low tide, mean velocities peak and force the saline water out of the channel. Flow over the low-angle dunes displays topographically induced flow patterns similar to previously observed over high-angle dunes, but permanent flow separation is notably absent. Sediment-laden kolks emerge as important suspended sediment transport agents during low tide but become more coherent, yet less frequent, structures as the tide begins to rise. Kolks appear to form downstream of dune crests along the shear layer that is likely formed by intermittent flow separation. Kolks also form at the reattachment point and grow over the stoss slope of the dunes. This is consistent with the generation of hairpin vortices formed near the bed that lift into the flow and grow to the surface through an 'autogeneration' mechanism. Persistent downwelling and periodic sweeps at dune crests provide a mechanism for sediment erosion and entrainment while periodic ejection motions or kolks in a zone of persistent upwelling at the lower stoss provide a mechanism sediment suspension. Kolks are estimated to move ~70% of the total sediment in the flow above dunes when they are present in the water column.

  15. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  16. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  17. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  18. Sockeye salmon repatriation leads to population re-establishment and rapid introgression with native kokanee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Andrew J; Russello, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has the substantial potential for conservation gains; however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from the reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee presockeye reintroduction, along with annual trawl survey and angler-caught samples obtained over an eight-year period. Significant differentiation was detected between sockeye and kokanee reference samples, with >99% stock assignment. Low proportions of sockeye and hybrids were detected within 2008 and 2010 age-0 trawl samples; however, by 2012, 28% were sockeye, rising to 41% in 2014. The number of hybrids detected rose proportionally with the increase in sockeye and exhibited an intermediate phenotype. Our results indicate that the reintroduction of anadromous sockeye to Skaha Lake is succeeding, with large numbers returning to spawn. However, hybridization with native kokanee is of concern due to the potential for demographic or genetic swamping, with ongoing genetic monitoring necessary to assess the long-term effects of introgression and to support interactive fisheries management.

  19. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success.

  20. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  1. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down

  2. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 1 of 3, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, Larry (University of Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Veterinary College, Charlottetown, PE, Canada); Machin, Deanna; Long, Karilyn (Okanagan National Fisheries Commission, Westbank, BC, Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Historical records indicate that sockeye salmon were once found in most of the lakes in the Okanagan River Basin. Currently, the only sockeye population within the Okanagan River Basin is found in Osoyoos Lake. Abundance of this stock has declined significantly in the last fifty years. The Okanagan Nation and tribes in the U.S. have proposed re-introducing the species into Okanagan Lake, which has a large rearing capacity. However, assessing the potential benefits and risks associated with a reintroduction of sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake is difficult because of uncertainties about factors that determine production of Okanagan sockeye, and potential interactions with other species in Okanagan Lake. Associated with this proposal are the potential risks of re-introduction of sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake. One of these is the effects of sockeye on the resident Okanagan Lake kokanee population, which has declined significantly in the past several years because of habitat loss due to human encroachment, competition with introduced mysid shrimp, and the reduction of biological productivity in the lake as municipalities have moved to more complete effluent treatment. Another concern is the possibility of the transmission of diseases that are currently not found in Okanagan and Skaha lakes from re-introduced sockeye to resident fish. An additional concern is the risk that exotic species (e.g. tench, largemouth bass), that have become established in southern Okanagan Lakes (principally as a result of purposeful introductions in the US Columbia/Okanagan river system), may be able to extend their range to Skaha and Okanagan Lakes, through fish ladders provided at the outlets of Vaseaux (McIntyre Dam) and Skaha Lakes (Okanagan Falls Dam), for natural upstream migration of sockeye. A transboundary multi-agency workshop was hosted in November of 1997 to discuss the potential risks and benefits of reintroducing sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake. These discussions were

  3. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

    2008-05-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The 'recurrent evolution' (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a 'straying' form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate.

  4. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  5. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Sockeye genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this study was to genetically analyze axillary process samples from ~6,000 sockeye salmon harvested in the 2006 and 2007 Districts 101 gillnet and 104...

  6. Differences and Sensitivities in Potential Hydrologic Impact of Climate Change to Regional-Scale Athabasca and Fraser River Basins of the Leeward and Windward Sides of the Canadian Rocky Mountains Respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Kerkhoven, Ernst

    2010-05-01

    Sensitivities to the potential impact of Climate Change on the water resources of the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) and Fraser River Basin (FRB) were investigated. The Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of IPCC projected by 7 general circulation models (GCM), namely, Japan's CCSRNIES, Canada's CGCM2, Australia's CSIROMk2b, Germany's ECHAM4, the USA's GFDLR30, the UK's HadCM3, and the USA's NCARPCM, driven under four SRES climate scenarios (A1FI, A2, B1, and B2) over three 30-year time periods (2010-2039, 2040-2069, 2070-2100) were used in these studies. The change fields over these three 30-year time periods are assessed with respect to the 1961-1990, 30-year climate normal and based on the 1961-1990 European Community Mid-Weather Forecast (ECMWF) re-analysis data (ERA-40), which were adjusted with respect to the higher resolution GEM forecast archive of Environment Canada, and used to drive the Modified ISBA (MISBA) of Kerkhoven and Gan (2006). In the ARB, the shortened snowfall season and increased sublimation together lead to a decline in the spring snowpack, and mean annual flows are expected to decline with the runoff coefficient dropping by about 8% per oC rise in temperature. Although the wettest scenarios predict mild increases in annual runoff in the first half of the century, all GCM and emission combinations predict large declines by the end of the 21st century with an average change in the annual runoff, mean maximum annual flow and mean minimum annual flow of -21%, -4.4%, and -41%, respectively. The climate scenarios in the FRB present a less clear picture of streamflows in the 21st century. All 18 GCM projections suggest mean annual flows in the FRB should change by ±10% with 8 projections suggesting increases and 10 projecting decreases in the mean annual flow. This stark contrast with the ARB results is due to the FRB's much milder climate. Therefore under SRES scenarios, much of the FRB is projected to become warmer than 0oC for most of

  7. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume V : Evaluation of the 1999 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1999 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from sixteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. The 1999 RealTime project began making forecasts for a new stock of PIT-tagged wild fall subyearling chinook salmon, as a substitute for forecasts of the wild run-at-large, discontinued June 6. Forecasts for the run-at-large were discontinued when a large release of unmarked hatchery fish into the Snake River made identification of wild fish impossible. The 1999 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years with respect to the run-at-large of yearling chinook salmon (whole season MAD=3.7%), and the run of hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon (whole season MAD=6.7%). Season-wide performance of program RealTime predictions for wild Snake River yearling chinook salmon ESUs improved in 1999, with mean MADs from the first half of the outmigrations down from 15.1% in 1998 to 4.5% in 1999. RealTime performance was somewhat worse for the run-at-large of steelhead trout in 1999, compared to 1998, particularly during the last half of the outmigration when the MAD increased from 2.7% in 1998 to 6.1% in 1999. A pattern of over-predictions was observed in half of the yearling chinook salmon ESUs and the steelhead run-at-large during the month of May. Lower-than-average outflows were observed at Lower Granite dam during the first half of May, the only

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume III : Evaluation of the 1997 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook and Sockeye in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Richard L.

    1998-07-01

    Since the 1994 outmigration, program RealTime has been applied to provide in-season predictions of smolt outmigration timing for individual and aggregates of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon stocks. Results from the 1997 smolt outmigrations of wild Snake River yearling and subyearling chinook show prediction of run-timing can be accurately forecasted. The number of release sites meeting previous years criteria for RealTime forecasts dropped to five for the wild spring/summer chinook parr PIT-tagged in 1996: Catherine Creek, Imnaha, Lostine, Minam and South Fork Salmon Rivers. An experiment in lessening previous RealTime requirements for forecasting a outmigration in progress added three release sites of chinook: Lake Creek, Secesh and South Fork Wenaha Rivers; and one release of age 1+ sockeye at Redfish Lake. Passage indices provided by the Fish Passage Center for Lower Granite Dam were monitored for the wild subyearling chinook outmigration. Investigation continued into basing predictions on historical years with similar flows as a way to improve forecasting performance for the wild subyearling outmigration. Program RealTime's output is a series of estimated percentages of the status of the smolt outmigration throughout the season. To compare the performance the program from year to year, or to compare various assumptions used set up the forecasting, the mean absolute deviance (MAD) of the daily predicted outmigration-proportion from the actual outmigration-proportion is calculated post-season. Furthermore, these MAD's are considered for three periods of the season: the first 50% of the season, the second 50%, and the entire season.

  10. Distinctive metabolite profiles in in-migrating Sockeye salmon suggest sex-linked endocrine perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Ikonomou, Michael G; Liu, Jun; Veldhoen, Nik; Dubetz, Cory; Helbing, Caren C; Cosgrove, John R

    2014-10-07

    The health of Skeena River Sockeye salmon (Onchorhychus nerka) has been of increasing concern due to declining stock returns over the past decade. In the present work, in-migrating Sockeye from the 2008 run were evaluated using a mass spectrometry-based, targeted metabolomics platform. Our objectives were to (a) investigate natural changes in a subset of the hepatic metabolome arising from migration-associated changes in osmoregulation, locomotion, and gametogenesis, and (b) compare the resultant profiles with animals displaying altered hepatic vitellogenin A (vtg) expression at the spawning grounds, which was previously hypothesized as a marker of xenobiotic exposure. Of 203 metabolites monitored, 95 were consistently observed in Sockeye salmon livers and over half of these changed significantly during in-migration. Among the most dramatic changes in both sexes were a decrease in concentrations of taurine (a major organic osmolyte), carnitine (involved in fatty acid transport), and two major polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). In females, an increase in amino acids was attributed to protein catabolism associated with vitellogenesis. Animals with atypical vtg mRNA expression demonstrated unusual hepatic amino acid, fatty acid, taurine, and carnitine profiles. The cause of these molecular perturbations remains unclear, but may include xenobiotic exposure, natural senescence, and/or interindividual variability. These data provide a benchmark for further investigation into the long-term health of migrating Skeena Sockeye.

  11. Gordon Fraser (1943-2013)

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    We were deeply saddened to learn that Gordon Fraser had passed away on 3 January. During his 25-year career at CERN, until his retirement in 2002, he made many valuable contributions to the Laboratory, in particular as editor of CERN Courier.   Gordon’s life in science began at Imperial College London, where he obtained a PhD with the theory group of the future Nobel laureate Abdus Salam. He then spent time at Tel Aviv University in Yuval Ne’eman’s group and at Brighton University, before changing career to become a journalist, at first for Computer Weekly in London. He moved into scientific editing at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in 1975 and it was from there that he was hired to join the publications team at CERN in 1977. By 1982 Gordon had become the editor of the CERN Courier. During his time at the helm, both particle physics and the Courier changed considerably. Under his careful stewardship aspects of publishing were outsourced, leading to a...

  12. Spatio-temporal migration patterns of Pacific salmon smolts in rivers and coastal marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Melnychuk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations were tagged between 2004-2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong

  13. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  14. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  15. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  16. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  17. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  18. Fraser syndrome in three consecutive siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarthigeyan Kalaniti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome (FS is a rare disorder characterized by a combination of acrofacial and urogenital malformations with or without cryptophthalmos. We report a newborn and its two elder siblings who had multiple congenital anomalies and clinico-radiological features consistent with FS.

  19. The neural signature of the Fraser illusion: An explorative EEG study on Fraser-like displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyan eYun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied neural correlates accompanying the Fraser spiral illusion. The Fraser spiral illusion consists of twisted cords superimposed on a patchwork background arranged in concentric circles, which is typically perceived as a spiral. We tested four displays: the Fraser spiral illusion and three variants derived from it by orthogonally combining featural properties. In our stimuli, the shape of the cords comprised either concentric circles or a single spiral. The cords themselves consisted of black and white lines in parallel to the contour of the cords (i.e. parallel cords, or oblique line elements (i.e. twisted cords. The displays with twisted cords successfully induced illusory percepts, i.e. circles looked like spirals (the Fraser spiral illusion and spirals looked like circles (i.e., a ‘reverse Fraser illusion’. We compared the event-related potentials in a Stimulus (Circle, Spiral × Percept (Circle, Spiral design. A significant main effect of Stimulus was found at the posterior scalp in an early component (P220-280 and a significant main effect of Percept was found over the anterior scalp in a later component (P350-450. Although the EEG data suggest stimulus-based processing in posterior area in an early time window and Percept based processing in the later time window, an overall clear-cut stimulus-percept segregation was not found due to additional interaction effects. Instead, the data, especially in the later time window in the anterior area, point at differential processing for the condition comprising circle shapes but spiral percepts (i.e. the Fraser illusion.

  20. Migration trends of Sockeye Salmon at the northern edge of their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Keith, Kevin D.; Schelske, Merlyn; Lean, Charles; Douglas, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is affecting arctic and subarctic ecosystems, and anadromous fish such as Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are particularly susceptible due to the physiological challenge of spawning migrations. Predicting how migratory timing will change under Arctic warming scenarios requires an understanding of how environmental factors drive salmon migrations. Multiple mechanisms exist by which environmental conditions may influence migrating salmon, including altered migration cues from the ocean and natal river. We explored relationships between interannual variability and annual migration timing (2003–2014) of Sockeye Salmon O. nerka in a subarctic watershed with environmental conditions at broad, intermediate, and local spatial scales. Low numbers of Sockeye Salmon have returned to this high-latitude watershed in recent years, and run size has been a dominant influence on the migration duration and the midpoint date of the run. The duration of the migration upriver varied by as much as 25 d across years, and shorter run durations were associated with smaller run sizes. The duration of the migration was also extended with warmer sea surface temperatures in the staging area and lower values of the North Pacific Index. The midpoint date of the total run was earlier when the run size was larger, whereas the midpoint date was delayed during years in which river temperatures warmed earlier in the season. Documenting factors related to the migration of Sockeye Salmon near the northern limit of their range provides insights into the determinants of salmon migrations and suggests processes that could be important for determining future changes in arctic and subarctic ecosystems.

  1. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  2. Fraser syndrome : epidemiological study in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of bi

  3. Management Plan for Experimental Reintroduction of Sockeye into Skaha Lake; Proposed Implementation, Monitoring, and Evaluation, 2004 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Howie; Smith, Howard (Okanagan Nation Alliance, Fisheries Department, Westbank, BC, Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Okanagan River sockeye salmon, which spawn near the town of Oliver, B.C., have their farther upstream migration limited by several water control and diversion dams. Stock numbers have been declining for many years and the Okanagan Native Alliance Fisheries Department (ONAFD) has been the principal advocate of a program to restore their numbers and range by reintroducing them into upstream waters where they may once have occurred in substantial numbers Some investigators have warned that without effective intervention Okanagan sockeye are at considerable risk of extinction. Among a host of threats, the quality of water in the single nursery areas in Osoyoos Lake. is deteriorating and a sanctuary such as that afforded in larger lakes higher in the system could be essential. Because the proposed reintroduction upstream has implications for other fish species, (particularly kokanee, the so-called ''landlocked sockeye'' which reside in many Okanagan lakes), the proponents undertook a three-year investigation, with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration and the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, to identify possible problem areas, and they committed to an interim experimental reintroduction to Skaha Lake where any problems could be worked out before a more ambitious reintroduction, (e.g. to Okanagan Lake) could be formally considered. The three-year investigation was completed in the spring of 2003. It included an assessment of risks from disease or the possible introduction of unwanted exotic species. It also considered the present quality and quantity of sockeye habitat, and opportunities for expanding or improving it. Finally ecological complexity encouraged the development of a life history model to examine interactions of sockeye with other fishes and their food organisms. While some problem areas were exposed in the course of these studies, they appeared to be manageable and the concept of an experimental reintroduction

  4. FRASER SYNDROME IN A FEMALE BABY AGED 2MONTHS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chatterjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder first described by Canadian geneticist C.R. Fraser in the year 1962. The incidence of Fraser Syndrome is 0.043 per 10,000 live born infants and 1.1 in 10,000 still births making it a rare syndrome

  5. A rare reason for difficult intubation on neonates: Fraser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Gulasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is a rare genetic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized with cryptophtalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal and genital anomalies. To provide for additional preparation during the opening of the airway, knowing that there is also a condition of laryngeal atresia or stenosis accompanied to syndrome can be life-saving. In this article a neonate case with laryngeal anomalies whose findings were consistent with the Fraser Syndrome was discussed with the literature. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 600-603

  6. Redescription of Sertularia notabilis Fraser, 1947 (Sertulariidae, Hydrozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migotto, A.E.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    An obscure species of the large leptolid genus Sertularia, S. notabilis Fraser, 1947, originally described from Tortuga Island, Venezuela, and not recorded since, is re-described and recorded from Brazilian coastal waters. This material is compared with Fraser’s type series; its relationship with Se

  7. White Free Speech: The Fraser Event and its Enlightenment Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldie Osuri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the 2005 Australia-wide controversy about the white supremacist comments made by Macquarie University academic Associate Professor Andrew Fraser. It locates the means by which this white supremacism manifested itself not only through Fraser comments, but also through arguments surrounding free speech/academic freedom. Using whiteness theory and its examination of whiteness as an Enlightenment legacy, Osuri argues that the collusion between Fraser’s white supremacism and the free speech/academic freedom argument is based on a disavowal of how whiteness operates, as Aileen Moreton-Robinson describes it, as an epistemological and ontological a priori, an embodied form of knowledge-production, and collective white hegemony.

  8. Síndrome de Fraser: relato de caso Fraser syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Saraceno

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Fraser é uma condição sistêmica caracterizada por criptoftalmo, sindactilia e anomalia da genitália, podendo ainda estar associada a alterações dos rins, do ouvido, do nariz, da laringe e do esqueleto. O criptoftalmo pode representar um achado isolado, relatado como herança autossômica dominante, ou associado a outras anomalias congênitas, relatado como herança autossômica recessiva. RMSA, sexo feminino, três meses, avaliada no ambulatório geral de oftalmologia do Instituto Brasileiro de Oftalmologia e Prevenção à Cegueira. Filha de pais consangüíneos. Genitora referia tio e irmão com a mesma alteração. Ao exame, foram observados criptoftalmo total à direita, nariz em sela, implantação baixa das orelhas, malformação de conduto auditivo, clitoromegalia, aumento de grandes lábios e sindactilia de mãos e pés. A ultra-sonografia (USG abdominal evidenciou agenesia renal à esquerda. A USG ocular do olho direito mostrou diminuição do diâmetro ântero-posterior, desorganização do segmento anterior, afacia e descolamento total da retina. A patogênese da criptoftalmia ainda não foi determinada, mas a consangüinidade tem sido apontada por vários autores como fator de grande importância. Os médicos devem estar atentos para as manifestações clínicas e o diagnóstico preciso para que estes pacientes possam ser acompanhados por uma equipe multidisciplinar e os casais tenham o devido aconselhamento genético.Fraser syndrome is a systemic condition characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia, which may be associated with urinary tract, ear, nose, larynx and skeletal abnormalities. Cryptophthalmos can be an isolated finding (that has been reported as an autosomal dominant trait or associated with other congenital anomalies (reported as an autosomal recessive disorder. RMSA, female, 3 m.o., evaluated in the general clinic of the Instituto Brasileiro de Oftalmologia e Prevenção

  9. Evaluating the Fraser Health Balanced Scorecard--a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnardo, Catherine; Jivanni, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Fraser Health (FH), a large, Canadian, integrated health care network, adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to monitor organizational performance in 2006. This paper reports on the results of a formative evaluation, conducted in April, 2008, to assess the usefulness of the BSC as a performance-reporting system and a performance management tool. Results indicated that the BSC has proven to be useful for reporting performance but is not currently used for performance management in a substantial way.

  10. Fraser Syndrome-Oral Manifestations and a Dental Care Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Lopes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome is a rare genetic malformation with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and an incidence of consanguinity ranging from 15% to 25%. A 5-year-old male patient who is a carrier of Fraser syndrome initiated treatment in the pediatric dentistry sector. The patient was fed parenterally since birth, experienced recurring bouts of chronic lung disease, and was referred to the pediatric dentistry sector by the medical team. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of all permanent teeth. Supragingival dental calculus, halitosis, and gingival inflammation were also observed. Dental calculus was removed by manual scraping, and chemotherapeutic agents were used, chlorhexidine 0,12%, chlorhexidine gel 2%, and PVP-I, to control the bacterial flora. The patient is still being monitored after an 8-year follow-up period, the complications associated with periodontal disease decreased, and since the initiation of treatment, the patient has not needed to be hospitalized because of chronic lung disease. This study reports the case of a patient diagnosed with Fraser syndrome and describes the clinical manifestations (general and oral.

  11. My River My Home: Both Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, S. L.; Janmaat, A.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B.; Holmes, R. M.; King, S.; Bertrand, K.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has been researching the water chemistry of the Fraser River since 2009 as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. The Global Rivers Observatory is advancing our understanding of how climate change, deforestation, and other disturbances are impacting river chemistry and land-ocean linkages. This knowledge is vital for tracking the health of Earth's watersheds and predicting how Earth's water and chemical cycles will change in the future. The Global Rivers Observatory also promotes the communication of science to the general public. In September 2013, the My River My Home art and science exhibit opened at the Fraser River Discovery Centre, New Westminster, BC. The exhibit is a global exchange of artwork created by children living along the rivers being studied by the Global Rivers Observatory scientists. The exhibit is intended to inspire young students to develop an awareness of the environment and the importance of rivers. Scientists from UFV, WHOI, and WHRC worked together with the Fraser River Discovery Centre on the science communication aspects of the display and to develop hands-on science activities looking at different aspects of river water quality. The exhibition has led to the creation of My River My Home, An Activity Kit for Educators about the sustainability of the Fraser River. The kit is being offered through the Fraser River Discovery Centre and deals with issues such as the importance of water, water quality, and encouraging a global perspective. The resource kit was classroom tested by several teachers, and four UBC teacher candidates worked on incorporating teacher suggestions into the kit. The resource kit will be available on-line at the end of September 2014 and contains inquiry based activities suitable for a variety of educational levels.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms unravel hierarchical divergence and signatures of selection among Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habicht Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disentangling the roles of geography and ecology driving population divergence and distinguishing adaptive from neutral evolution at the molecular level have been common goals among evolutionary and conservation biologists. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP multilocus genotypes for 31 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka populations from the Kvichak River, Alaska, we assessed the relative roles of geography (discrete boundaries or continuous distance and ecology (spawning habitat and timing driving genetic divergence in this species at varying spatial scales within the drainage. We also evaluated two outlier detection methods to characterize candidate SNPs responding to environmental selection, emphasizing which mechanism(s may maintain the genetic variation of outlier loci. Results For the entire drainage, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of geographic distance on population divergence than differences in spawn timing when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Clustering and hierarchical analyses of molecular variance indicated that the largest genetic differentiation occurred between populations from distinct lakes or subdrainages. Within one population-rich lake, however, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of spawn timing than geographic distance on population divergence when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Variable spawn timing among populations was linked to specific spawning habitats as revealed by principal coordinate analyses. We additionally identified two outlier SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II that appeared robust to violations of demographic assumptions from an initial pool of eight candidates for selection. Conclusions First, our results suggest that geography and ecology have influenced genetic divergence between Alaskan sockeye salmon populations in a hierarchical manner depending on the spatial scale. Second

  13. Financial considerations associated with potential SARA listing of Sakinaw and Cultus Lake sockeye

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The purpose of this report is to present financial considerations associated with alternative harvest levels designed to address conservation concerns for the Sakinaw Lake and Cultus Lake sockeye populations...

  14. Development of a neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A new neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University (SFU) utilizes a commercial deuterium-tritium neutron generator (Thermo Scientific P 385) to produce 14.2 MeV neutrons at a nominal rate of 3E8 neutrons/s. The facility will be used to produce radioisotopes to support a research program including nuclear structure studies and neutron activation analysis. As a prerequisite for regular operation of the facility and as a personnel safety consideration, dose rate predictions for the fa...

  15. Fused pulmonary lobes is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyozumi, Daiji; Nakano, Itsuko [Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takahashi, Ken L.; Hojo, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Hiroaki [Toxicology Division, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 4321 Uchimoriya, Joso, Ibaraki 303-0043 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi, E-mail: sekiguch@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) mutant rats exhibit similar phenotypes to Fraser syndrome. {yields} The fpl gene harbors a nonsense mutation in Fraser syndrome-associated gene Frem2. {yields} Fpl mutant is defined as a first model of human Fraser syndrome in rats. -- Abstract: Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) is a mutant gene that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and causes various developmental defects, including fusion of pulmonary lobes, and eyelid and digit anomalies in rats. Since these developmental defects closely resemble those observed in patients with Fraser syndrome, a recessive multiorgan disorder, and its model animals, we investigated whether the abnormal phenotypes observed in fpl/fpl mutant rats are attributable to a genetic disorder similar to Fraser syndrome. At the epidermal basement membrane in fpl/fpl mutant neonates, the expression of QBRICK, a basement membrane protein whose expression is attenuated in Fraser syndrome model mice, was greatly diminished compared with control littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of Fraser syndrome-related genes revealed that Frem2 transcripts were markedly diminished in QBRICK-negative embryos. Genomic DNA sequencing of the fpl/fpl mutant identified a nonsense mutation that introduced a stop codon at serine 2005 in Frem2. These findings indicate that the fpl mutant is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome.

  16. Clinical manifestations and oral findings in Fraser syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Lima, Luciana Monti; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    This article is the first known case report of Fraser syndrome in the dental literature. Its purpose was to present the clinical manifestations, oral findings, and dental treatment of a 14-year, 10-month-old female patient. Fraser syndrome is a rare recessive autosomal genetic disorder characterized by multisystemic malformation, usually comprising cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and renal defects. The child presented with: (1) hydrocephaly; (2) face asymmetry; (3) low-inserted ears; (4) flat nose bridge; (5) cryptophthalmos; (6) bilateral absence of eyeballs; (7) hypertelorism; (8) syndactyly on the left fingers and toes; (9) skeletal defects; and (10) lower limb asymmetry. The intraoral examination revealed: (1) complete primary denture; (2) malocclusion; (3) tooth crowding; (4) ogival palate; (5) normal labial frena; (6) absence of lingual frenum (not compromising the tongue movements); (7) parched lips; (8) supragingival calculus adhered to all tooth surfaces; and (9) moderate gingivitis. The dental treatment consisted of periodic monitoring of the patient's oral health status and supragingival scaling associated with topical applications of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate gel at 2-week intervals to reduce gingivitis.

  17. Dynamic in-lake spawning migrations by female sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel B.; Woody, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Precise homing by salmon to natal habitats is considered the primary mechanism in the evolution of population-specific traits, yet few studies have focused on this final phase of their spawning migration. We radio tagged 157 female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as they entered Lake Clark, Alaska, and tracked them every 1-10 days to their spawning locations. Contrary to past research, no specific shoreline migration pattern was observed (e.g., clockwise) nor did fish enter a tributary unless they spawned in that tributary. Tributary spawning fish migrated faster (mean = 4.7 km??day-1, SD = 2.7, vs. 1.6 km??day-1, SD = 2.1) and more directly (mean linearity = 0.8, SD = 0.2, vs. 0.4, SD = 0.2) than Lake Clark beach spawning fish. Although radio-tagged salmon migrated to within 5 km of their final spawning location in an average of 21.2 days (SD = 13.2), some fish migrated five times the distance necessary and over 50 days to reach their spawning destination. These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of this final phase of migration and support studies indicating a higher degree of homing precision by tributary spawning fish. ?? Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard No claim to original US government works.

  18. A field study of coherent flow structures over low angle dunes: Fraser Estuary, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. W.; Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aqueous dunes are present in nearly all sand bedded alluvial channels and can significantly influence flow resistance and sediment transport and deposition. The geometry of these bedforms can take on a high angle asymmetrical or low angle symmetrical shape. While advances have been made in understanding the mean and turbulent flow over high angle dunes, far less progress has been made in detailing flow over low angle dunes, commonly observed in large rivers, due to difficulties measuring near the bed and quantifying the turbulence over these bedforms. This field study documents the flow over low angle dunes in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, using an acoustic Doppler profiler (aDcp) to measure 3-D flow characteristics and a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) to provide high-resolution bed topography. Measurements were made over a dune field (~1 km long and ~0.5 wide) through two semi-diurnal tidal cycles during the 2010 freshet. We examine the coupling between the bedform morphology and the generation of coherent flow structures. Bedforms in the dune field range from low-angle symmetric to higher angle asymmetric and vary over tidal cycles; however, none display the classic angle of repose geometry. Mean flow velocity increases on falling tide while it decreases the rising tide. At lower tides, large scale motions caused by topographic forcing emerge on stoss slopes and rise up over the crest producing variations in suspended sediment over the bedforms. Our analysis is intended to contribute insight into what controls the occurrence of low angle bedforms in rivers.

  19. Flora of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, S.J.; Shepperd, W.D.; Reichert, D.W.; Cone, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The report lists 441 vascular plant taxa in 228 genera and 63 families encountered on the 9,300-ha Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Synonyms appearing in previous publications and other works pertaining to the Fraser Experimental Forest, as well as appropriate Colorado floras and less-technical field guides, are included. Plant communities and habitats are discussed, and a list of 54 lichens is also presented. A glossary of related terms is included.

  20. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katinic, P.J.; Patterson, D.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs¿>¿130¿days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods r

  1. Theology and psychology – the interdisciplinary work of Fraser Watts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the preface to his book, Theology and Psychology, Fraser Watts, a lecturer in Theology and Natural Science at the University of Cambridge, states that he approaches “… the interface between theology and psychology by looking at each discipline from the perspective of the other. This includes a religious perspective on several current hot topics in psychology, such as evolution, neuroscience, and computer intelligence. I also consider theological topics like divine action, salvation history and eschatology, in each case using the psychological perspective in a different way”. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, Watts aims at proposing a psychology of religious experience. He considers theology to be the rational reflection on the Christian tradition. When exponents of this tradition are in dialogue with exponents of psychology, the focus falls on human nature. Watts admits that a certain lack of competence in one of the two disciplines can be a problem when working in an interdisciplinary way. However, he is willing to take the risk. Watts worked in psychology for 25 years and was also involved with a medical research council, before taking up a position at the Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge.

  2. Estimation of sockeye salmon escapement in Mortensens Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, 2006; and 2001 to 2006 run comparisons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir and underwater video monitoring station was operated on Mortensens Creek from 18 June to 16 September 2006. Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka...

  3. AFSC/ABL: Origins of sockeye and chum salmon seized from the F/V Ying Fa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon seized from the stateless fishing vessel Ying Fa were analyzed to determine their region of origin...

  4. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  5. Range extension of Microgomphus souteri Fraser, 1924 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae to northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Halali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During opportunistic surveys conducted at Collem (Goa, a specimen of male Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 was collected on 14th September 2013. Another male specimen was collected on 28th June 2014. Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 is recorded for the first time in northern Western Ghats and is a new record for Goa. Type specimen was described from Coorg (Karnataka and was later recorded from Kerala. The discovery of this species in Goa has expanded its range to the north of the Western Ghats. With this discovery currently 88 species of Odonata are now known from the state. 

  6. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  7. Global assessment of extinction risk to populations of Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Rand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5% are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67% and found that 17 of these (27% are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct.

  8. The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations by Strawberry Growers in the Lower Fraser Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    The study investigated the adoption behavior of 100 strawberry growers (including 32 Mennonites and 23 Japanese) in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Adoption of six selected practices was examined in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and ethnicity. Findings included the following: (1) ethnic groups differed significantly on…

  9. Civic Fragmentation or Voluntary Association? Habermas, Fraser, and Charter School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Terri Wilson puts the argument developed by Kathleen Knight Abowitz that charter schools could be considered as counterpublic spaces into interaction with empirical research that explores patterns of voluntary self-segregation in charter schools. Wilson returns to the theoretical tension between Jurgen Habermas and Nancy Fraser over…

  10. First record of Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei for the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.; Bermudez-Villapol, L.A.; Simal, F.

    2012-01-01

    A dead dolphin found on Bonaire in August 2011 is identified as adult Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei, a new species for the Dutch Caribbean. A first closer examination showed a collapsed lung, stomach parasite infection and abundant mouth ulceration as indications of its health status. The

  11. Fraser and the Cheerleader: Values and the Boundaries of Student Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensal, Patricia A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Student speech has and continues to be a contested issue in schools. The Supreme Court ruled in "Tinker" that students do not shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate; in the "Kuhlmeier" and "Fraser" decisions, however, the Court gave school officials greater latitude in regulating student speech, especially when it…

  12. First record of Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei for the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.; Bermudez-Villapol, L.A.; Simal, F.

    2012-01-01

    A dead dolphin found on Bonaire in August 2011 is identified as adult Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei, a new species for the Dutch Caribbean. A first closer examination showed a collapsed lung, stomach parasite infection and abundant mouth ulceration as indications of its health status. The ani

  13. Description of the final-instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-02-12

    The final instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, 1925, is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens collected in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Antennae, legs and paraprocts are similar morphologically to H. kelantanensis and H. scorpio but with a unique combination of dorsal hooks and lateral spines.

  14. Civic Fragmentation or Voluntary Association? Habermas, Fraser, and Charter School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Terri Wilson puts the argument developed by Kathleen Knight Abowitz that charter schools could be considered as counterpublic spaces into interaction with empirical research that explores patterns of voluntary self-segregation in charter schools. Wilson returns to the theoretical tension between Jurgen Habermas and Nancy Fraser over…

  15. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fisheries. 300.95 Section 300.95 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any...

  16. Geologic map of the Fraser 7.5-minute quadrangle, Grand County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Bryant, Bruce; Kellogg, Karl S.; Theobald, Paul K.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    The geologic map of the Fraser quadrangle, Grand County, Colo., portrays the geology along the western boundary of the Front Range and the eastern part of the Fraser basin near the towns of Fraser and Winter Park. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle include gneiss, schist, and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age that are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. These basement rocks are exposed along the southern, eastern, and northern margins of the quadrangle. Fluvial claystone, mudstone, and sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and fluvial sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, overlie Proterozoic rocks in a small area near the southwest corner of the quadrangle. Oligocene rhyolite tuff is preserved in deep paleovalleys cut into Proterozoic rocks near the southeast corner of the quadrangle. Generally, weakly consolidated siltstone and minor unconsolidated sediments of the upper Oligocene to upper Miocene Troublesome Formation are preserved in the post-Laramide Fraser basin. Massive bedding and abundant silt suggest that loess or loess-rich alluvium is a major component of the siltstone in the Troublesome Formation. A small unnamed fault about one kilometer northeast of the town of Winter Park has the youngest known displacement in the quadrangle, displacing beds of the Troublesome Formation. Surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age are widespread in the Fraser quadrangle, particularly in major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Troublesome Formation. Deposits include glacial outwash and alluvium of non-glacial origin; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; pediment deposits; tills deposited during the Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations; and sparse diamictons that may be pre-Bull Lake till or debris-flow deposits. Some of the oldest surficial deposits may be as old as Pliocene.

  17. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. REVEAL II: Seasonality and spatial variability of particle and visibility conditions in the Fraser Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    conditions. Source apportionment analyses of mass and particle light-scattering indicate motor vehicles may contribute as much as 40% of the fine particle mass in the central valley and up to one-third of the particle light-scattering. In addition to characterizing conditions in the Fraser Valley, slides......This paper presents data collected during a year-long field experiment (REVEAL II) in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. The data are used to provide information regarding ambient visibility conditions and fine particle concentrations in the valley. Although average fine mass measured during...... REVEAL II was 8-9 mu g m(-3), the fine particle mass has high light-scattering efficiencies and the visual range is frequently below publicly defined acceptable levels. For example, data indicate that during the fall the visual range is frequently below 20 km even under favorable meteorological...

  19. Esfera pública, reconhecimento e minorias: o diálogo Habermas-Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser delineou uma compreensão procedimental do reconhecimento que tem possibilidade de combater políticas estreitas de autenticidade de grupo. Jürgen Habermas enfatiza um modelo deliberativo e uma análise histórica da esfera pública, por meio de um aprendizado teórico que culminou em 1992, com Faktizität und Geltung. Pretendemos demonstrar, com base em Fraser e Habermas, que, diante de um contexto de exclusão do espaço público oficial, é necessário ampliar arenas discursivas, sob pena de reproduzirmos e mantermos as assimetrias dominantes. Fraser, em Scales of Justice, defende uma esfera pública transnacional na qual há uma rearticulação dos processos decisórios, superando as fronteiras dos estados nacionais territorialmente situados. Propugnamos analisar a evolução das concepções de esfera pública em Habermas e Fraser ao longo de suas trajetórias teóricas. Em Habermas, até 2011, havia uma ambiguidade que oscilava entre a abordagem fina de patriotismo constitucional e a concepção densa de autocompreensão europeia. Com efeito, pretendemos investigar como Habermas, em Sobre a constituição da Europa - um ensaio, Habermas soluciona tal ambiguidade em relação à compreensão de esfera pública, lecionando que os cidadãos, por meio da tecnologia digital e de padrões morais, avaliam as estruturas econômicas europeias, confrontando as instituições existentes com as exigências de uma justiça global. Sustentamos, com base em Habermas, que tais discussões devem ser efetivadas no interior de um Parlamento mundial composto de Estados e cidadãos.

  20. Performance and Size of Fraser & Neave Holdings Bhd (F&N)

    OpenAIRE

    Othaman, Ridhuan

    2017-01-01

    The main study is to analyze about the overall of the risk and the performance of the Fraser & Neave Holdings Bhd (F&N). All the is get from annual report that get from the Bursa Malaysia. The measurement of the company is used in variety of ratio such as liquidity risk, operational risk, credit risk and financial risk. These ratio is useful to know well about the company.

  1. Effect of clear cutting on snow accumulation and water outflow at Fraser, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Troendle

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares of snowpack accumulation and ablation, evapotranspiration, and water outflow from clearcut and forested plots within a high elevation (2900 m mixed conifer forest at the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA. Also presented is a method for defining contributing area where outflow is measured from unbounded plots. Plots were monitored from 1980 to 1990 and again in 1993. The clearcut plot was harvested in late 1984. Evapotranspiration (ET of the forested plot at zero discharge (ETo was estimated at 426 mm while the ET was 500 mm at the mean precipitation of 596 mm. ET was dependent on precipitation with about 28% of precipitation input in excess of 426 mm contributing to increased ET, while the remainder contributed to increased outflow. During the six monitored post-harvest years, Peak Water Equivalent of the snowpack averaged 36% higher on the cut plot than on the control, and the mean discharge increased from 85 mm to 356 mm. Area estimates were obtained from the slopes of the regression of outflow on precipitation inputs. Hydrologic parameters corresponded closely to those previously determined at Fraser Experimental Forest using other methods, lending credence to the validity of the area estimates.

  2. Supporting frail seniors through a family physician and Home Health integrated care model in Fraser Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Haeson Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions. Description of integrated practice: An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues. Early results: The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased. Conclusion: Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients.

  3. Supporting frail seniors through a family physician and Home Health integrated care model in Fraser Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Haeson Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions.Description of integrated practice: An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues.Early results: The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased.Conclusion: Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients.

  4. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1993-05-01

    Significant changes were made in the fish rearing facilities at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s (IDFG) Eagle Hatchery during the contract period. Rearing and develop sampling protocols for genetics and pathology were developed. The rearing protocol was derived with assistance of the Technical Oversight Committee, the scientific advisory group, and several fish culturists and nutritionists who were consulted informally. The standards were incorporated into the Research and Propagation Permit from National Marine Fisheries Service was applied for during this project period. Pathology and genetics samples have been taken and processed from each fish which died during the rearing phase.

  5. The Egegik & Ugashik Rivers sockeye salmon runs and smolt migrations in 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is based on data provided by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Its purpose is to summarize catch & escapement data together with the magnitude...

  6. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  7. Effects of diluted bitumen exposure on juvenile sockeye salmon: From cells to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Sarah L; Lin, Feng; Farrell, Anthony P; Kennedy, Christopher J; Gillis, Todd E

    2017-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit; the product of oil sands extraction) is transported through freshwater ecosystems critical to Pacific salmon. This is concerning, because crude oil disrupts cardiac development, morphology, and function in embryonic fish, and cardiac impairment in salmon can have major consequences on migratory success and fitness. The sensitivity of early life-stage salmon to dilbit and its specific cardiotoxic effects are unknown. Sockeye salmon parr were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of dilbit for 1 wk and 4 wk, followed by an examination of molecular, morphological, and organismal endpoints related to cardiotoxicity. We show that parr are sensitive to WSF of dilbit, with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations of 3.5 µg/L sufficient to induce a liver biomarker of PAH exposure, and total PAH of 16.4 µg/L and 66.7 µg/L inducing PAH biomarkers in the heart. Furthermore, WSF of dilbit induces concentration-dependent cardiac remodeling coincident with performance effects: fish exposed to 66.7 µg/L total PAH have relatively fewer myocytes and more collagen in the compact myocardium and impaired swimming performance at 4 wk, whereas the opposite changes occur in fish exposed to 3.5 µg/L total PAH. The results demonstrate cardiac sensitivity to dilbit exposure that could directly impact sockeye migratory success. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:354-360. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. The frailty in elderly patients receiving cardiac interventional procedures (FRASER) program: rational and design of a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Maietti, Elisa; Tonet, Elisabetta; Cimaglia, Paolo; Scillitani, Giulia; Bugani, Giulia; Serenelli, Matteo; Zaraket, Fatima; Balla, Cristina; Trevisan, Filippo; Biscaglia, Simone; Sassone, Biagio; Galvani, Marcello; Ferrari, Roberto; Volpato, Stefano

    2016-10-28

    Frailty has become a high-priority issue in cardiovascular medicine because of the aging of cardiovascular patients. Simple and reproducible tools to assess frailty in elderly patients are clearly on demand. Their application may help physicians in the selection of invasive and medical treatments and in the timing and modality of the follow-up. The frailty in elderly patients receiving cardiac interventional procedures (FRASER) program is designed with the aim to validate the use of the short physical performance battery (SPPB) as prognostic tools in patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The FRASER program is a multicenter prospective study involving 4 Italian cardiology units. The FRASER program enrolls only patients aged ≥70 years. The core of the FRASER program includes patients admitted to hospital for ACS. The aims are (1) to describe SPPB distribution before hospital discharge and (2) to investigate the prognostic role of SPPB score. The primary outcome is a composite of 1-year all-cause mortality and hospital readmission for any cause. Ancillary analyses will be focused on different study populations (patients hospitalized for arrhythmias or acute heart failure or symptomatic severe aortic stenosis) and on different tools to assess frailty (multidimensional prognostic index, clinical frailty score, grip strength). The FRASER program will fill critical gaps in the knowledge regarding the link between frailty, cardiovascular disease, interventional procedures and outcome and will help physicians in the generation of a more personalized risk assessment and in the identification of potential targets for interventions.

  9. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  10. Nineteenth-Century Digital Worlds: Hilary Fraser Interviews Jerome McGann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Fraser discusses nineteenth-century digital humanities with Jerome McGann, thinking about the institutional history of '19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century' in the context of 'RaVoN', the 'Rossetti Archive', and NINES. The discussion addresses the institutional and disciplinary challenges in integrating digital skills in humanities training; digital environments that preserve, reconstitute, and enhance nineteenth-century scholarship online, supplement the transient nineteenth-century paper archive, and respond to the technical, ethnographic, and archaeological problems posed by work that cuts across medium boundaries.

  11. News from the Library: Gordon Fraser presents his book, "Quantum Exodus"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The book "Quantum Exodus" will be presented by the author Gordon Fraser on Thursday 14 June at 4 P.M. in the Library, Building 52-1-052.   "Quantum Exodus" by Gordon Fraser, Oxford University Press, 2012. Here's what the publisher says about the book: "It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. (...) Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convinced that their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were prepared to do, the exiles were afraid. They had to get to the Atomic Bomb first. The Nazis meanwhile had acquired a more pressing objective: their persecution of the Jews had evolved into extermination. Two dreadfu...

  12. Atmospheric Concentrations of Captan and Folpet in the Lower Fraser Valley Agricultural Region of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two N-trihalomethylthio fungicides were detected in the atmosphere in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region of Canada. Captan was detected in both the particle and gas phase with a dominant particle phase fraction observed in both 2005 and 2006 (only total captan atmospheric concentrations were available for 2004. This provides the first evidence of particle transport as a significant atmospheric transport pathway for captan in an agricultural region in Canada. Weekly captan air concentrations reached maximum levels of 13.2 ng m-3 in June 2006, while for folpet total atmospheric levels were lower with maximum reaching 1.7 ng m-3 in August 2004 and generally <1 ng m3 in 2005 and 2006. Folpet is detected in the atmosphere although not previously reported in usage inventories. In the three years examined (2004–2006 captan concentrations observed a seasonal maximum in atmospheric concentrations during spring to early summer coinciding with expected peak usage period on crops in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region located in British Columbia, Canada. No usage data is available in Canada beyond 2003 but these seasonal trends show that captan remains a dominant pesticide used in this agricultural region with no decline in atmospheric concentrations during 2004–2006.

  13. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 2 of 3, 2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Christopher (Colville Confederated Tribes, Omak Community Center, Omak, WA); Machin, Deanna; Wright, Howie (Okanagan National Fisheries Commission, Westbank, BC, Canada)

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from YEAR 2 of a three-year disease risk assessment. The Okanagan Nation Fisheries Commission (ONFC) and the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT) are investigating the risks involved in re-introducing sockeye salmon into Skaha Lake, part of their historical range (Ernst and Vedan 2000). The disease risk assessment compares the disease and infection status of fish above and below McIntyre Dam (the present limit of sockeye migration). The disease agents identified that are of a particular concern are: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus type 2 (IHNV type2), erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome virus (EIBSV), the whirling disease agent (Myxobolus cerebralis), and the ceratomyxosis agent (Ceratomyxa shasta).

  14. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M K; Garver, K A; Conway, C; Elliott, D G; Kurath, G

    2009-07-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  15. Virulence Comparisons of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus U and M Genogroups in Sockeye Salmon and Rainbow Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; Batts, William N; Kurath, Gael

    2006-12-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an aquatic rhabdovirus that infects salmonids in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, Europe, and Asia. Isolates of IHNV have been phylogenetically classified into three major viral genogroups, designated U, M, and L. To characterize virulence of IHNV in the context of these three viral genogroups, seven strains of IHNV (three U genogroup strains, three M strains, and one L strain) were compared for their pathogenicity in juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, kokanee (lacustrine sockeye salmon), and rainbow trout O. mykiss. Fish were waterborne-exposed to the different viral strains, and virulence was assessed by comparing mortality curves and final cumulative percent mortality (CPM) in both species of fish at 10°C and 15°C. In sockeye salmon and kokanee, the U genogroup virus types were extremely virulent, causing average CPMs of 69-100%, while the M genogroup virus types caused very little or no mortality (CPM = 0-4%). The endangered Redfish Lake sockeye salmon stock exhibited extreme differences in susceptibility to the U and M genogroups. Conversely, in two stocks of rainbow trout, the M genogroup virus types were more virulent, inducing average CPMs of 25-85%, while the U genogroup viruses caused lower mortality (CPM = 5-41%). In both fish species, the single L genogroup strain caused low to intermediate mortality (CPM = 13-53%). Viral glycoprotein sequence comparisons of the seven challenge strains revealed three amino acid sites (247, 256, and 270) that consistently differed between the U and M genogroups, possibly contributing to pathogenicity differences.

  16. Efficacy of an infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus DNA vaccine in Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye O. nerka salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; LaPatra, Scott E; Kurath, Gael

    2005-04-06

    The level of protective immunity was determined for Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye/kokanee salmon (anadromous and landlocked) O. nerka following intramuscular vaccination with a DNA vaccine against the aquatic rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). A DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein gene of IHNV protected Chinook and sockeye/kokanee salmon against waterborne or injection challenge with IHNV, and relative percent survival (RPS) values of 23 to 86% were obtained under a variety of lethal challenge conditions. Although this is significant protection, it is less than RPS values obtained in previous studies with rainbow trout (O. mykiss). In addition to the variability in the severity of the challenge and inherent host susceptibility differences, it appears that use of a cross-genogroup challenge virus strain may lead to reduced efficacy of the DNA vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected in both Chinook and sockeye that had been vaccinated with 1.0 and 0.1 pg doses of the DNA vaccine, and vaccinated fish responded to viral challenges with higher antibody titers than mock-vaccinated control fish.

  17. Notes on Cordulegaster Leach, and Neallogaster Cowley, from China, and the identity of Anotogaster annandalei Fraser (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera: Cordulegastridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, van G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A translation of the Chinese description of a female of Neallogaster annandalei (Fraser, 1923), by Zhou (1988) is given and compared with the original description of Anotogaster annandalei. It is concluded that this species should be included in the genus Cordulegaster. A translation of the original

  18. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  19. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  20. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, Stewart W; Murra, Anthony L; Pascho, Ronald J

    2002-04-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12 degrees C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8 degrees C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12 degrees C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8 degrees C was greater than that of the 12 degrees C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12 degrees C compared to the fish reared at 8 degrees C. Fish reared at 12 degrees C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8 degrees C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8 degrees C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12 degrees C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic

  1. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  2. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  3. Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Michael D; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change.

  4. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinic, P J; Patterson, D A; Ydenberg, R C

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs > 130 days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods recorded for any O. nerka population. Copper Creek presents an easy upstream migration, with mild water temperatures (7 to 14°  C), short distance (13·1 km) and low elevation gain (41 m) to the lake where fish hold prior to spawning. An energetic model estimates that Haida Gwaii has ever exceeded the presumed temperature threshold (19° C) for early marine exit. Although it is not impossible that the thermal tolerance of Copper Creek O.nerka is very low, the data presented here appear inconsistent with thermal avoidance as an explanation for the early marine exit timing in Copper Creek and in three other populations on the archipelago with early marine exit.

  5. In vivo fitness correlates with host-specific virulence of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Wargo, A.R.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between virulence and overall within-host fitness of the fish rhabdovirus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was empirically investigated in vivo for two virus isolates belonging to different IHNV genogroups that exhibit opposing host-specific virulence. U group isolates are more virulent in sockeye salmon and M group isolates are more virulent in rainbow trout. In both single and mixed infections in the two fish hosts, the more virulent IHNV type exhibited higher prevalence and higher viral load than the less virulent type. Thus, a positive correlation was observed between higher in vivo fitness and higher host-specific virulence in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout. Comparisons of mean viral loads in single and mixed infections revealed no evidence for limitation due to competition effects between U and M viruses in either rainbow trout or sockeye salmon co-infections.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  7. Lunch hosted by Professor Sissakian, vice-director of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna to Gordon Fraser and Jim Allaby.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    who are retiring from CERN, were presented with diplomas of honour. Allaby co-chaired the CERN-JINR joint scientific committee for many years and Fraser is editor of the CERN Courier until January 2002.

  8. Teleotemporalidad: un nivel de estudio adicional para la organización derivado del modelo de Julius Thomas Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mera Ruiz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone la teleotemporalidad como un nuevo espacio de análisis de la organización derivado de la consideración del modelo de Julius Thomas Fraser. Para desarrollar la propuesta, se sintetiza el trabajo de Fraser, que está compuesto por seis niveles de estudio de la temporalidad: 1 atemporalidad, que toca los fenómenos electromagnéticos; 2 prototemporalidad, que explica el comportamiento molecular; 3 eotemporalidad, que se ocupa de la mecánica clásica; 4 biotemporalidad, que atañe al comportamiento de los seres vivos; 5 nootemporalidad, que explica la experiencia humana, y 6 sociotemporalidad, sobre los fenómenos sociales del tiempo. Por último, se explica la teleotemporalidad como un nuevo espacio de análisis útil para aproximarse a la comprensión de la temporalidad organizacional.

  9. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  10. Effects of a parasite, Eubothrium salvelini (Cestoda:Pseudophyllidea), on the resistance of juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, N.P.; Yamada, S.B.

    1977-05-01

    Most research to date on the tolerance of natural populations to physical and chemical stressors appears to have overlooked that parasites may themselves be stressors, and that they may be capable of modifying the resistance of the host to other applied stressors. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts trapped at the outlet of Babine Lake, central British Columbia, were subjected to 1 mg/l dissolved zinc under laboratory conditions. Smolts infected with the intestinal cestode Eubothrium salvelini proved to be significantly more susceptible to zinc than were noninfected smolts. We recommend that future investigations of environmental effects, especially on wild populations, include consideration of the state of parasitism of the test organisms.

  11. Pacific salmon in hot water: applying aerobic scope models and biotelemetry to predict the success of spawning migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, A P; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J; Patterson, D A; Crossin, G T; Lapointe, M; Mathes, M T

    2008-01-01

    Concern over global climate change is widespread, but quantifying relationships between temperature change and animal fitness has been a challenge for scientists. Our approach to this challenge was to study migratory Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), fish whose lifetime fitness hinges on a once-in-a-lifetime river migration to natal spawning grounds. Here, we suggest that their thermal optimum for aerobic scope is adaptive for river migration at the population level. We base this suggestion on several lines of evidence. The theoretical line of evidence comes from a direct association between the temperature optimum for aerobic metabolic scope and the temperatures historically experienced by three Fraser River salmon populations during their river migration. This close association was then used to predict that the occurrence of a period of anomalously high river temperatures in 2004 led to a complete collapse of aerobic scope during river migration for a portion of one of the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. This prediction was corroborated with empirical data from our biotelemetry studies, which tracked the migration of individual sockeye salmon in the Fraser River and revealed that the success of river migration for the same sockeye population was temperature dependent. Therefore, we suggest that collapse of aerobic scope was an important mechanism to explain the high salmon mortality observed during their migration. Consequently, models based on thermal optima for aerobic scope for ectothermic animals should improve predictions of population fitness under future climate scenarios.

  12. Undergraduate and Graduate Opportunities in Nuclear Science at Simon Fraser University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoiu, Corina; Brodovitch, J.-C.; D'Auria, J. M.; Starosta, K.

    2012-10-01

    The Departments of Chemistry and Physics at Simon Fraser University offer a Nuclear Science Minor at undergraduate level. The program, which is unique in Canada, attracts students from all departments of the Faculty of Science, and, occasionally, from other departments such as engineering and business. Students graduating with this minor have the opportunity to get employment in academia and a variety of industries ranging from nuclear power to nuclear medicine, safety, accelerators, etc. At the graduate level, the Nuclear Science group in the Department of Chemistry attracts students to its in-house program and also in collaboration with TRIUMF, Canada's Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics. The graduate program offer a rich plethora of topics in experimental nuclear science ranging from understanding the matter at subatomic level and its role in astrochemistry to applications of nuclear science in radiation measurements and monitoring, nuclear instrumentation, etc. The academic components of the program, its goals and future developments are presented in this paper along with enrolment statistics for the last ten years.

  13. Dissolution of the category of identity: the deconstructive approach of the thought of Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nohemí González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser, American philosopher, argues that claims for recognition of difference push at present, many social conflicts in the world and cover a wide range of aspirations, from the emancipation to the more openly roundly rejected. This multiplicity of movements seeking to express their demands through the language of recognition. 66 María Nohemí González Civilizar 10 (18: 65-74, enero-junio de 2010 Today, the claim of identity supplants class interest and makes it the best means of social mobilization. This new vision requires to Guild an intellectual and practical enterprise, which must be the dissolution of the concept of identity as a category of social analysis. The author proposes the model’s status as an alternative model in this configuration. What requires recognition is not group-specific identity but the status of individual members of a group as full participants in social interaction. To participate fully in a social group requires a new model of justice that has the capacity to sustain the lack of recognition and cultural value can not be understood apart from economic conditions and can not block the distribution of wealth. Also economic reasons, such as income distribution, counts as subtext for the recognition. Only considering both dimensions simultaneously it is possible to determine what prevents equal participation in a particular case. This is achieved by analyzing the overlap between recognition and redistribution to determine what is the best way to remedy the injustice.

  14. Modelling the internal boundary layer over the lower fraser valley, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchvarova, E. [National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Steyn, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Vancouver (Canada); Cai, X. [Univ. of Birmingham, School of Geography, Edgbaston (United Kingdom); Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Baldi, M. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, IFA-CNR, Rome (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    In this study we use the very extensive data-set on temporal and spatial structure of the internal boundary layer on the Lower Faser Valley, Canada, collected during the so-called Pacific `93 field campaign, to study the ability of the simple applied model by Gryning and Batchvarova (1996) and the CSU-RAMS meso-scale model summarised in Pielke et al. (1992) to describe the development and variability of the internal boundary layer depth during the course of a day. Given the complexity of topography, coastline and land-use in the Lower Fraser Valley region, both models perform remarkably well. The simple applied model performs extremely well, given its simplicity. It is clear that correct specification of spatially resolved surface sensible heat flux and wind field are crucial to the success of this model which can be operated at very fine spatial resolution. The 3D model performs extremely well, though it too must capture the local wind field correctly for complete success. Its limited horizontal resolution results in strongly smoothed internal boundary layer height fields. (LN)

  15. Síndrome de Fraser: relato de caso nas vias lacrimais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Tavares Lorena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Fraser é uma condição sistêmica caracterizada por criptoftalmo, sindactilia e anomalia da genitália, podendo se associar com alterações dos rins, do ouvido, do nariz, da laringe e do esqueleto. O criptoftalmo pode representar um achado isolado, representado por herança autossômica dominante, associado a outras anomalias congênitas, relatado como herança autossômica recessiva. Criança do sexo feminino, 9 meses, avaliada no ambulatório de vias lacrimais da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Filha de pais consanguíneos. Ao exame, foram observados criptoftalmo total à esquerda, epífora em olho direito associada à secreção mucopurulenta, nariz em sela, implantação baixa das orelhas, malformação de conduto auditivo, aumento de grandes lábios e sindactilia de mãos e pés. A tomografia de crânio evidenciou braquicefalia ausência de septo pelúcido, proeminência dos ventrículos laterais, importante falha óssea na calota craniana, presença de afilamento do manto tecidual cerebral, fossa posterior pequena, desorganização do segmento anterior, afacia e descolamento total da retina.

  16. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones.

  17. Weak and strong publics: drawing on Nancy Fraser to explore parental participation in neonatal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims  We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background  Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods  A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results  Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion  Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481

  18. The sockeye salmon neo-Y chromosome is a fusion between linkage groups orthologous to the coho Y chromosome and the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Hammond, J; Phillips, R B; Park, L K

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) have an X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system, with females having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 58 and males 2n = 57 in all populations examined. To determine the origin of the sockeye Y chromosome, we mapped microsatellite loci from the rainbow trout (O. mykiss; OMY) genetic map, including those found on the Y chromosomes of related species, in kokanee (i.e. non-anadromous sockeye) crosses. Results showed that 3 microsatellite loci from the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 8 (OMY8q), linked to SEX (the sex-determining locus) in coho salmon (O. kisutch), are also closely linked to SEX in the kokanee crosses. We also found that 3 microsatellite loci from OMY2q are linked to those markers from OMY8q and SEX in kokanee, with both linkage groups fused to form the neo-Y. These results were confirmed by physical mapping of BAC clones containing microsatellite loci from OMY8q and OMY2q to kokanee chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The fusion of OMY2q to the ancestral Y may have resolved sexual conflict and, in turn, may have played a large role in the divergence of sockeye from a shared ancestor with coho. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from sockeye salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans.

  20. How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans.

  1. Resistance and Protective Immunity in Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Exposed to M Type Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle; Purcell, Maureen K.; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Differential virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from the U and M phylogenetic subgroups is clearly evident in the Redfish Lake (RFL) strain of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. In these fish, experimental immersion challenges with U isolates cause extremely high mortality and M isolates cause low or no mortality. When survivors of M virus immersion challenges were exposed to a secondary challenge with virulent U type virus they experienced high mortality, indicating that the primary M challenge did not elicit protective immunity. Delivery of a moderate dose (2 × 104 plaque-forming units [PFU]/fish) of virus by intraperitoneal injection challenge did not overcome RFL sockeye salmon resistance to M type IHNV. Injection challenge with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU/fish) of M type virus caused 10% mortality, and in this case survivors did develop protective immunity against a secondary U type virus challenge. Thus, although it is possible for M type IHNV to elicit cross-protective immunity in this disease model, it does not develop after immersion challenge despite entry, transient replication of M virus to low levels, stimulation of innate immune genes, and development of neutralizing antibodies in some fish.

  2. Aerosol particle size distributions in the lower Fraser Valley: evidence for particle nucleation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mozurkewich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distributions from 9 to 640nm diameter were measured at Eagle Ridge in the lower Fraser Valley from 13 August to 1 September 2001 as part of the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study. The site was on top of a ridge, about 300m above the valley floor, in a predominantly agricultural area about 70km ESE of Vancouver. To further characterize the particles, their hygroscopic properties (affinity for water were measured. The maximum of the number distributions was generally between 40 and 100nm diameter, but the number distribution was sometimes dominated by ultrafine particles with diameters below 40nm. These ultrafine particles, which appeared to some extent on all days, were frequently associated with elevated levels of CO and NOx, as expected for fresh vehicular emissions. The appearance of these fresh emissions was most pronounced when the growing mixed layer reached the altitude of the site. In contrast, pronounced nucleation events occurred on the five cleanest days; these resulted in particle number concentrations as high as 5x104 particles cm-3 and growth rates of 5 to 10nmhr-1. Nucleation appears to have been triggered when the UV flux reached about 25Wm-2. The growth of these newly formed particles was probably driven by the photochemical oxidation of biogenic organic compounds. Dramatic growth events were also observed on the afternoons of the more polluted days; these produced an extremely narrow mode σ<0.3 at a diameter of about 40nm. Rainy days showed low number concentrations with the size distributions shifted to small sizes. On one of these days there was evidence of nucleation not far from the site; this may have been occurring in the vicinity of the clouds.

  3. Genetic analysis of fin development in zebrafish identifies furin and hemicentin1 as potential novel fraser syndrome disease genes.

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    Thomas J Carney

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1, another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease.

  4. The Effects of Sample Size on Expected Value, Variance and Fraser Efficiency for Nonparametric Independent Two Sample Tests

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    Ismet DOGAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Choosing the most efficient statistical test is one of the essential problems of statistics. Asymptotic relative efficiency is a notion which enables to implement in large samples the quantitative comparison of two different tests used for testing of the same statistical hypothesis. The notion of the asymptotic efficiency of tests is more complicated than that of asymptotic efficiency of estimates. This paper discusses the effect of sample size on expected values and variances of non-parametric tests for independent two samples and determines the most effective test for different sample sizes using Fraser efficiency value. Material and Methods: Since calculating the power value in comparison of the tests is not practical most of the time, using the asymptotic relative efficiency value is favorable. Asymptotic relative efficiency is an indispensable technique for comparing and ordering statistical test in large samples. It is especially useful in nonparametric statistics where there exist numerous heuristic tests such as the linear rank tests. In this study, the sample size is determined as 2 ≤ n ≤ 50. Results: In both balanced and unbalanced cases, it is found that, as the sample size increases expected values and variances of all the tests discussed in this paper increase as well. Additionally, considering the Fraser efficiency, Mann-Whitney U test is found as the most efficient test among the non-parametric tests that are used in comparison of independent two samples regardless of their sizes. Conclusion: According to Fraser efficiency, Mann-Whitney U test is found as the most efficient test.

  5. Limnology of Sawtooth Lakes - 1995: Effects of winter limnology and lake fertilization on potential production of Snake River sockeye salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Budy, P.; Steinhart, G.B.; Slater, M.

    1996-05-01

    This Section II of the entire report describes the results of the limnological sampling conducted on Redfish, Altras, Pettit and Stanley Lakes from October 1994 through October 1995. Included are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995, limnological conditions during the spring, summer and fall of 1995, comparison of characteristics among the four lakes; fertilization of Redfish Lake in 1995; effects of fertilization and effects of annual avriations in planktivorous fish abundance. Individual chapters and their subject areas are listed in following abstracts.

  6. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on gonadotropin levels in Masu salmon and Sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Shoji

    2007-09-01

    The salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) is considered to be involved in gonadal maturation via gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in salmonid fishes. However, there is no direct evidence for endogenous sGnRH-stimulated GTH secretion in salmonids. In this study, to clarify whether endogenous sGnRH stimulates GTH secretion, we examined the effects of the mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) antagonist [Ac-Delta(3)-Pro(1), 4FD-Phe(2), D-Trp(3,6)]-mGnRH on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in 0-year-old masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou and sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. First, the effects of the GnRH antagonist on LH release were examined in 0-year-old precocious male masu salmon. GnRH antagonist treatment for 3 hr significantly inhibited an increase in plasma LH levels that was artificially induced by exogenous sGnRH administration, indicating that the GnRH antagonist is effective in inhibiting LH release from the pituitary. Subsequently, we examined the effect of the GnRH antagonist on LH synthesis in 0-year-old immature sockeye salmon that were pretreated with exogenous testosterone for 42 days to increase the pituitary LH contents; the testosterone treatment did not affect the plasma LH levels. GnRH antagonist treatment slightly but significantly inhibited an increase in the testosterone-stimulated pituitary LH content levels. However, no significant differences in the plasma LH levels were observed between the GnRH antagonist-treated and control groups. These results suggest that endogenous sGnRH is involved in LH secretion in salmonid fishes.

  7. Effects of atrazine and chlorothalonil on the reproductive success, development, and growth of early life stage sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Gas, Lindsay M; Ross, Peter S; Walker, Janessa; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of 2 currently used commercial pesticide formulations on Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), from fertilization to emergence, were evaluated in a gravel-bed flume incubator that simulated a natural streambed. Embryos were exposed to atrazine at 25 µg/L (low atrazine) or atrazine at 250 µg/L (high atrazine) active ingredient (a.i.), and chlorothalonil at 0.5 µg/L (low chlorothalonil) or chlorothalonil at 5 µg/L a.i. (high chlorothalonil) and examined for effects on developmental success and timing, as well as physical and biochemical growth parameters. Survival to hatch was reduced in the high chlorothalonil group (55% compared with 83% in controls), accompanied by a 24% increase in finfold deformity incidence. Reduced alevin condition factor (2.9-5.4%) at emergence and elevated triglyceride levels were seen in chlorothalonil-exposed fish. Atrazine exposure caused premature hatch (average high atrazine time to 50% hatch [H50] = 100 d postfertilization [dpf]), and chlorothalonil exposure caused delayed hatch (high chlorothalonil H50 = 108 dpf; controls H50 = 102 dpf). All treatments caused premature emergence (average time to 50% emergence [E50]: control E50 = 181 dpf, low chlorothalonil E50 = 175 dpf, high chlorothalonil E50 = 174 dpf, high atrazine E50 = 175 dpf, low atrazine E50 = 174 dpf), highlighting the importance of using a gravel-bed incubator to examine this subtle, but critical endpoint. These alterations indicate that atrazine and chlorothalonil could affect survival of early life stages of sockeye salmon in the wild. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1354-1364. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Survival of Migrating Salmon Smolts in Large Rivers With and Without Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R. Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River. PMID:18959485

  9. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Welch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  10. Controls on the Flux, Age, and Composition of Terrestrial Organic Carbon Exported by Rivers to the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy; Holmes, Robert; Soule, Adam; Goetz, Scott; Laporte, Nadine; Wollheim, Wilfred

    2010-05-01

    Export of organic carbon, alkalinity and silicate-derived Ca and Mg ions to the ocean exerts critical controls on the sequestration of atmospheric carbon. As this export is mediated to a significant extent by river systems, understanding processes that control transport of land-derived matter to the coastal ocean is of fundamental importance to successful models of past and future climates. Scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Woods Hole Research Center and the University of New Hampshire have formed a river research consortium that aims at investigating large river systems with a holistic approach. The National Science Foundation is funding this initiative through its Emerging Topics in Biogeochemical Cycles (ETBC) program. Our project focuses on the biogeochemistries of the Lena and Kolyma rivers in the Russian Arctic, the Yangtze river in China, the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in India and Bangladesh, the Congo river in central Africa as well as the Fraser river basin in western Canada. Campaign-style sampling using a uniform sampling strategy is complemented by time-series sampling that is accomplished through collaborations with scientists at local institutions such as the East China Normal University in Shanghai (Yangtze), the University of the Fraser Valley in Abbotsford (Fraser), schools and research institutions in eastern Russia (Lena and Kolyma) and the University of Nancy, France (Ganges, Brahmaputra). We combine a standardized sampling approach for organic and inorganic constituents with spatial analyzes of digital, mostly satellite-based data products with the aim of obtaining an integrated understanding of the response of river ecosystems to past, ongoing and future environmental changes. We will present first results with a special emphasis on the age of terrestrial organic carbon exported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system.

  11. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  12. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  13. Extraction of Maltol from Fraser Fir: A Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Conventional Heating Protocols for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andrew S.; Chimento, Clio A.; Berg, Allison N.; Mughal, Farah D.; Spencer, Jean-Paul; Hovland, Douglas E.; Mbadugha, Bessie; Hovland, Allan K.; Eller, Leah R.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the extraction of maltol from Fraser fir needles are performed and compared in this two-week experiment. A traditional benchtop extraction using dichloromethane is compared to a microwave-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol. Students perform both procedures and weigh the merits of each technique. In doing so, students see a…

  14. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  15. Extraction of Maltol from Fraser Fir: A Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Conventional Heating Protocols for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andrew S.; Chimento, Clio A.; Berg, Allison N.; Mughal, Farah D.; Spencer, Jean-Paul; Hovland, Douglas E.; Mbadugha, Bessie; Hovland, Allan K.; Eller, Leah R.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the extraction of maltol from Fraser fir needles are performed and compared in this two-week experiment. A traditional benchtop extraction using dichloromethane is compared to a microwave-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol. Students perform both procedures and weigh the merits of each technique. In doing so, students see a…

  16. Peering into the deep: Illuminating the crustal evolution of the Eucla basement and its relationship to the Albany-Fraser Orogen of southwest Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, Michael; Kirkland, Chris; Clark, Chris; Spaggiari, Catherine; Smithies, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The Albany-Fraser Orogen is a 1200 km long east to northeasterly trending Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belt that defines the southern to southeastern margin of the West Australian Craton (WAC). The belt records a long and complex geological history spanning the break-up of Nuna between 2000 and 1700 Ma and amalgamation of Rodinia between 1300 and 1000 Ma. Recent geochronological, geochemical and isotopic work has shown that the Albany-Fraser Orogen formed through a protracted period of reworking of the margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton (part of the WAC) with various additions of mantle-derived material. The Cretaceous Bight and Cenozoic Eucla Basins partially overlie the northeastern part of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and completely cover 1000 km of crystalline basement (the Eucla basement) that separates the belt from the South Australian Craton. This basement constitutes the glue between the major building blocks of Proterozoic Australia, yet, its geological history is poorly understood. New drill cores penetrating the basement have intersected interlayered granitic and gabbroic rocks that yield U-Pb zircon dates that are dissimilar to any magmatic ages from units within the adjoining Albany-Fraser Orogen, with the exception of the youngest, 1190-1125 Ma magmatic suite. In addition, mantle-like hafnium and neodymium isotopic signatures indicate that the rocks of the Eucla basement are dominated by new juvenile addition, and may represent an allochthonous terrane of oceanic heritage. New ɛHf contour maps for the Albany-Fraser Orogen and Eucla basement highlight this difference. Time-slicing the isotopic dataset reveals a pattern of Palaeoproterozoic juvenile magmatism sub-perpendicular to the present day structural grain in the belt. If this marks the presence of an older lithospheric structure then it demonstrates the power that time-constrained isotopic mapping provides for illuminating lithospheric architecture through time. This may be

  17. River networks dampen long-term hydrological signals of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezik, K. A.; Anderson, S. C.; Moore, J. W.

    2017-07-01

    River networks may dampen local hydrologic signals of climate change through the aggregation of upstream climate portfolio assets. Here we examine this hypothesis using flow and climate trend estimates (1970-2007) at 55 hydrometric gauge stations and across their contributing watersheds' within the Fraser River basin in British Columbia, Canada. Using a null hypothesis framework, we compared our observed attenuation of river flow trends as a function of increasing area and climate trend diversity, with null-simulated estimates to gauge the likelihood and strength of our observations. We found the Fraser River reduced variability in downstream long-term discharge by >91%, with >3.1 times the attenuation than would be expected under null simulation. Although the strength of dampening varied seasonally, our findings indicate that large free-flowing rivers offer a powerful and largely unappreciated process of climate change mitigation. River networks that integrate a diverse climate portfolio can dampen local extremes and offer climate change relief to riverine biota.

  18. De un modelo bidimensional a un modelo tridimensional de justicia: el replanteamiento teórico feminista de Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nohemí González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge de manera sistemática la propuesta de Nancy Fraser en torno al ideal de justicia y su aplicación en las identidades colectivas. Para ello, se aborda el dilema entre redistribución y reconocimiento, y la tendencia actual del predominio del reconocimiento y el límite de la propuesta bidimensional del pensamiento de Fraser. Finalmente, se reseña el conjunto de nuevas reflexiones abordadas por la autora en su texto Escalas de justicia, en el que la filósofa amplía su modelo, presentandouna tercera dimensión: la representación como una categoría para explicar las injusticias que se producen en el plano político. AbstractThis article gathers in a systematic way the Nancy Fraser’s thinking about her proposal around the justice ideal and its implementation in collective identities. To that end, we deal with the dilemma between redistribution and recognition, and the current trend of recognition predominance. The current article briefly explains the limit of the two-dimensional proposal of Fraser’. Finally we frame the group of new re-fiections which are tackled by her author in her text Escalas de justicia, where the philosopher makes the widening of her model by presenting a third dimension: the representation as a category to explain unfairness produced in the political level.

  19. A temática das uniões homoafetivas no Supremo Tribunal Federal à luz do debate Honneth-Fraser The issue of homosexual unions in the Federal Supreme Court in light of the debate Honneth-Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Bunchaft

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O debate sobre os direitos das uniões homoafetivas constitui um dos tópicos mais controversos do direito constitucional. Como se sabe, a união homoafetiva não foi reconhecida expressamente no § 3º do artigo 226 da CF, inexistindo norma específica. O presente artigo pretende investigar a posição de ministros do STF em relação ao tema das uniões homoafetivas, em conexão com as filosofias do reconhecimento propostas por Axel Honneth e Nancy Fraser. Nesse sentido, os fundamentos filosóficos das teorias do reconhecimento podem ser um instrumental teórico fundamental para a compreensão de determinadas formas de ativismo judicial que objetivam a proteção de minorias estigmatizadas cujas pretensões normativas são desconsideradas pelo processo político. Pretendemos demonstrar que o paradigma da autorrealização proposto por Honneth é impreciso e incapaz de legitimar formas de ativismo judicial voltadas para a proteção dos direitos das uniões homoafetivas.The homosexual union rights are debated as one of the most controversial topics of Constitutional Law. It is known that the homosexual union was not explicitly recognized by the article 226 § 3º from FC, as there is no specific regulation for this subject. This paper intends to investigate STF ministers' position in relation to homosexual union according to Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser philosophies of recognition. In this sense, the philosophical basis from recognition theories may be a theoretical instrument to comprehend some forms of judicial activism which aims are to protect stigmatized minorities whose regulatory intentions are disregarded by the political process. We intend to demonstrate that the Honneth's paradigm of achievement is imprecise and can't legitimate forms of judicial activism aimed to protect the rights of homosexual unions.

  20. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K

    1996-07-01

    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  1. Genetic variation among major sockeye salmon populations in Kamchatka peninsula inferred from SNP and microsatellite DNA analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khrustaleva, A.M.; Limborg, Morten; Seeb, J. E.

    of the two northern Kamchatka rivers (Palana River and Pakhacha River) differed significantly from the other populations studied. We estimated the efficiency for both types of markers for individual assignment of fish taken in mixtures. Accuracy was generally higher for assignment with SNP data; however...

  2. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-02

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  3. Concordance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in detecting a founder event in Lake Clark sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Kristina M.; Woody, Carol Ann; Habicht, Chris; Sage, G. Kevin; Seeb, James E.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic bottleneck effects can reduce genetic variation, persistence probability, and evolutionary potential of populations. Previous microsatellite analysis suggested a bottleneck associated with a common founding of sock-eye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations of Lake Clark, Alaska, about 100 to 400 generations ago. The common foundingevent occurred after the last glacial recession and resulted in reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clarksockeye salmon relative to neighboring Six Mile Lake and LakeIliamna populations. Here we used two additional genetic marker types (allozymes and mtDNA) to examine these patterns further. Allozyme and mtDNA results were congruent with the microsatellite data in suggesting a common founder event in LakeClark sockeye salmon and confirmed the divergence of Lake Clarkpopulations from neighboring Six Mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations. The use of multiple marker types provided better understanding of the bottleneck in Lake Clark. For example, the Sucker Bay Lake population had an exceptionally severe reduction in allelic diversity at microsatellite loci, but not at mtDNA. This suggests that the reduced microsatellite variation in Sucker Bay Lake fish is due to consistently smaller effective population size than other Lake Clark populations, rather than a more acute or additional bottleneck since founding. Caution is urged in using reduced heterozygosity as a measure of genetic bottleneck effects because stochastic variance among loci resulted in an overall increase in allozyme heterozygosity within bottlenecked Lake Clark populations. However, heterozygosity excess, which assesses heterozygosity relative to allelic variation, detected genetic bottleneck effects in both allozyme and microsatellite loci. 

  4. Thermal adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a warming world: Insights from common garden experiments on Alaskan sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Morgan M; Westley, Peter A H; Falke, Jeffrey A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2017-06-06

    An important unresolved question is how populations of coldwater-dependent fishes will respond to rapidly warming water temperatures. For example, the culturally and economically important group, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), experience site-specific thermal regimes during early development that could be disrupted by warming. To test for thermal local adaptation and heritable phenotypic plasticity in Pacific salmon embryos, we measured the developmental rate, survival, and body size at hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that overlap in timing of spawning but incubate in contrasting natural thermal regimes. Using a split half-sibling design, we exposed embryos of 10 families from each of two populations to variable and constant thermal regimes. These represented both experienced temperatures by each population, and predicted temperatures under plausible future conditions based on a warming scenario from the downscaled global climate model (MIROC A1B scenario). We did not find evidence of thermal local adaptation during the embryonic stage for developmental rate or survival. Within treatments, populations hatched within 1 day of each other, on average, and among treatments, did not differ in survival in response to temperature. We did detect plasticity to temperature; embryos developed 2.5 times longer (189 days) in the coolest regime compared to the warmest regime (74 days). We also detected variation in developmental rates among families within and among temperature regimes, indicating heritable plasticity. Families exhibited a strong positive relationship between thermal variability and phenotypic variability in developmental rate but body length and mass at hatching were largely insensitive to temperature. Overall, our results indicated a lack of thermal local adaptation, but a presence of plasticity in populations experiencing contrasting conditions, as well as family-specific heritable plasticity that could facilitate

  5. Distinct effects of 4-nonylphenol and estrogen-17β on expression of estrogen receptor α gene in smolting sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Ban, Massatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji K.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) have been shown to affect the parr–smolt transformation, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We therefore examined effects of 4-NP and estradiol-17β (E2) on expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α gene in the liver, gill, pituitary and brain of sockeye salmon to elucidate molecular mechanisms of 4-NP and E2 and developmental differences in response during smolting. Fish were treated twice within a week with 4-NP (15 and 150 mg/kg BW), E2 (2 mg/kg BW) or only vehicle at three stages of smolting, pre-smolting in March, early smolting in April and late smolting in May. The absolute amounts of ERα mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. The basal amounts of ERα mRNA peaked in April in the liver, gill and pituitary. In March, E2 extensively increased the amounts in the liver, while 4-NP had no effects at this stage. In contrast, 4-NP (but not E2) decreased liver ERα mRNA in April. 4-NP also decreased the amount of ERα mRNA in the gill in April. In the pituitary, 4-NP increased ERα mRNA in March but decreased it in May. There were no significant effects in the brain. Changes in basal ERα mRNA observed in this study indicate that estrogen responsiveness of tissues may change during salmon smolting. Furthermore, 4-NP and E2 have different effects on expression of ERα gene in the liver and gill during smolting, and the response is dependent on smolt stage.

  6. Tidal river dynamics: Implications for deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Jay, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity intrusion, a realm that can extend inland hundreds of kilometers. One key phenomenon resulting from this interaction is the emergence of large fortnightly tides, which are forced long waves with amplitudes that may increase beyond the point where astronomical tides have become extinct. These can be larger than the linear tide itself at more landward locations, and they greatly influence tidal river water levels and wetland inundation. Exploration of the spectral redistribution and attenuation of tidal energy in rivers has led to new appreciation of a wide range of consequences for fluvial and coastal sedimentology, delta evolution, wetland conservation, and salinity intrusion under the influence of sea level rise and delta subsidence. Modern research aims at unifying traditional harmonic tidal analysis, nonparametric regression techniques, and the existing understanding of tidal hydrodynamics to better predict and model tidal river dynamics both in single-thread channels and in branching channel networks. In this context, this review summarizes results from field observations and modeling studies set in tidal river environments as diverse as the Amazon in Brazil, the Columbia, Fraser and Saint Lawrence in North America, the Yangtze and Pearl in China, and the Berau and Mahakam in Indonesia. A description of state-of-the-art methods for a comprehensive analysis of water levels, wave propagation, discharges, and inundation extent in tidal rivers is provided. Implications for lowland river deltas are also discussed in terms of sedimentary deposits, channel bifurcation, avulsion, and salinity intrusion, addressing contemporary research challenges.

  7. Development of ammonia emission factors for the land application of poultry manure in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Bittman, S.; Hunt, D.E. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, BC (Canada). Pacific Agricultural Research Centre

    2008-07-01

    An estimated 6 per cent of all Canadian ammonia emissions can be attributed to land application of poultry manure. Poultry production in British Columbia (BC) constitutes 15 per cent of the total production in Canada, most of it concentrated in the Lower Fraser Valley, generating about 300,000 tonnes of manure each year. The losses of ammonia must be quantified in order to predict local deposition, nitrogen balances and impact on air quality, particularly the formation of secondary fine particulate matter less than 2.5 mm which is often composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. This study investigated ammonia emissions associated with manure application from various types of poultry operations. After manure application, ammonia emission rates were determined using wind tunnels, capturing the emitted ammonia with acid traps. For all trials, the highest emissions occurred within the first day, and gradually declined over the next 2-3 weeks. Cumulative ammonia emission in all treatments did not exceed the initial amount of ammonia nitrogen present in manure. Ammonia emission rates were significantly different among the manure types. The percent total loss of ammonia with time was positively correlated with manure pH. Ammonia emission rates were typically higher in the spring trials than the fall trial. These data will be used to update ammonia emission factors for BC and Canada. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Longitudinal Variation of River Hydrodynamics in a Semi-Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, C. D.; Venditti, J. G.; Adderly, C.; Church, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the longitudinal variation of river hydrodynamics is essential for understanding flood potential as well as transport of sediment, nutrients, and contaminants. The long profile has generally been studied by means of surveying a few representative cross-sections, along with cartographic analyses of the longitudinal variation of channel width and slope. Understanding the complete longitudinal distribution of river hydrodynamics generally requires numerical modelling. As an alternative, in this paper we present a 524 km continuous centreline acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) survey of the dominantly rock-bound, gravel-bed Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. Air photo analysis provided river widths along the surveyed reach, and the aDcp data yielded continuous centreline depth, depth-averaged velocity, and shear velocity. The survey reach was subdivided into 10 morphological sub-reaches, which ranged from alluvial gravel-bed reaches with relatively moderate slope to steep non-alluvial rock-walled canyons. Within each sub-reach the data were grouped based on presence of bedrock confinement on both banks, either bank, or neither bank. The results demonstrate that river widths decreased and water depths, flow velocities, and shear velocities increased from the alluvial sub-reaches to the semi-alluvial reaches to the canyon reaches. Within each sub-reach, locations with bedrock encroachment on both banks were narrower and deeper and had lower depth-averaged velocity and shear velocity. These results demonstrate the influence of bedrock on semi-alluvial channel morphology and hydrodyanamics.

  9. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  11. Description of the final stadium larva of Heliocypha perforata perforata (Percheron), with discussion of the taxonomic characters of the larvae of the genus Heliocypha Fraser (Odonata: Zygoptera: Chlorocyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Han

    2015-03-04

    The final stadium larva of Heliocypha perforata perforata is described and illustrated for the first time. It is characterized by having a row of filiform setae present laterally on distal half of prementum, 6-7 setae on the outer side of palpal lobe, very long lateral gills and distinct abdominal color pattern. The taxonomic characters of the larvae of the genus Heliocypha Fraser are discussed and summarized. Heliocypha larvae share a high similarity with Rhinocypha in general appearance and cannot be clearly distinguished from the latter in structure.

  12. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli

    OpenAIRE

    Pitera JE, Scambler PJ, Woolf AS.

    2008-01-01

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, th...

  13. Two attempts at grounding social critique in „ordinary“ actors’ perspectives: The critical theories of Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary, „third-generation“ perspectives within critical theory - Nancy Fraser’s and Axel Honneth’s - with the aim of examining the degree to which the two authors succeed in grounding the normative criteria of social critique in the perspectives of ’ordinary’ social actors, as opposed to speculative social theory. To that end, the author focuses on the influential debate between Fraser and Honneth Redistribution or Recognition? which concerns the appropriate normative foundations of a „post-metaphysical“ critical theory, and attempts to reconstruct the fundamental 29 disagreements between Fraser and Honneth over the meaning and tasks of critical theory. The author concludes that both critical theorists ultimately secure the normative foundations of critique through substantive theorizations of the social, which frame the two authors’ „reconstructions“ of the normativity of everyday social action, but argues that post-metaphysical critical theory does not have to abandon comprehensive social theory in order to be epistmologically „non-authoritarian“. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Ethics and Politics of Environment: Institutions, Techniques and Norms Facing the Challenge of Environmental Change

  14. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory

  15. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Associated Loci in Sockeye Salmon Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Comparison with a Sex-Determining Assay Based on the sdY Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Wesley A; McKinney, Garrett J; Seeb, James E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2016-11-01

    Loci that can be used to screen for sex in salmon can provide important information for study of both wild and cultured populations. Here, we tested for associations between sex and genotypes at thousands of loci available from a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) dataset to discover sex-associated loci in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We discovered 7 sex-associated loci, developed high-throughput assays for 2 loci, and tested the utility of these 2 assays in 8 collections of sockeye salmon sampled throughout North America. We also screened an existing assay based on the master sex-determining gene in salmon (sdY) in these collections. The ability of GBS-derived loci to assign fish to their phenotypic sex varied substantially among collections suggesting that recombination between the loci that we discovered and the sex-determining gene has occurred. Assignment accuracy to phenotypic sex was much higher with the sdY assay but was still less than 100%. Alignment of sequences from GBS-derived loci to draft genomes for 2 salmonids provided strong evidence that many of these loci are found on chromosomes orthologous to the known sex chromosome in sockeye salmon. Our study is the first to describe the approximate location of the sex-determining region in sockeye salmon and indicates that sdY is also the master sex-determining gene in this species. However, discordances between sdY genotypes and phenotypic sex and the variable performance of GBS-derived loci warrant more research.

  16. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  17. eg Fraser 1970, Fr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    zooplankton assemblages in the southern Benguela upwelling system .... WMD) of P. pileus in the water column at any one time was determined .... shallow estuaries (e.g. Wang et al. 1995, Attrill ..... different planktonic time series. Annls. Inst.

  18. Short-term variability in particle flux: Storms, blooms and river discharge in a coastal sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Sophia C.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Wright, Cynthia A.; Spear, David J.

    2017-07-01

    The flux and composition of particles sinking in the surface ocean vary on a wide range of time scales. This variability is a component of underwater weather that is analogous to rain. The rain of particles in the coastal ocean is affected by atmospheric events, such as rainstorms and windstorms; by events on land, such as peaks in river discharge or coastal erosion; and by events within the surface ocean, such as phytoplankton blooms. Here, we use a four-year record of sinking particles collected using sediment traps moored at 50 m depth at two locations in the Strait of Georgia, a coastal sea off the west coast of Canada, to determine the relative importance of short-term events to particle flux. We identify four dominant types of particle-flux events: those associated with 1) summer freshet of the Fraser River, 2) rainstorms, 3) phytoplankton blooms, and 4) a jellyfish bloom. The relative importance of these events differs between the southern Strait, where the Fraser River freshet dominates flux and variability, and the northern Strait, where the effects of phytoplankton blooms, rainstorms and small local rivers are more evident. During 2008-2012, half of each year's total flux accumulated over 10-26% of the year in the southern Strait, mainly during the Fraser River freshet. In the northern Strait half of the annual flux accumulated over 22-36% of the year, distributed among small events during spring to fall. The composition of the sinking particulate matter also varied widely, with organic carbon and biogenic silica ranging over 0.70-5.7% (excluding one event) and 0.4-14%, respectively, in the south, compared with 0.17-22% and 0.31-33% in the north. Windstorms had no immediate effect on particle flux in either basin. A large phytoplankton bloom in April 2011, in the northern Strait contributed 25% of the year's organic carbon at that site and 53% of the biogenic silica. A jellyfish bloom in July 2008 contributed 16% of the year's nitrogen and 12% of the year

  19. Debates feministas sobre direito, justiça e reconhecimento: uma reflexão a partir do modelo teórico de Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mariano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O feminismo pós-estruturalista é a escolha teórica que, em grande parte, orienta aqui nossa perspectiva. Os debates em torno das noções de “direito”, “justiça” e “reconhecimento” ilustram essa discussão. Propomo-nos a fazer uma reflexão sociológica conceitual, de orientação feminista, de forma a constituir um suporte teórico para análises sobre políticas sociais, com o objetivo de investigar as condições de cidadania das mulheres pobres e apreender os determinantes de gênero presentes nos programas estatais. Ao tratar das categorias apontadas, adotamos o modelo proposto por Nancy Fraser, a qual combina a luta pela justiça redistributiva com a luta por justiça de reconhecimento.

  20. Influence of bedrock on river hydrodynamics and channel geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Venditti, J. G.; Bomhof, J.; Adderley, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) survey of a 524 km long reach of Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, as it passes through the Fraser Canyons. The channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and bedrock-bound reaches (7.7% of the reach between the towns of Quesnel and Hope). A continuous centreline aDcp survey was employed to measure longitudinal variation in slope, depth, depth-averaged velocity, and shear velocity. A total of 71 aDcp sectional surveys throughout the reach provided section widths (w), section-averaged depths (d), velocity distributions, and discharge (Q). Finally, air photo analysis using Google imagery provided channel widths at 0.5 km spacing. The survey reach was subdivided into 10 morphological sub-reaches, which ranged from alluvial gravel-bed reaches with relatively moderate slope to steep non-alluvial rock-walled canyons. The resulting data provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the influence of bedrock confinement on river hydrodynamics and channel geometry. Continuous centreline longitudinal aDcp data and the widths from air photo analysis were grouped within each sub-reach based on presence of bedrock confinement on both banks, either bank, or neither bank. The results demonstrate that river widths decreased and water depths, flow velocities, and shear velocities increased from the alluvial sub-reaches to the semi-alluvial reaches to the canyon reaches. Within each sub-reach, locations with bedrock encroachment on both banks were also narrower and deeper, but had lower depth-averaged velocity and shear velocity. Sectional geometry data were homogenized along the river (to compensate increasing flows at tributary junctions) by computing w/Q^{1/2} and d/Q^{1/3}, following commonly observed scaling relations. Alluvial reaches are 2.3x wider than rock-bound reaches (from the more abundant imagery data) and 0.60x as deep (from aDcp sections), implying

  1. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-09

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.

  2. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  3. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program

  4. The effects of thyroxine or a GnRH analogue on thyroid hormone deiodination in the olfactory epithelium and retina of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, E M; Adams, B A; Allison, W T; Martens, G; Hawryshyn, C W; Eales, J G

    2002-06-01

    Using low (0.5nM) substrate levels we determined the activities of thyroxine (T4) outer-ring deiodination (ORD), T4 inner-ring deiodination (T4IRD) and 3,5,3(')-triiodothyronine (T3) IRD activities in the olfactory epithelium (OLF) and retina (RET) of laboratory-held immature 1-year-old rainbow trout and immature 2.5-year-old sockeye salmon. In both species all three deiodination activities were detected in OLF and RET. For OLF, no particular pathway predominated and activities were similar to those of brain. For RET, T3IRD activity was greater than T4ORD activity and in sockeye RET T3IRD activity exceeded that of liver. Trout immersion for 6 weeks in 100ppm T4 increased plasma T4 levels 3-fold and plasma T3 levels by 50% and caused the anticipated autoregulatory responses in brain and liver deiodination ( downward arrow T4ORD, upward arrow T4IRD, and upward arrow T3IRD); OLF deiodination and RET T4ORD activity were unaltered but RET T4IRD and T3IRD activities increased dramatically. Two injections of a GnRH analogue (20 microgkg(-1)) into sockeye increased plasma T3 levels but not T4 levels and decreased RET T4IRD and T3IRD activities without changing liver, brain, or OLF deiodination. We conclude that in salmonids the main TH deiodination pathways occur in OLF but show no regulation by T4 or GnRH. In contrast, T3IRD activity predominates in RET and can be regulated by T4 and GnRH, suggesting that for RET plasma may be the major T3 source. These findings have implications for thyroidal regulation of sensory functions during salmonid diadromous migrations.

  5. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  6. Evolution of a short-term study of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe vectors that turned into a long-term study of the remarkable gray jay on the Fraser Experimental Forest,Colorado, 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    This is a summary of a 5-year short-term study that evolved into 28 years of long-term research on the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service's Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado. The study was begun in 1982 by Forest Service Research Scientists Thomas H. Nicholls and Frank G. Hawksworth to determine the importance of mammal and bird vectors in the long-...

  7. Piscine Orthoreovirus from Western North America Is Transmissible to Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon but Fails to Cause Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A Garver

    Full Text Available Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI is a significant and often fatal disease of cultured Atlantic salmon in Norway. The consistent presence of Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV in HSMI diseased fish along with the correlation of viral load and antigen with development of lesions has supported the supposition that PRV is the etiologic agent of this condition; yet the absence of an in vitro culture system to demonstrate disease causation and the widespread prevalence of this virus in the absence of disease continues to obfuscate the etiological role of PRV with regard to HSMI. In this study, we explore the infectivity and disease causing potential of PRV from western North America-a region now considered endemic for PRV but without manifestation of HSMI-in challenge experiments modeled upon previous reports associating PRV with HSMI. We identified that western North American PRV is highly infective by intraperitoneal injection in Atlantic salmon as well as through cohabitation of both Atlantic and Sockeye salmon. High prevalence of viral RNA in peripheral blood of infected fish persisted for as long as 59 weeks post-challenge. Nevertheless, no microscopic lesions, disease, or mortality could be attributed to the presence of PRV, and only a minor transcriptional induction of the antiviral Mx gene occurred in blood and kidney samples during log-linear replication of viral RNA. Comparative analysis of the S1 segment of PRV identified high similarity between this North American sequence and previous sequences associated with HSMI, suggesting that factors such as viral co-infection, alternate PRV strains, host condition, or specific environmental circumstances may be required to cause this disease.

  8. Importance of wind and river discharge in influencing nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton production in summer in the central Strait of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, K.D.; Goldblatt, R.H.; Harrison, P.J.;

    1997-01-01

    profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were taken daily along a transect. A wind event occurred on August 7 and a rapid increase in the Fraser River discharge took place from August 8 to 14. The wind event mixed the water column and nutrients increased...... at the same time. Phytoplankton responded to the increase in nutrients and a bloom occurred soon after the wind event. The rapid increase in river discharge caused the entrainment of nitrate in the estuarine plume and, as a result, a subsurface maximum of chi a was developed. Our results clearly demonstrated...... that summer phytoplankton productivity in the central Strait of Georgia is fueled by a supply of nutrients from the nitracline through vertical mixing induced by the interaction of winds, river discharge and tidal cycles. Of these 3 factors, winds are the most variable and therefore a summer with frequent...

  9. The Fras1/Frem family of extracellular matrix proteins: structure, function, and association with Fraser syndrome and the mouse bleb phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Petros; Makrygiannis, Apostolos K; Chalepakis, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Fras1 and the structurally related proteins Frem1, Frem2, and Frem3, comprise a novel family of extracellular matrix proteins, which localize in a similar fashion underneath the lamina densa of epithelial basement membranes. They are involved in the structural adhesion of the skin epithelium to its underlying mesenchyme. Deficiency in the individual murine Fras1/Frem genes gives rise to the bleb phenotype, which is equivalent to the human hereditary disorder Fraser syndrome, characterized by cryptophthalmos (hidden eyes), embryonic skin blistering, renal agenesis, and syndactyly. Recent studies revealed a functional cooperation between the Fras1/Frem gene products, in which Fras1, Frem1 and Frem2 are simultaneously stabilized at the lowermost region of the basement membrane by forming a macromolecular ternary complex. Loss of any of these proteins results in the collapse of the protein assembly, thus providing a molecular explanation for the highly similar phenotypic defects displayed by the respective mutant mice. Here, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the structure, function, and interplay between the proteins of the Fras1/Frem family and further propose a possible scenario for the evolution of the corresponding genes.

  10. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  11. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the eight year of a study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A total of 20,313 hatchery steelhead were tagged with passive integrated transpoder (PIT) tags and released at Lower Granite Dam for reach survival estimation. They did not PIT tag any yearlying chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) for reach survival estimates in 2000 because sufficient numbers for these estimates were available from other studies. Primary research objectives in 2000 were (1) to estimate reach and project survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, and (2) to evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. In addition, they estimated survival from point of release to Lower Granite Dam and below for chinook salmon, steelhead, and sockeye salmon (O.nerka) PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin hatcheries and chinook salmon and steelhead PIT tagged and released at Snake River basin smolt traps. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2000 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures. Further details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text.

  12. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  13. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jolanta E; Scambler, Peter J; Woolf, Adrian S

    2008-12-15

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, the bl/bl bud fails to invade metanephric mesenchyme which undergoes involution, events replicated in organ culture. The expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and growth-differentiation factor 11 was defective in bl/bl renal primordia in vivo, whereas, in culture, the addition of either growth factor restored bud invasion into the mesenchyme. Mutant primordia also showed deficient expression of Hoxd11 and Six2 transcription factors, whereas the activity of bone morphogenetic protein 4, an anti-branching molecule, was upregulated. In wild types, Fras1 was also expressed by nascent nephrons. Foetal glomerular podocytes expressed Fras1 transcripts and Fras1 immunolocalized in a glomerular BM-like pattern. On a mixed background, bl mutants, and also compound mutants for bl and my, another bleb strain, sometimes survive into adulthood. These mice have two kidneys, which contain subsets of glomeruli with perturbed nephrin, podocin, integrin alpha3 and fibronectin expression. Thus, Fras1 protein coats branching UB epithelia and is strikingly upregulated in the nephron lineage after mesenchymal/epithelial transition. Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli.

  14. Salmon as biogeomorphic agents in gravel-bed rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spawning salmon have been known to affect streambed texture, influence sediment transport, and play an important geomorphological role in streams by digging nests or redds. We examined the impact of salmon and floods on channel morphology, bed material dispersion and yield, bed surface texture and stability, fine sediment dynamics and nutrient retention of small gravel bed streams in British Columbia, Canada. Channel morphology and dynamics of a large number of streams in British Columbia are partially or wholly affected by fish bioturbation. The scale of the impact is controlled by the salmon species, population density, and channel size and characteristics. Sediment transport measurements show that salmon play a significant role in erosion and deposition within the channel by promoting vertical and longitudinal mixing of the substrate, as well as by changing the relative mobility of the gravel on the bed. The action of salmon bioturbation promotes distinctive bedforms and packing of sediment grains. In streams with dense populations of sockeye or chum salmon the whole surface of spawning reaches may be modified, as bars are excavated and pools are filled. For chinook salmon the organization of spawning bedforms ranges from scattered mounds or ‘gravel pile-ups’ to well-ordered dunes. Such dunes extend for hundreds of meters to kilometres along the river bed. They exhibit amplitudes of more than one metre and wavelengths of 10 to 15 m. Our conclusion that mass-spawning fish can dominate sediment transport in mountain drainage basins has fundamental implications for understanding channel morphology, aquatic ecosystem dynamics, stream responses to environmental change, and river restoration programs.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Fraser syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Med Genet. 2012 May;49(5):303-6. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100590. Epub 2012 Apr 17. Citation on PubMed van Haelst MM, Maiburg M, Baujat G, Jadeja S, Monti ... 10.1002/ajmg.a.32440. Citation on PubMed ...

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV : Evaluation of the 1998 Predictions of the Run-timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook and Steelhead, and Hatchery Salmon in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1997-01-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1998 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook. These stocks were from eight release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Lake Creek, Imnaha River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling and subyearling chinook salmon, and steelhead. The 1998 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years for the whole-season evaluations for every stock tracked. Relative to 1997, performance improved for the yearling chinook run-at-large, and for predictions for last-half of the season for every other stock. Performance compared poorly with 1997 predictions for the first half of the runs of PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook stocks and the run-at-large of fall subyearling chinook, and was slightly worse for the first half of the Redfish Lake sockeye run and the steelhead run-at-large. Poor first-half performance was likely due to the unusually large (and in some cases short) outmigrations in 1998. Utilization in 1998 of a different method of adjusting smolt counts at Lower Granite Dam compared to previous years produced slightly better first-half performance than pre-1998 adjustments would have, but slightly worse last-half performance, for all the PIT-tagged stocks, prompting a return to the pre-1998 adjustment formula for the 1999 outmigration. An Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE) experiment during April and May of 1998 involving the installation of two new components to existing structures at Lower Granite Dam did not appear to affect RealTime performance. A comparison of run-timing predictions based on FPC passage indices and Battelle hydroacoustic counts showed the two independent data sources produced very

  17. Water quality of the Tlikakila River and five major tributaries to Lake Clark, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2002-01-01

    The Tlikakila River Basin, located in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, drains an area of 622 square miles. This watershed comprises about 21 percent of the Lake Clark Basin, making it one of the major tributaries to Lake Clark. Due to a sharp decline in sockeye salmon population and the lack of hydrologic data, the Tlikakila River and five other major tributaries to Lake Clark were studied during the summer runoff months (May through September) from 1999 through 2001 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Measurements of pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the Tlikakila River are within acceptable limits for fish survival. Water temperatures at the measurement site reach 0 ?C during the winter and this part of the Tlikakila River may not be suitable for fish. Water temperatures are within acceptable limits for fish during the summer months. The Tlikakila River is a calcium bicarbonate type water with a low buffering capacity. Concentrations of un-ionized ammonia are well below the recommended value of 0.02 mg/L for fish propagation. Annual transport of suspended sediment by the Tlikakila River into Lake Clark ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 million tons during 1999?2001. The fine sediment from the Tlikakila River disperses through the lake over the summer, affecting light transmissivity. Most runoff from the Tlikakila River occurs from mid-to-late May through September. Average discharge for these months during 1999?2001 was 6,600 ft?/s. Total annual inflow to Lake Clark from the Tlikakila River ranged from 32 to 45 percent of the total inflow. The relatively high proportion of inflow is due to the presence of glaciers, which comprise 36 percent of the watershed. Monthly measurements of flow, field water-quality parameters, alkalinity, and suspended sediment were collected on the remaining five tributaries to Lake Clark: the Chokotonk River, Currant Creek, the Kijik River, the Tanalian River and the Chulitna River. Similar to the

  18. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  19. The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L. (University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Poison, MT)

    2002-10-01

    The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main

  20. Herança da resistência à ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca Inheritance of oat leaf rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. resistance in white oat brazilian genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha da aveia é a moléstia mais importante que ataca a cultura da aveia, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as áreas em que a aveia é cultivada. A forma mais indicada para o seu controle é a utilização de cultivares resistentes. Contudo, para que seja alcançada a resistência durável ao patógeno, é necessário que se conheça a genética da resistência à ferrugem da folha em aveia. O objetivo foi determinar a forma de herança da resistência a três isolados de Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led., (coletados no sul do Brasil em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca. Para a determinação da herança da resistência a cada um dos três isolados, foram utilizadas populações F2 geradas por meio de cruzamentos artificiais, entre genótipos resistentes (R e suscetíveis (S e entre genótipos resistentes (R. Desta forma, foram utilizadas populações F2 dos cruzamentos artificiais entre: i URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 16 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 16 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado um (1; ii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 18 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado dois (2; iii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (S, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado três (3. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o genótipo URPEL 15 apresenta genes dominantes de resistência aos três isolados de ferrugem da folha da aveia avaliados, que o cultivar UPF 16 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 1 e o cultivar UPF 18 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 2. E que os genes de resistência apresentados pelos genótipos URPEL 15, UPF 16 e UPF 18, segregam de forma independente.Oat crown rust is the most important disease for the oat crop, occurring in practically all the areas where oat is cultivated. The most indicated form of control for this disease is

  1. Historic (1940 to present) changes in Lillooet River planform (BC, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zei, Caterina

    2017-04-01

    Historic (1940 to present) changes in Lillooet River planform (BC, Canada) Zei C.*, Giardino M.*, Perotti L.*, Roberti G.***, **Ward B.C.**, Clague J.J.** *Department of Earth Sciences, Geositlab, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italia; **Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada ***Université Blaise Pascal - Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans Clermont-Ferrand, France We conducted a geomorphological study of changes in the planform of Lillooet River (Coast Mountain, British Columbia, Canada) over the past 75 years. The study involved identification and interpretations of channel changes in the reach of the river between Mount Meager (the source of the landslide) and Pemberton Meadows. Lillooet River flows about 95 km southeast from its headwaters at Lillooet Glacier to Lillooet Lake near Pemberton, the largest community in the valley. Between the mouth of Meager Creek and Pemberton Meadows, the river is unregulated and has a braided planform resulting from the very high delivery of sediment due to frequent landslides and debris flows sourced on the Mount Meager volcanic complex. Below Pemberton Meadows, the river occupies a single channel confined between dikes. A rich archive of historical vertical aerial photographs exists for the study area, In addition, a high-resolution digital elevation model was produced from LiDAR data acquired in 2015. We processed each set of photos dating back to 1940 with the software Agisoft Photoscan to produce high resolution orthophotos. Analysis of these datasets, complemented with field investigation, showed that the river channel in the braided reach shifted laterally up to 550 m between 1981 and 2010; likely caused in part by five floods with peak discharges of more than 800 m^3/s and four landslides on the flanks of Mount Meager massif with volumes up to 13 x 106 m^3. Channel avulsions were probably triggered by accumulation of in-channel rafts of coarse woody debris and are

  2. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  3. EFFICIENCY OF DOUBLE STEPS ENRICHMENT IN THE UVM AND FRASER BROTHES AND PERFORMANCE OF LPM AND LSAB-CAN AGARS TO DETECTION OF Listeria spp. IN NATURALLY CONTAMINATED CHICKEN MEAT EFICIÊNCIA DO ENRIQUECIMENTO EM DUPLO ESTÁGIO REALIZADO NOS CALDOS UVM E FRASER E DESEMPENHO DOS ÁGARES LPM E LSAB-CAN PARA A DETECÇÃO DE Listeria spp. EM CARNE DE FRANGO NATURALMENTE CONTAMINADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    It was determined the performance of two selective broths and two agars to isolate Listeria from chicken meat naturally contaminated, acquired in the supermarkets of Goiânia-Goiás, between January and June 1992. Methodology of isolation involved the utilization of two-stage selective enrichment in the University of Vermont and Fraser broths and plating in lithium chloride-phenyletanol-moxalactam agar and the Listeria selective agar base supplemented with cicloheximide, acriflavine and nalidixic acid. Incubation was done at 300C for 48 hours. Cultures of secondary enrichment broth were inoculated in duplicated plates with and without previous treatment with a 0.25% potassium hydroxide solution during one minute, while the plates from primary enrichment broth were inoculated only with treated cultures. Primary and secondary selective broths showed comparable efficiency at the statistic point of view (Z= -1.7393<1.96, identifying 90.28% and 97.22% of all positive samples of this experiment, respectively. Using the lithium chloride-pheniletanol-moxalactam agar and the Listeria selective agar base supplemented with cicloheximide, acriflavine and nalidixic acid were detected 98.61% and 54.17% of the positive samples. These differences were significant at statistic view. The treatment of broths with 0.25% potassium hydroxide showed a little reduction in the number of positive samples detected.

    KEY-WORDS: Listeria; enrichment broth; chicken meat.

    No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o desempenho de dois caldos e dois ágares seletivos para o isolamento de Listeria a partir de carne de frango naturalmente contaminada, adquirida no comércio varejista de Goiânia - GO, no período de janeiro a junho de 1992. A metodologia de isolamento e

  4. Transcriptomic responses to high water temperature in two species of Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Sierocinski, Thomas; Pavlidis, Paul; Miller, Kristi M

    2014-02-01

    Characterizing the cellular stress response (CSR) of species at ecologically relevant temperatures is useful for determining whether populations and species can successfully respond to current climatic extremes and future warming. In this study, populations of wild-caught adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon from the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, were experimentally treated to ecologically relevant 'cool' or 'warm' water temperatures to uncover common transcriptomic responses to elevated water temperature in non-lethally sampled gill tissue. We detected the differential expression of 49 microarray features (29 unique annotated genes and one gene with unknown function) associated with protein folding, protein synthesis, metabolism, oxidative stress and ion transport that were common between populations and species of Pacific salmon held at 19°C compared with fish held at a cooler temperature (13 or 14°C). There was higher mortality in fish held at 19°C, which suggests a possible relationship between a temperature-induced CSR and mortality in these species. Our results suggest that frequently encountered water temperatures ≥19°C, which are capable of inducing a common CSR across species and populations, may increase risk of upstream spawning migration failure for pink and sockeye salmon.

  5. River Morphology and River Channel Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Howard H

    2008-01-01

    River morphology has been a subject of great challenge to scientists and engineers who recognize that any effort with regard to river engineering must be based on a proper understanding of the morphological features involved and the responses to the imposed changes. In this paper,an overview of river morphology is presented from the geomorphic viewpoint. Included in the scope are the regime concept, river channel classification, thresholds in river morphology, and geomor-phic analysis of river responses. Analytical approach to river morphology based on the physical principles for the hydraulics of flow and sediment transport processes is also presented. The appli-cation of analytical river morphology is demonstrated by an example. Modeling is the modern tech-nique to determine both short-term and long-term river channel responses to any change in the en-vironment. The physical foundation of fluvial process-response must be applied in formatting a mathematical model. A brief introduction of the mathematical model FLUVIAL-12 is described.

  6. Modeling the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in half Fraser broth; impact of pooling and the duration of enrichment on the detection of L. monocytogenes in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ells, Timothy; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Gnanou Besse, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    A stochastic model describing the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in half Fraser was developed for the purpose of estimating the effects of modifications to the first enrichment step of the EN ISO 11290-1 detection method. Information pertaining to the variability of growth rates, physiological state of the cell, and the behavior of individual cells contaminating the food were obtained from previously published studies. We used this model to investigate the impact of pooling enrichment broths (wet pooling) on the performance of the standard method. For validation of the model, the numbers of L. monocytogenes occurring in 88 naturally contaminated foods following pre-enrichment were compared to model-simulated microbial counts. The model was then used to perform simulations representative of the natural contamination observed for smoked salmon in the European baseline survey of 2010-2011. The model-estimated L. monocytogenes levels following individual enrichment or following the pooling of five broths where only one would be contaminated were compared. The model indicated a 10% loss of method sensitivity resulting from wet pooling. The model also predicted a 5% decrease in the sensitivity of the method when the duration of the enrichment was reduced from 24 to 22 h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Qingjiang River Developer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE 400-kilometer Qingjiang River, second tributary of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province, has a drainage area of 17,000 square kilometers. Its advantageous natural conditions have made it a key water power development project.

  8. Illinois River NWFR HMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges Complex stretches along 124 miles of the Illinois River in west central Illinois. The Complex includes three...

  9. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  10. Iowa's Sovereign Meandered Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This data set depicts Iowa's Meandered Rivers. These rivers are deemed sovereign land & therefore require any person wishing to conduct construction activities...

  11. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  12. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  13. Wild and scenic river reports: Alagnak River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alagnak and its major tributary the Novianuk River and their immediate surroundings possess the qualities necessary for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic...

  14. Tracing pyrogenic carbon suspended in rivers on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2016-04-01

    Combustion-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a persistent organic carbon fraction. Due to its aromatic and condensed nature (Wiedemeier et al., 2015), it is relatively resistant against chemical and biological degradation in the environment, leading to a comparatively slow turnover, which would support carbon sequestration. PyC is produced on large scales (hundreds of teragrams) in biomass burning events such as wildfires, and by combustion of fossil fuel in industry and traffic. PyC is an inherently terrestrial product and thus has predominantly been investigated in soils and the atmosphere. Much fewer studies are available about the subsequent transport of PyC to rivers and oceans. Recently, awareness has been rising about the mobility of PyC from terrestrial to marine systems and its fate in coastal and abyssal sediments was recognized (Mitra et al, 2013). It is therefore crucial to extend our knowledge about the PyC cycle by tracing PyC through all environmental compartments. By comparing its biogeochemical behavior and budgets to that of other forms of organic carbon, it will eventually be possible to elucidate PyC's total spatiotemporal contribution to carbon sequestration. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art PyC molecular marker method (Wiedemeier et al., 2013, Gierga et al., 2014) to trace quantity, quality as well as 13C and 14C signature of PyC in selected major river systems around the globe (Godavari, Yellow, Danube, Fraser, Mackenzie and Yukon river). Different size fractions of particulate suspended sediment are analyzed and compared across a north-south gradient. Previous studies suggested a distinct relationship between the 14C age of plant-derived suspended carbon and the latitude of the river system, indicating slower cycling of plant biomarkers in higher latitudes. We discuss this pattern with respect to PyC, its isotopic signature and quality and the resulting implications for the global carbon and PyC cycle. References Wiedemeier, D.B. et

  15. Yellow River, Cradle of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE Yellow River is the Mother River of China. In the hearts of the Chinese people, it is not just an ancient river measuring 4,845 kilometers long that passes through nine provinces and regions, but also a symbol. The poets say that the waterway is the image of ancient China. Thephilosophers say the river is the shadow of a dragon. The river

  16. "Ghost river": The Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This perspective piece examines the history and geography of the Columbia River and some current ecosystem management issues related to hydroelectric development on the river. Once the greatest salmon producer in the word, the Columbia has, according to the author, become a "ghost river," with its salmon runs reduced to remnants, and its ecological integrity hanging in the balance. The author suggests that British Columbians have much to lose, both biologically and cul...

  17. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... to illustrate hydropolitics in praxis, because the political future of this particular area in many respects affects the sustainable future of the Jordan River Basin and the entire Levant....

  18. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  19. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  20. Modelling river dune development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Weerts, H.J.T.; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Ritsema, I.L; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Os, A.G.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since river dunes influence flow resistance, predictions of dune dimensions are required to make accurate water level predictions. A model approach to simulate developing river dunes is presented. The model is set-up to be appropriate, i.e. as simple as possible, but with sufficient accuracy for

  1. Tidal river dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jay, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity

  2. Reining the River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Concerned about the effects of increasing water scarcity on economic development, China hopes a new law will save the Yellow River The first day of August marked what could be a new page in the history of China's long-suffering "mother river." That day, a regulation took effect that for the first time in histo-

  3. Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

    2013-02-18

    In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 50 CFR 224.101 - Enumeration of endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; November 17, 2000; 74 FR 29344, June 19, 2009 NA Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka U.S.A., ID, including all anadromous and residual sockeye salmon from the Snake River Basin, Idaho, as well as...); Steller sea lion, western population, (Eumetopias jubatus), which consists of Steller sea lions from...

  5. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  6. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  8. Laminar laboratory rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizilles, Grégoire; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Éric; Métivier, François

    2014-05-01

    A viscous fluid flowing over fine plastic grains spontaneously channelizes into a few centimeters-wide river. After reaching its equilibrium shape, this stable laboratory flume is able to carry a steady load of sediments, like many alluvial rivers. When the sediment discharge vanishes, the river size, shape and slope fit the threshold theory proposed by Glover and Florey (1951), which assumes that the Shields parameter is critical on the channel bed. As the sediment discharge is increased, the river widens and flattens. Surprisingly, the aspect ratio of its cross section depends on the sediment discharge only, regardless of the water discharge. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these findings based on the balance between gravity, which pulls particles towards the center of the channel, and the diffusion of bedload particles, which pushes them away from areas of intense bedload.

  9. Dulbi River goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) broods was conducted on 58 3/8 miles of the Dulbi River in Alaska. Four...

  10. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... of Dissonance in Nature Restoration’, Journal of Landscape Architecture 2/2014: 58-67. Danish Nature Agency (2005), Skjern Å: Ådalens historie. De store projekter. Det nye landskab og naturen. På tur i ådalen [The Skjern River: The History of the River Delta. The Big Projects. The New Landscape and Nature...... heritage. While the meanders of the Skjern River were reconstructed according to its assumed course in 1870s, the embanked canal, which was the main feature and symbol of a comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s, was deconstructed and reduced to incomprehensible traces of the past. Not only did...

  11. The Carmans River Story

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this study, undertaken as an independent project at Bellport High School, the authors have attempted to provide a historical description of the Carmans River area...

  12. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  13. Synthetic River Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  14. Euroopa ja Venemaa suhted / Fraser Cameron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cameron, Fraser

    2008-01-01

    Väide, et planeeritav gaasitoru rajamine Läänemerre viib Venemaa suurenenud militaartegevuseni sealses piirkonnas, ei ole õige ja on murettekitav, et turvalisuspoliitika lipu all võimendatakse Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa vahelisi pingeid, kirjutab Euroopa Liidu Vene keskuse juhataja

  15. Euroopa ja Venemaa suhted / Fraser Cameron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cameron, Fraser

    2008-01-01

    Väide, et planeeritav gaasitoru rajamine Läänemerre viib Venemaa suurenenud militaartegevuseni sealses piirkonnas, ei ole õige ja on murettekitav, et turvalisuspoliitika lipu all võimendatakse Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa vahelisi pingeid, kirjutab Euroopa Liidu Vene keskuse juhataja

  16. Simon Fraser University Computer Produced Map Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Phillips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An IBM 360/50 computer and magnetic tape are used in a new univer- sity library to produce a map catalogue by area and up to six subiects for each map. Cataloguing is by non-professional staff using the Library of Congress "G, schedule. Author, title, and publisher are in variable length fields, and codes are seldom used for input or interpretation. Ma- chine searches by area, subjects, author, publisher, scale, pro-;ection, date and language can be carried out.

  17. Wind River: A Wild and Scenic River Analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wind River meets the criteria for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Subject to valid existing rights, the minerals in Federal lands which...

  18. Kisaralik River: A wild and scenic river analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kisaralik River from and including Kisaralik Lake to the west boundary of TSN, R65W meets the criteria established by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act for...

  19. Study on the Reutilization of River Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gui-yun; JIANG Pei-hua; XI Dan-li

    2002-01-01

    Main components and properties of river sediment are introduced. Secondary pollution of river sediments to the water quality of the river is clarified. The methods of the reutilization of river sediment are elucidated.

  20. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  2. The Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  3. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  4. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  5. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  6. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  7. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  8. The River Lune fact file

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a brief introduction to the River Lune catchment and the role that the National Rivers Authority plays in catchment management. Included are a map of the catchment and short introductions to fisheries and characteristics of the catchment.

  9. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Water 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Sprague River Oregon Water 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  13. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Bars 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  15. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  18. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers...... that does not correspond to their actual characteristics. A closer study reveals that Dionysius, or possibly his source, has confused the two: the river which he describes as the Thermodon is in fact the Iris, and vice versa. This mistake was not realized by later translators (Avienus, late IVth c. A...

  20. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  1. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  2. Water quality of the Chokosna, Gilahina, Lakina Rivers, and Long Lake watershed along McCarthy Road, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.; Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chokosna, Gilahina, and Lakina River basins, and the Long Lake watershed are located along McCarthy Road in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The rivers and lake support a large run of sockeye (red) salmon that is important to the commercial and recreational fisheries in the larger Copper River. To gain a better understanding of the water quality conditions of these watersheds, these basins were studied as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service during the open water periods in 2007 and 2008. Water type of the rivers and Long Lake is calcium bicarbonate with the exception of that in the Chokosna River, which is calcium bicarbonate sulfate water. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 63 to 222 milligrams per liter, indicating a high buffering capacity in these waters. Analyses of streambed sediments indicated that concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, chromium, and nickel exceed levels that might be toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, these concentrations reflect local geology rather than anthropogenic sources in this nearly pristine area. Benthic macroinvertebrate qualitative multi-habitat and richest targeted habitat samples collected from six stream sites along McCarthy Road indicated a total of 125 taxa. Insects made up the largest percentage of macroinvertebrates, totaling 83 percent of the families found. Dipterans (flies and midges) accounted for 43 percent of all macroinvertebrates found. Analysis of the macroinvertebrate data by non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated differences between (1) sites at Long Lake and other stream sites along McCarthy Road, likely due to different basin characteristics, (2) the 2007 and 2008 data, probably from the higher rainfall in 2008, and (3) macroinvertebrate data collected in south-central Alaska, which represents a different climate zone. The richness, abundance, and community composition of periphytic algae taxa was variable between sampling sites

  3. Ecological River Basin Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  4. Stepping in the river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kearney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Stepping in the River' is about the cultural misunderstandings and small betrayals that arise when First World tourists visit Third World countries. It is also about the enduring love that people in these countries can inspire, imperfect though that love may be.

  5. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2004-01-01

    For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3

  7. Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the

  8. Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the

  9. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  10. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  11. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 2. Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    FOREST 50.2 MADISON STREET RIVER FOREST 50.5 IL PT 56 RIVER FOREST 51.0 C & NW RR RIVER FOREST 51.1 LAKE STREET RIVER FOREST 51.6 CHICAGO AVENUE RIVER ... FOREST 51.9 SILVER CREEK R RIVER FOREST 53.9 DAM S35v40NoRI2E RIVER FOREST 54.2 NORTH PUEBLO AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1 GRAND AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1...USGS GAGE 05530600 AT RIVER GROVE 451 415546 O75040 RIVER

  12. River and Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE WUGANG; MENG JIA

    2011-01-01

    @@ Nothing is like a river.It seems coming from nowhere, far back into antiquity.It is originated from drops of water and converged into a long stream that flows ceaselessly.It benefits the vast expanse of land and nourishes all the living on it.It stretches and undulates,forming ponds and lakes of different depths.It is moving or motionless,overflowing with vigor and vitality.

  13. Flooding on Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Investigation on Water Pollution of Four Rivers in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing water pollution of four rivers in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary. [Method] Taking four seriously polluted rivers (Guangli River, Shenxian Ditch, Tiao River and Chao River) in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary as study objects, water samples were collected from the four rivers in May (dry period), August (wet period) and November (normal period) in 2009 and 2010 respectively, then pollution indices like nutritive salts, COD, chlorophyll-a, petroleum, et...

  15. Tsunami Impacts in River Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, E.; Tanaka, H.; Roh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami events demonstrated the tsunami's ability to penetrate much farther along rivers than the ground inundation. At the same time, while tsunami impacts to the coastal areas have been subject to countless studies, little is known about tsunami propagation in rivers. Here we examine the field data and conduct numerical simulations to gain better understanding of the tsunami impacts in rivers.The evidence which motivated our study is comprised of water level measurements of the aforementioned tsunamis in multiple rivers in Japan, and the 2011 Tohoku and some other tsunamis in the Columbia River in the US. When the available tsunami observations in these very different rivers are brought together, they display remarkably similar patterns not observed on the open coast. Two phenomena were discovered in the field data. First, the phase of the river tide determines the tsunami penetration distance in a very specific way common to all rivers. Tsunami wave progressively disappears on receding tide, whereas high tide greatly facilitates the tsunami intrusion, as seen in the Figure. Second, a strong near-field tsunami causes substantial and prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. As the 2011 tsunami intruded rivers in Japan, the water level along rivers rose 1-2 m and stayed high for many hours, with the maximum rise occurring several km from the river mouth. The rise in the water level at some upstream gaging stations even exceeded the tsunami amplitude there.Using the numerical experiments, we attempt to identify the physics behind these effects. We will demonstrate that the nonlinear interactions among the flow components (tsunami, tide, and riverine flow) are an essential condition governing wave dynamics in tidal rivers. Understanding these interactions might explain some previous surprising observations of waves in river environments. Figure: Measurements of the 2010/02/27 tsunami along Naruse and Yoshida rivers

  16. Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    “A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

  17. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Park River Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    experienced a natural increase, and their inmigration rates were less than one percent. Cavalier County’s increase in population was the result of a...natural increase j and an inmigration rate of 5.4 percent. The two largest towns are Grafton and Park River, and they are both located on the Park River

  18. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  19. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models...

  20. Treasure Along the Parker River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann-Marie; And Others

    Designed so that 100 to 125 heterogeneously grouped 7th and 8th grade students and a team of 5 core teachers might experience and discover the natural and historical "treasure" in the Parker River area of Massachusetts, this interdisciplinary unit centers on a hike to Parker River (6.7 miles) and visits to a cemetery, a monument, and Old Town…

  1. Geomorphology and River Dynamics of the Lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges. Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005-07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36-37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36-37 during average flow periods. The U.S. Geological Survey's Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  2. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  3. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  4. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  5. American River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We have set up fourteen large wireless sensor networks to measure hydrologic parameters over physiographical representative regions of the snow-dominated portion of the river basin. This is perhaps the largest wireless sensor network in the world. Each network covers about a 1 km2 area and consists of about 45 elements. We measure snow depth, temperature humidity soil moisture and temperature, and solar radiation in real time at ten locations per site, as opposed to the traditional once-a-month snow course. As part of the multi-PI SSCZO, we have installed a 62-node wireless sensor network to measure snow depth, temperature humidity soil moisture and temperature, and solar radiation in real time. This network has been operating for approximately six years. We are now installing four large wireless sensor networks to measure snow depth, temperature humidity soil moisture and temperature, and solar radiation in East Branch of the North Fork of the Feather River, CA. The presentation will discuss the planning and operation of the networks as well as some unique results. It will also present information about the networking hardware designed for these installations, which has resulted in a start-up, Metronome Systems.

  6. Latent resonance in tidal rivers, with applications to River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Jan O.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a systematic investigation of resonance in tidal rivers, and of river oscillations influenced by resonance. That is, we explore the grey-zone between absent and fully developed resonance. Data from this study are the results of a one-dimensional numerical channel model applied to a four-dimensional parameter space comprising geometry, i.e. length and depths of rivers, and varying dissipation and forcing. Similarity of real rivers and channels from parameter space is obtained with the help of a 'run-time depth'. We present a model-channel, which reproduces tidal oscillations of River Elbe in Hamburg, Germany with accuracy of a few centimetres. The parameter space contains resonant regions and regions with 'latent resonance'. The latter defines tidal oscillations that are elevated yet not in full but juvenile resonance. Dissipation reduces amplitudes of resonance while creating latent resonance. That is, energy of resonance radiates into areas in parameter space where periods of Eigen-oscillations are well separated from the period of the forcing tide. Increased forcing enhances the re-distribution of resonance in parameter space. The River Elbe is diagnosed as being in a state of anthropogenic latent resonance as a consequence of ongoing deepening by dredging. Deepening the river, in conjunction with the expected sea level rise, will inevitably cause increasing tidal ranges. As a rule of thumb, we found that 1 m deepening would cause 0.5 m increase in tidal range.

  7. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  8. Equation-free mechanistic ecosystem forecasting using empirical dynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hao; Beamish, Richard J; Glaser, Sarah M; Grant, Sue C H; Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Richards, Laura J; Schnute, Jon T; Sugihara, George

    2015-03-31

    It is well known that current equilibrium-based models fall short as predictive descriptions of natural ecosystems, and particularly of fisheries systems that exhibit nonlinear dynamics. For example, model parameters assumed to be fixed constants may actually vary in time, models may fit well to existing data but lack out-of-sample predictive skill, and key driving variables may be misidentified due to transient (mirage) correlations that are common in nonlinear systems. With these frailties, it is somewhat surprising that static equilibrium models continue to be widely used. Here, we examine empirical dynamic modeling (EDM) as an alternative to imposed model equations and that accommodates both nonequilibrium dynamics and nonlinearity. Using time series from nine stocks of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Fraser River system in British Columbia, Canada, we perform, for the the first time to our knowledge, real-data comparison of contemporary fisheries models with equivalent EDM formulations that explicitly use spawning stock and environmental variables to forecast recruitment. We find that EDM models produce more accurate and precise forecasts, and unlike extensions of the classic Ricker spawner-recruit equation, they show significant improvements when environmental factors are included. Our analysis demonstrates the strategic utility of EDM for incorporating environmental influences into fisheries forecasts and, more generally, for providing insight into how environmental factors can operate in forecast models, thus paving the way for equation-free mechanistic forecasting to be applied in management contexts.

  9. 75 FR 51938 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... River and Somerset, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has...) Bridge at mile 1.8, across the Taunton River between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts. This final..., across the Taunton River between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts, has a vertical clearance in...

  10. 78 FR 49918 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... River and Somerset, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has... across the Taunton River, mile 2.1, between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts. The bridge owner...) entitled, ``Drawbridge Operation Regulation: Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA'' in the...

  11. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a...

  12. 78 FR 62345 - Sabine River Authority of Texas; Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine River Authority of Texas; Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On September 30 2011, the Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana (Sabine River Authorities), licensee(s)...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope...

  14. Theory and application of nonlinear river dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-chuan BAI; Zhao-yin WANG

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for river evolution including riverbed formation and meandering pattern formation is presented in this paper. Based on nonlinear mathematic theory, the nonlinear river dynamic theory is set up for river dynamic process. Its core content includes the stability and tropism characteristics of flow motion in river and river selves’ evolution. The stability of river dynamic process depends on the response of river selves to the external disturbance, if the disturbance and the resulting response will eventually attenuate, and the river dynamics process can be restored to new equilibrium state, the river dynamic process is known as stable;otherwise, the river dynamic process is unstable. The river dynamic process tropism refers to that the evolution tendency of river morphology after the disturbance. As an application of this theory, the dynamical stability of the constant curvature river bend is calculated for its coherent vortex disturbance and response. In addition, this paper discusses the nonlinear evolution of the river peristaltic process under a large-scale disturbance, showing the nonlinear tendency of river dynamic processes, such as river filtering and butterfly effect.

  15. Ice Jams the Ob River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Russia's Ob River flows from south to north, and each summer, it thaws in the same direction. The result is that an ice jam sits downstream from thawed portions of the river, which is laden with heavy runoff from melted snow. On June 29, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the almost completely thawed Ob River. The scene is typical for early summer. South of the ice jam, the Gulf of Ob is swollen with pent-up run-off, and upstream from that, the river is widened as well. Unable to carve through frozen land, the river has little choice but to overflow its banks. For a comparison of early summer and autumn conditions, see Flooding on the Ob River in the Earth Observatory's Natural Hazards section. Besides the annual overflow, this image captures other circumstances of early summer. Sea ice is retreating from the Kara Sea. A lingering line of snow cover snakes its way along the Ob River, to the west. And while the land is lush and green in the south, it appears barren and brown in the north. Near the mouth of the river and the Kara Sea, the land is cold-adapted tundra, with diminutive plants and a short growing season. Just as the ice plugging the river had yet to thaw in the Far North's short summer, the tundra had not yet to greened up either. In this image it still appears lifeless beige. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  16. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology.

  17. A River in the Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1994-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula today is a barren desert. But 6,000 yearsago, says Farouk El-Baz,a river ran through the heart of the peninsula.From the Hijaz Mountains in western Saudi Arabia, it flowed 530 milesnortheast, emptying into the Persian Gulf through a delta that coveredmost of present day Kuwait. The Kuwait River, as El-Baz has dubbedit, averaged 5 miles wide and 50 feet deep along its entire length, and itcarried gravel from the Hijaz all the way to Kuwait. "It must have been amighty river, "says El-Baz.

  18. Arctic River organic matter transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter; Gustafsson, Orjan; Vonk, Jorien; Spencer, Robert; McClelland, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Arctic Rivers have unique hydrology and biogeochemistry. They also have a large impact on the Arctic Ocean due to the large amount of riverine inflow and small ocean volume. With respect to organic matter, their influence is magnified by the large stores of soil carbon and distinct soil hydrology. Here we present a recap of what is known of Arctic River organic matter transport. We will present a summary of what is known of the ages and sources of Arctic River dissolved and particulate organic matter. We will also discuss the current status of what is known about changes in riverine organic matter export due to global change.

  19. 1989 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  20. Clinch River project: Sediment contaminants in the Lower Clinch River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment samples from three mainstem and seven tributary sites in the Clinch River Basin were analyzed for 21 organochlorine compounds, 19 metals, total volatile...

  1. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... mothership for at-sea processing. The processing facilities that the tribes use also process fish harvested... Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River spring/summer, Snake River fall, upper Columbia River spring... salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye salmon (Snake River, Ozette Lake), and steelhead...

  2. Elwha River dam removal-Rebirth of a river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    After years of planning for the largest project of its kind, the Department of the Interior will begin removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, in September 2011. For nearly 100 years, the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams have disrupted natural processes, trapping sediment in the reservoirs and blocking fish migrations, which changed the ecology of the river downstream of the dams. All five Pacific salmon species and steelhead-historically present in large numbers-are locally extirpated or persist in critically low numbers. Upstream of the dams, more than 145 kilometers of pristine habitat, protected inside Olympic National Park, awaits the return of salmon populations. As the dams are removed during a 2-3 year project, some of the 19 million cubic meters of entrapped sediment will be carried downstream by the river in the largest controlled release of sediment into a river and marine waters in history. Understanding the changes to the river and coastal habitats, the fate of sediments, and the salmon recolonization of the Elwha River wilderness will provide useful information for society as future dam removals are considered.

  3. The Scientific Challenges of Yellow River Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Sun Yangbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Yellow River is famous for its complex and unique physical conditions which give great challenges to the river management. Based on the study and analysis of the existing problems and research progress, this paper indicated that the most significant challenges of Yellow River studies are: long term hydrological and morphological changes; the optimized hydrology and sediment conditions to maintain the healthy life of the River; and simulation of Yellow River through mathematical model and physical models.

  4. Quaternary Morphodynamics for two large rivers: the Fly River, PNG, and the Mekong River, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Lauer, J. W.; Darby, S. E.; Goni, M. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    During glacial marine transgressions, sediment & carbon are deposited due to the infilling of lowland fluvial systems, material that is then largely removed during ensuing regressions. Measuring & modelling these processes would help quantify the amount, timing, & preservation of these materials, providing insight into the morphodynamics of lowland fluvial systems in response to sea level change. We investigated the infilling dynamics of the Fly and Strickland Rivers, Papua New Guinea. Field data include: 14C dated deep cores recording base level evolution over the Holocene, sonar imaging of floodbasin stratigraphy, and the observations of blocked valley lakes and weathered erosional remnants from LGM conditions. Similar research was conducted on the Mekong River, Cambodia, where we have imaged basin fill stratigraphy and recorded the extent of blocked valley lakes. Such field data provide tantalizing empirical glimpses into the landscapes & flux buffering exhibited by large tropical rivers during glacial-interglacial transitions. We upscale our observations by modelling river system evolution, employing a GpU Lowland Landscape Evolution Model (GULLEM) to predict the evolution of the entire basin. A novel & powerful (>10 Tflops on an inexpensive computer) simulator, GULLEM models morphodynamics and estimates the accommodation space subsequently infilled during marine transgressions by representing a range of geomorphic processes, including: river & tributary incision, non-linear diffusion, sea level and isostatic change, hydraulic geometry, tectonic deformation, sediment production, transport & deposition, & tracking of the resulting stratigraphy. GULLEM's vectorized approach allows for massively parallel operation on GPUs (Graphics Processing Unit), making it practical to model coupled fluvial-landscape evolution for complex lowland river systems over large temporal and spatial scales. Our combined approach affords estimates for the timing and budgets of sediment

  5. Final Report : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A creel census was conducted during the 1981 Russian River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), sport fishery to determine harvest and angler participation....

  6. Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan is the product of a joint effort of the Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Division of Parks and...

  7. Haw River sediment quality assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents an evaluation of chemical contaminants in, and toxicity of, sediments collected from impoundments created by dams on the Haw River in Alamance...

  8. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  9. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  10. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  11. Togiak River sportfishing studies, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearly three thousand angler days of effort was estimated to have been spent on the Togiak River in 1984. Effort was clearly dominated by the professional guiding...

  12. Umpqua River Oregon Geologic Floodplain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  13. Bremner River, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bremner River possesses the values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The Bremner River fulfills the requirements of...

  14. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  15. Missouri River, Natural Resources Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    1941. Red River of the north research Academy of Science 52:127-39. investigations, a report. North Dakota State Department, Health Division, Sanitary ...abandoned municipal-industrial waste landfill on the 1546. ROGERS DJ. 1965. A terminal study of the Missouri River floodplain. Ground Water Missouri...Biogeography 502, 543, 2066 Boundary Conditions 1796 Barges 26 Biography 1430 Boundary Disputes 241 Barriers 1050 Bioindicators 1773, 2124, 2125 Bow

  16. Ecosystem Services of Rivers: The Don River (Russian Federation) and the Roanoke River (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of ecosystem services recognizes the services, and benefits, provided to people by ecosystems. River systems provide many services to people, including freshwater provisioning, carbon storage, fisheries, recreation, transportation, and biodiversity. Here, we review th...

  17. Analysis on River Sediment Changes of the Upper Reaches of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiang-hao; SHI Guo-yu; XU Quan-xi; CHEN Ze-fang; LIU Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The sediment load and river sedimentation of the upper reaches of Yangtze River has been undergoing constant changes as complex landform, large mountain area and plentiful precipitation make the drainage area of Yangtze River very vulnerable to water erosion and gravity erosion. Through analyzing the hydrological and sediment load statistics recorded by major hydrological stations along Yangtze River since 1950s, and editing the accumulation graph of annual runoff volume and annual sediment load, we find out that the suspended-sediment of Yangtze river has been decreasing year by year in Wulong Hydrological Station on Wujiang River, Beibei Hydrological Station on Jialingjiang River, Lijiawan Hydrological Station on Tuojiang River and Gaochang Hydrological Station on Minjiang River, Yichang Hydrological Station, Cuntan Hydrological Station along Yangtze River mainstream share the same experience too. But the statistics obtained at Pingshan Hydrological Station on Jinshajiang River shows the sediment load there has increased. Taking ecological construction, hydraulic engineering construction and precipitation changes into consideration, the thesis analyses the causes for the sediment load decrease of Jialingjiang River, Tuojiang River, Minjiang River and Wujiang River and provides us both scientific foundation for further study of river sediment changes of the upper reaches of Yangtze River, and measures to control river sedimentation.

  18. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  19. PRINCIPLES OF RIVER TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyin WANG; Shimin TIAN; Yujun YI; Guoan YU

    2007-01-01

    River regulation and river training have been performed for various purposes and negative effects have been shown in numerous cases. In some cases the negative effects are so serious that humans have to consider to "renaturalize" the regulated rivers. Only by using the strategy of integrated river management the diverse river uses and natural fluvial processes and ecological systems may be harmonized. Based on analysis of case studies and data collected from literatures this paper presents the concept of integrated river management and four principles of river training. The integrated river management comprises: 1) taking the watershed, upper stream basin including the tributaries, middle and lower reaches and the estuary as an integrated entity in the planning, design and management; and 2) mitigating or controlling the negative impacts on hydrology, erosion and sedimentation, fluvial processes, land use and river use, environment and ecology while in achieving economic benefit from water resources development, flood safety management and hydropower exploitation. River training and management should be in accordance with the four principles: 1) extending the duration of river water flowing on the continent, which may be achieved by extending the river course or reducing the flow velocity; 2) controlling various patterns of erosions and reducing the sediment transportation in the rivers; 3) increasing the diversity of habitat and enhancing the connectivity between the river and riparian waters; and 4) restoring natural landscapes.

  20. The Kipawa River versus the Tabaret River diversion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwacki, P. [Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Hydro-Quebec wants to divert the Kipawa River in northwest Quebec from its natural streambed. While the first time visitor is likely to emphatically proclaim the Kipawa River as the most beautiful, most serene place they have ever encountered, hydro consultants and engineers, disconnected from the attractiveness of that place, are making cost/benefit recommendations that marginalize the inherent value of a free-flowing Kipawa. This paper will discuss the following points: (1) The Kipawa River has its own inherent value, which is related to the cost of simulating threatened white-water habitats in general. (2) The costs of recreating white-water habitats are more understandable through the study of man-made white-water venues. (3) The cost to recreate or simulate a threatened white-water habitat should be factored into the cost of the hydro-project feasibility. The Kipawa River's own inherent value should be factored into the cost of the Tabaret Diversion Project. (4) Methods of gaining community acceptance should be public and open: independent third-party arbitration is recommended. Use of monetary incentives to encourage public acceptance is unethical, immoral and unjustly biased against the survival of white-water habitats. (5) Recreational use of white-water habitats, like the Kipawa River are increasingly important engines of economic growth in Canada and around the world. (author)

  1. The river model of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Lisle, Jason P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an under-appreciated way to conceptualize stationary black holes, which we call the river model. The river model is mathematically sound, yet simple enough that the basic picture can be understood by non-experts. %that can by understood by non-experts. In the river model, space itself flows like a river through a flat background, while objects move through the river according to the rules of special relativity. In a spherical black hole, the river of space falls into the b...

  2. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  3. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  4. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  5. The River Danube: An Examination of Navigation on the River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. W.

    One of the definitions of Navigation that gets little attention in this Institute is (Oxford English Dictionary), and which our French friends call La Navigation. I have always found this subject fascinating, and have previously navigated the Rivers Mekong, Irrawaddy, Hooghly, Indus, Shatt-al-Arab, Savannah and RhMainKanal (RMDK) and the River Danube, a distance of approximately 4000 km. This voyage has only recently become possible with the opening of the connecting RMDK at the end of 1992, but has been made little use of because of the civil war in the former Yugoslavia.

  6. Occurrence and risk assessment of acidic pharmaceuticals in the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River of north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Chen, Feng; Tao, Ran; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun

    2010-07-15

    Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment have received great attentions from the general and scientific community due to their potential impacts on ecological and human health. We investigated the occurrence of twelve acidic pharmaceuticals and herbicides (salicylic acid, clofibric acid, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, fenoprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, diclofenac, meclofenamic acid and indomethacin) in surface waters of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in north China during the wet and dry seasons and assessed the potential risks to aquatic organisms posed by these acidic compounds. Seven acidic compounds were detected in the rivers, including five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (salicylic acid, ibuprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen), and two blood lipid regulators (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil). The concentrations for acidic pharmaceuticals in the Yellow River and Liao River were in most cases higher in the dry season than in the wet season, but the concentrations of acidic compounds in the Hai River were generally higher in July than in November. High concentrations of these detected compounds in the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River were found more frequently at those sites located in metropolitan areas, lower reaches or river confluences. Only diclofenac and ibuprofen were found to have medium to high risks in the three rivers based on the calculated risk quotients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  8. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Duck River flows 290 miles through several major ecoregions before entering the impounded main stem Tennessee River at Sycamore Landing, Tennessee, adjacent to...

  10. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  11. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  13. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  18. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. Chemical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  20. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  1. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  2. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  3. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  4. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  5. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  6. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  7. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  8. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  9. Savannah River Site Environmental Implentation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the organizational responsibilities for the Savannah River Site Environmental program. Operations, Engineering and projects, Environment, safety, and health, Quality assurance, and the Savannah River Laboratory are described.

  10. On the modelling of river delta formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleynse, N.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents approaches to the modelling of river delta formation. In particular, it provides results of numerical stratigraphic-morphodynamic modelling of river delta formation under various environmental forcings.

  11. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Sprague River Oregon Water circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  13. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  18. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  19. 77 FR 23658 - Six Rivers National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Smith River National Recreation Area Restoration and Motorized Travel Management Project AGENCY: Forest...-pacificsouthwest-six-rivers@fs.fed.us . Please insure that ``Smith River NRA Restoration and Motorized Travel... UARs totaling 80 miles. The project encompasses the Smith River NRA and Gasquet Ranger...

  20. 75 FR 32351 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... River and Somerset, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...) Bridge at mile 1.8, between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts, to help relieve the bridge owner from... Taunton River between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts, has a vertical clearance in the...

  1. 78 FR 31457 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    .... USCG-2013-0291] RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset..., mile 2.1, between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts. The bridge owner, Massachusetts Department of... between Somerset and Fall River, Massachusetts, has a vertical clearance of 60 feet at mean high water...

  2. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with the following settling party: Edward...

  3. ALWAYS A RIVER - SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE OHIO RIVER AND WATER GRADES K - 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This curriculum was developed as a significant component of the project, Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience, a six-state collaboration devoted to exploring the historical and cultural development of the Ohio River. The Always a River project is being joint...

  4. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  5. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  6. Schistosome infection among river rafters on Omo River, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Eli; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Wilson, Marianna; Cetron, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Adventure trips to Africa have become more frequent, and rafting on some of the great rivers has become almost commonplace. We describe three rafting trips on the Omo River in Ethiopia, after which most of the participants were diagnosed with schistosomiasis. After index cases from the three groups came to medical attention, active surveillance detected outbreaks of illness in a group of American travelers (n = 18 ) in 1993 and in two groups of Israeli travelers in 1997 (n = 26). Of 44 travelers, 37 were screened and 28 (76%) were infected, all with Schistosoma mansoni. Among the infected patients, 16 of 28 (57%) were symptomatic, the most frequent manifestation being fever, which occurred in 14 of 25 (56%); cough occurred in 6 of 18 (33%). Diagnosis was based on FAST-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with confirmation by immunoblot. Other rafting trips on the Omo River sponsored by the same tour companies did not result in symptomatic infection. Investigation of the rafting itineraries suggested the route may have been altered from the usual for these three groups, exposing them to a part of the river that is wider, slower moving, and more densely populated. Schistosomiasis should be considered in febrile patients following rafting trips in schistosome-endemic areas. As asymptomatic schistosomiasis in travelers is also common (43% in this series), all travelers exposed to freshwater in endemic areas should be encouraged to undergo serologic screening.

  7. 76 FR 18709 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... fisheries, where tribal fisheries will deliver shoreside for processing or to a mothership for at-sea... groundfish FMP fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River spring/summer, Snake River fall, upper... California coastal), chum salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye salmon (Snake River, Ozette...

  8. The science and practice of river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  9. 33 CFR 117.300 - Manatee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manatee River. 117.300 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.300 Manatee River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Manatee River, mile 4.5 Bradenton, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is...

  10. Setting targets in strategies for river restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Blust, de G.; Looy, van K.; Rooij, van S.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Since about 90% of the natural floodplain area of rivers in Europe has been reclaimed and now lacks river dynamics, nature rehabilitation along rivers is of crucial importance for the restoration of their natural function. Flood protection, self-purification of surface water, groundwater recharge, s

  11. The social side of river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de W.T.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    River management faces many challenges world-wide including climate change, flood risks and the demand for more adaptive and 'ecosystem-based' systems. Instead of raising the dikes even higher, the new adage for river managers is to give the rivers more space to drain their waters. This in turn impl

  12. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount Pleasant, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Wando River and Cooper River in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina during the Lowcountry Splash, a 2.4 mile... the Lowcountry Splash, a 2.4 mile open water swim in the Wando River and Cooper River along...

  13. RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2014-05-01

    Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural

  14. Profiling river surface velocities and volume flow estimation with bistatic UHF RiverSonde radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Lilleboe, P.; Cheng, R.; Gartner, J.; ,

    2003-01-01

    From the velocity profiles across the river, estimates of total volume flow for the four methods were calculated based on a knowledge of the bottom depth vs position across the river. It was found that the flow comparisons for the American River were much closer, within 2% of each other among all of the methods. Sources of positional biases and anomalies in the RiverSonde measurement patterns along the river were identified and discussed.

  15. 33 CFR 165.150 - New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Mill River. 165.150 Section 165.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: The... 303°T to point D at the west bank of the mouth of the Mill River 41°18′05″ N, 72°54′23″ W thence...

  16. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuok K. Kuok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water supply to BKWTP. Approach: These four projects are construction of 1.5m height storage weir across Sungai Sarawak Kiri river channel, Kuching Barrage and Shiplock, Bengoh Dam and Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS. In 2005, 1.5 m height submersible weir was constructed across Sungai Sarawak Kiri channel for increasing the safe yield that can last until year 2010. Kuching Barrage and Shiplock were commissioned in 2000 as barrier to avoid the saline intrusion reaching upper catchment. 24 telemetry stations were installed along Sarawak River for monitoring and regulating the water level. This will preserve high quality water storage at upper catchment of Sarawak River. In year 2010, Bengoh Dam was constructed to ensure adequate raw water will be supplied to BKWTP for meeting the increasing water demand from 2010-2030. This reservoir will store 144 million m3 of fresh water covering reservoir area of 8.77km2. Beyond 2030, the water supply shall not depend solely on fresh water. Results: Black and grey water in Sarawak Catchment was treated through Kuching Centralized Wastewater Management System (KCWMS and recycled for daily used. Conclusion: The treated water that comply Standard A water quality, can distribute for domestic, industrial and irrigation used in nearest future. This will reduce the water demand solely on raw water and create a sustainable living in Kuching City. Beyond 2030, a few alternatives are also proposed for conserving and

  17. Modelling river history and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, T J; Van de Wiel, M J

    2012-05-13

    Over the last few decades, a suite of numerical models has been developed for studying river history and evolution that is almost as diverse as the subject of river history itself. A distinction can be made between landscape evolution models (LEMs), alluvial architecture models, meander models, cellular models and computational fluid dynamics models. Although these models share some similarities, there also are notable differences between them, which make them more or less suitable for simulating particular aspects of river history and evolution. LEMs embrace entire drainage basins at the price of detail; alluvial architecture models simulate sedimentary facies but oversimplify flow characteristics; and computational fluid dynamics models have to assume a fixed channel form. While all these models have helped us to predict erosion and depositional processes as well as fluvial landscape evolution, some areas of prediction are likely to remain limited and short-term owing to the often nonlinear response of fluvial systems. Nevertheless, progress in model algorithms, computing and field data capture will lead to greater integration between these approaches and thus the ability to interpret river history more comprehensively.

  18. Stochastic modelling of river morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuren, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Modern river management has to reconcile a number of functions, such as protection against floods and provision of safe and efficient navigation, floodplain agriculture, ecology and recreation. Knowledge on uncertainty in fluvial processes is important to make this possible, to design effective rive

  19. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  20. MICROPHYTOBENTHOS IN THE SUTLA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sutla river is a river along Croatian/Slovenian border. Its length is about 91 km, out of which 89 km in Croatia. Microphytobenthos investigations have been performed at six locations along the Sutla river on Croatian territory. Samples were collected from specific areas of characteristic habitats. Beside sample collection, basic physico–chemical parameters were measured: water temperature, pH values and quantity of water dissolved oxygen. Water temperature changed depending on air temperature and the depth of the river, ranging from 5.1ºC to 6.3ºC. pH values were between 7.77 and 8.14, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (mg/L O2 at the six locations ranged between 8.6 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L. Quantitative microphytobenthos composition comprised 87 microphythic species belonging to the systematic groups of Bacteriophyta, Cyanobacteria and Chrysophyta (Bacillariophyceae and Xanthophyceae. The most numerous group were the diatoms or Bacillariophyceae (76 species or 88.3%, with dominance of the species of the genera Achnanthes, Cocconeis, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Navicula, Nitzschia and Surirella. The group Cyanobacteria was represented with relatively small number of species (9 species or 10%, with the dominance of filamentous algae belonging to the genus Phormidium. From the total number of the determined microphytobenthic species, 73 species or 84% were indicators of saprobity. Most of them were beta–mezosaprobic indicators. Based on the indicator values of determined microphytobenthic species at six investigated locations, P–B saprobity index was in the range from 1.8 to 2.0. These values suggested that the water at the investigated part of the Sutla river belonged to the second class of Croatian Water Quality Directive.

  1. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  2. The river model of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A J S; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Lisle, Jason P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new way to conceptualize stationary black holes, which we call the river model. The river model is mathematically sound, yet simple enough that the basic picture can be understood by non-experts. In the river model, space itself flows like a river through a flat background, while objects move through the river according to the rules of special relativity. In a spherical black hole, the river of space falls into the black hole at the Newtonian escape velocity, hitting the speed of light at the horizon. Inside the horizon, the river flows inward faster than light, carrying everything with it. We show that the river model works also for rotating (Kerr-Newman) black holes, though with a surprising twist. As in the spherical case, the river of space can be regarded as moving through a flat background. However, the river does not spiral inward, as one might have anticipated, but rather falls inward with no azimuthal swirl at all. Instead, the river has at each point not only a velocity but als...

  3. Research on the river function regionalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objectives, principles, classification system, zoning method and procedure of river function region-alization were investigated systematically based on the present status of modern river regulation and function requirement. Considering the ecosystem continuity and river function integrality, a river is suggested to be divided into five function zones: ecological protection zone, habitat restoration zone, exploitation and utilization zone, buffer zone,and transition zone, based on the developed intensity and the function characteristics of the river. In this paper, not only the five function zones were described qualitatively, but also the quantitative examination method on how to identify their function zone types was given. A double-criterion partitioning scheme was proposed according to the functional zoning diagram constructed by the evaluation of the social and ecological function of rivers. Finally, the procedures of river function regionalization were shown.

  4. Initial river test of a monostatic RiverSonde streamflow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on May 7-8, 2002 using a CODAR RiverSonde UHF radar system at Vernalis, California on the San Joaquin River. The monostatic radar configuration on one bank of the river, with the antennas looking both upriver and downriver, provided very high-quality data. Estimates of both along-river and cross-river surface current were generated using several models, including one based on normal-mode analysis. Along-river surface velocities ranged from about 0.6 m/s at the river banks to about 1.0 m/s near the middle of the river. Average cross-river surface velocities were 0.02 m/s or less.

  5. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  6. Concentrations and fluxes of uranium in two major Chinese rivers: The Changjiang River and the Huanghe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Guiling

    2015-01-01

    We collected samples from January 2010 to December 2011 to determine the concentrations and fluxes of uranium in the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huanghe (Yellow) Rivers in China. The dissolved U concentrations (DUC) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the freshwater end members of the Changjiang and Huanghe Rivers. The DUCs ranged from 1.32 to 4.06 nmol/L and 13.85 to 29.99 nmol/L in the Changjiang and Huanghe Rivers, respectively. The temporal variations of DUC followed the seasonal change, with high values in the two rivers occurring during the dry seasons and low values during the flood seasons. A strong negative correlation was observed between DUC and discharge in the Changjiang River (R2 = 0.69), but a weak correlation (R2 = 0.35) was found in the Huanghe River. The correlations between the major ions and the U in the rivers indicated that the primary source of uranium was from the weathering of carbonate and evaporite in the Changjiang Basin. The weathering of evaporite-bearing sequences and the erosion of loess dominated the U sources of the Huanghe River. Carbonate ligands in the dry season and phosphate ligands in the wet season were the primary factors controlling the accumulation and transportation of dissolved uranium in the Changjiang River. The soils of the Huanghe Basin contained five times more leachable uranium compared to the soils of the Changjiang Basin, which may explain the high DUC in the Huanghe River. The weighted-mean-concentrations of uranium were 2.78 nmol/L in the Changjiang River and 22.07 nmol/L in the Huanghe River. This lead to annual dissolved U fluxes (DUF) of 2.3 × 106 mol/yr in the Changjiang River and 4.1 × 105 mol/yr in the Huanghe River. The sum of the U fluxes in the two rivers represented 11.9% of the global U riverine flux into the sea comparing with 2.5% of the global runoff into the sea. The 234U/238U activity ratio of the Huanghe River had higher values (1.455-1.418) compared to the

  7. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  8. Relating river discharges to salinity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    New river discharge data are brought together with spacebased sea surface salinity measurements by Aquarius and SMOS to demonstrate the role of river discharge in salinity changes near three river mouths: the Mississippi, the Ganges, and the Amazon. The characteristics of the seasonal cycle and the year-to-year changes of the river runoff are described. Various versions of the satellite salinity data are compared. The relative roles of river discharge, surface water flux, and horizontal advection in changing surface salinity in regions near the river mouths are examined. Satellite measurements of SSS clearly track movements of the fresh water from river discharges. Besides the river discharge, E-P plays an important role in the seasonal salinity variation near the Ganges and Irrawaddy River mouths. For the Mississippi and Amazon river mouths, central and eastern ITCZ, E-P contributes very little to the salinity seasonal change. In the central and eastern ITCZ, contribution of advection to the salinity tendency is clearly identified. Both salinity and salinity tendency are dominated by semi-annual cycle in the Atlantic ITCZ between 5ºN to 9ºN, whereas annual cycle dominates at other latitudes.

  9. Modeling Water Quality in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liren Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a PC software, used in a Windows-based environment, which was developed based on the first order reaction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and a modified Streeter and Phelps equation, in order to simulate and determine the variations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and of the BOD along with the studied river reaches. The software considers many impacts of environmental factors, such as the different type of discharges (concentrated or punctual source, tributary contribution, distributed source, nitrogenous BOD, BOD sedimentation, photosynthetic production and benthic demand of oxygen, and so on. The software has been used to model the DO profile along one river, with the aim to improve the water quality through suitable engineering measure.

  10. Resilience of river flow regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Gianluca; Basso, Stefano; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-08-06

    Landscape and climate alterations foreshadow global-scale shifts of river flow regimes. However, a theory that identifies the range of foreseen impacts on streamflows resulting from inhomogeneous forcings and sensitivity gradients across diverse regimes is lacking. Here, we derive a measurable index embedding climate and landscape attributes (the ratio of the mean interarrival of streamflow-producing rainfall events and the mean catchment response time) that discriminates erratic regimes with enhanced intraseasonal streamflow variability from persistent regimes endowed with regular flow patterns. Theoretical and empirical data show that erratic hydrological regimes typical of rivers with low mean discharges are resilient in that they hold a reduced sensitivity to climate fluctuations. The distinction between erratic and persistent regimes provides a robust framework for characterizing the hydrology of freshwater ecosystems and improving water management strategies in times of global change.

  11. Sedimentation Study on Upstream Reach of Selected Rivers in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentation study on the upstream reach of Pahang River is located in the Bentong River Basin. The detail hydrographic survey for each river in the Bentong River Basin was carried out in May 2016. Nine stations were selected to represent the sediment concentration at Bentong River, Pahang, Malaysia. Bentong River Basin is one of the river catchment in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia. Before this, Bentong River deterioration in water quality, resulting from the sedimentation problems and unsustainable development management around the river basin. This study was implemented to prove the sedimentation problem, especially the formation of Total  Suspended Solid (TSS in the Bentong River. There are two important parameters were quantified in this study such as the concentration of suspended solid (mg/L and the river discharge (Q values (m³/s. The method used in this study to analysis the concentration of TSS using Gravimetric Method. The result showed the sedimentation in the Bentong River was unstable and the highest of TSS up to 367.6 mg/L that is categorized under the class V which > 300 mg/L based on the National Water Quality Standard (NWQS result showed the coefficient correlation between the observed Q and the TSS concentration in the Bentong River is significant R² = 0.919, there are strong positive relationship between TSS concentration production and the river discharge value in the Bentong River. The study found that the contributors to the high sedimentation problems resulting from the sediments generated from the unsustainable land use, which effectively trapping the bed sediments, rainfall intensity, backflow that carries out high sediments as well as sedimentation produced due to the river bank erosion.

  12. Relationship to the River: The Case of the Muar River Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaman A. Samah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Muar River which located in Johor, is an important river in Malaysia. Previously Muar River had a huge influence on the socio-economic status of the community. It has been used as the sources of income, protein and as well as the major mode of transportation for the community and traders. However, does the Muar River still has that influences on this modern day? The answer of this pertinent question will fulfill the main objective of this study which is to discover Muar River relationship with its surrounding community. Approach: In addition to relationship with the river, this quantitative study was conducted to determine the Muar River community agreement towards initiative to develop the river. A total of 300 respondents from 19 villages along Muar River were selected based on the simple random sampling. Results: Based on the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that Muar River still has a lot to offer to its surrounding community especially for the recreational activities (fish and prawn fishing. A large majority of Muar River community have a moderate and high level of agreement towards the river development. Further analysis performed revealed that income per month, number of household, age, distance to Muar River and period of staying in the areas had significant relationships with agreement towards river development. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is recommended that additional recreational facilities can be added, events at national and international level especially on fish and prawn fishing can be held at Muar River and campaign on the importance of river development and the danger of river pollution can be conducted.

  13. DYNAMIC RESOURCES OF RIVER SEDIMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George GERGOV; Tzviatka KARAGIOZOVA

    2005-01-01

    The currently enforced Bulgarian water legislation [the Water Act (1999),the Environmental Protection Act (2002),etc.] requires conducting special studies for accurate assessments of sand and gravel flux along the rivers,prior to the issue of the license for operation of the quarries,where they will be dredged. The activity of a quarry necessitates special investigations because of the large dimensions of the damages inflicted on the environment. Ours studies have shown that there are two types of river reaches,in which abstracion of sand and gravel is performed. The first one refers usually to the plain area river reaches. The other type is mountainous with high rate of sediment load,which consists of coarse solid matter. The "on-the-spot" study on the environmental impact of the sand and gravel dredging has revealed that in the area of the quarry the riverbed cuts into the alluvial sediments to about 6-7 m and this ditch has spread by attenuation at a distance of more than 25 km upstream. Downstream the pit the picture is replicated and at the 8th km a local scour on the riverbed,amounting to more than 1.80 - 2.00 m,has been measured near the foundation of a massive bridge in the centre of city of Plovdiv. Such assessments of dynamic resources of sand and gravel materials are expected to serve for the purposes of gradual limitation of this activity in river sections close to renewable resources. The amount of sediment load,which may be abstracted in the area of the Orizare quarry in Bulgaria on a yearly basis has been calculated as 6000 m3/a. It ensures that the resources will not be exhausted and irreversible distortion of the riverbed will be prevented. This is an environmentally safe limit.

  14. The Song of the River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Maugham; 范海祥

    2007-01-01

    @@ You hear it all along the river. You hear it, loud and strong, from the rowers as they urge the junk with its high stern, the mast lashed alongside, down the swift running stream. You hear it from the trackers, a more breathless chant, as they pull desperately against the current, half a dozen of them perhaps if they are taking up wupan1, a couple of hundred if they are hauling a splendid junk, its square sail set, over a rapid.

  15. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A.

    2007-12-01

    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  16. 78 FR 22423 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Somerset, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY: The... Brightman Street Bridge across the Taunton River, mile 1.8, between Fall River and Somerset,...

  17. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  18. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-off for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE and MrSID image of New River Gorge National River (final_neri_mosaic.img). Produced from 471 color infrared photos taken...

  19. Charley River and tributaries, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Charley River, Alaska, and its principal tributaries possess values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The Charley...

  20. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  1. Unalakleet Wild River, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Unalakleet River and its immediate surroundings possess the qualities necessary for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Provisions be made...

  2. Field Plot Points for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in the New River Gorge National River. Location coordinates for most...

  3. The Upper Mississippi River System—Topobathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jayme M.; Hanson, Jenny L.; Sattler, Stephanie R.

    2017-03-23

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), the navigable part of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, is a diverse ecosystem that contains river channels, tributaries, shallow-water wetlands, backwater lakes, and flood-plain forests. Approximately 10,000 years of geologic and hydrographic history exist within the UMRS. Because it maintains crucial wildlife and fish habitats, the dynamic ecosystems of the Upper Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries are contingent on the adjacent flood plains and water-level fluctuations of the Mississippi River. Separate data for flood-plain elevation (lidar) and riverbed elevation (bathymetry) were collected on the UMRS by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program. Using the two elevation datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) developed a systemic topobathy dataset.

  4. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  5. Climatic change and river ice breakup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltaos, S. [Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada); Burrell, B. C. [New Brunswick Dept. of the Environment and Local Government, Sciences and Planning Division, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An overview of climatic factors and impact relative to river ice engineering and science is presented. An explanation of the fundamentals of climatic change is followed by a review of direct and indirect climatic influences that govern river ice breakup and related trends. Known responses of river ice to climatic change and potential future changes to ice breakup processes are described along with the probable ecological and socio-economic consequences of these changes. Changes in engineering approaches to accommodate the present ice regime and predicted changes in climatic variables that affect river ice processes and reduce the vulnerability of infrastructure and ecosystems to climatic change are examined. Future research on the links between river ice and stream ecology is suggested to identify ecological concerns that may result from changes in river ice regimes induced by climatic change. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  6. The Origin of River Meanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Chatanantavet, P.; Bradley, C.; Friedgen-Veitch, D.; Diplas, P.

    2015-12-01

    Various propositions for the origin of meanders have been suggested in the past, involving local disturbances such as variable bank material, obstructions to flow, and sediment transport. Each of these approaches has required a very special and complex set of circumstances for the onset of meandering. However, meanders have also been observed in other systems such as the gulf stream , window glass , glacial meltwater, channels in submarine fans, the jet stream, water faucets, and many others. What has not been satisfactorily demonstrated is why some rivers (or parts of rivers) should tend to meander in the first place rather than ply a straight course to base level. We suggest that the fundamental cause of the river meander instability is simply a minimization of power (rate of work done), with an onset that occurs when inertial terms exceed body forces (e.g. gravity) acting on the flow, and thus create an adverse pressure gradient directed in the opposite direction of the flow. A simple way to visualize the cause of the instability is that the water "backs up" upon itself, running into a parcel of water downstream that is flowing more slowly than the water upstream. This causes the direction of maximum local water surface slope to be diverted to one side or the other of the regional slope. This can occur when a river encounters the ocean (or a lake, or a break in slope), and can occur in many other situations as well. We analyzed various meandering systems globally, and conducted laboratory experiments under controlled conditions to determine the conditions necessary for the onset of the meander instability. The results indicate that the meander instability does not depend on sediment or erodible banks. The critical threshold for the onset of the meander instability occurs when inertial forces exceed body forces acting on the fluid such that an adverse pressure gradient arises. Better understanding of the meander instability should thus elucidate some of the

  7. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  8. AFSC/ABL: Sockeye salmon allozyme baseline - 1982-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data were collected and prepared with the use of protein electrophoresis from 52 spawning locations in southeastern Alaska and northern British Columbia....

  9. Model for the evolution of river networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leheny, R.L.; Nagel, S.R. (The James Franck Institute and the Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))

    1993-08-30

    We have developed a model, which includes the effects of erosion both from precipitation and from avalanching of soil on steep slopes, to simulate the formation and evolution of river networks. The avalanches provide a mechanism for competition in growth between neighboring river basins. The changing morphology follows many of the characteristics of evolution set forth by Glock. We find that during evolution the model maintains the statistical characteristics measured in natural river systems.

  10. Ecological management of urban rivers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yiping

    2017-03-01

    At present, China's urban river is widespread with serious pollution, poor water quality, poor water mobility and other issues. In this article, we analyzed the root causes of urban river water environment problems systematically, then puts forward the ways to solve the problems, which including implement the "river length system", strengthen the control of pollution sources, persist in ecological concepts, establish long-term mechanism and strengthen publicity and education.

  11. Sediment load reduction in Chinese rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LIU; Jueyi SUI; Zhao-Yin WANG

    2008-01-01

    In this Paper,the changes in the annual runoff and sediment transport have been assessed by using the long term observation data from 10 gauging stations on 10 large rivers across China from far north to far south.It is found that the annual sediment yield has generally had a decreasing trend in the past half century.According to the changes in annual runoff and the sediment yield per area.rivers in China can be classified into the following three groups:1)rivers with decreasing annual sediment transport and stable runoff:2)rivers with both decreasing annual sediment transport and runoff and 3)rivers with greatly reduced annual sediment transport and decreasing annual runoff.The results indicate that,in all southern rivers(to the south of the Huaihe River including the Huaihe River),there has been little change in average annual runoff but a dramatic decrease in annual sediment transport.In the northern rivers.however,both the annual sediment yield and the runoff show significant evidence of reduction.To further investigate the recent changes in annual runoff and sediment transport.the short-term observation data from these 10 gauging stations in the recent 10 years have been assessed.Results show that both the annual sediment transport and the runoff have decreased significantly in the northern rivers in the past 10 years.Using the Yellow River at the Lijin Station as an example,the average annual runoff for the last 10 years is only 1/3 of the long term average value and the average annual sediment yield of the last 10 years is only 1/4 of the long term average value.More unusually,in the Yongding River the annual sediment yield has approached zero and the runoff has decreased significantly.In addition,the impacts of human activities on the changes in both runoff and sediment transport have been discussed.

  12. 78 FR 21839 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... River, mile 79.6, Small- house, KY and Black River, mile 41.0, Jonesboro, LA. The Green River bridge was... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. 77 FR 52711 - Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of... filed: September 30, 2011 (application); August 1, 2012 (offer of settlement). d. Applicant: Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana (Sabine River Authorities)....

  14. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river cha...

  15. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river channel ne...

  16. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area consist...and appear to be of plutonic origin. The granite is characterized by its medium- to coarse- grained texture, small percentage of mafic minerals and...mottled appearance due to a high percentage of mafic minerals , and medium to whitish-gray color. Scattered occurrences of a fine- to medium-grained

  17. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  18. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  19. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  20. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  1. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  2. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  3. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  4. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  5. Geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    The Copper River, located in southcentral Alaska, drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. About 30 miles above its mouth, this large river enters Miles Lake, a proglacial lake formed by the retreat of Miles Glacier. Downstream from the outlet of Miles Lake, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier before it enters a large, broad, alluvial flood plain. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain and in 1995, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. These bridges cross parts of the Copper River and in recent years, some of these bridges have sustained serious damage due to the changing course of the Copper River. Although the annual mean discharge of the lower Copper River is 57,400 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs during the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Approximately every six years, an outburst flood from Van Cleve Lake, a glacier-dammed lake formed by Miles Glacier, releases approximately 1 million acre-feet of water into the Copper River. When the outflow rate from Van Cleve Lake reaches it peak, the flow of the Copper River will increase between 150,000 to 190,000 cubic feet per second. Data collected by bedload sampling and continuous seismic reflection indicated that Miles Lake traps virtually all the bedload being transported by the Copper River as it enters the lake from the north. The reservoir-like effect of Miles Lake results in the armoring of the channel of the Copper River downstream from Miles Lake, past Childs Glacier, until it reaches the alluvial flood plain. At this point, bedload transport begins again. The lower Copper River transports 69 million tons per year of suspended sediment, approximately the same quantity as the Yukon River, which drains an area of more than 300,000 square miles. By correlating concurrent flows from a long-term streamflow-gaging station on the Copper River with a short-term streamflow-gaging station at the outlet of Miles Lake

  6. 76 FR 24914 - Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River... Marketing (JEM), Including On-Site Lease Workers From Serenity Staffing, Accountemps, Silicon Valley, and... Assistance on January 28, 2011, applicable to workers of Digital River Education Services, Inc., a...

  7. Methodology for estimation of river discharge and applicationof the Zhujiang River Estuary (ZRE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJay-Chung; WONGLai-Ah

    2004-01-01

    The ZRE is a very complicated estuary with multi-river inlets. The total sum of river discharge in the upstream(away from the tidal influence region) of the Zhujiang River can be easily measured. However, when the total river discharges into the estuary from eight inlets, it is a very difficult task to obtain a continuous river discharge flux data from each branch of the Zhujiang River. However, the different ratios of river discharges between the river branches can significantly affect the estuarine circulation feature and baroclinic process. Moreover, the accuracy of numerical forecast for the estuarine circulation is very much dependent on the accuracy of the time history of the river discharge flux for each branch. Therefore, it is important to estimate river discharge from each branch in order to improve the accuracy of the model forecast for the circulation of the ZRE. The development of a new estimation method of the river discharges is focused on based on the system identification theory, numerical modeling and the time history data from the CODAR observed sea surface current. The new approach has been appfied to estimating the time history (hourly) of river discharge from each branch in the upstream of the ZRE.

  8. Reflections on Development Strategy of Pearl River Delta: In Comparison with Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. A comparison between Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta 1.1 Basic conditions 1.1.1 Location, area and scope Located in the southeast of Guangdong Province, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an economic zone is a compound delta

  9. Bathymetric surveys of the Neosho River, Spring River, and Elk River, northeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Shelby L.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2017-09-26

    In February 2017, the Grand River Dam Authority filed to relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The predominant feature of the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project is Pensacola Dam, which impounds Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees (locally called Grand Lake) in northeastern Oklahoma. Identification of information gaps and assessment of project effects on stakeholders are central aspects of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process. Some upstream stakeholders have expressed concerns about the dynamics of sedimentation and flood flows in the transition zone between major rivers and Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees. To relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the hydraulic models for these rivers require high-resolution bathymetric data along the river channels. In support of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand River Dam Authority, performed bathymetric surveys of (1) the Neosho River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, (2) the Spring River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, and (3) the Elk River from Noel, Missouri, to the Oklahoma State Highway 10 bridge near Grove, Oklahoma. The Neosho River and Spring River bathymetric surveys were performed from October 26 to December 14, 2016; the Elk River bathymetric survey was performed from February 27 to March 21, 2017. Only areas inundated during those periods were surveyed.The bathymetric surveys covered a total distance of about 76 river miles and a total area of about 5 square miles. Greater than 1.4 million bathymetric-survey data points were used in the computation and interpolation of bathymetric-survey digital elevation models and derived contours at 1-foot (ft) intervals. The minimum bathymetric-survey elevation of the Neosho

  10. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge

  11. Pantvangide pered loodavad valitsuse pingutustele / Anneli Ammas ; kommenteerinud Alan Fraser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Liibanonis röövitud eestlaste lähedaste kommentaare pantvangide uue videopöördumise kohta. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves algatas pantvangide toetuseks kollase lindi kandmise kampaania. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Lootuse lindid

  12. Shahmatnõi sjurpriz da Vintshi / Christian Fraser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fraser, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Põhja-Itaalias asuvast eraraamatukogust leiti itaalia matemaatiku ja frantsiskaani munga Luca Pacioli käsikiri maleülesandeid kujutavate joonistega, mille autoriks võib olla kunstnik Leonardo da Vinci

  13. Shahmatnõi sjurpriz da Vintshi / Christian Fraser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fraser, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Põhja-Itaalias asuvast eraraamatukogust leiti itaalia matemaatiku ja frantsiskaani munga Luca Pacioli käsikiri maleülesandeid kujutavate joonistega, mille autoriks võib olla kunstnik Leonardo da Vinci

  14. Pantvangide pered loodavad valitsuse pingutustele / Anneli Ammas ; kommenteerinud Alan Fraser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Liibanonis röövitud eestlaste lähedaste kommentaare pantvangide uue videopöördumise kohta. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves algatas pantvangide toetuseks kollase lindi kandmise kampaania. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Lootuse lindid

  15. Consequence Analyses Following Potential Savannah River Site Hydrological Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Postulated accidental release of radiological material to surface water bodies on the Savannah River Site and the resulting downstream contamination of the Savannah River pose a potential threat to downstream river users.

  16. Large River Monitoring Forum Fish Assemblage Database 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Large River Monitoring Forum compiled fish assemblage data for five large rivers in the U.S. as a part of a coordinated effort to compare and contract river...

  17. Runoff modeling of the Mara River using Satellite Observed Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with European Remote Sensing (ERS) Scatterometer in modeling runoff of the Zambezi river basin. ... (2008) using Geospatial Stream Flow ... obtained for Mara River at Mara mines, Nyangores at Bomet and Amala at Mulot river gauging ...

  18. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Towards a common understanding for river management in South Africa. ... functions is directly aligned with options for human use arising from rivers to deliver ... of water and associated resources located within the macro channels of rivers, ...

  19. Inputs from Indian rivers to the ocean: A synthesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; SenGupta, R.

    ). Fluxes of chemical substances to the Indian Ocean from these rivers are computed to a first approximation. The major ion contents are inversely proportional to the river runoff especially for the rivers entering the Arabian Sea. On an average Indian...

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Upper Mississippi River: Transport, processing, and effects on the river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Richardson, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) can be organized into the following categories: (1) Long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and export, and their causes; (2) Nutrient cycling within the river; (3) Spatial and temporal patterns of river nutrient concentrations; (4) Effects of elevated nutrient concentrations on the river; and (5) Actions to reduce river nutrient concentrations and flux. Nutrient concentration and flux in the Mississippi River have increased substantially over the last century because of changes in land use, climate, hydrology, and river management and engineering. As in other large floodplain rivers, rates of processes that cycle nitrogen and phosphorus in the UMR exhibit pronounced spatial and temporal heterogeneity because of the complex morphology of the river. This spatial variability in nutrient processing creates clear spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations. For example, nitrate concentrations generally are much lower in off-channel areas than in the main channel. The specifics of in-river nutrient cycling and the effects of high rates of nutrient input on UMR have been less studied than the factors affecting nutrient input to the river and transport to the Gulf of Mexico, and important questions concerning nutrient cycling in the UMR remain. Eutrophication and resulting changes in river productivity have only recently been investigated the UMR. These recent studies indicate that the high nutrient concentrations in the river may affect community composition of aquatic vegetation (e. g., the abundance of filamentous algae and duckweeds), dissolved oxygen concentrations in off-channel areas, and the abundance of cyanobacteria. Actions to reduce nutrient input to the river include changes in land-use practices, wetland restoration, and hydrological modifications to the river. Evidence suggests that most of the above methods can contribute to reducing nutrient concentration in

  1. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.

    2017-02-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world's coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas 100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world's smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of river waters in these settings will be strongly influenced by these interactions. We conclude that new investigations are needed to characterize how plumes interact offshore of river mouths to better

  2. Environmental Ethics in River Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental ethics concerns human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment. The fundamental question regarding environmental ethics is basically-what moral obligations do we have concerning the natural environment? The main objective of this study is to examine the extent environmental ethics manifest in river management. The study employs the case study of Malaysia's Gombak River-one of the most polluted urban rivers that run through some heavily inhabited urban areas. The study examines how the Department of Environment (DOE, Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID and Selayang Municipal Council (MPS manage the problem of pollution in the Gombak River. Approach: This study uses both quantitative and qualitative analysis. A quantitative approach is employed to assess the water quality in several points along Gombak River. This is done by way of series of scientific testing to determine the level of pollution in the river. Secondly, a qualitative approach is applied on the data gathered through expert interviews on inter-agency coordination efforts to manage pollution problems. Results: The study firstly shows that the Gombak River is considerably polluted, with higher levels of pollution in upstream as compared to the downstream. The second finding suggests that notwithstanding several legislations that are already in place, there is sluggishness in the enforcement of pollution mitigation efforts as a result of ineffective inter-agency communication and coordination. Conclusion: The lack of concerted and coordinated efforts between river management agencies have been cited as one of the main factors contributing to river pollution. Therefore, the agencies concerned should embark on cohesive measures to ensure the rivers are managed well and its water quality controlled. This requires for a structured coordination mechanism between agencies to be put in place and such mechanism can be emulated in the

  3. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world’s coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas  100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world’s smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of river waters in these settings will be strongly influenced by these interactions. We conclude that new investigations are needed to characterize how plumes interact offshore of river mouths to

  4. River geomorphology and fish barriers affect on spatial and temporal patterns of fish assemblages in the Niobrara River, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Niobrara River in northern Nebraska traverses the heart of the Great Plains with portions of the river protected under the National Wild and Scenic River system...

  5. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S.A.; Wood, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  6. The dams of the Columbia river; Staustufen des Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueb, L.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Columbia river and its tributaries in the north-western part of the USA form one of the largest river systems of the world. Its development was started during the economic crisis of the thirties with the construction of the Bonneville, Rock Island, and Grand Coulee dams. Another eight dams were realized between the fifties and the beginning of the seventies. As a terraced lake system the Columbia yields more than 90 terawatt hours of electric power annually and provides irrigation to 200 000 hectares of cultivated land. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Columbia und seine Nebenfluesse im Nordwesten der USA bilden eines der groessten Flusssysteme der Welt. Seine Erschliessung begann waehrend der Wirtschaftskrise der dreissiger Jahre mit dem Bau der Talsperren Bonneville, Rock Island und Grand Coulee. Weitere acht Staustufen wurden von den fuenfziger Jahren bis Anfang der siebziger Jahre verwirklicht. Als Treppe von Seen liefert der Columbia jaehlich ueber 90 TWh elektrische Energie und ermoeglicht die Bewaesserung von 200 000 Hektar Kulturland. (orig.)

  7. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study...... is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements...

  8. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Inundation risk for embanked rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Strupczewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by the overflow of the levee crest but also due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should also consider the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters–Discharge Threshold–Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF, with the methodology of its parameter estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such a model can estimate the duration of stages (flows of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of the probability of levee breaches due to the duration (d of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless of promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of

  10. THE FORMING CONDITIONS OF ALLUVIAL RIVER CHANNEL PATTERNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu QI; Gouting LIANG; Zangying SUN; Honghai QI

    2002-01-01

    In normal fluvial processes the river channel is determined by river flows while the movement of river flows is contained by river channels. The relationship between the river morphology and its bend curvature shows that rivers with large bend curvatures always have narrow and deep channels and those with shallow and wide channels are always straight. The plan form of a river reaches is determined by the cross-sectional morphology. A meandering river reach may be developed under various water-sediment conditions as long as the narrow and deep channels are formed.

  11. Contamination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chao Phraya River and Bangpakong River, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Fujii, Shigeo; Tanaka, Shuhei; Musirat, Chanatip; Artsalee, Chattakarn; Wongwattana, Thana

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been used for many years, and are distributed all over the world. This study focused on occurrences of PFCs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctonoic acid (PFOA) in Thai rivers and industrial estate discharges, while comparing results with rivers of other Asian countries (Japan, China, and Malaysia). Surveys were conducted in Chao Phraya River, Bangpakong River and three industrial estates. A solid phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis of these chemicals. The average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 1.9 and 4.7 ng/L, respectively in Chao Phraya River, while lower concentrations were detected in Bangpakong River with the averages of 0.7 ng/L for both PFOS and PFOA. Higher concentrations were detected in all industrial estate discharges with the averages of 64.3 ng/L for PFOA and 17.9 ng/L for PFOS., Total loadings from three industrial estates were 1.93 g/d for PFOS and 11.81 g/d for PFOA. The concentration levels in Thai rivers were less than rivers in Japan, China, and Malaysia. However, PFCs loading rate of Chao Phraya River was much higher than Yodo River (Japan), due to the higher flow rate. The other six PFCs were found above the Limit of Quantification (LOQ) in most samples. PFHxS and PFNA were also highly detected in some river samples.

  12. Sandbar-regulated hydrodynamic influences on river hydrochemistry at Mengabang Telipot River, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mei Kee; Sathiamurthy, Edlic; Suratman, Suhaimi; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    2012-12-01

    Influences of river hydrodynamic behaviours on hydrochemistry (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen saturations and dissolved phosphorus) were evaluated through high spatial and temporal resolution study of a sandbar-regulated coastal river. River hydrodynamic during sandbar-closed event was characterized by minor dependency on tidal fluctuations, very gradual increase of water level and continual low flow velocity. These hydrodynamic behaviours established a hydrochemistry equilibrium, in which water properties generally were characterized by virtual absence of horizontal gradients while vertical stratifications were significant. In addition, the river was in high trophic status as algae blooms were visible. Conversely, river hydrodynamic in sandbar-opened event was tidal-controlled and showed higher flow velocity. Horizontal gradients of water properties became significant while vertically more homogenised and with lower trophic status. In essence, this study reveals that estuarine sandbar directly regulates river hydrodynamic behaviours which in turn influences river hydrochemistry.

  13. Environmental flow for Monsoon Rivers in India: The Yamuna River as a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Vikram; Singh, Diwan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the flows of Monsoon Rivers in India that will permit the river to perform all its natural functions. About 80% of the total flow for Indian rivers is during the monsoon and the remaining 20% is during the non monsoon period. By carrying out a case study of the river Yamuna in Delhi we find that at least 50% of the virgin monsoon (July to September) flow is required for the transport of the full spectrum of soil particles in the river sediment. A similar flow is needed for adequate recharge of the floodplain aquifers along river. For the non monsoon period (October to June) about 60% of the virgin flow is necessary to avoid the growth of still water algae and to support river biodiversity.

  14. Straight river: its formation and speciality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Straight river is generally regarded as one of the typical river patterns in conventional classifications in terms of their channel plain landforms. However, very few straight patterns were found to be distributed in wider spatial and temporal spans in the self-adjusted fluvial rivers. Thus, the questions occur such as that is it possible for a channel takes on a stable straight pattern? What are the main factors controlling the processes of the river pattern formation and transformation from a straight to other patterns? Various theories and hypotheses including geomorphic threshold hypothesis, the extreme hypothesis on energy dissipation rate, the stability theory, etc. have been developed to explain the aforementioned questions, but none of them is sound for the explanation to the straight-river formation. From the modern fluvial plain patterns, the straight patterns are not as stable as other typical patterns which occurred in nature; from the historic records of the river sedimentation, no apparent evidence was found to support the stable straight river evolution. Based on the analysis of existing theories, observations, evolvement processes of the channel patterns in the experimental results, this paper concluded that the straight pattern should not be included as one of the typical patterns that are self-formed and developed. This study is of importance to understanding of the river pattern formation and transformation.

  15. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the CSX... vicinity. (b) The draw of the CSX Transportation Railroad bridge, Mile 79.6 at Small-house, is...

  16. Evolution of Modern Yellow River Delta Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延鸿; 周永青; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and evolution of modem Yellow River delta and the erosion or deposition rates of its different sections. In June, 1996,Yellow Rivers terminal course was artificially turned eastwards to empty into the sea and then the 11th lobe of the modern Yellow River delta began to form. This course change may mark the beginning of the 3rd subdelta formation. As a result of that, the Yellow River delta advances towards east by north with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd subdeltas arranged in succession. Coast zone in the deltaic area is divided into 7 different sections according to their different erosion or deposition rates: the relatively stable section from Dakou River to Shunjiang Stream, the weakly retreating section from Shun jiang Stream to the Tiaohe River mouth, the strongly retreating section from the Tiaohe River mouth to the station 106, the artificially stable section due to stone dam protection from the station 106 to Gudong Oilfield, the strong deposition section from Gudong Oilfield to Dawenliu Haipu, the weakly deposition section from Dawenliu Haipu to the Zimai Stream mouth, and the stable section from the Zimai Stream mouth to the Jiaolai River mouth. It is predicted that the erosion and deposition situations of the sections will nearly remain the same in 10 years, but the retreating and silting-up rates will tend to become slower gradually. Human activities have an evident influence on the changes of the coastline.

  17. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12...

  18. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M

    1999-06-09

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program.

  20. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing.... Applicant: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Dam Hydro Project. f. Location: On the... analysis at this time. n. The Crocker Dam Hydro Project would consist of: (1) The existing...