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Sample records for fraser fir abies

  1. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  2. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  3. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  4. THERMO-VACUUM MODIFICATION OF SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST. AND FIR (ABIES ALBA MILL. WOOD

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    Ottaviano Allegretti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents results of the characterization of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. and fir (Abies alba Mill. wood thermally modified by TERMOVUOTO® technology at temperatures in the range of 160 to 220°C in vacuum conditions. Sixteen thermo-vacuum treatment tests were carried out using a pilot laboratory unit on 30-mm-thick spruce and fir boards in various combinations of the process parameters, i.e. temperature (T, duration (t, and pressure (p. The treated material was characterized to reveal the changes of the physical-mechanical properties including color and durability. The treated wood showed an improved performance with relation to the dimensional stability and durability. The measured mechanical properties did not show any significant decrease. Analytical models, based on the existing correlations between wood properties and process parameters, were assessed, thus allowing the control of the process.

  5. Management of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bončina, Andrej; Ficko, Andrej; Klopčič, Matija; Matijašič, Dragan; Poljanec, Aleš

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we analysed the structure and developmental characteristics of forest stands with silver fir in Slovenia, the management and cut in four forest site strata, where silver fir occurs. We used databases from the Slovenia Forest Service. In growing stock (GS) of silver fir, large (dbh=30-49cm) and very large (d=50 cm and more) diameter trees account for 84.9 % at the national level. The highest share of very large diameter silver fir trees (45 %) is in Dinaric silver fir forests and...

  6. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  7. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  8. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  9. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal

    2012-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  10. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  11. Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Young Woo; Jong-Hwan Lim; Don Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing In Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33°13-36′ N and 126° 12-57′ E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15℃, 20℃and 25℃. The Irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, Irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.

  12. Extraction of Maltol from Fraser Fir: A Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Conventional Heating Protocols for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andrew S.; Chimento, Clio A.; Berg, Allison N.; Mughal, Farah D.; Spencer, Jean-Paul; Hovland, Douglas E.; Mbadugha, Bessie; Hovland, Allan K.; Eller, Leah R.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the extraction of maltol from Fraser fir needles are performed and compared in this two-week experiment. A traditional benchtop extraction using dichloromethane is compared to a microwave-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol. Students perform both procedures and weigh the merits of each technique. In doing so, students see a…

  13. Extraction of Maltol from Fraser Fir: A Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Conventional Heating Protocols for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andrew S.; Chimento, Clio A.; Berg, Allison N.; Mughal, Farah D.; Spencer, Jean-Paul; Hovland, Douglas E.; Mbadugha, Bessie; Hovland, Allan K.; Eller, Leah R.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the extraction of maltol from Fraser fir needles are performed and compared in this two-week experiment. A traditional benchtop extraction using dichloromethane is compared to a microwave-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol. Students perform both procedures and weigh the merits of each technique. In doing so, students see a…

  14. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN AREAS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOREST FIR (Abies guatemalensis REHDER

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    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical composition ( pH , elements major and minor , % S.B., CIC , % M.O. and N.T on soils in open areas and forest fir (Abies guatemalensis Rehder in a successional gradient was studied. These results were related to vegetation through correlation analysis and Canonical Correspondence analysis. The aim was to show the relationships present between vegetation and soil chemistry through ecological succession in areas of cold climate. The results indicate that the vegetation is composed of 82 species of which 20 are the lower herbaceous layer, 34 the herbaceous layer of the upper, 21 shrubs and seven trees. The chemical characteristics of the soil through five successional stages have only few significant differences and not show a clear tendency to increase according to the degree of ecosystem development. A low percentage of correlations between vegetation and soil chemical characteristics are presented. The correspondence canonical analysis shows that the features that correlate with sites through vegetation are the K, and % S.B. and CIC. One can conclude that the approach of the study of the chemical composition of soils in areas of ecological sequence is complex, especially in high regions where, besides other factors, the temperature and humidity play an important role on the soil-vegetation dynamic.

  15. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

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    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  16. Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp., Fir Honeydew (Abies alba and Sage (Salvia officinalis Honey

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    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp., fir honeydew (Abies alba and sage (Salvia officinalis honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In case of sage honey, sensory characteristics are reported for the first time and are rather uniform including: colour characterized as beige to jade, depending on the consistency; odour characterized as between light and medium intensity, slightly pungent and wooden; taste characterized as low sweetness, expressive acidity and apple caramel, with persistent fruity aftertaste. Characteristic volatile profiles of the analyzed honeys are described. Taking into consideration similarities with lime and fir honey volatile profiles reported in literature, characteristic volatile compounds resulting from qualitative data evaluation are proposed. Sage honey volatile profile has been reported for the first time and it was found quite different compared to the other studied honeys showing the lowest number of peaks among the studied honeys, 34. Several compounds belonging to the sage honey volatile profile have been identified for the first time in honeys. They include tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, 3-hexenyl ester of butanoic acid, 2-methylbenzene, maltol, methyl ester of 3-furanocarboxylic acid and benzeneacetic acid. Based on the obtained results and with the lack of comparative literature data, they are proposed as characteristic volatiles for the volatile pattern of sage honey.

  17. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  18. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

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    Laura Navarro-Sampedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  19. Fraser syndrome

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    Kalpana Kumari M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  20. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies and European silver fir (Abies alba

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    Priyanka eDhuli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species and Abies alba (temperate species to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle over a nine week period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids. Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  1. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Deborah Bowne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  2. The seasonal variation of arthropods living on forest soil at different altitudes in fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana ecosystem in Bolu-Aladağ

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    Ahmet Duyar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems, soil arthropods (Arthropoda, as primary and secondary consumers, have a significant role in litter decay and decomposition processes. The abundance, diversity and community structure of arthropods in soil ecosystem; give rapid response to change of site characteristics. The current study was aimed to determine of seasonal variation of soil arthropods on forest floor at different altitudes in Uludağ Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana Mattf. ecosystem which is an important forest tree species in Turkey. The study was conducted in pure fir stands at 1200-1600 m altitudes (4 elevation gradients in Aladağ, Bolu. The sampling was carried out for each winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The samples were collected from forest floor by pitfall traps. Variations of abundance and diversity of arthropods were evaluated according to seasons and altitudes. The distributions in trophic levels and biological diversity of arthropods were also determined. During the study, the maximum abundance of arthropods was 7576 individuals/m² in summer among seasons, and was 7854 individuals/m² at 1200 m altitude. Shannon-Wiener Index (H′ and Species Richness (S′ values were detected in the pitfall traps (H′= 2.22; S′= 22.

  3. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network...... of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where...... was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third...

  4. Fraser syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay A

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is a rare disorder with only a few cases having been described in Indian literature. We report here a case of a patient aged 16 yr present with primary amenorrhea which is a very unusual mode of presentation. Multiple associated anomalies were present including those of eyelids, eyebrow, face, fingers and genitalia. Chromosome analysis revealed a normal female karyotype. Pituitary gonadotropins were within normal range.

  5. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  6. Damage by Neonectria neomacrospora and Adelges piceae in provenance trials of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar; Hansen, Ole Kim; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of Abies lasiocarpa were undertaken with the aim of assessing the potential for Christmas tree production in Denmark. Twenty-six provenances originating from Alaska to New Mexico were tested. Damage by the insect Adelges piceae and the fungus Neonectria neomacrospora was recorded...

  7. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  8. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

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    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  9. Ecology of the Mexican Abies durangensis Martínez

    OpenAIRE

    C.Z., QuiñonesPérez; R., SilvaFlores; C., Wehenkel

    2014-01-01

    The genus Abies has about 40 species, which are mainly distributed in boreal or subalpine areas. In Mexico as a diversity center for this genus, all eight species of Abies are protected. Six of them are endemic and mainly distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and Oriental. The often isolated relict Abies durangensis Martínez, also known as Durango Fir, is located in the states of Durango, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Jalisco and usually grows on slopes with well-drained and shallow lithosols,...

  10. A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

    1983-05-01

    Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.

  11. Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Pierre Duval; Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros

    2012-01-01

    Abies religiosa (HBK) Schl. & Cham. (oyamel fir) is distributed in conifer-dominated mountain forests at high altitudes along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fir is the preferred host for overwintering monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migratory populations which habitually congregate within a few stands now located inside a Monarch Butterfly Biosphere...

  12. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  13. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  14. Gordon Fraser (1943-2013)

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    We were deeply saddened to learn that Gordon Fraser had passed away on 3 January. During his 25-year career at CERN, until his retirement in 2002, he made many valuable contributions to the Laboratory, in particular as editor of CERN Courier.   Gordon’s life in science began at Imperial College London, where he obtained a PhD with the theory group of the future Nobel laureate Abdus Salam. He then spent time at Tel Aviv University in Yuval Ne’eman’s group and at Brighton University, before changing career to become a journalist, at first for Computer Weekly in London. He moved into scientific editing at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in 1975 and it was from there that he was hired to join the publications team at CERN in 1977. By 1982 Gordon had become the editor of the CERN Courier. During his time at the helm, both particle physics and the Courier changed considerably. Under his careful stewardship aspects of publishing were outsourced, leading to a...

  15. Abies concolor growth responses to vegetation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan G. Conard; Steven R. Sparks

    1993-01-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor [Gord. and Glendl.] Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the...

  16. Novel FIR Inversion with Only FIRS

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, G

    2005-01-01

    The inversion of an FIR data sampling is usually stated to be possible with the use of a potentially unstable IIR, and in particular circumstances. It is possible to accomplish the same inversion with the doubling of an FIR sampling and with only FIRs for the sampling and the inversion. This note presents the configuration, which appently is not in the literature, for perfect signal reconstruction.

  17. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  18. Fraser syndrome in three consecutive siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarthigeyan Kalaniti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome (FS is a rare disorder characterized by a combination of acrofacial and urogenital malformations with or without cryptophthalmos. We report a newborn and its two elder siblings who had multiple congenital anomalies and clinico-radiological features consistent with FS.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of phloem formation in Silver fir and Norway spruce as affected by drought

    OpenAIRE

    Gričar, Jožica; Čufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of phloem growth ring formation in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) at different sites in Slovenia during the droughty growing season of 2003 was studied. We also determined the timing of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and counted the number of cells in the completed phloem and xylem growth rings. Light microscopy of cross-sections revealed that cambial activity started on the phloem and xylem side simultaneously at all 3 plots. ...

  20. The neural signature of the Fraser illusion: An explorative EEG study on Fraser-like displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyan eYun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied neural correlates accompanying the Fraser spiral illusion. The Fraser spiral illusion consists of twisted cords superimposed on a patchwork background arranged in concentric circles, which is typically perceived as a spiral. We tested four displays: the Fraser spiral illusion and three variants derived from it by orthogonally combining featural properties. In our stimuli, the shape of the cords comprised either concentric circles or a single spiral. The cords themselves consisted of black and white lines in parallel to the contour of the cords (i.e. parallel cords, or oblique line elements (i.e. twisted cords. The displays with twisted cords successfully induced illusory percepts, i.e. circles looked like spirals (the Fraser spiral illusion and spirals looked like circles (i.e., a ‘reverse Fraser illusion’. We compared the event-related potentials in a Stimulus (Circle, Spiral × Percept (Circle, Spiral design. A significant main effect of Stimulus was found at the posterior scalp in an early component (P220-280 and a significant main effect of Percept was found over the anterior scalp in a later component (P350-450. Although the EEG data suggest stimulus-based processing in posterior area in an early time window and Percept based processing in the later time window, an overall clear-cut stimulus-percept segregation was not found due to additional interaction effects. Instead, the data, especially in the later time window in the anterior area, point at differential processing for the condition comprising circle shapes but spiral percepts (i.e. the Fraser illusion.

  1. Conociendo a Aby Warburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eugenio Campos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aby Warburg es la oculta figura creadora de los estudios de iconología. Personaje indiscutido, ha sido retomado en los últimos años a partir de la reedición de sus obras y de numerosos estudios que posicionan su figura intelectual y los impactos que tuvo su método de aproximación a las imágenes, específicamente aquellos que hablaban del renacimiento del paganismo. Conceptos como pathosformeln, sobrevivencias de la antigüedad, accesorios en movimiento y el análisis histórico, psicológico y contextual de la producción cultural de las imágenes, son hoy característicos de una todavía novedosa manera de entender el estudio de la iconología.

  2. Pollen percentage thresholds of Abies alba based on 13-year annual records of pollen deposition in modified Tauber traps: perspectives of application to fossil situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidek, Irena Agnieszka; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; van der Knaap, Willem O; Magyari, Eniko

    2013-08-16

    Abies alba (fir), a submontane tree from Central European mountains and uplands, is of special interest for palaeoecological and palaeoclimate interpretations due to its sensitivity to air and soil humidity. Its present distribution limit in the uplands of SE Poland is still a matter of debate. In the Holocene fir expanded to Poland very late, but early fir populations are supposed to occur in the Šumava Mts (Czech Republic). The study aims: to estimate pollen thresholds for fir presence/absence in Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Poland on the basis of modified Tauber pollen traps; to use these thresholds for tracing fir presence in two pollen diagrams from Poland (Słone and Bezedna lakes) in the border zone between the Roztocze region (with fir forest stands today) and Polesie (where fir has never played an important role); and to investigate how the percentage presence/absence threshold can be used to trace the occurrence and abundance of fir trees in the Šumava Mts based on the pollen diagrams of Rokytecká slat' and Mrtvý luh. The fir pollen thresholds estimated in terms of PAR (pollen accumulation rates or pollen influx) range from 843 (grains cm(-2) year(-1)) (Roztocze) to 61 (Krkonoše) and 49 (Šumava). Percentage thresholds range from 0.3% in Krkonoše where fir trees are not present within 4 km to 22% in fir-dominated woodland of the Roztocze, providing evidence of strong underrepresentation of fir in the pollen deposition. Application of these percentage thresholds to the Słone and Bezedna pollen diagrams indicates that occurrence of fir in the region is possible from 3.5 ky cal BP onwards, though the evidence is not decisive. In the Šumava, a low representation of fir pollen (1-2%) reflecting presence of scattered fir trees was detected as early as ca. 7.0 ky cal BP.

  3. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Laganà; Elena Salerni; Carla Barluzzi; Claudia Perini; Vincenzo de Dominicis

    2014-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already st...

  4. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  5. Fraser syndrome : epidemiological study in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of bi

  6. Multiresource effects of a stand-replacement prescribed fire in the Pinus contorta-Abies lasiocarpa vegetation zone of central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Paul M. Woodard

    2002-01-01

    A stand-replacement prescribed fire in an over-mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stand (snag area) and in a mature lodgepole pine thicket (thicket area) resulted in lower plant diversity within the first year after burning, and as fire energy outputs increased...

  7. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are...

  8. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  9. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  10. Cytotoxic terpenes from Abies sibirica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Rong Wang; Yong Li Li; Wei Dong Zhang; Xian Wen Yang; Wen Cong Liu; Ji Ye; Zhi Jun Zhu; Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    One new and 16 known compounds were isolated from Abies sibirica.Their structures were assigned mainly on the basis ofNMR and MS spectroscopic data.In bioassay for anti-proliferative activity against four human tumor cells,compound 7 exhibitedselective anti-proliferative activity against COLO-205 rumor cell with an IC50 value of 0.9 μg/mL.

  11. FRASER SYNDROME IN A FEMALE BABY AGED 2MONTHS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chatterjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder first described by Canadian geneticist C.R. Fraser in the year 1962. The incidence of Fraser Syndrome is 0.043 per 10,000 live born infants and 1.1 in 10,000 still births making it a rare syndrome

  12. A rare reason for difficult intubation on neonates: Fraser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Gulasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is a rare genetic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized with cryptophtalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal and genital anomalies. To provide for additional preparation during the opening of the airway, knowing that there is also a condition of laryngeal atresia or stenosis accompanied to syndrome can be life-saving. In this article a neonate case with laryngeal anomalies whose findings were consistent with the Fraser Syndrome was discussed with the literature. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 600-603

  13. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  14. WOOD-WATER RELATIONSHIPS AND BIOLOGICAL DURABILITY OF HEAT-TREATED TAURUS FIR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica wood was treated with hot air at temperatures of 160, 190 and 220°C for 2h durations. After heat treatment, some physical properties and wood-water relationships were evaluated, such as mass loss, density, tangential swelling, radial swelling, volumetric swelling, swelling anisotropy, and fiber saturation point. In addition, the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood was tested in the laboratory with the soil contact test, and determined weight loss. The relationships between mass loss and some of the tested properties were determined using regression analysis. The results showed that heat treatment at 220°C had significant effects on the physical properties and the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood. Further, it was determined that there was a linear-negative correlation between weight loss and mass loss.

  15. Redescription of Sertularia notabilis Fraser, 1947 (Sertulariidae, Hydrozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migotto, A.E.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    An obscure species of the large leptolid genus Sertularia, S. notabilis Fraser, 1947, originally described from Tortuga Island, Venezuela, and not recorded since, is re-described and recorded from Brazilian coastal waters. This material is compared with Fraser’s type series; its relationship with Se

  16. Ecologie et croissance de Abies alba Mill. en peuplements purs et mélangés dans le Massif Vosgien (Nord-est de la France)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Paulina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the ecological niche and growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the Vosges Mountains (north-east France), in relation to environmental conditions and inter-specific competition. The data set used to study the ecological niche consisted in 325 phytoecological relevés extracted from the EcoPlant database. To study the growth of silver fir, 143 plots were carried out in this work using a stratified sampling design according to stand composition, el...

  17. Characteristics of heat-treated Turkish pine and fir wood after ThermoWood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Hamiyet Sahin

    2010-11-01

    The Finnish wood heat treatment technology ThermoWood, was recently introduced to Turkey. Data about the mechanical and physical properties of Turkish wood species are important for industry and academia. In this study two industrially important Turkish wood species, pine (Pinus nigraArnold.) and fir (Abies bornmülleriana Matf.) were heat-treated using the ThermoWood process. Pine and fir samples were thermally modified for 2 hr at 212 and 190 degrees C, respectively. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), impact bending strength (IBS), and compression strength (CS), in addition to swelling (Sw) and shrinkage (Sh) of thermally-modified wood were examined. The results indicate that the heat treatment method clearly decreased the MOR, MOE and lBS of pine and fir. However, a small increase was observed for CS values of heat treated wood species. The most affected mechanical properties were MOR and lBS for both pine and fir. The reduction in MOE was smaller than that in MOR and lBS. Volumetric shrinkage and swelling of these species were also improved by approximately half. In Addition, the changes in the mechanical and physical properties studied in pine were larger than that of fir.

  18. White Free Speech: The Fraser Event and its Enlightenment Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldie Osuri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the 2005 Australia-wide controversy about the white supremacist comments made by Macquarie University academic Associate Professor Andrew Fraser. It locates the means by which this white supremacism manifested itself not only through Fraser comments, but also through arguments surrounding free speech/academic freedom. Using whiteness theory and its examination of whiteness as an Enlightenment legacy, Osuri argues that the collusion between Fraser’s white supremacism and the free speech/academic freedom argument is based on a disavowal of how whiteness operates, as Aileen Moreton-Robinson describes it, as an epistemological and ontological a priori, an embodied form of knowledge-production, and collective white hegemony.

  19. Síndrome de Fraser: relato de caso Fraser syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Saraceno

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Fraser é uma condição sistêmica caracterizada por criptoftalmo, sindactilia e anomalia da genitália, podendo ainda estar associada a alterações dos rins, do ouvido, do nariz, da laringe e do esqueleto. O criptoftalmo pode representar um achado isolado, relatado como herança autossômica dominante, ou associado a outras anomalias congênitas, relatado como herança autossômica recessiva. RMSA, sexo feminino, três meses, avaliada no ambulatório geral de oftalmologia do Instituto Brasileiro de Oftalmologia e Prevenção à Cegueira. Filha de pais consangüíneos. Genitora referia tio e irmão com a mesma alteração. Ao exame, foram observados criptoftalmo total à direita, nariz em sela, implantação baixa das orelhas, malformação de conduto auditivo, clitoromegalia, aumento de grandes lábios e sindactilia de mãos e pés. A ultra-sonografia (USG abdominal evidenciou agenesia renal à esquerda. A USG ocular do olho direito mostrou diminuição do diâmetro ântero-posterior, desorganização do segmento anterior, afacia e descolamento total da retina. A patogênese da criptoftalmia ainda não foi determinada, mas a consangüinidade tem sido apontada por vários autores como fator de grande importância. Os médicos devem estar atentos para as manifestações clínicas e o diagnóstico preciso para que estes pacientes possam ser acompanhados por uma equipe multidisciplinar e os casais tenham o devido aconselhamento genético.Fraser syndrome is a systemic condition characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia, which may be associated with urinary tract, ear, nose, larynx and skeletal abnormalities. Cryptophthalmos can be an isolated finding (that has been reported as an autosomal dominant trait or associated with other congenital anomalies (reported as an autosomal recessive disorder. RMSA, female, 3 m.o., evaluated in the general clinic of the Instituto Brasileiro de Oftalmologia e Prevenção

  20. Evaluating the Fraser Health Balanced Scorecard--a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnardo, Catherine; Jivanni, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Fraser Health (FH), a large, Canadian, integrated health care network, adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to monitor organizational performance in 2006. This paper reports on the results of a formative evaluation, conducted in April, 2008, to assess the usefulness of the BSC as a performance-reporting system and a performance management tool. Results indicated that the BSC has proven to be useful for reporting performance but is not currently used for performance management in a substantial way.

  1. Fraser Syndrome-Oral Manifestations and a Dental Care Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Lopes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome is a rare genetic malformation with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and an incidence of consanguinity ranging from 15% to 25%. A 5-year-old male patient who is a carrier of Fraser syndrome initiated treatment in the pediatric dentistry sector. The patient was fed parenterally since birth, experienced recurring bouts of chronic lung disease, and was referred to the pediatric dentistry sector by the medical team. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of all permanent teeth. Supragingival dental calculus, halitosis, and gingival inflammation were also observed. Dental calculus was removed by manual scraping, and chemotherapeutic agents were used, chlorhexidine 0,12%, chlorhexidine gel 2%, and PVP-I, to control the bacterial flora. The patient is still being monitored after an 8-year follow-up period, the complications associated with periodontal disease decreased, and since the initiation of treatment, the patient has not needed to be hospitalized because of chronic lung disease. This study reports the case of a patient diagnosed with Fraser syndrome and describes the clinical manifestations (general and oral.

  2. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abiesconcolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill.rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p <0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 better than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively.Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  3. Wood anatomical relationships within Abies spp. from the Mediterranean area: a phyletic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L. G.; Palacios, P. de; Garcia Fernandez, F.; Martin, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    An analysis was made of the wood anatomy of seven species, one subspecies and two varieties of the genus Abies from the Mediterranean area (A. alba, A. borisii-regis, A. cephalonica, A. cilicica, A. nordmanniana, A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, A. numidica, A. pinsapo, A. pinsapo var. marocana and A. pinsapo var. tazaotana) in order to find phyletically relevant features to help clarify and complement the evolutionary patterns based on molecular studies. The wood structure within the genus was qualitatively similar, except for specific features characteristic of certain provenances. However, the wood biometry allowed the different taxa to be grouped in accordance with their anatomical similarity. A. alba, A. pinsapo, A. pinsapo var. marocana and A. pinsapo var. tazaotana possess biometric features which distinguish them from the other Mediterranean firs. Furthermore, A. numidica showed biometric features which distinguish it from the eastern firs (A. borisii-regis, A. cephalonica, A. cilicica, A. nordmanniana and A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani) and place it closer to certain Iberian populations of A. pinsapo. The maximum ray height in number of cells, frequency of rays with more than 30 cells and tracheid length can be regarded as specific patterns of the Mediterranean fir phylum. (Author) 72 refs.

  4. Potential of AbiS as defence mechanism determined by conductivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holubová, Jitka; Josephsen, Jytte

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To compare pH and conductivity used in the determination of growth in reconstituted skim milk (RSM), to determine whether the presence of one or two plasmids in Lactococcus lactis had any influence on growth, and whether AbiS improved bacteriophages resistance of L. lactis. Methods and Results...

  5. Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...

  6. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  7. Development of a neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A new neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University (SFU) utilizes a commercial deuterium-tritium neutron generator (Thermo Scientific P 385) to produce 14.2 MeV neutrons at a nominal rate of 3E8 neutrons/s. The facility will be used to produce radioisotopes to support a research program including nuclear structure studies and neutron activation analysis. As a prerequisite for regular operation of the facility and as a personnel safety consideration, dose rate predictions for the fa...

  8. Fused pulmonary lobes is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyozumi, Daiji; Nakano, Itsuko [Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takahashi, Ken L.; Hojo, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Hiroaki [Toxicology Division, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 4321 Uchimoriya, Joso, Ibaraki 303-0043 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi, E-mail: sekiguch@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) mutant rats exhibit similar phenotypes to Fraser syndrome. {yields} The fpl gene harbors a nonsense mutation in Fraser syndrome-associated gene Frem2. {yields} Fpl mutant is defined as a first model of human Fraser syndrome in rats. -- Abstract: Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) is a mutant gene that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and causes various developmental defects, including fusion of pulmonary lobes, and eyelid and digit anomalies in rats. Since these developmental defects closely resemble those observed in patients with Fraser syndrome, a recessive multiorgan disorder, and its model animals, we investigated whether the abnormal phenotypes observed in fpl/fpl mutant rats are attributable to a genetic disorder similar to Fraser syndrome. At the epidermal basement membrane in fpl/fpl mutant neonates, the expression of QBRICK, a basement membrane protein whose expression is attenuated in Fraser syndrome model mice, was greatly diminished compared with control littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of Fraser syndrome-related genes revealed that Frem2 transcripts were markedly diminished in QBRICK-negative embryos. Genomic DNA sequencing of the fpl/fpl mutant identified a nonsense mutation that introduced a stop codon at serine 2005 in Frem2. These findings indicate that the fpl mutant is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome.

  9. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... orders of the Commission's Fraser River Panel for U.S. sockeye and pink salmon fisheries in the Fraser... and pink salmon Tribal and non-Tribal commercial fishing unless opened by Panel orders that are...

  10. Clinical manifestations and oral findings in Fraser syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Lima, Luciana Monti; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    This article is the first known case report of Fraser syndrome in the dental literature. Its purpose was to present the clinical manifestations, oral findings, and dental treatment of a 14-year, 10-month-old female patient. Fraser syndrome is a rare recessive autosomal genetic disorder characterized by multisystemic malformation, usually comprising cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and renal defects. The child presented with: (1) hydrocephaly; (2) face asymmetry; (3) low-inserted ears; (4) flat nose bridge; (5) cryptophthalmos; (6) bilateral absence of eyeballs; (7) hypertelorism; (8) syndactyly on the left fingers and toes; (9) skeletal defects; and (10) lower limb asymmetry. The intraoral examination revealed: (1) complete primary denture; (2) malocclusion; (3) tooth crowding; (4) ogival palate; (5) normal labial frena; (6) absence of lingual frenum (not compromising the tongue movements); (7) parched lips; (8) supragingival calculus adhered to all tooth surfaces; and (9) moderate gingivitis. The dental treatment consisted of periodic monitoring of the patient's oral health status and supragingival scaling associated with topical applications of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate gel at 2-week intervals to reduce gingivitis.

  11. Trace Element Signatures of Particles in the Fraser River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Menard, O.; Kieffer, B.; Francois, R. H.; Weis, D. A.; Pcigr

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of trace element transport via particles at the estuarine boundary is critical to understanding the processes involved in translating these signatures to the ocean. The Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest river by volume flowing from the Pacific coast and dumps 20 million tons of sediment into the ocean per year, yet its trace elements have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to determine the Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb signatures of suspended matter in the Fraser River estuary. We collected 20L water samples at 3m depth at 12 locations along the north arm of the Fraser River, along the salinity gradient from freshwater to saline water approaching open straight values of ~25 per mil. Samples were allowed to settle and then filtered. Settled particulate matter was taken from each sample and digested in high-pressure vessels. Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb were separated using ion exchange chromatography columns. Sr and Nd isotopes were analyzed on a TIMS (Thermo Finnigan Triton-TI); Hf and Pb were measured with a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma). The measured ratios were 87Sr/86Sr = 0.71051 to 0.71289, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51203 to 0.51221 and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28253 to 0.28267 in the river and 0.70961, 0.51220 and 0.28273 respectively in the open straight. They reflect the local terrane compositions [2.3]. The collected particles have relatively radiogenic signatures compared with those obtained by Cameron and Hattori [1] between Lillooet and Hope but similar to those from higher in the river, i.e. they have a signature similar to older terranes drained by the Fraser headwaters. Between Hope and Vancouver, the Fraser River drains younger mantle-derived batholiths (Coast Belt). Therefore a more juvenile signature was expected for the particles collected at the mouth of the river. A possible explanation for this unexpected radiogenic signature is a difference in flow rate between the 1993 sampling (~3000m3/s) and ours in 2010 (~5500m3/s). The

  12. Seasonal distribution of phytoplankton in the Aby lagoon system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal distribution of phytoplankton in the Aby lagoon system, Ivory Coast, West ... dynamics were investigated in the Aby lagoon system, south-eastern Ivory ... Seasonal and spatial variability of nutrient concentrations in the system were ...

  13. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Laganà

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already studied in the past. Certain changes were observed in the study areas, but they seem more likely to be due to other factors than pollution, such as the weather conditions, the age and natural evolution of the forests towards their climax.

  14. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript a

  15. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temiño-Villota, S.; Rodríguez-Trejo, D.A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Ryan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species. Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough. Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality. Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001), diameter at breast height (p=0.0082), crown length (p≤0.0001) and crown base height (p≤0.0001) were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001) and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001), which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality. Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires. (Author)

  16. A weeding-duration model for Abies sachalinensis plantations in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    I developed a weeding-duration model for Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis (Fr.Schmidt) Masters) plantations that employs a generalized linear model.The number of years following planting that weeding is necessary is the response variable,and elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,geology,soil,site index,slope aspect,and vegetation type are explanatory variables.Among the explanatory variables,geology,soil,slope aspect,and vegetation type are categorical data.A Poisson distribution is assumed for the response variable,with a log-link function.Elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,site index,and vegetation type had a significant effect on weeding duration.Among the eight models with the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC),I chose the model with no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables.The weeding-duration model includes site index,maximum snow depth,slope steepness (angle)and vegetation type as explanatory variables; elevation and annual precipitation were not included in the selected model because of multicollinearity with maximum snow depth.This model is useful for cost-benefit analyses of afforestation or reforestation with Abies sachalinensis.

  17. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Temiño-Villota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  18. Pre-growth mortality of Abies cilicica trees and mortality models performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we compared tree-growth rates (basal area increment) from recently dead and living Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.) trees in the Kovada lake Forest of Isparta, Turkey. For each dead tree, tree-growth rates were analyzed for the presence of pre-death growth depressions in the study area (number of sample plots = 11) in 2006. However, we compared both the magnitude and rate of growth prior to death to a control (living) group of trees. Basal area increment (BAI) averaged substantially less during the last 10 years before death than for control trees. Trees that died started diverging in growth, on average, 50-60 years before death. About 18% of trees that died had chronically slow growth, 46% had pronounced declines in growth, whereas 36% had good growth up to death. However, tree-ring-based growth patterns of dead and living Taurus fir trees were compared and used 12 mortality models that were derived using logistic regression from growth patterns of tree-ring series as predictor variables. The four models with the highest overall performance correctly classified 43.8-56.3% of all dead trees and 75.0-87.5% of all living trees, and they predicted 25.0-43.8% of all dead trees to die within 0-15 years prior to the actual year of death.

  19. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics.

  20. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Toromani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients. The objectives of this study were: (1 to define the pattern of climatic response of each species, (2 to highlight the influence of local ecological conditions on tree's growth, and (3 to compare the response of silver fir and Bosnian pine to climate. Responses of total ring width to climate were estimated by establishing the mean relationship between growth and climate through simple correlations analysis and bootstrapped response functions. The response to climatic variability was also assessed by analyzing pointer years which correspond to abrupt changes in growth pattern and revealing the tree-growth response to extreme climatic events. For the period 1908-2008 the mean sensitivity (MS of total ring width chronology for Bosnian pine (0.209 was higher than silver fir (0.169 suggesting that Bosnian pine is more sensitive to climate (pointer years were more frequent in ring width chronology of Bosnian pine than in silver fir ring width chronology. The high values of first-order autocorrelations for Bosnian pine (0.674 indicated a strong dependence of current growth on the previous year’s growth. Pointer years analysis underlined the high sensitivity to spring temperatures and precipitation for both species. Radial growth for both species depends strongly on spring climate variables (temperatures and precipitation which play a significant role particularly for earlywood production. Material and Methods: We selected 12 silver fir trees and 15 Bosnian pine trees and took two 5

  1. 78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Area. The regulations close the U.S. portion of the Fraser River Panel Area to U.S. sockeye and...

  2. Flora of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, S.J.; Shepperd, W.D.; Reichert, D.W.; Cone, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The report lists 441 vascular plant taxa in 228 genera and 63 families encountered on the 9,300-ha Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Synonyms appearing in previous publications and other works pertaining to the Fraser Experimental Forest, as well as appropriate Colorado floras and less-technical field guides, are included. Plant communities and habitats are discussed, and a list of 54 lichens is also presented. A glossary of related terms is included.

  3. Roberts Bank: Ecological crucible of the Fraser River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Terri F.; Elner, Robert W.; O'Neill, Jennifer D.

    2013-08-01

    Roberts Bank, part of the Fraser River delta system on Canada's Pacific coast, is a dynamic estuarine environment supporting important fisheries as well as internationally significant populations of migratory shorebirds. The 8000 ha bank environment comprises a complex of riparian boundaries, intertidal marshes, mud and sand flats, eelgrass meadows, macroalgae and biofilms. Anthropogenic developments (a ferry causeway in 1961 and a port causeway in 1969) have been responsible for changes in tidal flow patterns, tidal elevation, sediment transport and the net expansion of eelgrass beds. The goals of the present study were to (1) directly compare geotechnical properties spanning each side of the coalport causeway, and (2) enhance our understanding of the intercauseway ecosystem under a high-resolution sampling design. Sediment properties (grain size, porosity, organic content, and chlorophyll) and biological communities (eelgrass, macrofauna (0.5-1.0 mm) and meiofauna (0.063-0.5 mm)) were surveyed in 1997 at three stations outside the intercauseway area and three lateral transects spanning the intercauseway tidal flat at tidal heights representing three different habitats: biofilm, Zostera japonica, and Zostera marina. A fine-silt organic-rich porous deposit was observed on the shoreward north side of the coalport causeway relative to the south counterpart, suggesting that consolidation and erosion processes could likely not keep pace with the deposition of Fraser River silt. High chlorophyll levels were found in the protected shoreward northern border of the ferry causeway where fine sands dominate and higher water transparency exists, owing to the redirection of the silt-laden river plume by the coalport causeway. Principle Components Analysis revealed a positive relationship between these porous, organic-rich sediments and cumacean abundance in all regions where eelgrass was absent, including the north side of the coalport causeway. Further, a positive

  4. Theology and psychology – the interdisciplinary work of Fraser Watts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the preface to his book, Theology and Psychology, Fraser Watts, a lecturer in Theology and Natural Science at the University of Cambridge, states that he approaches “… the interface between theology and psychology by looking at each discipline from the perspective of the other. This includes a religious perspective on several current hot topics in psychology, such as evolution, neuroscience, and computer intelligence. I also consider theological topics like divine action, salvation history and eschatology, in each case using the psychological perspective in a different way”. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, Watts aims at proposing a psychology of religious experience. He considers theology to be the rational reflection on the Christian tradition. When exponents of this tradition are in dialogue with exponents of psychology, the focus falls on human nature. Watts admits that a certain lack of competence in one of the two disciplines can be a problem when working in an interdisciplinary way. However, he is willing to take the risk. Watts worked in psychology for 25 years and was also involved with a medical research council, before taking up a position at the Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge.

  5. Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: a life cycle perspective using expert judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, Tim; Wilmot, Sarah; Healey, Michael; Hinch, Scott

    2010-12-01

    Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups; they are also of huge ecological significance throughout the Fraser Basin. The potential for altered aquatic habitat and temperature regimes due to climate change is an important concern for Fraser River sockeye salmon. This paper characterizes the vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to future climate change using an approach that is novel on three counts. First, previous efforts to assess the vulnerability of salmon to climate change have largely focused on only part of the life cycle, whereas we consider climate vulnerability at all stages in the life cycle. Second, we use the available scientific literature to provide a basis for structuring and eliciting judgments from fisheries science and management experts who research and manage these systems. Third, we consider prospects for mitigating the effects of climate change on sockeye salmon. Tests showed that participants' judgments differentiated in statistically significant ways among questions that varied in terms of life stages, spawning regions and climate scenarios. The consensus among participants was that Fraser River sockeye are most vulnerable to climate change during the egg and returning adult stages of the life cycle. A high temperature scenario was seen as imposing the greatest risk on sockeye stocks, particularly those that migrate to the upper reaches of the Fraser River system and spawn earlier in the summer. The inability to alter water temperature and the highly constrained nature of sockeye management, with competing gear types and sequential fisheries over a long distance, suggest the potential to mitigate adverse effects is limited. Fraser River sockeye already demonstrate a great deal of adaptive capacity in utilizing heterogeneous habitats in different river sub-basins. This adaptability points to the

  6. Detector level ABI spectral response function: FM4 analysis and comparison for different ABI modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, Boryana; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Frank; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of imaging instruments Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is to be launched aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites - R Series (GOES-R). Four ABI flight modules (FM) are planned to be launched on GOES-R,S,T,U, the first one in the fall of 2016. Pre-launch testing is on-going for FM3 and FM4. ABI has 16 spectral channels, six in the visible/near infrared (VNIR 0.47 - 2.25 μm), and ten in the thermal infrared (TIR 3.9 - 13.3 μm) spectral regions, to be calibrated on-orbit by observing respectively a solar diffuser and a blackbody. Each channel has hundreds of detectors arranged in columns. Operationally one Analytic Generation of Spectral Response (ANGEN) function will be used to represent the spectral response function (SRF) of all detectors in a band. The Vendor conducted prelaunch end-to-end SRF testing to compare to ANGEN; detector specific SRF data was taken for: i) best detector selected (BDS) mode - for FM 2,3, and 4; and ii) all detectors (column mode) - for four spectral bands in FM3 and FM4. The GOES-R calibration working group (CWG) has independently used the SRF test data for FM2 and FM3 to study the potential impact of detector-to-detector SRF differences on the ABI detected Earth view radiances. In this paper we expand the CWG analysis to include the FM4 SRF test data - the results are in agreement with the Vendor analysis, and show excellent instrument performance and compare the detector-to-detector SRF differences and their potential impact on the detected Earth view radiances for all of the tested ABI modules.

  7. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  8. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  9. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... participant will be notified, electronically and in writing, by the applicable Director, of the...

  10. Genetic and environmental characterization of Abies alba Mill. populations at its western rear edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancho-Knapik, D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of ten Abies alba populations at the western rear edge in the Spanish Pyrenees was characterized and compared with two German populations, looking for the role of climatic factors in the fir decline. Growth, defoliation, aridity and cumulative summer water deficit summer were also characterized. Spanish populations show a lower genetic diversity and a high genetic differentiation than German ones, mainly established by an East (higher diversity-West (lower diversity gradient. The three defoliated populations are the western ones, with higher summer aridity. Contrastingly, the southern population (Guara shows climatic variables close to western sites but without defoliation and with a higher genetic diversity, indicating a possible adaptation to the sub-Mediterranean conditions. Silver fir in the Spanish Pyrenees constitutes a “stable” rear edge because of their isolation, small sized and small genetic diversity. Western Pyrenean sites subjected to dryer conditions and presenting lower genetic diversity are prone to drought-induced mortality in the context of global warming.Se ha caracterizado la estructura genética de diez poblaciones de Abies alba en la retaguardia occidental de su distribución en el Pirineo español en comparación con dos poblaciones de Alemania, buscando la influencia de factores climáticos en el decaimiento del abeto. También se caracterizó crecimiento, defoliación, aridez y déficit acumulado de agua durante el verano. Las poblaciones españolas mostraron una menor diversidad genética y una mayor diferenciación genética que las poblaciones alemanas, establecida principalmente a través de un eje Este (mayor diversidad-Oeste (menor diversidad. Las tres poblaciones con defoliación son las del suroeste, con mayor aridez estival. Por el contrario, la población más meridional (Guara muestra variables climáticas cercanas a estas poblaciones del suroeste pero sin defoliación y con mayor

  11. Range extension of Microgomphus souteri Fraser, 1924 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae to northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Halali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During opportunistic surveys conducted at Collem (Goa, a specimen of male Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 was collected on 14th September 2013. Another male specimen was collected on 28th June 2014. Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 is recorded for the first time in northern Western Ghats and is a new record for Goa. Type specimen was described from Coorg (Karnataka and was later recorded from Kerala. The discovery of this species in Goa has expanded its range to the north of the Western Ghats. With this discovery currently 88 species of Odonata are now known from the state. 

  12. Ecological requirements of Abies alba in the French Alps derived from dendro-ecological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, C.; Michalet, R.; Desplanque, C.; Petetin, A.; Aime, S. [Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France). Centre de Biologie Alpine

    1999-06-01

    We used dendro-ecological techniques to investigate fundamental relationships between climate and growth of Abies alba (silver fir) in eastern France. Seven Abies forests in the Trieves region of the French Alps were chosen to represent a wide range of ecological conditions based on the results of previous forest vegetation surveys. In each forest, four trees were sampled in each of five different stands with two cores per tree. These 280 cores were studied using two separate dendro-ecological methods: the pointer years method (based on extreme growth events), and correlation functions between tree ring-widths and monthly climatic data. Data from 11 meteorological stations were combined to provide a regional analysis of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures. The two dendro-ecological methods appear to be complementary, as the first technique emphasizes common and low intensity linear correlations between ring-widths and climatic variations, and the second method emphasizes extreme and unusual climatic events such as exceptionally cold or dry years. Across all sites, drought in the previous year was consistently correlated with a low growth rate; however, other climatic variables varied substantially among sites. For example, drought in the current year reduced growth more in the low elevation sites than in the high elevation sites and severe winter frost reduced growth the most in the high altitude sites and the driest site. Moreover, certain growth responses are better correlated with the age of the stands, the canopy closure and the floristic composition of the community than the abiotic factors, emphasizing the value of dendro-ecological sampling based on phytosociological units 63 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations by Strawberry Growers in the Lower Fraser Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    The study investigated the adoption behavior of 100 strawberry growers (including 32 Mennonites and 23 Japanese) in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Adoption of six selected practices was examined in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and ethnicity. Findings included the following: (1) ethnic groups differed significantly on…

  14. Civic Fragmentation or Voluntary Association? Habermas, Fraser, and Charter School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Terri Wilson puts the argument developed by Kathleen Knight Abowitz that charter schools could be considered as counterpublic spaces into interaction with empirical research that explores patterns of voluntary self-segregation in charter schools. Wilson returns to the theoretical tension between Jurgen Habermas and Nancy Fraser over…

  15. First record of Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei for the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.; Bermudez-Villapol, L.A.; Simal, F.

    2012-01-01

    A dead dolphin found on Bonaire in August 2011 is identified as adult Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei, a new species for the Dutch Caribbean. A first closer examination showed a collapsed lung, stomach parasite infection and abundant mouth ulceration as indications of its health status. The

  16. Fraser and the Cheerleader: Values and the Boundaries of Student Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensal, Patricia A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Student speech has and continues to be a contested issue in schools. The Supreme Court ruled in "Tinker" that students do not shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate; in the "Kuhlmeier" and "Fraser" decisions, however, the Court gave school officials greater latitude in regulating student speech, especially when it…

  17. First record of Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei for the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.; Bermudez-Villapol, L.A.; Simal, F.

    2012-01-01

    A dead dolphin found on Bonaire in August 2011 is identified as adult Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei, a new species for the Dutch Caribbean. A first closer examination showed a collapsed lung, stomach parasite infection and abundant mouth ulceration as indications of its health status. The ani

  18. Description of the final-instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-02-12

    The final instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, 1925, is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens collected in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Antennae, legs and paraprocts are similar morphologically to H. kelantanensis and H. scorpio but with a unique combination of dorsal hooks and lateral spines.

  19. Civic Fragmentation or Voluntary Association? Habermas, Fraser, and Charter School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Terri Wilson puts the argument developed by Kathleen Knight Abowitz that charter schools could be considered as counterpublic spaces into interaction with empirical research that explores patterns of voluntary self-segregation in charter schools. Wilson returns to the theoretical tension between Jurgen Habermas and Nancy Fraser over…

  20. Effects of acidic fog on seedlings of Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor: foliar injury, physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, B K; Bytnerowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Abies concolor (white fir) were exposed to acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0) in open-field plots for six weeks. The two species exhibited dissimilar injury responses; neither current year nor previous year needles of ponderosa pine were injured by pH 2.0 fog, but current year needles exhibited higher membrane permeability responses (i.e. needle extract conductivity, K+ concentration). In comparison, both needle age classes in white fir were significantly injured by pH 2.0 fog, but no significant effects on membrane permeability were observed. For both species, whole-study average rates of net photosynthesis in previous year needles were lower in plants exposed to pH 2.0 fog than in plants treated with pH 4.0 fog. While decreased process rates coincided with leaf necrosis in white fir, stomatal closure appeared to be the mechanism of inhibition in ponderosa pine with pH 2.0 fog (i.e. no visible injury). The findings of the present study provide evidence that frequent applications of highly acidic fog (i.e. pH 2.0-3.0) can cause temporal alterations in membrane permeability and gas exchange rates in western conifer seedlings, in the presence or absence of visible injury. However, because incipient effects on other measures of foliage health were species-specific (i.e. concentrations of starch, photosynthetic pigments, inorganic nutrients), a general mechanism of phytotoxicity could not be identified.

  1. Effect of Hydropriming and Biopriming on Seed Germination and Growth of Two Mexican Fir Tree Species in Danger of Extinction

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    Ramón Zulueta-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abies spp. in general have been shown to need a period of cold stratification to break dormancy and germinate, but this can be very time consuming. In this study, hydropriming by itself and in combination with biopriming was carried out on Abies hickelii and Abies religiosa seeds. For biopriming, three species of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ( Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Bacillus subtilis were tested. The purpose was to determine if germination and growth could be improved for these two endangered species. Our results demonstrated that treating A. hickelii and A. religiosa with both hydropriming and biopriming with certain strains of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR could improve germination rates up to 91% for A. hickelii and up to 68% for A. religiosa. Importantly, these treatments showed no significant negative impact on the growth of A. religiosa and actually improved growth in A. hickelii. The application of both hydropriming and biopriming offer possibly an alternative methodology to improve germination, survival and preservation of these fir tree species of Mexico that are at risk of extinction.

  2. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pineda Lopez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  3. Geologic map of the Fraser 7.5-minute quadrangle, Grand County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Bryant, Bruce; Kellogg, Karl S.; Theobald, Paul K.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    The geologic map of the Fraser quadrangle, Grand County, Colo., portrays the geology along the western boundary of the Front Range and the eastern part of the Fraser basin near the towns of Fraser and Winter Park. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle include gneiss, schist, and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age that are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. These basement rocks are exposed along the southern, eastern, and northern margins of the quadrangle. Fluvial claystone, mudstone, and sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and fluvial sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, overlie Proterozoic rocks in a small area near the southwest corner of the quadrangle. Oligocene rhyolite tuff is preserved in deep paleovalleys cut into Proterozoic rocks near the southeast corner of the quadrangle. Generally, weakly consolidated siltstone and minor unconsolidated sediments of the upper Oligocene to upper Miocene Troublesome Formation are preserved in the post-Laramide Fraser basin. Massive bedding and abundant silt suggest that loess or loess-rich alluvium is a major component of the siltstone in the Troublesome Formation. A small unnamed fault about one kilometer northeast of the town of Winter Park has the youngest known displacement in the quadrangle, displacing beds of the Troublesome Formation. Surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age are widespread in the Fraser quadrangle, particularly in major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Troublesome Formation. Deposits include glacial outwash and alluvium of non-glacial origin; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; pediment deposits; tills deposited during the Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations; and sparse diamictons that may be pre-Bull Lake till or debris-flow deposits. Some of the oldest surficial deposits may be as old as Pliocene.

  4. INVESTIGATING CHANGES IN THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF HEAT-TREATED HORNBEAM AND ULUDAG FIR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Aydemir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical constituents and some physical properties such as swelling and water absorption of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L and uludag fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf. wood were investigated after heat treatment at three different temperatures (170 oC, 190 oC, and 210 oC for three different durations (4, 8, and 12 hours by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry. The results of TGA show that there was less weight loss in the main degradation region (300-500 oC for the heat-treated samples as compared to untreated (control samples. In addition, there was greater weight loss of hornbeam wood than of uludag fir wood in a similar degradation region. This difference could be due to the chemical constituents of softwoods and hardwoods. The results of FTIR spectrometry show that the chemical constituents of the hornbeam wood samples were more affected by heat treatment. All heat-treated samples exhibited lower water absorption and swelling compared to control samples. It was found that the relative decrease in swelling and water absorption for uludag fir was higher than for hornbeam. The maximum decrease in water absorption and swelling was found for both species that were heat-treated at 210 oC for 12 hours.

  5. A social identity approach to acquired brain injury (ABI)

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument put forward in this thesis is that, in the context of acquired brain injury (ABI) social identity matters. The first article is a theoretical paper which reviews an emerging literature that is trying to draw together social psychology and neuropsychology in the study of ABI. This article argues that the social identity approach is an appropriate vehicle for such integration and introduces the concept of identity sub-types based on belonging and based on p...

  6. Role of geographical provenance in the response of silver fir seedlings to experimental warming and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Gonzalez-Díaz, Patricia; Quero, José L; Camarero, J Julio; Lloret, Francisco; Jump, Alistair S

    2016-10-01

    Changes in climate can alter the distribution and population dynamics of tree species by altering their recruitment patterns, especially at range edges. However, geographical patterns of genetic diversity could buffer the negative consequences of changing climate at rear range edges where populations might also harbour individuals with drought-adapted genotypes. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) reaches its south-western distribution limit in the Spanish Pyrenees, where recent climatic dieback events have disproportionately affected westernmost populations. We hypothesized that silver fir populations from the eastern Pyrenees are less vulnerable to the expected changing climate due to the inclusion of drought-resistant genotypes. We performed an experiment under strictly controlled conditions simulating projected warming and drought compared with current conditions and analysed physiology, growth and survival of silver fir seedlings collected from eastern and western Pyrenean populations. Genetic analyses separated eastern and western provenances in two different lineages. Climate treatments affected seedling morphology and survival of both lineages in an overall similar way: elevated drought diminished survival and induced a higher biomass allocation to roots. Increased temperature and drought provoked more negative stem water potentials and increased δ(13)C ratios in leaves. Warming reduced nitrogen concentration and increased soluble sugar content in leaves, whereas drought increased nitrogen concentration. Lineage affected these physiological parameters, with western seedlings being more sensitive to warming and drought increase in terms of δ(13)C, nitrogen and content of soluble sugars. Our results demonstrate that, in A. alba, differences in the physiological response of this species to drought are also associated with differences in biogeographical history.

  7. Genetic analysis of silver-fir populations in the North Carpathian and Sudeten Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds collected from individual trees in the 16 Carpathian and 2 Sudeten silver-fir (Abies alba populations were studied with the starch gel electrophoresis in megagametophytes using 14 enzyme systems with 28 loci. The results show that the geographical distance between populations are in a small part reflected in genetic distances. There are two main groups of populations: Sudeten and Carpathian with a very big genetic distance between them. Other populations consist of a few small groups with low gene flow between them (Nm = 3.286. About 80% of genetic variation is located within populations (FST = 0.223. Average values for genetic multiplicity and diversity for Carpathian populations are as follows: number of alleles per locus: Na = 2.308, with effective number of alleles Ne = 1.552 and proportion of polymorphic loci 71.21%. The mean number of alleles per locus (Na varied from 2.107 to 2.607 in population. The mean effective number of alleles per locus (Ne ranged from 1.429 to 1.662. Average Fis for Carpathian populations was -0.021, which means that there is small excess of heterozygotes. The average observed heterozygosity amounted to Ho = 0.275 and expected heterozygosity was He = 0.269. The dendrogram structure and presence of rare alleles found in silver-fir of Czech, and Slovakian populations allow for a hypothesis that in postglaciation the silver-fir moved into the Polish Carpathians not westward from the east but from the south along river valleys from some Balkan refuges, getting North bypassing the High Tatra Range. This way, a highly diversified set of populations originated, differ in the presence of rare alleles. This differentiation is not prevented by a relatively small flow of genes between populations. The calculated gene flow Nm = 3.286 also indicates isolation between the populations. It means 3.3 immigrants per generation into the studied populations.

  8. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  9. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  10. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggins Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  11. An Orthogonal Least Squares Based Approach to FIR Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Wu; Zi-Qiang Lang; Stephen A Billings

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of forward Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS) algorithm to the design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. The focus of this study is a new FIR filter design procedure and to compare this with traditional methods known as the fir2() routine provided by MATLAB.

  12. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  13. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  14. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  15. Plantas asociadas a los bosques de Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae del occidente de Guatemala Plants associated to Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae forests in Western Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una carencia de información detallada sobre la composición y estructura de las comunidades montanas guatemaltecas. El objetivo del estudio fue contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de abeto (Abies guatemalensis, para esto se hizo el levantamiento florístico en bosques de abeto del occidente de Guatemala. Se encontraron 119 especies, 92 géneros, 50 familias en cuatro divisiones. Las familias más numerosas fueron: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae y los géneros más abundantes Salvia, Alchemilla y Bidens. Las especies se ubicaron en cuatro estratos, 33 en el herbáceo inferior, 49 en el herbáceo superior, 30 en arbustos y siete en árboles. Se hace énfasis en la contribución del estudio al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de A. guatemalensis y la necesidad de otros similares en los demás bosques de esta especie, que sirva para fomentar su conocimiento y conservación. Se consideraron seis grupos de distribución geográfica, el principal es del centro de México a Centroamérica con 67% de especies. Se realiza una comparación fitogeográfica y de composición florística, con otras áreas de Abies de Guatemala y México. Se propone que a pesar de haber familias y géneros comunes, que proporcionan la estructura general entre los bosques de abeto, se deben considerar las particularidades florísticas de cada área, en el manejo y conservación influidas por suelo, latitud y microclima.The fragments of Abies guatemalensis forests in Western Guatemala are the reservoirs of plant species that have been poorly documented, missing the opportunity to expand the knowledge of the local flora and its use in conservation planning. To assess this, a floristic study was done in areas between 2 950-3 360masl in Western Guatemala between 2010-2011. Ten locations were sampled: in each a 500m² plot was surveyed, and plants were classified in four strata by plant height (0.05-30m. A total of 119 species

  16. REVEAL II: Seasonality and spatial variability of particle and visibility conditions in the Fraser Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    conditions. Source apportionment analyses of mass and particle light-scattering indicate motor vehicles may contribute as much as 40% of the fine particle mass in the central valley and up to one-third of the particle light-scattering. In addition to characterizing conditions in the Fraser Valley, slides......This paper presents data collected during a year-long field experiment (REVEAL II) in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. The data are used to provide information regarding ambient visibility conditions and fine particle concentrations in the valley. Although average fine mass measured during...... REVEAL II was 8-9 mu g m(-3), the fine particle mass has high light-scattering efficiencies and the visual range is frequently below publicly defined acceptable levels. For example, data indicate that during the fall the visual range is frequently below 20 km even under favorable meteorological...

  17. A New FIR Filter for State Estimation and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pyung-Soo Kim; Myung-Eui Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new FIR (finite impulse response) filter under a least squares criterion using a forgetting factor. The proposed FIR filter does not require information of the noise covariances as well as the initial state, and has some inherent properties such as time-invariance, unbiasedness and deadbeat. The proposed FIR filter is represented in a batch form and then a recursive form as an alternative form. From discussions about the choice of a forgetting factor and a window length, it is shown that they can be considered as useful parameters to make the estimation performance of the proposed FIR filter as good as possible. It is shown that the proposed FIR filter can outperform the existing FIR filter with incorrect noise covariances via computer simulations. Finally, as a useful application, an image sequence stabilization problem is considered. Through this application, the FIR filtering based approach is shown to be superior to the Kalman filtering based approach.

  18. Effects of human population growth on the Fraser and Okanagan River systems, Canada: a comparative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcote, T G

    1996-10-01

    The author compares the impact of human population growth on the Fraser and Okanagan river systems in Canada. The effects "on water, fisheries and other aquatic resources of the two basins are explored along with possibilities and suggestions for their sustainable development. The latter, despite some glimmers of hope, will not be tenable without major changes in public attitude, in government policy at all levels, and in other measures which to many may seem impossible." excerpt

  19. Esfera pública, reconhecimento e minorias: o diálogo Habermas-Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser delineou uma compreensão procedimental do reconhecimento que tem possibilidade de combater políticas estreitas de autenticidade de grupo. Jürgen Habermas enfatiza um modelo deliberativo e uma análise histórica da esfera pública, por meio de um aprendizado teórico que culminou em 1992, com Faktizität und Geltung. Pretendemos demonstrar, com base em Fraser e Habermas, que, diante de um contexto de exclusão do espaço público oficial, é necessário ampliar arenas discursivas, sob pena de reproduzirmos e mantermos as assimetrias dominantes. Fraser, em Scales of Justice, defende uma esfera pública transnacional na qual há uma rearticulação dos processos decisórios, superando as fronteiras dos estados nacionais territorialmente situados. Propugnamos analisar a evolução das concepções de esfera pública em Habermas e Fraser ao longo de suas trajetórias teóricas. Em Habermas, até 2011, havia uma ambiguidade que oscilava entre a abordagem fina de patriotismo constitucional e a concepção densa de autocompreensão europeia. Com efeito, pretendemos investigar como Habermas, em Sobre a constituição da Europa - um ensaio, Habermas soluciona tal ambiguidade em relação à compreensão de esfera pública, lecionando que os cidadãos, por meio da tecnologia digital e de padrões morais, avaliam as estruturas econômicas europeias, confrontando as instituições existentes com as exigências de uma justiça global. Sustentamos, com base em Habermas, que tais discussões devem ser efetivadas no interior de um Parlamento mundial composto de Estados e cidadãos.

  20. Performance and Size of Fraser & Neave Holdings Bhd (F&N)

    OpenAIRE

    Othaman, Ridhuan

    2017-01-01

    The main study is to analyze about the overall of the risk and the performance of the Fraser & Neave Holdings Bhd (F&N). All the is get from annual report that get from the Bursa Malaysia. The measurement of the company is used in variety of ratio such as liquidity risk, operational risk, credit risk and financial risk. These ratio is useful to know well about the company.

  1. The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinner, W.; Colombaroli, D.; Heiri, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484036X; Henne, P.D.; Steinacher, M.; Untenecker, J.; Vescovi, E.; Allen, J.R.M.; Carraro, G.; Conodera, M.; Joos, F.; Lotter, A.F.; Luterbacher, J.; Samartin, S.; Valsecchi, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314038779

    2013-01-01

    Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g., pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important

  2. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellanas, B.; Abellanas, M.; Pommerening, A.; Lodares, D.; Cuadros, S.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. a) To present a new version of the forest simulator Vorest, an individual-based spatially explicit model that uses weighted Voronoi diagrams to simulate the natural dynamics of forest stands with closed canopies. b) To apply the model to the current dynamics of a Grazalema pinsapo stand to identify the nature of its competition regime and the stagnation risks it is currently facing. Area of study: Sierra del Pinar de Grazalema (S Spain) Material and methods: Two large plots representative of Grazalema pinsapo stands were used to fit and validate the model (plus 6 accesory plots to increase the availability of mortality data). Two inventories were carried out in 1998 and 2007 producing tree size and location data. We developed a forest simulator based on three submodels: growth, competition and mortality. The model was fitted, evaluated and validated for Grazalema plots. The simulation outputs were used to infer the expected evolution of structural diversity of forest stands. Main results: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating dynamics of natural closed stands. The application to Grazalema pinsapo stands has allowed assessing the nature of the main processes that are driving its development pathway. We have found that the prevailing size-asymmetric competition dominates the self-thinning process in small-sized trees. At the same time, there is an active tree-size differentiation process. Research highlights: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating natural stands with closed canopies. The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. (Author)

  3. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Abellanas

    2016-07-01

    • The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. Keywords: Vorest; stand dynamics; individual-based forest model; spatially explicit forest model; pinsapo.

  4. The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinner, W.; Colombaroli, D.; Heiri, O.M.; Henne, P.D.; Steinacher, M.; Untenecker, J.; Vescovi, E.; Allen, J.R.M.; Carraro, G.; Conodera, M.; Joos, F.; Lotter, A.F.; Luterbacher, J.; Samartin, S.; Valsecchi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g., pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important Eur

  5. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  6. Effect of clear cutting on snow accumulation and water outflow at Fraser, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Troendle

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares of snowpack accumulation and ablation, evapotranspiration, and water outflow from clearcut and forested plots within a high elevation (2900 m mixed conifer forest at the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA. Also presented is a method for defining contributing area where outflow is measured from unbounded plots. Plots were monitored from 1980 to 1990 and again in 1993. The clearcut plot was harvested in late 1984. Evapotranspiration (ET of the forested plot at zero discharge (ETo was estimated at 426 mm while the ET was 500 mm at the mean precipitation of 596 mm. ET was dependent on precipitation with about 28% of precipitation input in excess of 426 mm contributing to increased ET, while the remainder contributed to increased outflow. During the six monitored post-harvest years, Peak Water Equivalent of the snowpack averaged 36% higher on the cut plot than on the control, and the mean discharge increased from 85 mm to 356 mm. Area estimates were obtained from the slopes of the regression of outflow on precipitation inputs. Hydrologic parameters corresponded closely to those previously determined at Fraser Experimental Forest using other methods, lending credence to the validity of the area estimates.

  7. Supporting frail seniors through a family physician and Home Health integrated care model in Fraser Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Haeson Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions. Description of integrated practice: An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues. Early results: The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased. Conclusion: Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients.

  8. Supporting frail seniors through a family physician and Home Health integrated care model in Fraser Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Haeson Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions.Description of integrated practice: An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues.Early results: The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased.Conclusion: Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients.

  9. Species Distribution Modeling between Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis According to the RCP Scenarios in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Kim, I. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Byeon, J. G.; Yun, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Vulnerable plant that includes species in crisis of extinction is shown by environment, competition between various species. The climate is one of the main factor that affect to the plant distribution. The most essential particular to make species distribution model is distribution data, and secondly environmental factors. 179 taxon plant classified according to the distribution, it consist of characteristic and regional distribution criteria. In case of climate data, 1960-1990 period made by World Clim Data is applied which has 0.86㎢ spatial resolution. It separates temperature and precipitation factor. To predict potential distribution, Maxent(Maximum Entropy Model) is applied that is widely known as suitable model in case of presence distributional data only. Among the target species, Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis have no clearly key to identify, so their differences of distribution and environmental fator information could act useful. In order to know the distinction according to the classifying species, Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis are typically selected. Abies koreana distributes at high mountain in Southern part of Korean Peninsula, otherwise Abies nephrolepis is at high mountain in from Middle latitude(over the 37°) in South Korea. These species has been the center of controversy recently, because the classification key of these species is not scientifically clear yet. In this perspective these species predicted potential distribution depend on whether these are same species or not. In the result of considering these species are same, entire predicted distribution area is wider, especially Jiri-san mountain(latitude : 35°) which is the highest latitude of the Abies koreana distributed point. On the other side, result of considering different species is shown that Abies koreana could climatically survive near by Soerak-san mountain(latitude : 37°), but Abies nephrolepis could not live in Halla-san mountan(33°) in Jeju-island which is the

  10. Effects of Steaming, Drying Temperature, and Adhesive Type on Static Bending Properties of LVL made of Picea orientalis and Abies nordmanniana veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Peker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR were evaluated for laminated veneer lumber (LVL in static bending. The studied species were spruce (Picea orientalis and fir (Abies nordmanniana originated from the Eastern Black sea region and prepared with phenol-formaldehyde and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The effect of wood species, steaming, drying temperature, and type of adhesive on static bending MOE and MOR were determined. According to the experimental results, the bending strength of spruce wood (Maçka treated with phenol formadehyde adhesives is the highest for the specimens steamed for 6 h at a drying temperature of 110 ºC. Furthermore, the modulus of elasticity for spruce wood (Maçka treated with phenol formadehyde adhesive is the highest for the specimens steamed for 12 h and subjected to a drying temperature of 150 ºC.

  11. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  12. Psühhiaatrilise abi osutamise problemaatika Eestis / Mari Amos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amos, Mari

    2008-01-01

    ÜRO piinamise ning muu julma, ebainimliku või inimväärikust alandava kohtlemise ja karistamise vastasest konventsioonist, millega Eesti ühines 1. juunil 2002. Kaasaegne ja asjakohane psüühilise abi osutamise regulatsioon Eestis puudub

  13. The frailty in elderly patients receiving cardiac interventional procedures (FRASER) program: rational and design of a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Maietti, Elisa; Tonet, Elisabetta; Cimaglia, Paolo; Scillitani, Giulia; Bugani, Giulia; Serenelli, Matteo; Zaraket, Fatima; Balla, Cristina; Trevisan, Filippo; Biscaglia, Simone; Sassone, Biagio; Galvani, Marcello; Ferrari, Roberto; Volpato, Stefano

    2016-10-28

    Frailty has become a high-priority issue in cardiovascular medicine because of the aging of cardiovascular patients. Simple and reproducible tools to assess frailty in elderly patients are clearly on demand. Their application may help physicians in the selection of invasive and medical treatments and in the timing and modality of the follow-up. The frailty in elderly patients receiving cardiac interventional procedures (FRASER) program is designed with the aim to validate the use of the short physical performance battery (SPPB) as prognostic tools in patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The FRASER program is a multicenter prospective study involving 4 Italian cardiology units. The FRASER program enrolls only patients aged ≥70 years. The core of the FRASER program includes patients admitted to hospital for ACS. The aims are (1) to describe SPPB distribution before hospital discharge and (2) to investigate the prognostic role of SPPB score. The primary outcome is a composite of 1-year all-cause mortality and hospital readmission for any cause. Ancillary analyses will be focused on different study populations (patients hospitalized for arrhythmias or acute heart failure or symptomatic severe aortic stenosis) and on different tools to assess frailty (multidimensional prognostic index, clinical frailty score, grip strength). The FRASER program will fill critical gaps in the knowledge regarding the link between frailty, cardiovascular disease, interventional procedures and outcome and will help physicians in the generation of a more personalized risk assessment and in the identification of potential targets for interventions.

  14. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  15. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study and peak (laboratory study phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea foliage, NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e, respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage, NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae.

  16. Nineteenth-Century Digital Worlds: Hilary Fraser Interviews Jerome McGann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Fraser discusses nineteenth-century digital humanities with Jerome McGann, thinking about the institutional history of '19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century' in the context of 'RaVoN', the 'Rossetti Archive', and NINES. The discussion addresses the institutional and disciplinary challenges in integrating digital skills in humanities training; digital environments that preserve, reconstitute, and enhance nineteenth-century scholarship online, supplement the transient nineteenth-century paper archive, and respond to the technical, ethnographic, and archaeological problems posed by work that cuts across medium boundaries.

  17. Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-16

    This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

  18. 中国冷杉属植物的地理分布特征及成因初探%Geographical distribution characters and generating mechanisms of genus Abies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清春; 李晖; 李晓笑

    2012-01-01

    By combining existing documents and literatures and field investigation data, the geographical distribution and distribution pattern of species diversity of fir(Abies Mill.) in China were quantitatively analyzed, and the endangerment mechanisms of several rare and endangered species were also discussed. The results show that (1) the Hengduan mountains regions in West Sichuan and North Yunnan were the modern distribution center and mutation center of fir in China; (2)With the increase of latitude and longitude, the distribution pattern of species diversity of fir presented an rising trend that firstly increases and then decreases, between 98 ° to 104 ° E and 26 ° to 30 ° N, the distribution of species was the most concentrated; the vertical distribution pattern presented like the horizontal distribution pattern. Between 2600 m to 3600 m, there were more species number; (3) the distribution altitude of Abies increased with a decrease of longitude and decreases with an increase of latitude; (4)the needs of wet and cold habitat, and climate change were the reasons that caused several species of Abies to be endangered.%结合文献资料和野外调查,定量分析了中国冷杉属Abies Mill.植物的地理分布特征和物种多样性分布格局,并探讨几种珍稀濒危冷杉属植物孤岛状分布的成因.结果表明:(1)川西滇北横断山区是我国冷杉属的现代分布中心和变异中心;(2)随着经度、纬度的增加,冷杉属植物物种多样性呈现先增加后减少的分布格局,在98°~104°E、26°~30°N之间,冷杉属种数分布最集中;同样,垂直分布格局也呈现相似的趋势,在2 600~3600m的中高海拔冷杉物种数较多; (3)冷杉属植物分布的海拔高度随经度的减小而上升,随纬度的增加而降低; (4)冷杉属植物喜湿冷的特性和气候变化等原因导致该属几种冷杉的濒危现状.

  19. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenming Zhao; Chunmei Guan; Jian Feng; Yan Liang; Ni Zhan; Jianru Zuo; Bo Ren

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-control ed seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degrada-tion in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination.

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  1. News from the Library: Gordon Fraser presents his book, "Quantum Exodus"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The book "Quantum Exodus" will be presented by the author Gordon Fraser on Thursday 14 June at 4 P.M. in the Library, Building 52-1-052.   "Quantum Exodus" by Gordon Fraser, Oxford University Press, 2012. Here's what the publisher says about the book: "It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. (...) Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convinced that their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were prepared to do, the exiles were afraid. They had to get to the Atomic Bomb first. The Nazis meanwhile had acquired a more pressing objective: their persecution of the Jews had evolved into extermination. Two dreadfu...

  2. Atmospheric Concentrations of Captan and Folpet in the Lower Fraser Valley Agricultural Region of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two N-trihalomethylthio fungicides were detected in the atmosphere in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region of Canada. Captan was detected in both the particle and gas phase with a dominant particle phase fraction observed in both 2005 and 2006 (only total captan atmospheric concentrations were available for 2004. This provides the first evidence of particle transport as a significant atmospheric transport pathway for captan in an agricultural region in Canada. Weekly captan air concentrations reached maximum levels of 13.2 ng m-3 in June 2006, while for folpet total atmospheric levels were lower with maximum reaching 1.7 ng m-3 in August 2004 and generally <1 ng m3 in 2005 and 2006. Folpet is detected in the atmosphere although not previously reported in usage inventories. In the three years examined (2004–2006 captan concentrations observed a seasonal maximum in atmospheric concentrations during spring to early summer coinciding with expected peak usage period on crops in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region located in British Columbia, Canada. No usage data is available in Canada beyond 2003 but these seasonal trends show that captan remains a dominant pesticide used in this agricultural region with no decline in atmospheric concentrations during 2004–2006.

  3. Balsam Fir Wooly Adlegid Survey on CVNWR 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 17, 2009 Amber Myers and I conducted a survey to check the status of Balsam Fir Wooly Adelgid on one hundred Balsam Fir Trees off of Freeland Trail. We...

  4. Isoprene and monoterpene emission from the coniferous species Abies Borisii-regis - implications for regional air chemistry in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.; Hunter, M.C.; Lewis, A.C.; Seakins, P.W. [Leeds Univ., School of Chemistry, Leeds (United Kingdom); Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro, Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    The emission of isoprene has been studied from a forest of Abies Borisii-regis, a Mediterranean fir species previously thought to emit only monoterpenes. Emission studies from two independent enclosure experiments indicated a standardised isoprene emission rate of (18.4{+-}3.8){mu}gg{sub dry-weight} {sup -1}h{sup -1}, similar in magnitude to species such as eucalyptus and oak which are considered to be strong isoprene emitters. Isoprene emission depended strongly on both leaf temperature (2degC-34degC) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) below 250{mu}molm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, becoming saturated with respect to PAR above this value. The annual isoprene emission rate was estimated to be (132{+-}29) kTyr{sup -1} for those trees growing within Greece, comparable to current estimates of the total isoprene budget of Greece as a whole, and contributing significantly to regional ozone and carbon monoxide budgets. Monoterpene emission exhibited exponential temperature dependence, with 1,8-cineole, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene and limonene forming the primary emissions. A standardised total monoterpene emission rate of (2.7{+-}1.1){mu}gg{sub dry-weight} {sup -1}h{sup -1} was calculated, corresponding to an annual monoterpene emission rate of (24{+-}12) kTyr{sup -1}. Research was conducted as part of the AEROBIC'97 (AEROsol formation from Biogenic organic Carbon) series of field campaigns. (Author)

  5. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  6. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  7. ABI4 mediates antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and gibberellins at transcript and protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Yanli; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Liu, Chunyan; Yang, Wenyu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Serino, Giovanna; Xie, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones which antagonistically mediate numerous physiological processes, and their optimal balance is essential for normal plant development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ABA and GA antagonism still needs to be determined. Here, we report that ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) is a central factor in GA/ABA homeostasis and antagonism in post-germination stages. ABI4 overexpression in Arabidopsis (OE-ABI4) leads to developmental defects including a decrease in plant height and poor seed production. The transcription of a key ABA biosynthetic gene, NCED6, and of a key GA catabolic gene, GA2ox7, is significantly enhanced by ABI4 overexpression. ABI4 activates NCED6 and GA2ox7 transcription by directly binding to the promoters, and genetic analysis revealed that mutation in these two genes partially rescues the dwarf phenotype of ABI4 overexpressing plants. Consistently, ABI4 overexpressing seedlings have a lower GA/ABA ratio than the wild type. We further show that ABA induces GA2ox7 transcription while GA represses NCED6 expression in an ABI4-dependent manner; and that ABA stabilizes the ABI4 protein whereas GA promotes its degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA and GA antagonize each other by oppositely acting on ABI4 transcript and protein levels.

  8. Notes on Cordulegaster Leach, and Neallogaster Cowley, from China, and the identity of Anotogaster annandalei Fraser (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera: Cordulegastridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, van G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A translation of the Chinese description of a female of Neallogaster annandalei (Fraser, 1923), by Zhou (1988) is given and compared with the original description of Anotogaster annandalei. It is concluded that this species should be included in the genus Cordulegaster. A translation of the original

  9. Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of improving predictions on far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we study the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on GMC structure. We consider three different GMCs with mass in the range M_GMC = 10^{3-6} {M_{⊙}}. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. In the fiducial case (MGMC ≈ 105M⊙), the photoevaporation time (tpe) increases from 1 Myr to 30 Myr for gas metallicity Z=0.05-1 Z_{⊙}, respectively. Next, we compute the time-dependent luminosity of key FIR lines tracing the neutral and ionized gas layers of the GMCs, ([C II] at 158 {μ m}, [O III] at 88 μ m) as a function of G0, and Z until complete photoevaporation at tpe. We find that the specific [C II] luminosity is almost independent on the GMC model within the survival time of the cloud. Stronger FUV fluxes produce higher [C II] and [O III] luminosities, however lasting for progressively shorter times. At Z = Z⊙ the [C II] emission is maximized (L_CII≈ 10^4 {L_{⊙}} for the fiducial model) for tpopulations.

  10. Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, L; Pallottini, A; Gallerani, S

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of improving predictions on the far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we have studied the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on the GMC structure. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. We find that the photoevaporation timescale, $t_{pe}$, of a typical GMC ($M_{\\rm GMC}=9 \\times 10^{4}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) is in the range $1-30$ Myr, for gas metallicity $Z=0.05-1\\,\\rm Z_{\\odot}$, respectively. At fixed metallicity, $t_{pe}$ decreases for higher FUV fluxes, $G_0$, due to the larger temperature of the photodissociation region (PDR). The presence of EUV radiation is important at $Z<0.2\\,\\rm{Z_{\\odot}}$, when the size of the HII layer becomes comparable to the cloud radius. We then compute the time-dependent luminosity (for which we give fitting formulae) of several key FIR lines ([CII], ...

  11. Variation of maximum tree height and annual shoot growth of Smith fir at various elevations in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    Full Text Available Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l. in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range.

  12. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  13. Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYING-XIANG; CHENJIN-LIN

    1995-01-01

    The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.

  14. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-03-31

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis.

  15. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  16. Why Is ABI Effective in Detecting Vascular Stenosis? Investigation Based on Multibranch Hemodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Chi; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as the ratio of systolic pressure in the ankle arteries and that in the brachial artery, was a useful noninvasive method to detect arterial stenoses. There had been a lot of researches about clinical regularities of ABI; however, mechanism studies were less addressed. For the purpose of a better understanding of the correlation between vascular stenoses and ABI, a computational model for simulating blood pressure and flow propagation in various arterial stenosis circumstances was developed with a detailed compartmental description of the heart and main arteries. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of effects of vascular stenoses in different large-sized arteries on ABI in theory. Moreover, the variation of ABI during the increase of the stenosis severity was also studied. Results showed that stenoses in lower limb arteries, as well as, brachial artery, caused different variations of blood pressure in ankle and brachial arteries, resulting in a significant change of ABI. Furthermore, the variation of ABI became faster when the severity of the stenosis increased, validating that ABI was more sensitive to severe stenoses than to mild/moderate ones. All these in findings revealed the reason why ABI was an effective index for detecting stenoses, especially in lower limb arteries. PMID:24089601

  17. Henri Frankfort, Aby Warburg and “Mythopoeic Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the text of a lunchtime lecture given at the Warburg Institute in the spring of 2004. It formed part of a series concerned with past Warburg scholars, and was devoted to the work of Henri Frankfort, Director of the Institute from 1949 to 1954. The first third of the lecture was a rapid account of his career; the remainder of the lecture was an analysis and criticism of the concept of ‘primitive thinking’ in the work of Frankfort and Aby Warburg.

  18. Terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Abies chensiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya; Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Abies chensiensis led to the isolation and identification of nine new compounds including eight triterpenoids (1-8) and a new abietane-type diterpene (9), along with three known compounds (10-12). The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 15.97, 18.73, 20.18 and 10.97μM, respectively.

  19. Effect of Allelochemicals of Chinese—fir root extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction on Chinese fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.

  20. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  1. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  2. Balsam fir trees could disappear from W Va

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article discussing the balsam fir tree could disappear from the forests of West Virginia within the next decade, unless humans intervene to help. The West...

  3. Lunch hosted by Professor Sissakian, vice-director of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna to Gordon Fraser and Jim Allaby.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    who are retiring from CERN, were presented with diplomas of honour. Allaby co-chaired the CERN-JINR joint scientific committee for many years and Fraser is editor of the CERN Courier until January 2002.

  4. Researches on Nutrition in Cultivation of Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series ofresearches on the nutrition problems in the cultivation of Chinese fir seedlings and plantations, which are mainly focus on the problems of serious land degradation in Chinese fir plantations in contradiction with the rapid development of the plantations in China, were summarized. Twelve years was taken and more than 30 pieces of research papers were published for the researches, which refers to the problems of growth effect, physiological effect, vegetation variation, biomass accumulation, n...

  5. Aby Warburg, Images and Exhibitions. Aby Warburg, Bilderreihen und Ausstellungen edited by Uwe Fleckner and Isabelle Woldt, Akademie Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the latest volume in the collected works of Aby Warburg published by Akademie Verlag. The volume consists of exhibitions and plates of images Warburg compiled to illustrate lectures in the period between 1925-1929. The review focuses on two key issues raised by the publication: the light it casts on the Mnemosyne Atlas Warburg was working on at the same time, and, in particular, how it helps shape perceptions of the broader intellectual direction of Warburg's thinking in the final half decade of his life.

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Abies nephrolepis (Pinaceae: Abietoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Keun Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant chloroplast (cp genome has maintained a relatively conserved structure and gene content throughout evolution. Cp genome sequences have been used widely for resolving evolutionary and phylogenetic issues at various taxonomic levels of plants. Here, we report the complete cp genome of Abies nephrolepis. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is 121,336 base pairs (bp in length including a pair of short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb of 139 bp each separated by a small single copy (SSC region of 54,323 bp (SSC and a large single copy region of 66,735 bp (LSC. It contains 114 genes, 68 of which are protein coding genes, 35 tRNA and four rRNA genes, six open reading frames, and one pseudogene. Seventeen repeat units and 64 simple sequence repeats (SSR have been detected in A. nephrolepis cp genome. Large IR sequences locate in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is identical to Abies koreana’s which is closely related to taxa. Pairwise comparison between two cp genomes revealed 140 polymorphic sites in each. Complete cp genome sequence of A. nephrolepis has a significant potential to provide information on the evolutionary pattern of Abietoideae and valuable data for development of DNA markers for easy identification and classification.

  7. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), and coronary artery calcification (CAC): the Jackson heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Bobby W; Sung, Jung Hye; Lee, Jae Eun; Criqui, Michael H; Mitchell, Marc E; Taylor, Herman A

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of peripheral atherosclerosis, assessed by the ABI at baseline with the extent of AAC and with CAC measured by MDCT at follow-up examination in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. Four categories of ABI: 1.40. Presence of CAC/AAC was defined as scoring above the 75th percentile among participants with non-zero CT calcium scores. We conducted multivariable log-binomial models for this analysis examining the relationship between ABI and the presence of CAC or AAC using normal ABI (1.0 ≤ ABI ≤ 1.39) as the reference group. We estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for age, smoking, HTN, DM, BMI, LDL, HDL, CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and use of lipid-lowering medication. There were 2,398 patients in this analysis (women: 65 %, average age 55 years). AAC scores were not significantly different between sex. CAC scores were significantly higher in males than females regardless of ABI groups. The prevalence of significant AAC was 1.7 times higher for ABI 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. The prevalence of the significant CAC was higher for ABI CAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. Lower ABI was significantly associated with the extent of AAC and CAC in this cohort. ABI can provide clinicians with an inexpensive additional tool to assess vascular health and cardiovascular risk without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.

  8. Katastroofide järel heldelt lubatud abi pole alati kohale jõudnud / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    ÜRO peasekretär Kofi Annan kutsus üles täitma lubadusi anda abi Lõuna-Aasia tsunamis kannatanud riikidele. Artiklis tuuakse näiteid juhtumite kohta, kus looduskatastroofi järel on riikide abi jäänud lubatust väiksemaks

  9. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  10. Teleotemporalidad: un nivel de estudio adicional para la organización derivado del modelo de Julius Thomas Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mera Ruiz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone la teleotemporalidad como un nuevo espacio de análisis de la organización derivado de la consideración del modelo de Julius Thomas Fraser. Para desarrollar la propuesta, se sintetiza el trabajo de Fraser, que está compuesto por seis niveles de estudio de la temporalidad: 1 atemporalidad, que toca los fenómenos electromagnéticos; 2 prototemporalidad, que explica el comportamiento molecular; 3 eotemporalidad, que se ocupa de la mecánica clásica; 4 biotemporalidad, que atañe al comportamiento de los seres vivos; 5 nootemporalidad, que explica la experiencia humana, y 6 sociotemporalidad, sobre los fenómenos sociales del tiempo. Por último, se explica la teleotemporalidad como un nuevo espacio de análisis útil para aproximarse a la comprensión de la temporalidad organizacional.

  11. A critical perspective on 1-D modeling of river processes : gravel load and aggradation in lower Fraser River.

    OpenAIRE

    R.; Ferguson; Church, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how well a width-averaged morphodynamic model can simulate gravel transport and aggradation along a highly irregular 38-km reach of lower Fraser River and discuss critical issues in this type of modeling. Bed load equations with plausible parameter values predict a gravel input consistent with direct measurements and a sediment budget. Simulations using spatially varying channel width, and forced by dominant discharge or a 20-year hydrograph, match the observed downstream finin...

  12. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areas such as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signal processing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamental properties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of the noise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presents design, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMS algorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  13. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areassuch as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signalprocessing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamentalproperties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of thenoise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presentsdesign, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMSalgorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  14. FIR line emission from high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye

    2013-01-01

    By combining high resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z~6 galaxies with a sub-grid multi-phase model of their interstellar medium we derive the expected intensity of several far infrared (FIR) emission lines ([C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and [N II] 122 micron) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z_sun the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual size < 3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy center by ~100 km/s. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ~500 km/s, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km/s; 95% of such flux originates from the cold (T~250 K) H I phase, and only 5% from the warm (T~5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ~6 and ~90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous...

  15. Undergraduate and Graduate Opportunities in Nuclear Science at Simon Fraser University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoiu, Corina; Brodovitch, J.-C.; D'Auria, J. M.; Starosta, K.

    2012-10-01

    The Departments of Chemistry and Physics at Simon Fraser University offer a Nuclear Science Minor at undergraduate level. The program, which is unique in Canada, attracts students from all departments of the Faculty of Science, and, occasionally, from other departments such as engineering and business. Students graduating with this minor have the opportunity to get employment in academia and a variety of industries ranging from nuclear power to nuclear medicine, safety, accelerators, etc. At the graduate level, the Nuclear Science group in the Department of Chemistry attracts students to its in-house program and also in collaboration with TRIUMF, Canada's Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics. The graduate program offer a rich plethora of topics in experimental nuclear science ranging from understanding the matter at subatomic level and its role in astrochemistry to applications of nuclear science in radiation measurements and monitoring, nuclear instrumentation, etc. The academic components of the program, its goals and future developments are presented in this paper along with enrolment statistics for the last ten years.

  16. Reconstructing a sediment pulse: Modeling the effect of placer mining on Fraser River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, R. I.; Church, M.; Rennie, C. D.; Venditti, J. G.

    2015-07-01

    Gold mining along 525 km of the Fraser River between 1858 and 1909 added an estimated 1.1 × 108 t of tailings, half gravel and the rest finer, to the river's natural sediment load. We simulate the response using a 1-D multigrain size morphodynamic model. Since premining conditions are unknown and modern data are insufficient for tuning the process representation, we devised a novel modeling strategy which may be useful in other data-poor applications. We start the model from a smoothed version of the modern longitudinal profile with bed grain size distributions optimized to match alternative assumptions about natural sediment supply and compare runs that include mining with control runs that can be used to quantify the effects of deficiencies in process representation and initialization. Simulations with an appropriate choice of natural supply rate closely match the best available test data, which consist of a detailed 1952-1999 gravel budget for the distal part of the model domain. The simulations suggest that the main response to mining was rapid bed fining, which allowed a major increase in bed load transport rate with only slight (~0.1 m) mean aggradation within the mining region and most of the excess sediment exported well beyond the mountain front within the mining period or soon afterward. We compare this pattern of response by a large, powerful river with previous case studies of river adjustment to sediment supply change.

  17. Dissolution of the category of identity: the deconstructive approach of the thought of Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nohemí González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser, American philosopher, argues that claims for recognition of difference push at present, many social conflicts in the world and cover a wide range of aspirations, from the emancipation to the more openly roundly rejected. This multiplicity of movements seeking to express their demands through the language of recognition. 66 María Nohemí González Civilizar 10 (18: 65-74, enero-junio de 2010 Today, the claim of identity supplants class interest and makes it the best means of social mobilization. This new vision requires to Guild an intellectual and practical enterprise, which must be the dissolution of the concept of identity as a category of social analysis. The author proposes the model’s status as an alternative model in this configuration. What requires recognition is not group-specific identity but the status of individual members of a group as full participants in social interaction. To participate fully in a social group requires a new model of justice that has the capacity to sustain the lack of recognition and cultural value can not be understood apart from economic conditions and can not block the distribution of wealth. Also economic reasons, such as income distribution, counts as subtext for the recognition. Only considering both dimensions simultaneously it is possible to determine what prevents equal participation in a particular case. This is achieved by analyzing the overlap between recognition and redistribution to determine what is the best way to remedy the injustice.

  18. Modelling the internal boundary layer over the lower fraser valley, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchvarova, E. [National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Steyn, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Vancouver (Canada); Cai, X. [Univ. of Birmingham, School of Geography, Edgbaston (United Kingdom); Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Baldi, M. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, IFA-CNR, Rome (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    In this study we use the very extensive data-set on temporal and spatial structure of the internal boundary layer on the Lower Faser Valley, Canada, collected during the so-called Pacific `93 field campaign, to study the ability of the simple applied model by Gryning and Batchvarova (1996) and the CSU-RAMS meso-scale model summarised in Pielke et al. (1992) to describe the development and variability of the internal boundary layer depth during the course of a day. Given the complexity of topography, coastline and land-use in the Lower Fraser Valley region, both models perform remarkably well. The simple applied model performs extremely well, given its simplicity. It is clear that correct specification of spatially resolved surface sensible heat flux and wind field are crucial to the success of this model which can be operated at very fine spatial resolution. The 3D model performs extremely well, though it too must capture the local wind field correctly for complete success. Its limited horizontal resolution results in strongly smoothed internal boundary layer height fields. (LN)

  19. Síndrome de Fraser: relato de caso nas vias lacrimais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Tavares Lorena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Fraser é uma condição sistêmica caracterizada por criptoftalmo, sindactilia e anomalia da genitália, podendo se associar com alterações dos rins, do ouvido, do nariz, da laringe e do esqueleto. O criptoftalmo pode representar um achado isolado, representado por herança autossômica dominante, associado a outras anomalias congênitas, relatado como herança autossômica recessiva. Criança do sexo feminino, 9 meses, avaliada no ambulatório de vias lacrimais da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Filha de pais consanguíneos. Ao exame, foram observados criptoftalmo total à esquerda, epífora em olho direito associada à secreção mucopurulenta, nariz em sela, implantação baixa das orelhas, malformação de conduto auditivo, aumento de grandes lábios e sindactilia de mãos e pés. A tomografia de crânio evidenciou braquicefalia ausência de septo pelúcido, proeminência dos ventrículos laterais, importante falha óssea na calota craniana, presença de afilamento do manto tecidual cerebral, fossa posterior pequena, desorganização do segmento anterior, afacia e descolamento total da retina.

  20. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones.

  1. Weak and strong publics: drawing on Nancy Fraser to explore parental participation in neonatal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims  We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background  Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods  A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results  Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion  Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481

  2. High Speed Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Russian Peasant Multiplier with Sklansky Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gunasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Reconfigurable FIR filters are commonly used digital filters which find its major applications in digital signal processing and multi-standard wireless communications. The Direct form of FIR filter used in DSP application which consumes more area and power. To overcome this problem Multiplier Control Signal Decision (MCSD window schemes is incorporated into direct form FIR filter in order to dynamically change the filter order. Conventional reconfigurable FIR filter is designed using Russian Peasant Multiplier which consumes more area and delay due to poor performance of adder used in multiplication unit. In this study, modified reconfigurable FIR filter is designed to further reduce the area, power and time. In proposed Reconfigurable FIR filter, a Wallace adder is replaced by carry select adder with sklansky adder in Russian Peasant Multiplication technique. Hence, modified Reconfigurable FIR filter with carry select adder with sklansky adder consumes less area, delay and power than the conventional Reconfigurable FIR architecture with Russian Peasant Multiplication technique.

  3. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires

  4. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year.

  5. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defence-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eDeslauriers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L. Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage and defence. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation, moderately (M-trees, 41 to 60% and heavily (H-trees, 61 to 80% defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem, carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch and defence components in needles (terpenoids compound from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defence. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defence components and to non-structural (NCS and structural (growth carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilisation for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  6. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  7. Impact of mistletoe attack (Viscum album ssp. abietis on the radial growth of silver fir. A case study in the North of Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cãtãlina Barbu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb. Abrom L. is one of the three subspecies of Viscum album L that is frequently encountered in Romanian forests. The mistletoe has notoriously negative effects on trees and forests health. The mistletoe infections not only reduce both height and diameter growth, it can also cause partial or total die-back of the trees. The present study on the incidence of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis on silver fir (Abies alba increments was carried out in natural stands of the Forest District Gura Humorului (one permanent plot Păltinoasa and one experimental plot Voroneţ, because this location (400-1000 m elevation is characteristic for pure silver fir stands that can be found on the border of Carpathians Mountains at the contact zone with Suceava plateau. Four classes describing the level of infection were distinguished: no infection, low, moderate and strong infection. As only a few of healthy trees (class 0 were found, the comparison was made on the trees from the 1st class of attack. In parasited silver trees development were distinguished 3 phases: i phase 1 - from 1920 till 1945 when the trees that nowadays are falling into the 2nd and 3rd class had similar growth with the ones recorded in the 1st class; ii phase 2 - from 1946 till 1976-1977; during this period the trees had been reducing their growth. The growth of silver fir trees that fall into the 2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism represents 80% of the average growth of 1st class trees; iii phase 3 - from 1977 till 2007 (with a couple of episodes when trees growths from 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism were clearly differentiated.

  8. Impact of mistletoe attack (Viscum album ssp. abietis on the radial growth of silver fir. A case study in the North of Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Barbu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb. Abrom L. is one of the three subspecies of Viscum album L that is frequently encountered in Romanian forests. The mistletoe has notoriously negative effects on trees and forests health. The mistletoe infections not only reduce both height and diameter growth, it can also cause partial or total die-back of the trees. The present study on the incidence of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis on silver fir (Abies alba increments was carried out in natural stands of the Forest District Gura Humorului (one permanent plot Pãltinoasa and one experimental plot Voronet, because this location (400-1000 m elevation is characteristic for pure silver fir stands that can be found on the border of Carpathians Mountains at the contact zone with Suceava plateau. Four classes describing the level of infection were distinguished: no infection, low, moderate and strong infection.As only a few of healthy trees (class 0 were found, the comparison was made on the trees from the 1st class of attack. In parasited silver trees development were distinguished 3 phases: i phase 1 - from 1920 till 1945 when the trees that nowadays are falling into the 2nd and 3rd class had similar growth with the ones recorded in the 1stclass; ii phase 2 - from 1946 till 1976-1977; during this period the trees had been reducing their growth. The growth of silver fir trees that fall into the 2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism represents 80% of the average growth of 1st class trees; iii phase 3- from 1977 till 2007 (with a couple of episodes when trees growths from 1st,2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism were clearly differentiated.

  9. The lactococcal abortive infection protein AbiP is membrane-anchored and binds nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Susana; McGovern, Stephen; Plochocka, Danuta; Santos, Mário A; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Polard, Patrice; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2008-03-30

    AbiP, a lactococcal abortive phage infection system, has previously been shown to arrest phage bIL66M1 DNA replication around 10 min after infection and to inhibit the switch off of phage early transcripts. We report here the functional characterization and implication in the abortive infection phenotype of two domains identified in the AbiP sequence. We show that AbiP is a protein anchored to the membrane by an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain. Our results further suggest that membrane localization may be required for the anti-phage activity of AbiP. The remainder of the protein, which contains a putative nucleic acid binding domain, is shown to be located on the cytosolic side. Purified AbiP is shown to bind nucleic acids with an approximately 10-fold preference for RNA relative to ssDNA. AbiP interaction with both ssDNA and RNA molecules occurs in a sequence-independent manner. We have analyzed the effect of substitutions of aromatic and basic residues on the surface of the putative binding fold. In vitro and in vivo studies of these AbiP derivatives indicate that the previously reported effects on phage development might be dependent on the nucleic acid binding activity displayed by the membrane-bound protein.

  10. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Taranjit Singh; Harvinder Singh Josan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA). FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these charact...

  11. Investigation of Carbohydrate Compositions for Poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; MAGARA Kengo

    2006-01-01

    The carbohydrate compositions of poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese fir were investigated by the methods of hydrolysis and HPLC.The result showed that the contents of glucose,xylose and arabinose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are higher than those in Chinese fir,while contents of rhamnose and mannose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are lower than those in Chinese fir.

  12. FPGA-Based Efficient Programmable Polyphase FIR Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN He; XIONG Cheng-huan; ZHONG Shu-nan; WANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    The modelling, design and implementation of a high-speed programmable polyphase finite impulse response (FIR) filter with field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology are described. This FIR filter can run automatically according to the programmable configuration word including symmetry/asymmetry, odd/even taps, from 32 taps up to 256 taps. The filter with 12 bit signal and 12 bit coefficient word-length has been realized on a Xilinx VirtexⅡ-v1500 device and operates at the maximum sampling frequency of 160 MHz.

  13. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H2O2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  14. A field study of coherent flow structures over low angle dunes: Fraser Estuary, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. W.; Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aqueous dunes are present in nearly all sand bedded alluvial channels and can significantly influence flow resistance and sediment transport and deposition. The geometry of these bedforms can take on a high angle asymmetrical or low angle symmetrical shape. While advances have been made in understanding the mean and turbulent flow over high angle dunes, far less progress has been made in detailing flow over low angle dunes, commonly observed in large rivers, due to difficulties measuring near the bed and quantifying the turbulence over these bedforms. This field study documents the flow over low angle dunes in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, using an acoustic Doppler profiler (aDcp) to measure 3-D flow characteristics and a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) to provide high-resolution bed topography. Measurements were made over a dune field (~1 km long and ~0.5 wide) through two semi-diurnal tidal cycles during the 2010 freshet. We examine the coupling between the bedform morphology and the generation of coherent flow structures. Bedforms in the dune field range from low-angle symmetric to higher angle asymmetric and vary over tidal cycles; however, none display the classic angle of repose geometry. Mean flow velocity increases on falling tide while it decreases the rising tide. At lower tides, large scale motions caused by topographic forcing emerge on stoss slopes and rise up over the crest producing variations in suspended sediment over the bedforms. Our analysis is intended to contribute insight into what controls the occurrence of low angle bedforms in rivers.

  15. The Stability of Fine-grained Sediments from the Fraser River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, C. L.; Feeney, T.; Sutherland, T. F.; Luternauer, J. L.

    1997-10-01

    The stability and erodibility of benthic fine-grained sediments on the foreshore and upper foreslope of the Fraser River delta were measured using the in situbenthic flume—Sea Carousel. The erosion threshold [τ c(0)], which varied between 0·11 and 0·50 Pa, was inversely related to erosion rate. It was also proportional to sediment wet bulk density (ρ b) in the form: τ c(0)=7×10 -4 ρ b-0·47. This trend agreed with those obtained from four other sites across Canada that encompassed a wide range in sediment densities: 1000Academic Press Limited Three erosion types were observed: Type IA erosion was a surface phenomenon caused by the presence of a thin organic ' fluff ' layer. It occurred at current speeds less than 0·3 m s -1. Type 1B erosion (asymptotically decaying with time) characterized the mid-portions of each erosion time series, and occurred at current speeds of 0·3-0·9 m s -1. Type I/II erosion (transitional) was largely found on the foreslope, and occurred at current speeds in excess of 0·8 m s -1. The erosion process began in all cases under turbulent transitional flows. The change from Type I to Type II erosion corresponded to the onset of turbulent rough flows (60result of entrainment of small aggregates and flocs, whereas Type II erosion was the result of enlargement of surface irregularities, and subsequent undercutting and release of large aggregates. Mean erosion rate ( Em) was independent of either azimuthal current speed or bed shear stress. It was largely constant throughout each deployment and varied between 1·4 and 7·4×10 -4 kg m -2 s -1.

  16. Aerosol particle size distributions in the lower Fraser Valley: evidence for particle nucleation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mozurkewich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distributions from 9 to 640nm diameter were measured at Eagle Ridge in the lower Fraser Valley from 13 August to 1 September 2001 as part of the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study. The site was on top of a ridge, about 300m above the valley floor, in a predominantly agricultural area about 70km ESE of Vancouver. To further characterize the particles, their hygroscopic properties (affinity for water were measured. The maximum of the number distributions was generally between 40 and 100nm diameter, but the number distribution was sometimes dominated by ultrafine particles with diameters below 40nm. These ultrafine particles, which appeared to some extent on all days, were frequently associated with elevated levels of CO and NOx, as expected for fresh vehicular emissions. The appearance of these fresh emissions was most pronounced when the growing mixed layer reached the altitude of the site. In contrast, pronounced nucleation events occurred on the five cleanest days; these resulted in particle number concentrations as high as 5x104 particles cm-3 and growth rates of 5 to 10nmhr-1. Nucleation appears to have been triggered when the UV flux reached about 25Wm-2. The growth of these newly formed particles was probably driven by the photochemical oxidation of biogenic organic compounds. Dramatic growth events were also observed on the afternoons of the more polluted days; these produced an extremely narrow mode σ<0.3 at a diameter of about 40nm. Rainy days showed low number concentrations with the size distributions shifted to small sizes. On one of these days there was evidence of nucleation not far from the site; this may have been occurring in the vicinity of the clouds.

  17. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near

  18. Portugal palus ELilt abi põlengutega võitlemiseks / Kajar Kase

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kase, Kajar

    2005-01-01

    Sellel aastal on Portugali metsatulekahjudes hukkunud juba 15 inimest ja hetkel on kahjustatud 140 000 hektarit metsa. Appi on tõtanud Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa, Itaalia, Hispaania ja Hollandi helikopterid ja lennukid. Kaart: Abi Portugalile

  19. 植物ABI4转录因子的研究进展%Research advances of transcription factor ABI4 in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段星亮; 张晶; 宋晓东; 谢彦杰; 沈文飚

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid-insensitive 4 (ABI4) is a member of APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF) family, which was discovered and characterized to be an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling responsive tran-scription factor. Recent investigations illustrated that ABI4 is a multiple-faced regulatory factor in diverse cellu-lar processes. These biological events include seed germination and seedling establishment, plastid and/or mito-chondrial retrograde signaling, lipid metabolism, sugar signaling, and ABA responses etc. This paper summarized the latest research progress of ABI4 in terms of its structure characteristics, transcriptional regula-tion pattern, gene expression regulation, and signal transduction pathway.%Abscisic acid-insensitive 4(ABI4)属于APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF)类转录因子,它是在研究ABA信号转导途径中被发现和鉴定的。近年来, ABI4被认为是一种具有多种调节功能的转录因子,它参与了植物种子萌发和幼苗形态建成、质体/线粒体反向信号传递、脂类合成和分解、糖信号和ABA应答等诸多重要的生物学事件。本文综述了ABI4转录因子的结构特征、转录调控模式、基因表达调控和参与的信号转导功能等的最新研究进展。

  20. Performance Evaluation of FIR Filter After Implementation on Different FPGA and SOC and Its Utilization in Communication and Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Bhagwan; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2017-01-01

    There are many areas of communication and network, which have open scope to use FIR filter. Therefore, energy efficient FIR filter will increase lifetime of network and FIR filter with less delay and latency will increase performance of network. In this work, we are going to design an FIR filter ...

  1. Genetic analysis of fin development in zebrafish identifies furin and hemicentin1 as potential novel fraser syndrome disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Carney

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1, another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease.

  2. The Effects of Sample Size on Expected Value, Variance and Fraser Efficiency for Nonparametric Independent Two Sample Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet DOGAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Choosing the most efficient statistical test is one of the essential problems of statistics. Asymptotic relative efficiency is a notion which enables to implement in large samples the quantitative comparison of two different tests used for testing of the same statistical hypothesis. The notion of the asymptotic efficiency of tests is more complicated than that of asymptotic efficiency of estimates. This paper discusses the effect of sample size on expected values and variances of non-parametric tests for independent two samples and determines the most effective test for different sample sizes using Fraser efficiency value. Material and Methods: Since calculating the power value in comparison of the tests is not practical most of the time, using the asymptotic relative efficiency value is favorable. Asymptotic relative efficiency is an indispensable technique for comparing and ordering statistical test in large samples. It is especially useful in nonparametric statistics where there exist numerous heuristic tests such as the linear rank tests. In this study, the sample size is determined as 2 ≤ n ≤ 50. Results: In both balanced and unbalanced cases, it is found that, as the sample size increases expected values and variances of all the tests discussed in this paper increase as well. Additionally, considering the Fraser efficiency, Mann-Whitney U test is found as the most efficient test among the non-parametric tests that are used in comparison of independent two samples regardless of their sizes. Conclusion: According to Fraser efficiency, Mann-Whitney U test is found as the most efficient test.

  3. Future ofAbies pindrow in Swat district, northern Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kishwar Ali; Habib Ahmad; Nasrullah Khan; Stephen Jury

    2014-01-01

    Swat district is a biodiversity hub of Pakistan. The plant species, especially trees, in the Swat District are exposed to extinction threat from global climate change. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modelling of species distribution, using HADCM3 A2a global climate change scenario, pre-dicted a considerable change in the future distribution ofAbies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle. AUC (area under the curve)values of 0.972 and 0.983 were significant for the present and future distribution models of the species, respectively. It is clear that bioclimatic variables such as the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio_10) and the annual temperature range (bio_7) contribute significantly to the model and thus affect the predicted distribution and density of the species. The future model predicts that by the year 2080 population density will have decreased significantly. The highest density of the species is recorded in the eastern and western borders of the Valley in the areas of Sulatanr and Mankial. The changes in density and distribution of the species can have considerable impact, not only on the tree species itself, but on the associated subflora as well.

  4. Wood formation in Abies balsamea seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Simard, Sonia; Deslauriers, Annie; Morin, Hubert

    2009-04-01

    We determined the cambial sensitivity and quantified the anatomical differences in xylem of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation to simulate spruce budworm feeding. Defoliation was performed by removing two-thirds of needles of all current-year shoots for up to four consecutive growth cycles to account for inter- and intra-annual xylem formation. In Experiment 1, xylem development was studied from May to October 2005 in seedlings defoliated at the end of June. In Experiment 2, anatomical features of the xylem were measured along the tree rings formed in 2005 and 2006 during the four cycles of growth and defoliation. Control and defoliated seedlings showed similar patterns of cambial activity and timing of xylem differentiation, although fewer enlarging cells were observed in August to September in defoliated seedlings. Tree-ring widths were similar in control and defoliated seedlings, with thinner rings produced in the greenhouse in winter. No effect of defoliation on cell lumen area was observed, and effects on radial cell diameter and wall thickness were found only occasionally. The results indicate that the A. balsamea seedlings produced all the resources required to maintain stem growth during the four cycles of defoliation.

  5. ABySS-Explorer: visualizing genome sequence assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Cydney B; Jackman, Shaun D; Birol, Inanç; Jones, Steven J M

    2009-01-01

    One bottleneck in large-scale genome sequencing projects is reconstructing the full genome sequence from the short subsequences produced by current technologies. The final stages of the genome assembly process inevitably require manual inspection of data inconsistencies and could be greatly aided by visualization. This paper presents our design decisions in translating key data features identified through discussions with analysts into a concise visual encoding. Current visualization tools in this domain focus on local sequence errors making high-level inspection of the assembly difficult if not impossible. We present a novel interactive graph display, ABySS-Explorer, that emphasizes the global assembly structure while also integrating salient data features such as sequence length. Our tool replaces manual and in some cases pen-and-paper based analysis tasks, and we discuss how user feedback was incorporated into iterative design refinements. Finally, we touch on applications of this representation not initially considered in our design phase, suggesting the generality of this encoding for DNA sequence data.

  6. Flow and suspended sediment transport through the gravel-sand transition in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Fraser River, British Columbia is a large alluvial channel that features an abrupt gravel-sand transition that occurs due to a dramatic slope change and the ocean base-level control. There have been no previous observations of the sediment dynamics through transitions in rivers of this scale. I examine the spatial and temporal changes in flow and the suspended sediment transport regime through the transition using hydro-acoustics in an attempt to test the hypothesis that sand in the grave...

  7. The New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter B. Gibbs; James B. Carlaw

    1973-01-01

    I once heard it said that if you want to know how something was organized, ask a man who had nothing to do with it. I suspect this may be one of the reasons I was asked to collaborate on this report of the development of the New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program.

  8. On mycorrhiza development of spruces and firs in damaged stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, T.; Weber, G.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the very fine roots of sick spruces and firs and established the following: 1. a surprising stability of mycorrhiza development, 2. differences in the dynamism of development and 3. modifications in the composition of the accompanying microfungi. The results suggest connections in the chain of causes of forest disease which have received little attention so far.

  9. The FIR/submm window on galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Guiderdoni, B; Devriendt, J E G; Hivon, E; Puget, J L

    1999-01-01

    Our view on the deep universe has been so far biased towards optically bright galaxies. Now, the measurement of the Cosmic Infrared Background in FIRAS and DIRBE residuals, and the observations of FIR/submm sources by the ISOPHOT and SCUBA instruments begin unveiling the ``optically dark side'' of galaxy formation. Though the origin of dust heating is still unsolved, it appears very likely that a large fraction of the FIR/submm emission is due to heavily-extinguished star formation. Consequently, the level of the CIRB implies that about 2/3 of galaxy/star formation in the universe is hidden by dust shrouds. In this review, we introduce a new modeling of galaxy formation and evolution that provides us with specific predictions in FIR/submm wavebands. These predictions are compared with the current status of the observations. Finally, the capabilities of current and forthcoming instruments for all-sky and deep surveys of FIR/submm sources are briefly described.

  10. Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Badave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Operating speed, which is reciprocal of critical path computation time, is one of the prominent design matrices of finite impulse response (FIR filters. It is largely affected by both, system architecture as well as technique used to design arithmetic modules. A large computation time of multipliers in conventionally designed multipliers, limits the speed of system architecture. Distributed arithmetic is one of the techniques, used to provide multiplier-free multiplication in the implementation of FIR filter. However suffers from a sever limitation of exponential growth of look up table (LUT with order of filter. An improved distributed arithmetic technique is addressed here to design for system architecture of FIR filter. In proposed technique, a single large LUT of conventional DA is replaced by number of smaller indexed LUT pages to restrict exponential growth and to reduce system access time. It also eliminates the use of adders. Selection module selects the desired value from desired page, which leads to reduce computational time of critical path. Trade off between access times of LUT pages and selection module helps to achieve minimum critical path so as to maximize the operating speed. Implementations are targeted to Xilinx ISE, Virtex IV devices. FIR filter with 8 bit data width of input sample results are presented here. It is observed that, proposed design perform significantly faster as compared to the conventional DA and existing DA based designs.

  11. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  12. The biology of arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1991-01-01

    Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaucfus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), dusky-footed woodrat...

  13. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin E. Christy; Stephen D. West

    1993-01-01

    Twelve species of bats occur in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, of which nine are known to roost in tree cavities, bark crevices, or foliage, and several are closely associated with old-growth forests. Thus bat populations may be detrimentally affected by forest management practices involving the removal of large, old trees and snags. We review the life...

  14. ABI2-deficient mice exhibit defective cell migration, aberrant dendritic spine morphogenesis, and deficits in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Matthew; Demyanenko, Galina; Echarri, Asier; Zipfel, Patricia A; Quiroz, Marisol E; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Playford, Martin; Martensen, Shelby A; Robinson, Matthew R; Wetsel, William C; Maness, Patricia F; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2004-12-01

    The Abl-interactor (Abi) family of adaptor proteins has been linked to signaling pathways involving the Abl tyrosine kinases and the Rac GTPase. Abi proteins localize to sites of actin polymerization in protrusive membrane structures and regulate actin dynamics in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Abi2 modulates cell morphogenesis and migration in vivo. Homozygous deletion of murine abi2 produced abnormal phenotypes in the eye and brain, the tissues with the highest Abi2 expression. In the absence of Abi2, secondary lens fiber orientation and migration were defective in the eye, without detectable defects in proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. These phenotypes were consistent with the localization of Abi2 at adherens junctions in the developing lens and at nascent epithelial cell adherens junctions in vitro. Downregulation of Abi expression by RNA interference impaired adherens junction formation and correlated with downregulation of the Wave actin-nucleation promoting factor. Loss of Abi2 also resulted in cell migration defects in the neocortex and hippocampus, abnormal dendritic spine morphology and density, and severe deficits in short- and long-term memory. These findings support a role for Abi2 in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics at adherens junctions and dendritic spines, which is critical for intercellular connectivity, cell morphogenesis, and cognitive functions.

  15. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficult work conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied. Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657 operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%.Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657skidder respectively. Regression models for lateral winching (both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p<0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landing operations winching and skidding distances were found as relevant predictors (p<0.01 in case of TAF 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became an additional relevant predictor in case of TAF 657.In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3h-1 and 3.20 m3h-1 respectively.

  16. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficult work conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied. Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657 operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%.Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657skidder respectively. Regression models for lateral winching (both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p<0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landing operations winching and skidding distances were found as relevant predictors (p<0.01 in case of TAF 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became an additional relevant predictor in case of TAF 657.In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3h-1 and 3.20 m3h-1 respectively.

  17. Fraser River watershed, Colorado : assessment of available water-quantity and water-quality data through water year 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    1999-01-01

    The water-quantity and water-quality data for the Fraser River watershed through water year 1997 were compiled for ground-water and surface-water sites. In order to assess the water-quality data, the data were related to land use/land cover in the watershed. Data from 81 water-quantity and water-quality sites, which consisted of 9 ground-water sites and 72 surface-water sites, were available for analysis. However, the data were limited and frequently contained only one or two water-quality analyses per site.The Fraser River flows about 28 miles from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to the confluence with the Colorado River. Ground-water resources in the watershed are used for residential and municipal drinking-water supplies. Surface water is available for use, but water diversions in the upper parts of the watershed reduce the flow in the river. Land use/land cover in the watershed is predominantly forested land, but increasing urban development has the potential to affect the quantity and quality of the water resources.Analysis of the limited ground-water data in the watershed indicates that changes in the land use/land cover affect the shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data from eight shallow monitoring wells in the alluvial aquifer show that iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level. Radon concentrations from these monitoring wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level. The proposed radon contaminant level is currently being revised. The presence of volatile organic compounds at two monitoring wells in the watershed indicates that land use affects the shallow ground water. In addition, bacteria detected in three samples are at concentrations that would be a concern for public health if the water was to be used as a drinking supply. Methylene blue active substances were detected in the ground water at some sites and are a

  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein k interacts with Abi-1 at postsynaptic sites and modulates dendritic spine morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Proepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abelson-interacting protein 1 (Abi-1 plays an important role for dendritic branching and synapse formation in the central nervous system. It is localized at the postsynaptic density (PSD and rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon synaptic stimulation. At PSDs Abi-1 is in a complex with several other proteins including WASP/WAVE or cortactin thereby regulating the actin cytoskeleton via the Arp 2/3 complex. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK, a 65 kDa ssDNA/RNA-binding-protein that is involved in multiple intracellular signaling cascades, as a binding partner of Abi-1 at postsynaptic sites. The interaction with the Abi-1 SH3 domain is mediated by the hnRNPK-interaction (KI domain. We further show that during brain development, hnRNPK expression becomes more and more restricted to granule cells of the cerebellum and hippocampal neurons where it localizes in the cell nucleus as well as in the spine/dendritic compartment. The downregulation of hnRNPK in cultured hippocampal neurons by RNAi results in an enlarged dendritic tree and a significant increase in filopodia formation. This is accompanied by a decrease in the number of mature synapses. Both effects therefore mimic the neuronal morphology after downregulation of Abi-1 mRNA in neurons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a novel interplay between hnRNPK and Abi-1 in the nucleus and at synaptic sites and show obvious similarities regarding both protein knockdown phenotypes. This indicates that hnRNPK and Abi-1 act synergistic in a multiprotein complex that regulates the crucial balance between filopodia formation and synaptic maturation in neurons.

  19. Analisis Perbandingan Database Jurnal Elektronik Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM dan SpringerLink Bidang Manajemen dan Ekonomi

    OpenAIRE

    Karyatin, Arianiansyah

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan pada situs database jurnal elektronik Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM dan SpringerLink. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana konten (muatan) subjek kajian manajemen dan ekonomi pada database Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM dan SpringerLink dan untuk mengetahui di dalam database manakah diantara database Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM, dan Springerlink yang memuat bidang kajian manajemen dan ekonomi yang paling lengkap. Metode yang digunakan dalam pene...

  20. Analisis Perbandingan Database Jurnal Elektronik Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM dan SpringerLink Bidang Manajemen dan Ekonomi

    OpenAIRE

    Karyatin, Arianiansyah

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan pada situs database jurnal elektronik Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM dan SpringerLink. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana konten (muatan) subjek kajian manajemen dan ekonomi pada database Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM dan SpringerLink dan untuk mengetahui di dalam database manakah diantara database Emerald, ProQuest ABI/INFORM, dan Springerlink yang memuat bidang kajian manajemen dan ekonomi yang paling lengkap. Metode yang digunakan dalam pene...

  1. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  2. Continental and oceanographic data information system, codis version 1.0: Protocols, software, compilation and appraisal of meta-data of organic contaminants in the Fraser River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyles, T.M.; King, B.; West, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Description of the continental and oceanographic data information system (CODIS), a PC-based index that searches, reports, and maps information on organic contaminants in the Fraser River Basin. The report also documents the historical development of CODIS, the protocol used to evaluate the quality of the organic data, and the software development and cataloguing process used for inputting the data.

  3. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranjit Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these characteristics, a Cuckoo Search algorithm (CSA is proposed in this paper. CSA have been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Results are presented in this paper that seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design

  4. Noniterative Design of 2-Channel FIR Orthogonal Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez M Elena Domínguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining an explicit expression of all real FIR paraunitary filters. In this work, we present a general parameterization of 2-channel FIR orthogonal filters. Unlike other approaches which make use of a lattice structure, we show that our technique designs any orthogonal filter directly, with no need of iteration procedures. Moreover, in order to design an -tap 2-channel paraunitary filterbank, it suffices to choose independent parameters, and introduce them in a simple expression which provides the filter coefficients directly. Some examples illustrate how this new approach can be used for designing filters with certain desired properties. Further conditions can be eventually imposed on the parameters so as to design filters for specific applications.

  5. Cost Analysis of Different Digital Fir Filter Design Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amninder Singh,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available FIR digital filters are widely used in the communication world. The implementation cost of filter circuit is counted by the number of multipliers & adders used, that decides the chip area. In this paper, design techniques of low pass FIR filter using the different windows are presented. The simulation is done in MATLAB. It is shown that filter designed using Hamming and Blackman windows are better than rest of the windows used. Out of two, Hamming window is better as its transition width is narrow, 0.019 than Blackman, 0.034. Further the performance analysis of Kaiser Window, Equiripple and Minimum phase filters was obtained, for same 0.04 transition width. There is a disparity in implementation cost & area. The minimum phase filter can be implemented with lesser number of filter coefficients with tolerable pass-band, stop-band ripples specifications.

  6. Cyclotron Resonance Gain for FIR and THz Radiation in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Nightvid

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron resonance maser source using low-effective-mass conduction electrons in graphene, if successful, would allow for generation of Far Infrared (FIR) and Terahertz (THz) radiation without requiring magnetic fields running into the tens of Tesla. In order to investigate this possibility, we consider a device in which electrons are effectively injected via pumping from the valence band to the conduction band using an infrared (IR) laser source, subsequently gyrate in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the graphene, and give rise to gain for a FIR/THz wave crossing the plane of the graphene. A set of integral expressions is derived by assuming that the non-radiative energy loss processes of the electrons can be adequately represented by a damping force proportional and antiparallel to their momentum. Minimal gain may occur at very short electron damping times of hundreds of femtoseconds.

  7. Degrading Precision Arithmetics for Low-power FIR Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a review of different techniques used to implement highly optimized DSP systems is presented. The case of study is the implementation of parallel FIR filters aimed to applications characterized by high speed and high selectivity in frequency where at the same time low power dissipat......In this paper a review of different techniques used to implement highly optimized DSP systems is presented. The case of study is the implementation of parallel FIR filters aimed to applications characterized by high speed and high selectivity in frequency where at the same time low power...... on selective bit freezing, DPA-II, based on VDD voltage scaling, and DPA-III, based on power gating. Some theoreticaVsimuiative analysis of the introduced arithmetic errors and some implementation results are shown. A discussion on the suitability of these methodologies on standard cell technologies and FPGAs...

  8. Research on SINS Alignment Algorithm Based on FIR Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Jun-xiang; HU De-wen; WU Yuan-xin; HU Xiao-ping

    2007-01-01

    An inertial frame based alignment (IFBA) method is presented, especially for the applications on a rocking platform, e.g., marine applications. Defining the initial body frame as the inertial frame, the IFBA method achieves the alignment by virtue of a cascade of low-pass FIR filters, which attenuate the disturbing acceleration and maintain the gravity vector. The aligning time rests with the orders of the FIR filter group, and the method is suitable for large initial misali gnment case. An alignment scheme comprising a coarse phase by the IFBA method an d a fine phase by a Kalman filter is presented. Both vehicle-based and ship-based alignment experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed scheme converges much faster than the traditional method at no cost of precision and also works well under any large initial misalignment.

  9. Synthesis of Band Filters and Equalizers Using Microwav FIR Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    2000-01-01

    It is desired to design a passive bandpass filter with both a linear phase and flat magnitude response within the band and also has steep skirts. Using the properties of both coupled lines and elementary FIR (Finite Impulse Response) signal processing techniques can produce a filter of adequate phase response and magnitude control. The design procedure will first be described and then a sample filter will then be synthesized and results shown.

  10. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M; Fadda, D.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Wright, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25−500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temper...

  11. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, GJ; S. Bianchi; Bock, J.; Bomans, DJ; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mu m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temp...

  12. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  13. Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, R E; Spence, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passa...

  14. Seasonal hydrology drives rapid shifts in the flux and composition of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and major and trace ions in the Fraser River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Bulygina, E.; Galy, V.; Lamborg, C. H.; Ganguli, P. M.; Montluçon, D. B.; Marsh, S.; Gillies, S. L.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Luymes, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rapid changes in the volume and sources of discharge during the spring freshet lead to pronounced variations in biogeochemical properties in snowmelt-dominated river basins. We used daily sampling during the onset of the freshet in the Fraser River (southwestern Canada) in 2013 to identify rapid changes in the flux and composition of dissolved material, with a focus on dissolved organic matter (DOM). Previous time series sampling (at twice monthly frequency) of dissolved inorganic species in the Fraser River has revealed smooth seasonal transitions in concentrations of major ions and tracers of water and dissolved load sources between freshet and base flow periods. In contrast, daily sampling reveals a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (200 to 550 μmol L-1) occurring over a matter of days, accompanied by a shift in DOM optical properties, indicating a transition towards higher molecular weight, more aromatic DOM composition. Comparable changes in DOM composition, but not concentration, occur at other times of year, underscoring the role of seasonal climatology in DOM cycling. A smaller data set of total and dissolved Hg concentrations also showed variability during the spring freshet period, although dissolved Hg dynamics appear to be driven by factors beyond DOM as characterized here. The time series records of DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations indicate that the Fraser River exports 0.25-0.35 % of its annual basin net primary productivity. The snowmelt-dominated hydrology, forested land cover, and minimal reservoir impoundment of the Fraser River may influence the DOC yield of the basin, which is high relative to the nearby Columbia River and of similar magnitude to that of the Yukon River to the north. Anticipated warming and decreased snowfall due to climate changes in the region may cause an overall decrease in DOM flux from the Fraser River to the coastal ocean in coming decades

  15. Peering into the deep: Illuminating the crustal evolution of the Eucla basement and its relationship to the Albany-Fraser Orogen of southwest Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, Michael; Kirkland, Chris; Clark, Chris; Spaggiari, Catherine; Smithies, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The Albany-Fraser Orogen is a 1200 km long east to northeasterly trending Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belt that defines the southern to southeastern margin of the West Australian Craton (WAC). The belt records a long and complex geological history spanning the break-up of Nuna between 2000 and 1700 Ma and amalgamation of Rodinia between 1300 and 1000 Ma. Recent geochronological, geochemical and isotopic work has shown that the Albany-Fraser Orogen formed through a protracted period of reworking of the margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton (part of the WAC) with various additions of mantle-derived material. The Cretaceous Bight and Cenozoic Eucla Basins partially overlie the northeastern part of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and completely cover 1000 km of crystalline basement (the Eucla basement) that separates the belt from the South Australian Craton. This basement constitutes the glue between the major building blocks of Proterozoic Australia, yet, its geological history is poorly understood. New drill cores penetrating the basement have intersected interlayered granitic and gabbroic rocks that yield U-Pb zircon dates that are dissimilar to any magmatic ages from units within the adjoining Albany-Fraser Orogen, with the exception of the youngest, 1190-1125 Ma magmatic suite. In addition, mantle-like hafnium and neodymium isotopic signatures indicate that the rocks of the Eucla basement are dominated by new juvenile addition, and may represent an allochthonous terrane of oceanic heritage. New ɛHf contour maps for the Albany-Fraser Orogen and Eucla basement highlight this difference. Time-slicing the isotopic dataset reveals a pattern of Palaeoproterozoic juvenile magmatism sub-perpendicular to the present day structural grain in the belt. If this marks the presence of an older lithospheric structure then it demonstrates the power that time-constrained isotopic mapping provides for illuminating lithospheric architecture through time. This may be

  16. [Selection of biomass estimation models for Chinese fir plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Duan, Ai-guo; Xiang, Cong-wei

    2010-12-01

    A total of 11 kinds of biomass models were adopted to estimate the biomass of single tree and its organs in young (7-year-old), middle-age (16-year-old), mature (28-year-old), and mixed-age Chinese fir plantations. There were totally 308 biomass models fitted. Among the 11 kinds of biomass models, power function models fitted best, followed by exponential models, and then polynomial models. Twenty-one optimal biomass models for individual organ and single tree were chosen, including 18 models for individual organ and 3 models for single tree. There were 7 optimal biomass models for the single tree in the mixed-age plantation, containing 6 for individual organ and 1 for single tree, and all in the form of power function. The optimal biomass models for the single tree in different age plantations had poor generality, but the ones for that in mixed-age plantation had a certain generality with high accuracy, which could be used for estimating the biomass of single tree in different age plantations. The optimal biomass models for single Chinese fir tree in Shaowu of Fujin Province were used to predict the single tree biomass in mature (28-year-old) Chinese fir plantation in Jiangxi Province, and it was found that the models based on a large sample of forest biomass had a relatively high accuracy, being able to be applied in large area, whereas the regional models with small sample were limited to small area.

  17. Impact of Continuous Chinese Fir Monoculture on Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Sheng; LIU Chun-Jiang; W. KUTSCH; CHEN Guang-Shui; YU Xin-Tuo

    2004-01-01

    Soil properties were investigated in sites where three succeeding generations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lambert) Hooker) in Nanping, Fujian, China, were cultivated in order to show the impact of a repeated monoculture on site productivity. Compared with the first generation (FG) stand the soil structure deteriorated in the second generation (SG) and the third generation (TG) stands. For instance,the destruction rate of the peds increased by 55%-115% in the SG and the TG stands compared to the FG stand. Soil nutrient storage and nutrient availability also decreased in the SG and the TG stands. For surface soils of 0-20 cm, the organic matter content, total N and P, and available N and P decreased by 3%-20% relative to those in the FG stand. For many soil parameters, the differences between the FG stand and the SG and the TG stands were statistically significant (LSD test, P < 0.05). Furthermore, with each succeeding generation of Chinese fir, the total number of soil microbes declined, the soil enzyme activity weakened, and the soil biological activity decreased. In order to maintain sustainable site productivity, new silvicultural practices need to be developed for management of Chinese fir plantations.

  18. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, A C; Mittal, R; Allen, S W; Baum, S A; Boehringer, H; Bregman, J N; Bremer, M N; Combes, F; Crawford, C S; Donahue, M; Egami, E; Fabian, A C; Hamer, S L; Hatch, N A; Jaffe, W; Johnstone, R M; McNamara, B R; O'Dea, C P; Popesso, P; Quillen, A C; Salome, P; Sarazin, C L; Voit, G M; Wilman, R J; Wise, M W

    2010-01-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [C II], [O I] and [N I] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (>10^9 Mo) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed...

  19. Ecological environment analysis of Abies holophylla plantations under different cutting systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Different types of plantations were observed in Baishilazi National Nature Reserve, Liaoning Province,for 34 a. The environmental quality of Abies holophylla plantations was analyzed under different cutting systems.Analysis factors included soil erosion rate, humification degree of litters, and water hold capacity. The surface soil loss of clear cutting area was 19 000 t·km-2·a-1 more than that of selective cutting area. The content of soil organic matter in board-leaved-Abies holophylla forest was 4.62% more than that in pure stand, and the water hold capacity of the mixed forest was 1.43 time of that of pure stand. The mixed forest of board-leaved--Abies holophylla by selective cutting can upgrade the ecological environment quality.

  20. De un modelo bidimensional a un modelo tridimensional de justicia: el replanteamiento teórico feminista de Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nohemí González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge de manera sistemática la propuesta de Nancy Fraser en torno al ideal de justicia y su aplicación en las identidades colectivas. Para ello, se aborda el dilema entre redistribución y reconocimiento, y la tendencia actual del predominio del reconocimiento y el límite de la propuesta bidimensional del pensamiento de Fraser. Finalmente, se reseña el conjunto de nuevas reflexiones abordadas por la autora en su texto Escalas de justicia, en el que la filósofa amplía su modelo, presentandouna tercera dimensión: la representación como una categoría para explicar las injusticias que se producen en el plano político. AbstractThis article gathers in a systematic way the Nancy Fraser’s thinking about her proposal around the justice ideal and its implementation in collective identities. To that end, we deal with the dilemma between redistribution and recognition, and the current trend of recognition predominance. The current article briefly explains the limit of the two-dimensional proposal of Fraser’. Finally we frame the group of new re-fiections which are tackled by her author in her text Escalas de justicia, where the philosopher makes the widening of her model by presenting a third dimension: the representation as a category to explain unfairness produced in the political level.

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Phage Gene sav, Involved in Sensitivity to the Lactococcal Abortive Infection Mechanism AbiV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Rousseau, G. M.; Hammer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis phage mutants that are insensitive to the recently characterized abortive infection mechanism AbiV were isolated and analyzed in an effort to elucidate factors involved in the sensitivity to AbiV. Whole-genome sequencing of the phage mutants p2.1 and p2.2 revealed mutations in ...

  2. Nutrients in foliage and wet deposition of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in washing tree top in Abies religiosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.R Peña-Mendoza; A. Gómez-Guerrero; Mark Fenn; P. Hernández de la Rosa; D. Alvarado Rosales

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional content and tree top in the forests are evaluated of Abies religiosa, San Miguel Tlaixpan (SMT) and Rio Frio (RF), State of Mexico. The work had two parts. In the first, the nutritional content was evaluated in new foliage (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in Abies religiosa trees, in periods of spring, summer and winter, in...

  3. AbiV, a Novel Antiphage Abortive Infection Mechanism on the Chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Moineau, Sylvain; Fortier, Louis-Charles

    2008-01-01

    resistance against virulent lactococcal phages belonging to the 936 and c2 species with an efficiency of plaquing of 10(-4), but it did not protect against members of the P335 species. A high level of expression of the ORF did not affect the cellular growth rate. Assays for phage adsorption, DNA ejection......, restriction/modification activity, plaque size, phage DNA replication, and cell survival showed that the ORF encoded an abortive infection (Abi) mechanism. Sequence analysis revealed a deduced protein consisting of 201 amino acids which, in its native state, probably forms a dimer in the cytosol. Similarity...... searches revealed no homology to other phage resistance mechanisms, and thus, this novel Abi mechanism was designated AbiV. The mode of action of AbiV is unknown, but the activity of AbiV prevented cleavage of the replicated phage DNA of 936-like phages....

  4. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cinget

    Full Text Available The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea, a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data and 75 populations (cpDNA data was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only, but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen, indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  5. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinget, Benjamin; Gérardi, Sébastien; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data) and 75 populations (cpDNA data) was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only), but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen), indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  6. Early verification of a hybrid between noble and California red firs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy R. Silen; William B. Critchfield; Jerry F. Franklin

    1965-01-01

    Hybrids between Abies procera Rehd., and Abies magnifica A. Murr., made reciprocally at Marys Peak near Corvallis, Oreg., and near Placerville, Calif., suggest that no significant genetic barriers prevent crossing of the two species where ranges overlap. Hence, maintenance of species differences must be looked for in other factors...

  7. Spatial Pattern of the Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Genetic Variation in Poland as a Result of the Migration of Abies alba Mill. from Different Glacial Refugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Litkowiec

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the information on the gene pool of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. at the northeastern edge of its distribution in Poland is scarce and insufficient. Using the advantage provided by markers with different modes of inheritance, a hypothesis that gene flow via both seeds and pollen contributed to the genetic structure across the entire analyzed region was investigated. The geographic distribution of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, nad5-4 and paternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA, psbC variation was studied in 81 Polish populations and three reference populations from Ukraine and Romania. The spatial pattern of mtDNA haplotypes (dispersed via seeds indicated that the Apennine Peninsula was the only maternal glacial refugium for the entire territory of Poland and also the Ukraine no 1 population, whereas the other two populations—Ukraine no 2 and Romania—had the haplotype representing the Balkan origin. By contrast, the cpDNA haplotypes (dispersed via pollen from all studied Polish and reference populations showed that A. alba colonized the current natural range from two genetically distinct glacial refugia located on the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas. The occurrence of cpDNA haplotypes varied among the studied populations. Additionally, statistical analyses were used to infer the genetic structure of examined populations. Two distinct groups of A. alba populations were identified showing the postglacial geographic distribution of haplotypes of both mtDNA and cpDNA. A. alba is an important ecological and economic component of forest ecosystems in Europe. An understanding of the Holocene history of this species is relevant for planning sustainable forest management, and acquired data can contribute to strategies of conservation and restoration.

  8. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  9. Pakistan vajab abi - kas maailma tõesti ei huvita? / Urmas Jaagant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan saab igal aastal suurt rahvusvahelist abi. Mitmed riigid on üleujutustes Pakistani toetanud nüüdki kümnete miljonite dollaritega, kuid riikide tahe annetada on erinev, sest mitte iga abidollarit ei suunata Pakistanis sinna, kus seda tegelikult vajatakse

  10. Pakistan vajab abi - kas maailma tõesti ei huvita? / Urmas Jaagant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan saab igal aastal suurt rahvusvahelist abi. Mitmed riigid on üleujutustes Pakistani toetanud nüüdki kümnete miljonite dollaritega, kuid riikide tahe annetada on erinev, sest mitte iga abidollarit ei suunata Pakistanis sinna, kus seda tegelikult vajatakse

  11. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  12. TRADUÇÃO COMENTADA DE LA FORCE DU SERMENT DE AMON D’ABY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yéo N'Gana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a commented translation of the tale La force du serment by the Ivorian writer Amon d’Aby. We aimed at analyzing through/by the translation both figures of style particularly framed by an authoritative imaginary requiring that reflections be made on the translation of space, and linguistic and cultural elements found within the tale.

  13. Iraagi peaminister tänas Eestit abi eest / Toivo Tootsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootsen, Toivo, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paeti kohtumisest Iraagi peaministri Nuri al-Malikiga, mille käigus tänas peaminister Eestit osutatud abi eest ning rõhutas Iraagi iseseisvumisprotsessi tähtsust, mille saavutamisel on oluline roll ka koalitsioonivägedel

  14. [Effects of snow pack removal on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and the number of soil culturable microorganisms during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Fu-Zhong; He, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-07-01

    To understand the effects of the lack of snow pack under global warming on the characteristics of soil microorganisms during wintertime, a snow-shading experiment was conducted in a primary fir (Abies faxoniana) forest after snow pack removal, with the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and soil culturable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) at the stages of snow forming, snow covering, and snow melting investigated. Snow pack removal had significant effects on the soil MBC and MBN and the number of soil culturable bacteria and fungi, but the responses of the culturable microorganisms differed with the stages of snow-shading. Under the condition of snow pack removal, the MBC and MBN in soil organic layer decreased significantly at the early stages of snow forming and snow melting but increased significantly at snow covering stage and at the later stage of snow melting, and the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow covering while that of culturable fungi had a significant increase from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow melting. After snow melting, the MBC and the number of culturable fungi in soil organic layer had a significant decrease, the number of cultural bacteria was in adverse, but the MBN had less change. The MBC and MBN and the number of culturable microorganisms in soil mineral layer had the similar variation trends as those in soil organic layer, but the fluctuations were smaller. It was suggested that snow pack removal changed the ratio of culturable bacteria to culturable fungi, showing positive effects on the number of soil culturable fungi during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan.

  15. Power Efficient Design of Parallel/Serial FIR Filters in RNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petricca, Massimo; Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the Residue Number System (RNS) provides an efficient implementation of parallel FIR filters especially when the filter order and the dynamic range are high. The two main drawbacks of RNS, need of converters and coding overhead, make a serialized implementation of the FIR fi...

  16. Population buildup and vertical spread of dwarf mistletoe on young red and white firs in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Rate of population buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz., was slow in most small red firs and white firs 12 to 15 years after inoculation with the parasite. Where population buildup did occur, it remained clustered in the lower portions of tree crowns near inoculation sites. Maximum distance of vertical spread was 16...

  17. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...

  18. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  19. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van E.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant natur

  20. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  1. Properties of predictor based on relative neighborhood graph localized FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1995-01-01

    A time signal prediction algorithm based on relative neighborhood graph (RNG) localized FIR filters is defined. The RNG connects two nodes, of input space dimension D, if their lune does not contain any other node. The FIR filters associated with the nodes, are used for local approximation...

  2. Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F

    2007-01-01

    We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

  3. A temática das uniões homoafetivas no Supremo Tribunal Federal à luz do debate Honneth-Fraser The issue of homosexual unions in the Federal Supreme Court in light of the debate Honneth-Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Bunchaft

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O debate sobre os direitos das uniões homoafetivas constitui um dos tópicos mais controversos do direito constitucional. Como se sabe, a união homoafetiva não foi reconhecida expressamente no § 3º do artigo 226 da CF, inexistindo norma específica. O presente artigo pretende investigar a posição de ministros do STF em relação ao tema das uniões homoafetivas, em conexão com as filosofias do reconhecimento propostas por Axel Honneth e Nancy Fraser. Nesse sentido, os fundamentos filosóficos das teorias do reconhecimento podem ser um instrumental teórico fundamental para a compreensão de determinadas formas de ativismo judicial que objetivam a proteção de minorias estigmatizadas cujas pretensões normativas são desconsideradas pelo processo político. Pretendemos demonstrar que o paradigma da autorrealização proposto por Honneth é impreciso e incapaz de legitimar formas de ativismo judicial voltadas para a proteção dos direitos das uniões homoafetivas.The homosexual union rights are debated as one of the most controversial topics of Constitutional Law. It is known that the homosexual union was not explicitly recognized by the article 226 § 3º from FC, as there is no specific regulation for this subject. This paper intends to investigate STF ministers' position in relation to homosexual union according to Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser philosophies of recognition. In this sense, the philosophical basis from recognition theories may be a theoretical instrument to comprehend some forms of judicial activism which aims are to protect stigmatized minorities whose regulatory intentions are disregarded by the political process. We intend to demonstrate that the Honneth's paradigm of achievement is imprecise and can't legitimate forms of judicial activism aimed to protect the rights of homosexual unions.

  4. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K

    1996-07-01

    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  5. Analysis of the growth characteristics of a 450-year-old silver fir tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth characteristics of silver fir are of high importance for selection forest management, and for the current aims laid out in Serbia’s forest management focused on increasing the share of silver firs in Serbia’s growing stock. With the objective of increasing the understanding of the growth characteristics of silver fir, the growth of two silver fir trees felled during forest site production research on Mt. Goč, located in Central Serbia, have been analyzed. Both trees showed significant differences in their growth dynamics over long periods as results of micro-site and micro-stand effects (primarily ambient light regime. The common growth characteristic of the two trees, a 450-year-old tree as the main study object (labeled Tree A and a 270-year-old Tree B is a long stagnation stage. For Tree A the latent phase, with small interruptions, lasted 410 years; one phase lasted 330 years in continuity, which is the longest period of silver fir stagnation recorded in Europe. Tree B showed a long-lasting stagnation stage that lasted 170 years. The long stagnation stage of Tree A, characterized by an average diameter increment of 1.4 mm/year (average growth ring width of 0.7 mm and an average height increment of 0.08 m/year, shows the extraordinary silver fir capacity for physiological survival in complete shade. This study adds to the existing knowledge of the shade tolerance of the silver fir. Therefore, the silver fir belongs to the group of extremely shade-tolerant tree species. This characteristic makes silver fir an irreplaceable tree species in the selection forest structure. It offers a wide range of silvicultural flexibility in the management of these forests, and is applicable to silver fir selection Serbia’s forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. EVBR 37008: Sustainable management of total forest potentials in the Republic of Serbia

  6. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-02

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  7. ABI4 regulates primary seed dormancy by regulating the biogenesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins in arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Chen, Mingluan; Wu, Yaorong; Tang, Sanyuan; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Yuqi; Cao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellins (GA) are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process antagonistically. The detailed regulatory mechanism involving crosstalk between ABA and GA, which underlies seed dormancy, requires further elucidation. Here, we report that ABI4 positively regulates primary seed dormancy, while negatively regulating cotyledon greening, by mediating the biogenesis of ABA and GA. Seeds of the Arabidopsis abi4 mutant that were subjected to short-term storage (one or two weeks) germinated significantly more quickly than Wild-Type (WT), and abi4 cotyledons greened markedly more quickly than WT, while the rates of germination and greening were comparable when the seeds were subjected to longer-term storage (six months). The ABA content of dry abi4 seeds was remarkably lower than that of WT, but the amounts were comparable after stratification. Consistently, the GA level of abi4 seeds was increased compared to WT. Further analysis showed that abi4 was resistant to treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, during germination, while OE-ABI4 was sensitive to PAC, and exogenous GA rescued the delayed germination phenotype of OE-ABI4. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism in dry and germinating seeds corresponded to hormonal measurements. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR (ChIP-qPCR) and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 repressed CYP707A1 and CYP707A2 expression by directly binding to those promoters, and the ABI4 binding elements are essential for this repression. Accordingly, further genetic analysis showed that abi4 recovered the delayed germination phenotype of cyp707a1 and cyp707a2 and further, rescued the non-germinating phenotype of ga1-t. Taken together, this study suggests that ABI4 is a key factor that

  8. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  9. MODIFIED MICROPIPLINE ARCHITECTURE FOR SYNTHESIZABLE ASYNCHRONOUS FIR FILTER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Halak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of asynchronous design approaches to construct digital signal processing (DSP systems is a rapidly growing research area driven by a wide range of emerging energy constrained applications such as wireless sensor network, portable medical devices and brain implants. The asynchronous design techniques allow the construction of systems which are samples driven, which means they only dissipate dynamic energy when there processing data and idle otherwise. This inherent advantage of asynchronous design over conventional synchronous circuits allows them to be energy efficient. However the implementation flow of asynchronous systems is still difficult due to its lack of compatibility with industrystandard synchronous design tools and modelling languages. This paper devises a novel asynchronous design for a finite impulse response (FIR filter, an essential building block of DSP systems, which is synthesizable and suitable for implementation using conventional synchronous systems design flow and tools. The proposed design is based on a modified version of the micropipline architecture and it is constructed using four phase bundled data protocol. A hardware prototype of the proposed filter has been developed on an FPGA, and systematically verified. The results prove correct functionality of the novel design and a superior performance compared to a synchronous FIR implementation. The findings of this work will allow a wider adoption of asynchronous circuits by DSP designers to harness their energy and performance benefits.

  10. POLARIZATION OF FIR EMISSION FROM T-TAURI DISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of 850 gm sub-mm polarization from T-Tauri disks open up the possibility of studying the magnetic eld structure within protostellar disks. The degree of polarization is around 3% and the direction of polarization is perpendicular to the disk. Since thermal emission from dust grains dominates the spectral energy distribution at sub-mm/far-infrared (FIR wavelengths, dust grains are thought to be the cause of the polarization. We discuss grain alignment by radiation and we explore the efficiency of dust alignment in T-Tauri disks. The calculations show that dust grains located far away from the central proto-star are more efficiently aligned. In the presence of a regular magnetic eld, the aligned grains produce polarized emission in sub-mm/FIR wavelengths. The direction of polarization is perpendicular to the local magnetic eld direction. When we use a recent T-Tauri disk model and take a Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck-type distribution with maximum grain size of 500{1000 -m, the degree of polarization is around 2{3% level at wavelengths larger than - 100 gm. Our work indicates that multifrequency infrared polarimetric studies of protostellar disks can provide good insights into the details of their magnetic structure. We also provide predictions for polarize emission for disks viewed at di erent wavelengths and viewing angles.

  11. Upgrade Plans for the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, R.; Garnier, D.; Irby, J.; Brower, D. L.; Xu, P.; Bergerson, W. F.; Ding, W. X.; Guttenfelder, W.; Marmar, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The 3-chord FIR polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout similar to that proposed for ITER. The details of this system and some results from the C-Mod 2012 campaign will be presented, along with the design of the upgrade that is now being implemented. The new system will provide horizontal chords near the mid-plane and low loss etalon windows to improve both the signal level and our ability to study magnetic fluctuations. The laser table has been relocated from the C-Mod cell to a shielded and climate controlled location, and improvements have been made to its acoustic isolation. New collimation optics, and a beam-line needed to convey the FIR beams into the tokamak port have been designed. Improvements to the detector electronics will also be discussed, as will initial testing of the laser system and reference detectors during C-Mod operation. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  13. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich S Dusko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  14. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 4 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest–southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2–3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.

  15. Development of ammonia emission factors for the land application of poultry manure in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Bittman, S.; Hunt, D.E. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, BC (Canada). Pacific Agricultural Research Centre

    2008-07-01

    An estimated 6 per cent of all Canadian ammonia emissions can be attributed to land application of poultry manure. Poultry production in British Columbia (BC) constitutes 15 per cent of the total production in Canada, most of it concentrated in the Lower Fraser Valley, generating about 300,000 tonnes of manure each year. The losses of ammonia must be quantified in order to predict local deposition, nitrogen balances and impact on air quality, particularly the formation of secondary fine particulate matter less than 2.5 mm which is often composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. This study investigated ammonia emissions associated with manure application from various types of poultry operations. After manure application, ammonia emission rates were determined using wind tunnels, capturing the emitted ammonia with acid traps. For all trials, the highest emissions occurred within the first day, and gradually declined over the next 2-3 weeks. Cumulative ammonia emission in all treatments did not exceed the initial amount of ammonia nitrogen present in manure. Ammonia emission rates were significantly different among the manure types. The percent total loss of ammonia with time was positively correlated with manure pH. Ammonia emission rates were typically higher in the spring trials than the fall trial. These data will be used to update ammonia emission factors for BC and Canada. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. (Pinaceae is an extremely rare flora species of the Central Asia (Kirghizia; it has been cultivated at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS since 1949, where it was first introduced into general cultivation. Since 2000, upon reaching the age of 43 years, the seed reproduction of the plants is being marked. An X-ray test proved seeds, collected in 2014, to be filled and full. In spring 2015, first time in the 67 years of cultivating this specie in St. Petersburg area, first young crops were received. Abies semenovii – a cold hard and decorative tree – has to be introduced into the gardening of St. Petersburg and shall be promoted into the Karelia and further to the northern regions of the European part of the Russian Federation.

  17. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration an...

  18. FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Uros Zivaljevic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient  realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.

  19. Recherche de lignées aromatiques d’Abies par hybridation somatique

    OpenAIRE

    Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Créer une lignée d’Abies aromatique qui associera les propriétés de croissance reconnues à l’espèce A. nordmanniana aux propriétés aromatiques d’A. balsamea, en utilisant des lignées embryogènes capables de régénérer des plantes entières.

  20. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V

    2006-01-01

    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  1. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE. Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1.PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the 'edgeR glm approach' and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed.The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were 'metabolism', 'transport' and 'cell rescue, defense and virulence'. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis.In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction.

  2. An SK3 channel/nWASP/Abi-1 complex is involved in early neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liebau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs. Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Ruth R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  4. Genetic Variation among 11 Abies concolor Populations Based on Allozyme Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin-feng; Li Hui; Dong Jian-sheng; Wang Jun-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the genetic structure of Abies concolor and the genetic variation among 11 populations introduced from America to China, allozyme analysis based on starch gel electrophoresis technology was used. 24 loci of 10allozyme systems were mensurated, and the genetic structure and genetic diversity of the 11 populations of A. concolor evaluated.The results show that the genetic variation among is significant, and the genetic variation within A. concolor populations is more important. In contrast with other conifers, the variation of A. concolor is above the average level of conifers, and higher than the same level ofAbies. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 62.5%, the number of alleles per locus (A) 2.08, the number of effective alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.37, the expected heterozygosity (H) 0.204, and the Shannon information index (I) 0.351 7. There is a short genetic distance (D=0.061) and a low gene flow (Nm=0.839 4) among the 11 introduced populations of A. concolor with high genetic variation. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) was 0.229 5, which is higher than that of the mean in Abies or Pinus.

  5. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Ryou, Albert

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes, and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.es to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  6. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  7. Sigma Delta Modulation Based Ternary FIR Filter Mapping on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabuddin Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper single-bit SDM (Sigma Delta Modulation based TFF (Ternary FIR Filter with balanced ternary coefficients (i.e. -1/0/+1 has been mapped on small commercially available FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Filter coefficients were obtained using second order sigma delta modulator. The filter structure is based on a hierarchical adder tree that can easily be pipelined for high performance purpose. Filter structure was coded in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language and simulated in Quartus-II software. The filter exhibits low I/O (Input Output and core area usage and high performance-achieving clock speeds close to 200MHz on a low-cost FPGA and over 500MHz on a latest FPGA commercially available device. This single-bit ternary filter is intended to support video and audio processing applications in mobile communication systems.

  8. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Buat, V; Cortese, L; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bock, J; Bomans, D J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D; Corbelli, E; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dariush, A; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Gear, W; Giovanardi, C; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Grossi, M; Hony, S; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L; Isaak, K; Jones, A; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sabatini, S; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Verstappen, J; Vigroux, L; Vlahakis, C; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Xilouris, E M; Zeilinger, W; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mic spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated bynthe synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter beta<2 in low metallicity, active systems.

  9. Intratree Variability of Cleavage Resistance of Chinese Fir from Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; REN Haiqing; LUO Xiuqin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the variation of cleavage resistance of Chinese fir wood from plantation.Six trees of 36 years old were investigated,and the cleavage resistance properties for 672 samples made of the trees were tested.The samples were cut from the sapwood and heartwood at different directions (south and north) and heights (1.3,3.3,5.3 and 7.3 m) of the trees.The result showed that:tangential cleavage resistance was higher than radial one, and cleavage resistance of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood,but there was no significant difference in cleavage resistances between sections of the north and the south of the trees.There was a little variation in cleavage resistance between the radial and tangential from butt to top log,which shows alittle decrease with the height from 1.3 to 5.3 m,but a rise in the top of the trees.

  10. Power and Aging Characterization of Digital FIR Filters Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calimera, Andrea; Liu, Wei; Macii, Enrico;

    2012-01-01

    With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process-variatio......With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process......-variation, temperature and aging induced variations pose new challenges in the fabrication of the next generation of ICs. This work presents a detailed power and aging characterization of digital FIR filters in an industrial 45nm CMOS technology, and a design space exploration of different filter architectures...

  11. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  12. Study on Volatile Organic Components from Chinese Fir Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; OHIRA Tatsuro

    2006-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are emitted by a wide array of products, which include a variety of chemicals, some of them may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Several analytical instrument including gas chromatograph, high preferment liquid chromatograph, mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were used in this study. The results showed the aldehyde and ketone components of Chinese fir wood were little composed of formaldehyde, syn-acetaldehyde, anti-acetadehyde and acrolein, VOCs obtained by Tenax GR absorber consisted of the major component cedrene (42.92%) and another 28 components, and the major components of the VOCs from the sample by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were cedrene and cedrol.

  13. Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.

  14. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  15. Balsam Woolly Adelgid Survey on Balsam Fir Stand in Central Tract 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 14, 2002, Emily Grafton and Dawn Washington surveyed the balsam fir stand in the central tract, off of Delta 13 trail, near the Little Blackwater and Glade...

  16. Tree shaking machine aids cone collection in a Douglas-fir seed orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Copes; William K. Randall

    1983-01-01

    A boom-type tree shaker was used in a Douglas-fir seed orchard to remove cones from 7- to 9-meter tall grafted Douglas-fir trees. An average of 55 percent of the cones were removed by shaking, while damage inflicted to the upper crown was confined primarily to branch and leader breakage in the top three internodes. Damage to the lower bole, where the shaker head...

  17. Health and air quality 2005 : phase 2 : valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furberg, M.; Preston, K. [RWDI West Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sawyer, D. [Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brauer, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene; Hanvelt, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2005-07-15

    This study provided estimates the health benefits and costs associated with specified changes in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV). Estimates were developed on a regional level. The study focused on PM and ozone, as current air quality monitoring data and scientific findings have indicated that these are the air contaminants of greatest concern in the region. Known air quality health outcome relationships were applied in a spreadsheet model to predict changes in health outcomes associated with 6 ambient air quality scenarios for 3 sub-regions within the LFV airshed. Concentration response functions based on epidemiological studies were used to estimate the number of health events associated with changes in air quality. For each scenario, the model calculated the expected number of the following health outcomes: mortality; chronic bronchitis; respiratory hospital admissions; cardiac hospital admissions; emergency room visits; child acute bronchitis; restricted activity days; asthma symptom days; minor restricted activity days and acute respiratory symptom days. The model also produced the dollar value of the health outcomes. A dollar metric was used so that the health outcomes could be aggregated and compared with other air quality management actions such the costs of improving ambient air quality. Results indicated that improving ambient air quality in the LFV will produce valued and socially desirable benefits, including reduced mortality and morbidity. The measures contemplated by decision-makers to maintain and improve air quality in the LFV will trigger benefits that are likely to be significant. 101 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Modelling the Future Hydroclimatology of the Lower Fraser River and its Impacts on the Spawning Migration Survival of Sockeye Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, M. J.; Ferrari, M. R.; Miller, J. R.; Patterson, D. A.; Russell, G. L.; Farrell, A.P.; Hinch, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Short episodic high temperature events can be lethal for migrating adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We downscaled temperatures for the Fraser River, British Columbia to evaluate the impact of climate warming on the frequency of exceeding thermal thresholds associated with salmon migratory success. Alarmingly, a modest 1.0 C increase in average summer water temperature over 100 years (1981-2000 to 2081-2100) tripled the number of days per year exceeding critical salmonid thermal thresholds (i.e. 19.0 C). Refined thresholds for two populations (Gates Creek and Weaver Creek) of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were defined using physiological constraint models based on aerobic scope. While extreme temperatures leading to complete aerobic collapse remained unlikely under our warming scenario, both populations were increasingly forced to migrate upriver at reduced levels of aerobic performance (e.g. in 80% of future simulations, => 90% of salmon encountered temperatures exceeding population specific thermal optima for maximum aerobic scope; T(sub opt)) = 16.3 C for Gates Creek and T(sub sopt)=14.5 C for Weaver Creek). Assuming recent changes to river entry timing persist, we also predicted dramatic increases in the probability of freshwater mortality for Weaver Creek salmon due to reductions in aerobic, and general physiological, performance (e.g. in 42% of future simulations =>50% of Weaver Creek fish exceeded temperature thresholds associated with 0 - 60% of maximum aerobic scope). Potential for adaptation via directional selection on run-timing was more evident for the Weaver Creek population. Early entry Weaver Creek fish experienced 25% (range: 15 - 31%) more suboptimal temperatures than late entrants, compared with an 8% difference (range: 0 - 17%) between early and late Gates Creek fish. Our results emphasize the need to consider daily temperature variability in association with population-specific differences in behaviour and physiological

  19. Interferometric Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Star-forming Regions II. NGC2024 FIR5

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, S P; Girart, J M; Rao, R; Lai, Shih-Ping; Crutcher, Richard M.; Girart, Jose M.; Rao, Ramprasad

    2001-01-01

    We present the first interferometric polarization maps of the NGC2024 FIR5 molecular core obtained with the BIMA array at approximately 2 arcsec resolution. We measure an average position angle of -60+-6 degrees in the main core of FIR5 and 54+-9 degrees in the eastern wing of FIR5. The morphology of the polarization angles in the main core of FIR5 suggests that the field lines are parabolic with a symmetry axis approximately parallel to the major axis of the putative disk in FIR5, which is consistent with the theoretical scenario that the gravitational collapse pulled the field lines into an hour-glass shape. The polarization percentage decreases toward regions with high intensity and close to the center of the core, suggesting that the dust alignment efficiency may decrease at high density. The plane-of-sky field strength can be estimated with the modified Chandrasekhar-Fermi formula, and the small dispersion of the polarization angles in FIR5 suggests that the magnetic field is strong ($\\gtrsim$ 2mG) and p...

  20. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  1. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  2. Optimal design study of high order FIR digital filters based on neural network algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小华; 何怡刚

    2004-01-01

    An optimal design approach of high order FIR digital filter is developed based on the algorithm of neural networks with cosine basis function . The main idea is to minimize the sum of the square errors between the amplitude response of the desired FIR filter and that of the designed by training the weights of neural networks, then obtains the impulse response of FIR digital filter . The convergence theorem of the neural networks algorithm is presented and proved,and the optimal design method is introduced by designing four kinds of FIR digital filters , i.e., low-pass, high-pass,bandpass , and band-stop FIR digital filter. The results of the amplitude responses show that attenuation in stop-bands is more than 60 dB with no ripple and pulse existing in pass-bands, and cutoff frequency of passband and stop-band is easily controlled precisely . The presented optimal design approach of high order FIR digital filter is significantly effective.

  3. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the ...

  4. ABI3 mediates expression of the peroxiredoxin antioxidant AtPER1 gene and induction by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslekås, Camilla; Grini, Paul E; Nordgard, Silje H; Thorstensen, Tage; Viken, Marte K; Nygaard, Vigdis; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2003-10-01

    The peroxiredoxin antioxidant gene AtPER1 has been considered to be specifically expressed in the embryo and aleurone layer during maturation and desiccation stages of development, and in the mature seed, typically for late embryogenesis-abundant (lea) transcripts. In the abscisic acid-insensitive abi3-1 mutant, the AtPER1 transcript level is strongly reduced, suggesting ABI3 to be a prime regulator of AtPER1. We have studied the expression pattern and regulation of AtPER1 with a series of nine promoter::GUS constructs with deletions and/or mutations in putative regulatory elements. Arabidopsis lines harbouring these constructs revealed AtPER1 promoter activity in the endosperm, especially the chalazal cyst, already when the embryo is in the late globular stage, in the embryo from the late torpedo stage, and in distinct cells of unfertilized and fertilized ovules. Early expression seems to be dependent on a putative antioxidant-responsive promoter element (ARE), while from the bent cotyledon stage endosperm and embryo expression is dependent on an ABA-responsive element (ABRE) likely to bind ABI5. The shortest promoter fragment (113 bp), devoid of ARE, ABRE and without an intact RY/Sph element thought to bind ABI3 did not drive GUS expression. The AtPER1::GUS construct also revealed expression in cotyledons, meristems and stem branching points. In general, seed and vegetative expression coincided with the expression pattern of ABI3. In plants ectopically expressing ABI3, AtPER1::GUS expression was found in true leaves, and AtPER1 could be induced by exogenous ABA and oxidative stress (H2O2 and hydroquinone). ABI3-mediated oxidative stress induction was dependent on the presence of an intact ARE element.

  5. Description of the final stadium larva of Heliocypha perforata perforata (Percheron), with discussion of the taxonomic characters of the larvae of the genus Heliocypha Fraser (Odonata: Zygoptera: Chlorocyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Han

    2015-03-04

    The final stadium larva of Heliocypha perforata perforata is described and illustrated for the first time. It is characterized by having a row of filiform setae present laterally on distal half of prementum, 6-7 setae on the outer side of palpal lobe, very long lateral gills and distinct abdominal color pattern. The taxonomic characters of the larvae of the genus Heliocypha Fraser are discussed and summarized. Heliocypha larvae share a high similarity with Rhinocypha in general appearance and cannot be clearly distinguished from the latter in structure.

  6. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli

    OpenAIRE

    Pitera JE, Scambler PJ, Woolf AS.

    2008-01-01

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, th...

  7. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin T Schiop

    Full Text Available The Norway spruce (Picea abies, the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  8. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  9. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  10. E3B1/ABI-1 Isoforms Are Down-Regulated in Cancers of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia A. Baba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa. A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  11. Electron probe microanalysis of fluorine in polluted needle sections of Abies alba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Lhoste, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    After fumigation with hydrogen fluoride, sections of needles of Abies alba were studied by electron probe microanalysis. The levels of fluoride vary in different tissues: most fluoride was found in the spongy mesophyll and the palisade tissues as a function of the distance from the cells of entry and the paths of translocation of fluoride. These results support the view that the differential responses of various tissues of a leaf to fumigation with HF depend on the localization of the tissues rather than on a specific response by a particular tissue to fluoride. 15 references, 6 figures.

  12. The afterlife of antiquity and modern art: Aby Warburg on Manet

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    Dimitrios Latsis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aby Warburg’s manuscript on Édouard Manet – unpublished during his lifetime and presented here for the first time in English – constitutes one of his rare, substantial commentaries on nineteenth century art. Using “Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe” as a departure point, Warburg proceeds from his customary meticulous investigation of the central motif’s “visual archeology,” to a larger reflection on the evolution of the representation of nature in art and the image of antiquity that modernity has created for itself.

  13. ELi abi ettevõtjale lükkub osaliselt edasi / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtjatele lubatud Euroopa Liidu tõukefondide raha taotlemine Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuses viibib majandusministeeriumis vastuvõtmata määruste tõttu. Diagrammid: Struktuurifondidest saadava abi kõrval peab Eesti liikmemaksu tasuma; EAS plaanis jagada tänavu ligi 800 miljonit krooni struktuurifondide raha. Nimekiri: Põhiosa euroabist läheb töötajate arengusse ja transporti. 5 prioriteeti. Vt. samas: Raha venimine kõige hullem. AS-i E-Arsenal juht Jüri Tümanok rahade viibimisest

  14. Effects of irrigation, fertilization and drought on the occurrence of Lophodermium piceae in Picea abies needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, Asko; Barklund, Pia [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-08-01

    Effects of irrigation, drought and fertilization on the frequency of the fungal endophyte Lophodermium piceae in green needles was assessed in a 30-year-old experimental stand of Picea abies in southern Sweden. Frequencies of needles with L. piceae were lower in irrigation and ammonium sulphate fertilization treatments than in the control. Drought treatment frequencies were similar to the control. Needles were susceptible to colonization for at least 3 years; colonization increased with needle age. The results indicate that the increased availability of water to the root system as well as ammonium sulphate fertilization indirectly delays colonization of needles by L. piceae 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. ELi abi ettevõtjale lükkub osaliselt edasi / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtjatele lubatud Euroopa Liidu tõukefondide raha taotlemine Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuses viibib majandusministeeriumis vastuvõtmata määruste tõttu. Diagrammid: Struktuurifondidest saadava abi kõrval peab Eesti liikmemaksu tasuma; EAS plaanis jagada tänavu ligi 800 miljonit krooni struktuurifondide raha. Nimekiri: Põhiosa euroabist läheb töötajate arengusse ja transporti. 5 prioriteeti. Vt. samas: Raha venimine kõige hullem. AS-i E-Arsenal juht Jüri Tümanok rahade viibimisest

  16. RE-THINKING OTHER CLAIMANTS TO PROPHETHOOD: the Case of Umayya ibn Abi Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Makin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the domination of the prophethood of Muhammad in the narrative of the seventh century of the Arabian Peninsula presented by both Muslim and Western scholars. There were many other claimants to prophethood, who are ignored in Muslim and Western sources. In this vein, this article deals with Umayya ibn Abi Salt, a poet who claimed prophethood. Umayya’s short biography, collections of his poems (diwan and , and examples of his poems are discussed. Keywords: prophethood, qur’an, Umayya, revelation, sira, diwan.

  17. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF FIR FILTER USING COMPUTATIONAL SHARING MULTIPLIER BASED ON HIGH SPEED CARRY SELECT ADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile computing and multimedia applications demand high-performance and low-power VLSI Digital Signal Processing (DSP systems. One of the most widely used operations in DSP is Finite-Impulse Response (FIR filtering. In the existing method FIR filter is designed using array multiplier, which is having higher delay and power dissipation. The proposed method presents a programmable digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter for high-performance applications. The architecture is based on a computational sharing multiplier which specifically doing add and shift operation and also targets computation re-use in vector-scalar products. CSHM multiplier can be implemented by Carry Select Adder which is a high speed adder. A Carry-Select Adder (CSA can be implemented by using single ripple carry adder and add-one circuits using the fast all-one finding circuit and low-delay multiplexers to reduce the area and accelerate the speed of CSA. An 8-tap programmable FIR filter was implemented in tanner EDA tool using CMOS 180nm technology based on the proposed CSHM technique. In which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns of the filter using array multiplier are 6000, 3.732 and 9 respectively. The FIR filter using CSHM in which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns are 23500, 2.627 and 4.5 respectively. By adopting the proposed method for the design of FIR filter, the delay is reduced to about 43.2% in comparison with the existing method. The CSHM scheme and circuit-level techniques helped to achieve high-performance FIR filtering operation.

  18. Release of terpenes from fir wood during its long-term use and in thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačík, František; Veľková, Veronika; Šmíra, Pavel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Kačíková, Danica; Reinprecht, Ladislav

    2012-08-21

    Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60-70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7-1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects.

  19. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica

    2013-12-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  20. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  1. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  2. Creep of Chinese Fir Wood Treated by Different Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng-lian; Zhao Guang-jie; Lü Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different reagents on changes of the crystalline region and amorphous region(Matrix) in wood cell walls, the creep behavior of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and diethyl amine, sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfoxide mixture (DEA-SO2-DMSO), and the untreated wood at oven-dried,air-dry and water-saturated states during adsorption and desorption processes were all examined in air or in water. The measurements were carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The load is constant with 62 g or 0.607 6 N. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The instantaneous compliance Jo and the creep compliance J of specimens decrystallized with DEA-SO2-DMSO solution were bigger than those of DMSO swollen wood, and the latter was still much bigger than those of untreated wood. 2) For untreated wood, Jo and J increased with equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, but there was not apparent correlation between wood EMC and the relative compliance. 3) Specimens treated with DMSO and DEA-SO2-DMSO mixture were recrystallized after immersion in water, and the degree of recrystallization of the former was larger. 4) For oven-dried specimens, the creep compliances in water were bigger than those in air. But for fiber-saturated and water-saturated specimens they were nearly equivalent to each other.

  3. FIR line profiles as probes of warm gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of warm gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the numerous cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).

  4. Potential programs for high sensitivity FIR spectroscopy with SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, L; Saraceno, P; Spinoglio, Luigi; Giorgio, Anna Maria Di; Saraceno, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the potential of high sensitivity mid-IR and far-IR spectroscopy to proof the physical properties of active nuclei and starburst regions of local and distant galaxies. For local galaxies, it will be possible to map the discs and ISM through the low ionization ionic lines and a variety of molecular tracers, such as OH, H2O and high-J CO. At increasing distance, most of the ionic nebular lines (typical of stars and AGNs) are shifted into the FIR, making possible to compare the observed spectra with those predicted by different evolutionary scenarios. At the very high redshift of 10-15, sensitive mid-to-far-IR spectrometers, such as those planned to be at the focal plane of the future SPICA mision, could be adequate to detect the H recombination lines excited in the HII regions around population III stars, if these stars happened to reside in large clusters of more than 10^5 members.

  5. COLOR CHANGE OF CHINESE FIR THROUGH STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown wood color is a current trend and widely appreciated by consumers in the furniture and decoration markets. Heat treatment is one of the most effective methods to darken wood’s appearance. The influence of steam-heat treatment on color change of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. was investigated within the temperature range from 170 to 230 oC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an air-tight chamber within an atmosphere comprising less than 2 percent oxygen. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (△C* decreased gradually, while the color difference (△E* and hue difference (△H* increased with an increase in temperature and length of time. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multi-comparison analysis revealed that the treatment temperature plays a more important role in darkening wood color during the process of steam-heat treatment in comparison with the treatment time. The results suggest that a more desirable wood color can be achieved with the technology of steam-heat treatment.

  6. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

  7. Two attempts at grounding social critique in „ordinary“ actors’ perspectives: The critical theories of Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary, „third-generation“ perspectives within critical theory - Nancy Fraser’s and Axel Honneth’s - with the aim of examining the degree to which the two authors succeed in grounding the normative criteria of social critique in the perspectives of ’ordinary’ social actors, as opposed to speculative social theory. To that end, the author focuses on the influential debate between Fraser and Honneth Redistribution or Recognition? which concerns the appropriate normative foundations of a „post-metaphysical“ critical theory, and attempts to reconstruct the fundamental 29 disagreements between Fraser and Honneth over the meaning and tasks of critical theory. The author concludes that both critical theorists ultimately secure the normative foundations of critique through substantive theorizations of the social, which frame the two authors’ „reconstructions“ of the normativity of everyday social action, but argues that post-metaphysical critical theory does not have to abandon comprehensive social theory in order to be epistmologically „non-authoritarian“. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Ethics and Politics of Environment: Institutions, Techniques and Norms Facing the Challenge of Environmental Change

  8. Infection of gill and kidney of Fraser River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), by Parvicapsula minibicornis and its effect on host physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, M J; Lovy, J; Patterson, D A

    2010-09-01

    Adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), migrating upstream in the Fraser River, British Columbia, are exposed to the myxozoan parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis when they enter the river from the ocean. Infections are initially localized in the kidney but have recently been associated with branchitis in one population. Adult fish from five locations in the watershed were sampled to determine whether branchitis was widespread. P. minibicornis infections in kidney glomeruli were prevalent in all samples except for a sample of fish that had just entered the Fraser River from the ocean. For fish captured in spawning streams, parasites were observed in the renal tubules and gill, and branchitis was observed in 70% of fish. Plasma osmolality was negatively correlated with the number of parasites in the kidney tubules, which we hypothesize to be caused by the breach of glomerular membranes as the parasite leaves the fish. Plasma lactate values increased with increasing levels of pathology in gills. These findings support the hypothesis that P. minibicornis impacts the physiology of migrating fish, which may in turn affect the likelihood that adults will be able to migrate and spawn successfully.

  9. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  10. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  11. Genetic relationships among some Pinus, Picea and Abies species revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken to identify genetic relationships among ten different species of the family Pinaceae through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Eighteen arbitrary RAPD primers produced 123 fragments of which 107 were polymorphic (87%. The similarity coefficient values varied from 0.34 to 0.67. The highest similarity coefficient was detected between Pinus wallichiana and P. strobus as well as between Picea abies and P. orientalis, and the lowest was detected between threePinus species (P. heldreichii, P. peuce and P. wallichiana and Picea omorika. The analysis of RAPD markers confirmed the genetic relationships among species. GenusPicea is clearly separated from genus Pinus and is closer to genus Abies (A. concolor than to genus Pinus, what confirms up-to-date numerous comparative-morphological, anatomical, chemotaxonomic and molecular results of these closely related genera. Furthermore, on the basis of our results, pine species from different subgenera -Pinus and Strobus are clearly separated. This statement is in agreement with contemporary intrageneric classification of the genus Pinus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.173029

  12. Outcomes after Cognitive Perceptual Motor Retraining (CPM of Patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Christy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Remediation of deficits is one approach used by occupational therapists in the treatment of clients with acquired brain injury (ABI. This retrospective study examined outcomes after participation in Cognitive Perceptual Motor Retraining (CPM of clients with ABI and identified demographic and injury characteristics of clients that were associated with outcomes. CPM was delivered as part of the standard treatment and was not designed for research purposes. Method: A retrospective review of 59 client records was completed. CPM evaluation test scores, demographic information, and injury characteristics were extracted from the records. Results: There were moderate improvements in CPM test scores and good discharge outcomes for most clients. Discharge to home with independent status was associated with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury severity and being married. Longer time since injury and having a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis were associated with longer duration of CPM. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates positive therapy outcomes after CPM. Recommendations were made for future research and considerations in the use of CPM. These include the need for addressing concurrent needs, such as psychological issues and repeated re-evaluations, to determine when clients have met maximum remediation and thereby minimizing cost.

  13. After a child's acquired brain injury (ABI): An ethnographic study of being a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R; Caine, Vera; Yager, Jerome Y; Joyce, Anthony S; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-11-30

    To explore the meanings associated with being a parent of a child with an aquired brain injury (ABI). An ethnographic study was conducted with parents of children aged 3 to 10 years who had acquired a severe brain injury. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit parents from the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. Data collection involved participant observation, fieldwork and semi-structured interviews. Field notes and interviews transcriptions were analysed using a thematic analysis framework and informed by symbolic interactionism theory. Six parent dyads (mothers and fathers) and 4 mothers participated in the study.Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child with severe brain injury were shaped by the injury, wide range of familial dynamics, and interactions. Six main themes related to parental meanings emerged from our data: (1) Getting `back to normal'; (2) Relying on a support system; (3) Worrying something bad may happen after the injury; (4) Going through a range of emotions following the injury; (5) Changing family dynamics after the injury; and (6) Ongoing performativity. Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child are extensively impacted by their child's functioning after the ABI. Having a greater appreciation of these experiences may be beneficial for medical professionals.

  14. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  15. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sellin

    Full Text Available Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (Ψx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of Ψx usually do not drop below –1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (Ψb is above –0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if Ψb falls below –0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below –1.5 MPa can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration · plant ecology · soil moisture.

  16. Kinetic modeling of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Picea abies bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Liliana; Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of polyphenols extraction from spruce bark (Picea abies) under ultrasounds action was investigated. Studies were performed in order to express the effect of some specific parameters (as: ultrasounds, surface contact between solvent and solid, extraction time and temperature) on the total phenolic content (TPC). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of ultrasounds, using different contact surfaces between solvent and solid, for times from 5 to 75min and temperatures of 318, 323 and 333K. All these factors have a positive influence on the process, enhancing the extraction rate by recovering higher amounts of polyphenols. The process takes place in two stages: a fast one in the first 20-30min (first stage), followed by a slow one approaching to an equilibrium concentration after 40min (second stage). In these conditions, the second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from P. abies bark. Based on this model, values of second-order extraction rate constant (k), initial extraction rate (h), saturation concentration (Cs) and activation energy (Ea) could be predicted. Model validation was done by plotting experimental and predicted values of TPC's, revealing a very good correlation between the obtained data (R(2)>0.98).

  17. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE, and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI, using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  18. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiess Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  19. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  20. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI: revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ríos-Touma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2 000masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI, which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2: 249-273. Epub 2014 April 01.

  1. 1D and 2D economical FIR filters generated by Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoljub Pavlović, Vlastimir; Stanojko Dončov, Nebojša; Gradimir Ćirić, Dejan

    2013-11-01

    Christoffel-Darboux formula for Chebyshev continual orthogonal polynomials of the first kind is proposed to find a mathematical solution of approximation problem of a one-dimensional (1D) filter function in the z domain. Such an approach allows for the generation of a linear phase selective 1D low-pass digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter function in compact explicit form by using an analytical method. A new difference equation and structure of corresponding linear phase 1D low-pass digital FIR filter are given here. As an example, one extremely economic 1D FIR filter (with four adders and without multipliers) is designed by the proposed technique and its characteristics are presented. Global Christoffel-Darboux formula for orthonormal Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind and for two independent variables for generating linear phase symmetric two-dimensional (2D) FIR digital filter functions in a compact explicit representative form, by using an analytical method, is proposed in this paper. The formula can be most directly applied for mathematically solving the approximation problem of a filter function of even and odd order. Examples of a new class of extremely economic linear phase symmetric selective 2D FIR digital filters obtained by the proposed approximation technique are presented.

  2. Water status of bare—root seedlings of Chinese fir and Masson pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUFang-yuan; GUOXin-bao; XUXi-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Water relation parameters of bare-root seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.)and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)were measured and changes of root growth potential as well as field survival rate of both species were studied after the bare-root seedlings were exposed in a sunny field condition.the results showed that masson pine had a lower osmotic potential(-2.07Mpa) at turgor loss point and at full turgor(-1.29Mpa),compared with Chinese fir(-1.80Mpa and -1.08Mpa respectively).The parameter Vp/Vo(63.27%) of Masson pine was higher than that of chinese fir (58.03%).This means that Masson pine has a stronger ability to tolerate desiccation,compared to Chinese fir according to analysis of above water relation parameters.Root growth potential and field survival rate decreased with prolonging duration of exposure.The field survival rate of both species was reduced to less than 40% after the seedling being exposed only two hours.Water potentials of -1.60 Mpa and -1.70 Mpa were suggested to be critical values for Chinese fir and Masson pine respectively in successful reforestation.

  3. Dėl žodžių lie. abu, la. abi, pr. abbai gramatinio statuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Rosinas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ON THE GRAMMATICAL STATUS OF LITH. abu, LATV. abi, OPR. abbaiSummaryThe article deals with the grammatical status of Lith. abu ‘both’, Latv. abi and OPr. abbai. In the Baltic literature, these words are traditionally referred to as numerals. However, the said words and the numerals – Lith. du ‘two’, Latv. divi, OPr. dwai – have different lexical meanings. The presupposition of the utterances with Lith. du, Latv. divi, OPr. dwai and Lith. abu, Latv. abi, OPr. abbai does not lead to the assumption that Lith. abu, Latv. abi and OPr. abbai are numerals. Cf. Jonas atsivežė du sūnus (‘John has brought two sons’ and Jonas atsivežė abu sūnus (‘John has brought both sons’. The first utterance implies that John may have even more sons (but he has brought only two, whereas the second utterance indicates that John does not have more sons (and he has brought all of them. The meaning of Lith. abu, Latv. abi, OPr. abbai suggests that the latter words should be considered pronouns. Moreover, these words function as pronouns in the structure of the text, too; the Lith. numeral du, Latv. divi, OPr. dwai usually occur in the focus, whereas the Lith. pronoun abu, Latv. abi, OPr. abbai occur in anaphoric structures. The contextual partners of the Lith. pronoun abu and the Latv. pronoun abi are always nouns which mean ‘forming a pair’ or ‘having two sides’: ãkys (‘eyes’, rañkos (‘hands’, aũsys (‘ears’, etc., (Latv. acis, rokas, ausis; kẽlias (‘road’, gãtvė (‘street’, tãkas (‘path’, geležìnkelis (‘railway’, ežià (‘boundary’, ùpė (‘river’, griovỹs (‘ditch’, kanãlas (‘canal’, pýlimas (‘dyke’, síena (‘wallֹ’, etc., (Latv. ceļš, iela, taka, dzelzceļš, eža, upe, grāvis, kanāls, dambis, valnis, robeža, siena. Lith. abu, abi and the Latv. dialect forms obu, obi are reflections of the pronominal dual inherited from Proto-Indo-European.

  4. eg Fraser 1970, Fr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    zooplankton assemblages in the southern Benguela upwelling system .... WMD) of P. pileus in the water column at any one time was determined .... shallow estuaries (e.g. Wang et al. 1995, Attrill ..... different planktonic time series. Annls. Inst.

  5. Assessing the effects of vegetation types on carbon storage fifteen years after reforestation on a Chinese fir site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinkui Wang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a significant role in sequestering carbon (C) in biomass and soils. Plantations established in subtropical China since the 1980s, mainly of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) in monocultures, have proved to be major C sinks. However, information is lacking about whether mixing Chinese fir with broadleaved tree...

  6. Soil Fertility in Agroforestry System of Chinese Fir and Villous Amomum in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A trial of interplanting and non-interplanting villous amomum (Amomum villosum Lour.) under the canopy of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) at age 22 was established in Sanming, Fujian of China, and a survey on soil fertility was carried out 10 years after its establishment. Compared with the control (non-interplanting), the properties of soil humus in agroforestry system were ameliorated, with a higher level of humification and resynthesis of organic detritus. The soil microbial population and enzymatic activities were both higher under the influence of villous amomum. Both the nutrient supplying and nutrient conserving capacities of the soil were improved. This agroforestry system exhibited an advantage of improved soil fertility, as well as an accelerated growth of Chinese fir, it was, therefore, a sustainable management system suited for Chinese fir in South China.

  7. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  8. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-08-28

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP.

  9. Frequency Spectrum Based Low-Area Low-Power Parallel FIR Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gyun Chung

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel (or block FIR digital filters can be used either for high-speed or low-power (with reduced supply voltage applications. Traditional parallel filter implementations cause linear increase in the hardware cost with respect to the block size. Recently, an efficient parallel FIR filter implementation technique requiring a less-than linear increase in the hardware cost was proposed. This paper makes two contributions. First, the filter spectrum characteristics are exploited to select the best fast filter structures. Second, a novel block filter quantization algorithm is introduced. Using filter benchmarks, it is shown that the use of the appropriate fast FIR filter structures and the proposed quantization scheme can result in reduction in the number of binary adders up to 20%.

  10. Design of Maximally Flat FIR Filters Based on Explicit Formulas Combined with Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A maximally flat FIR filter design method based on explicit formulas combined with simulated annealing and random search was presented. Utilizing the explicit formulas to calculate the initial values, the finite-word-length FIR filter design problem was converted into optimization of the filter coefficients. An optimization method combined with local discrete random search and simulated annealing was proposed, with the result of optimum solution in the sense of Chebyshev approximation. The proposed method can simplify the design process of FIR filter and reduce the calculation burden. The simulation result indicates that the proposed method is superior to the traditional round off method and can reduce the value of the objective function to 41%-74%.

  11. Signal-adapted FIR Filter Banks Without Perfect-reconstruction Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUIPenglang; ZHANGAihua

    2005-01-01

    A time-domain approach is proposed to design signal-adapted FIR (Finite impulse response) filter banks without the perfect reconstruction property. For a given Wide sense stationary (WSS) input process and a total bit budget, it is a highly nonlinear and large size optimization problem to design the optimal FIR filter bank that minimizes the sum of the quantization distortion and systematic distortion. Thus, the design algorithm is crucial, in particular, selection of the initial filter bank. Here, the FIR approximation of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter bank is used as the initial filter bank and an ad hoc three-stage algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. The numerical results show: the design achieves large subband coding gains (GSBC) that are close to or exceed the GSBC's of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter banks.

  12. AN ITERATIVE ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMAL DESIGN OF NON-FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE FIR DIGITAL FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Liu Xin; Tian Xinguang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel iterative algorithm for optimal design of non-frequency-se-lective Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters based on the windowing method. Different from the traditional optimization concept of adjusting the window or the filter order in the windowing design of an FIR digital filter,the key idea of the algorithm is minimizing the approximation error by succes-sively modifying the design result through an iterative procedure under the condition of a fixed window length. In the iterative procedure,the known deviation of the designed frequency response in each iteration from the ideal frequency response is used as a reference for the next iteration. Because the approximation error can be specified variably,the algorithm is applicable for the design of FIR digital filters with different technical requirements in the frequency domain. A design example is employed to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  13. Design of Full-Band and Low-Pass FIR Differentiators: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhnache, C.; Ferdi, Y.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.

    2008-06-01

    Digital differentiators are useful in many fields of sciences and engineering. They can be designed using two approaches, namely, FIR filters design and FIR filters design. This paper is concerned by the first one in which great interest in the design of digital differentiators has encouraged the development of various design methods. The widely used methods for FIR differentiators are those based on criteria L1, L2, L∞ and that based on Taylor series. A comparison between these methods is carried out in terms of approximation accuracy and computational complexity. Numeric examples are presented to illustrate the performance of each method. It was found that the design results obtained by least squares method for fullband and low-pass differentiators are better than the other ones.

  14. Effect of compression on hydroscopicity of extracted Chinese fir heartwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of extraction and compression on the hydroscopicity of wood, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia laneeolata Hook.) heartwood samples with or without extraction were radially or tangentially compressed under water-saturated condition at room temperature. Warm water and 1% sodium hydroxide were used as different solutions for extraction. Water absorp-tion capacity and moisture adsorption isotherms of the eornpressed samples were then tested. The fractai dimension of internal wood surfaces (Dfs) was calculated based on adsorption isotherms by FHH equation. Results showed that in both compressed groups, the hydroseopieity of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution improved greatly, while that of samples extracted by warm water changed little, compared with that of water-saturated samples. Recovery of set and the change of hydroscopic environment inside wood were main reasons for the difference of water absorption among water-saturated samples and samples extracted with warm water and sodium hydroxide solution. The swelling rate of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution significantly increased.Moreover, the swelling rate in the tangential direction of tangentially compressed samples was obviously higher than that in radial direction of radially compressed ones, Des values of woods extracted by warm water and sodium hydroxide solution decreased by 0.002 and 0.007 in a radially compressed group and by 0.013 and 0.013 in a tangentially compressed group, compared to those of water-saturated one. Therefore, the conclusion can be made that the extraction and compression treatments used in this study have no obvious effects on internal wood surface.

  15. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  16. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  17. Two-band hybrid FIR-IIR filters for image compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyu; Smith, Mark J T

    2011-11-01

    Two-band analysis-synthesis filters or wavelet filters are used pervasively for compressing natural images. Both FIR and IIR filters have been studied in this context, the former being the most popular. In this paper, we examine the compression performance of these two-band filters in a dyadic wavelet decomposition and attempt to isolate features that contribute most directly to the performance gain. Then, employing the general exact reconstruction condition, hybrid FIR-IIR analysis-synthesis filters are designed to maximize compression performance for natural images. Experimental results are presented that compare performance with the popular biorthogonal filters in terms of peak SNR, subjective quality, and computational complexity.

  18. Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

  19. MCH pheromone for preventing Douglas-fir beetle infestation in windthrown trees

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, M. D.; Furniss, M. M.; Oaks, R. D.; Gibson, K.E.; Meyer, H E

    1984-01-01

    A granular controlled-release formulation (98 percent inert, 2 percent 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) was applied May 11-13, 1982, at 4.48 kg/ha to 76.9 ha of uninfested windthrown Douglas-fir by helicopter with a modified aerial spreader of 1.13 m³ capacity. Granules measured on treated plots averaged 2.04-2.69 kg/ha, sufficient to reduce Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) infestation 96.4 percent by late June. The same MCH treatment reduced spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) ...

  20. Modification of Chinese fir with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD: Processing and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqian Shi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A process for the chemical modification of Chinese fir with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD was studied. The hydrophobicity of the resulting products was evaluated by characterization of the equilibrium moisture content, water-surface contact angle, water absorption coefficient, and anti-swelling efficiency. The results indicated that when 5% AKD solution was used, the modified wood generally showed good hydrophobicity and improved dimensional stability. The result of boiling water and hexane extraction tests showed that the modified fir possessed very stable hydrophobicity.

  1. Study on Drying Characteristic of Chinese Fir and Poplar Plantation Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYongdong; LIXiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The drying characteristic was studied for plantation wood of Chinese fir and poplar, which are typical plantation wood of southern and northern part of China, respectively. Through lO0-degree-method the drying characteristic and basic drying condition were gotten, then drying schedule was developed for practical drying, the results showed that the drying schedule is suitable for Chinese fir and poplar plantation lumber, but shrinkage is large. The recommendation was made that enough dead weight is needed to decrease shrinkage in drying process. The drying quality of the two species of lumber is good in conventional drying method.

  2. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van, B.A.J.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant nature of this PWM-signal. An impulse response with only positive coefficients was chosen, because of its resistance to deadzone and mismatch. With a DAC current of 0.5 mA, the dynamic range is 111 dB (...

  3. Koolieeliku hirmudega toimetulek kui oma probleemidega toimetuleku õppimine ja lähedaste abi selles / Merle Taimalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taimalu, Merle

    2001-01-01

    Eestis ja Soomes 1993-1994.a. läbi viidud ühisuurimusest laste turvalisuse kohta, kus üheks eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada, kuidas koolieelikud oma hirmudega toime tulevad ja kuivõrd nad saavad ja kasutavad lähedaste täiskasvanute abi

  4. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  5. Mechanisms of Abnormal Growth Regulation in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Using Abi1/Hssh3bp1 Conditional Knockout Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    growth factor-BB human was from Sigma, (P3201); Alexa Fluor 594 Phalloidin was from Molecular Probes (Invitrogen, 41A2 -2). Abi1 immunostaining in...Invitrogen - Molecular Probes, A11001) and Alexa Fluor 594 Phalloidin (Invitrogen -Molecular Probes, 41A2 -2). Antibodies to Wave complex

  6. Koolieeliku hirmudega toimetulek kui oma probleemidega toimetuleku õppimine ja lähedaste abi selles / Merle Taimalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taimalu, Merle

    2001-01-01

    Eestis ja Soomes 1993-1994.a. läbi viidud ühisuurimusest laste turvalisuse kohta, kus üheks eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada, kuidas koolieelikud oma hirmudega toime tulevad ja kuivõrd nad saavad ja kasutavad lähedaste täiskasvanute abi

  7. Tõendite kogumine välisriikides ning välisriigi kohtutele tõendite kogumiseks abi osutamine / Maarja Torga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Torga, Maarja, 1984-

    2017-01-01

    Rahvusvahelistest kokkulepetest tõendite rahvusvahelisel kogumisel ja tõendite rahvusvahelise kogumise eri režiimidest. Tõendite kogumisest välisriigis Eesti kohtumenetluses ja Eesti kohtute kohustustest välisriigi kohtutele tõendite kogumiseks abi osutamisel

  8. Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ MACÍAS, FÉLIX

    2015-01-01

    Martínez Macías, F. (2015). Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/48560. TESIS

  9. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.

  10. Tobacco exposure and diabetes-related autoantibodies in children: results from the ABIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annakarin; Hermansson, Göran; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2008-12-01

    Passive smoking has decreased in recent years ("increased hygiene"). Less environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) gives increased hygiene that, if the hygiene hypothesis is true, in turn might give more autoimmune diseases. The presence of auto antibodies is considered to be an early indicator of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Because tobacco exposure may influence the immune system, we analyzed the relation between passive smoking and development of autoantibodies. A subsample (n= 8794) of the children in the ABIS study was used for this analysis. The parents answered questionnaires on smoking from pregnancy and onwards, and blood samples from the children aged 2.5-3 years were analyzed for GADA and IA-2A. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the prevalence of GADA or IA-2A (>95 percentile) between tobacco-exposed and nonexposed children. It was concluded that passive smoking does not seem to influence development of diabetes-related autoantibodies early in life.

  11. Annotation and Re-Sequencing of Genes from De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Roschanski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25 149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1 well-known proteins and (2 proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba.

  12. Sobre el caso Aby Warburg : La cura por el símbolo

    OpenAIRE

    Erbetta, Anahí E.; Morete, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo nos ocuparemos del caso del historiador de arte alemán Aby Warburg (1886-1929), reconocido por el estudio de la historia cultural a través de las artes visuales. Retiene nuestra atención desde una perspectiva psicoanalítica el desencadenamiento de una psicosis clínica a la edad de 52 años. Es internado en la clínica Bellevue, en Kreuzlingen, dirigida por el Dr. Binswanger, desde el año 1921 al año 1924. Si bien el motivo de internación reside en el riesgo de vida en que...

  13. Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Evaluation Tools for GOES-R ABI and GLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian; Graybill, Justin; Slingerland, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. This paper describes the software design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  14. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    degraded S2 showed a varied lignin distribution as evidenced by the different local UV-absorbance intensities. However, evaluation of UV-absorbance line spectra of RM revealed no change in conjugation of the aromatic ring system. Presence of RM with both very low and very high lignin absorbances showed......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV...... evidence for disassembly of lignin during degradation combined with aggregation of lignin fragments and physical movement of these fractions. In contrast to TEM analysis, locally decreasing lignin content was found by UMSP in CML regions....

  15. The work of Ernst H. Gombrich on the Aby M. Warburg fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Mazzucco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On January 1, 1936, Ernst Gombrich arrived in London from Austria. His task was to reorganize the last of Warburg’s fragments and, in particular, to revise what was left of the incomplete mnemosyne atlas. The goal of this study and inventory was to collate Warburg’s uncompleted studies with the purpose of putting together an English publication of his collected work. In 1970, the only result of this publishing endeavour was included in the pages of the famous Aby Warburg. An intellectual biography. The history of the intellectual, as well as critical, relationship between Gombrich and Warburg is, then, a posthumous one that was started on British soil. Further marking this distance are certain material and non-material aspects of Gombrich’s work in London, including his relationship with other warburgian scholars.

  16. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  17. Geographical Variation in the Composition of Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. Needle Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Uçar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate the effect of the geographic variation on the composition of needle oils of Abies bornmuelleriana endemic to Turkey. Samples were taken from the stands distanced up to 500 km from each other. By means of GC-MS/FID analyses, it was found that main compounds making up about 90 percent of the needle essential oils exhibit notable systematic variation depending on the longitude where the trees grow. Among most occurring monoterpenes, the percentages of a -pinene and camphene tend to increase in west–east direction. To compensate these increments a decrease was observed in mainly the three monoterpenes, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and limonene.

  18. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  19. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In mountainous areas including the Himalayas, tree lines are expected to advance to higher altitudes due to global climate change affecting the distribution and growth of plant species. This study aimed at identifying the tree ring variability of Abies spectabilis (D. Don) and its response...... to the climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi...... upper (2900 m), Pangukhark (3100 m) and Lete upper (3300 m), 44, 40, 39 and 41 series were successfully cross-dated and ring width chronologies including 168, 79, 138 and 156 years previous to 2012 were developed, respectively. Statistically significant differences in average annual radial growth were...

  20. Climatic significance of stable carbon isotope in tree rings of Abies spectabibis in southeastern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohong; Qin Dahe; SHAO Xuemei; CHEN Tuo; REN Jiawen

    2003-01-01

    The annually cross-dated stable carbon isotope of tree-ring α-cellulose of Abies spectabibis collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is used to examine its relationship with climatic parameters. The residual △13C series in treerings is constructed after removing the effects of age trend and rising CO2. We found a close relationship between △13C in tree rings and the relative humidity of September-November of the previous year measured at the nearby Nyingchi Meteorological Station, albeit a strong "lagged effect". Thus we developed a transfer function to reconstruct the autumn relative humidity for the Nyingchi region, which explained 37.9% of the total variance (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high frequency and moderate amplitude variance of the relative humidity before 1800, and the variance reversed afterwards.

  1. Sobre el caso Aby Warburg : La cura por el símbolo

    OpenAIRE

    Erbetta, Anahí E.; Morete, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo nos ocuparemos del caso del historiador de arte alemán Aby Warburg (1886-1929), reconocido por el estudio de la historia cultural a través de las artes visuales. Retiene nuestra atención desde una perspectiva psicoanalítica el desencadenamiento de una psicosis clínica a la edad de 52 años. Es internado en la clínica Bellevue, en Kreuzlingen, dirigida por el Dr. Binswanger, desde el año 1921 al año 1924. Si bien el motivo de internación reside en el riesgo de vida en que...

  2. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  3. Regulation of actin cytoskeleton architecture by Eps8 and Abi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Jeffrey R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The actin cytoskeleton participates in many fundamental processes including the regulation of cell shape, motility, and adhesion. The remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on actin binding proteins, which organize actin filaments into specific structures that allow them to perform various specialized functions. The Eps8 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling during cell migration, yet the precise mechanism by which Eps8 regulates actin organization and remodeling remains elusive. Results Here, we show that Eps8 promotes the assembly of actin rich filopodia-like structures and actin cables in cultured mammalian cells and Xenopus embryos, respectively. The morphology of actin structures induced by Eps8 was modulated by interactions with Abi1, which stimulated formation of actin cables in cultured cells and star-like structures in Xenopus. The actin stars observed in Xenopus animal cap cells assembled at the apical surface of epithelial cells in a Rac-independent manner and their formation was accompanied by recruitment of N-WASP, suggesting that the Eps8/Abi1 complex is capable of regulating the localization and/or activity of actin nucleators. We also found that Eps8 recruits Dishevelled to the plasma membrane and actin filaments suggesting that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt/Polarity signaling. Consistent with this idea, mis-expression of Eps8 in dorsal regions of Xenopus embryos resulted in gastrulation defects. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that Eps8 plays multiple roles in modulating actin filament organization, possibly through its interaction with distinct sets of actin regulatory complexes. Furthermore, the finding that Eps8 interacts with Dsh and induced gastrulation defects provides evidence that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt signaling to control cell movements during vertebrate development.

  4. Plantas asociadas a los bosques de Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae del occidente de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una carencia de información detallada sobre la composición y estructura de las comunidades montanas guatemaltecas. El objetivo del estudio fue contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de abeto (Abies guatemalensis, para esto se hizo el levantamiento florístico en bosques de abeto del occidente de Guatemala. Se encontraron 119 especies, 92 géneros, 50 familias en cuatro divisiones. Las familias más numerosas fueron: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae y los géneros más abundantes Salvia, Alchemilla y Bidens. Las especies se ubicaron en cuatro estratos, 33 en el herbáceo inferior, 49 en el herbáceo superior, 30 en arbustos y siete en árboles. Se hace énfasis en la contribución del estudio al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de A. guatemalensis y la necesidad de otros similares en los demás bosques de esta especie, que sirva para fomentar su conocimiento y conservación. Se consideraron seis grupos de distribución geográfica, el principal es del centro de México a Centroamérica con 67% de especies. Se realiza una comparación fitogeográfica y de composición florística, con otras áreas de Abies de Guatemala y México. Se propone que a pesar de haber familias y géneros comunes, que proporcionan la estructura general entre los bosques de abeto, se deben considerar las particularidades florísticas de cada área, en el manejo y conservación influidas por suelo, latitud y microclima.

  5. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  6. Demonstrating A New Census of INfrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength Re(FIR) obtained from 1258 deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1-mm band maps that are open for public by 2016 December. Our ALMA sample consists of 736 sources at z=0-6 that typically have the star-formation rate of ~50-1000 M$_{\\odot}$/yr and the stellar mass of ~10$^{10}$-10$^{11.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$. We homogeneously derive Re(FIR) and FIR luminosity L_FIR of our ...

  7. Debates feministas sobre direito, justiça e reconhecimento: uma reflexão a partir do modelo teórico de Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mariano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O feminismo pós-estruturalista é a escolha teórica que, em grande parte, orienta aqui nossa perspectiva. Os debates em torno das noções de “direito”, “justiça” e “reconhecimento” ilustram essa discussão. Propomo-nos a fazer uma reflexão sociológica conceitual, de orientação feminista, de forma a constituir um suporte teórico para análises sobre políticas sociais, com o objetivo de investigar as condições de cidadania das mulheres pobres e apreender os determinantes de gênero presentes nos programas estatais. Ao tratar das categorias apontadas, adotamos o modelo proposto por Nancy Fraser, a qual combina a luta pela justiça redistributiva com a luta por justiça de reconhecimento.

  8. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abbasian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  9. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  10. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  12. Implementation of High Performance Fir Filter Using Low Power Multiplier and Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Kashyap,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing growth in laptop and portable systems in cellular networks has intensified the research efforts in low power microelectronics. Now a day, there are many portable applications requiring low power and high throughput than ever before. Thus, low power system design has become a significant performance goal. So this paper is face with more constraints: high speed, high throughput, and at the same time, consumes as minimal power as possible. The Finite Impulse Response (FIR Filter is the important component for designing an efficient digital signal processing system. So, in this paper author trying, a FIR filter is constructing, which is efficient not only in terms of power and speed but also in terms of delay. When consider the elementary structure of an FIR filter, it is found that it is a combination of multipliers and delays, which in turn are the combination of adders. . This paper presents an efficient implementation and analysis for performance evaluation of multiplier and adder to minimize the consumption of energy during multiplication and addition methodology to improve the performance by compares different type of Multipliers and adder, respectively. By using, power comparison result of adders and multiplier, choice low power adder and multiplier to implementation of high performance FIR filter.

  13. Implementation of High Speed FIR Filter: Performance Comparison with Different Parallel Prefix Adders in FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the design of high speed FIR filter using parallel prefix adders and factorized multiplier. The fundamental component in constructing any high speed FIR filter consists of adders, multipliers and delay elements. To meet the constraint of high speed performance and low power consumption parallel prefix adders are more suitable. This study focus the design of new Parallel Prefix Adder (PPA and new multiplier cell called factorized multiplier with minimal depth algorithm and its functional characteristics is compared with the existing architecture in terms of delay and area. The performance evaluation of the proposed PPA and multiplier are examined for the bit sizes of 8, 16, 32 and 64. The coefficient of the filter is obtained through hamming window using MATLAB program. The proposed FIR filter using new PPA and factorized multiplier has been prototyped on XC3S1600EFG320 in Spartan-3E Platform using Integrated Synthesis Environment (ISE for 90 nm process. Nearly 14% of slice utilization and 34% of speed improvement has been obtained for FIR using new PPA and factorized multiplier.

  14. Efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings. This effort was conducted as part of the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture program to evaluate fungicides and biopesticides for management of root, crown and stem rot of ornamental plants ca...

  15. Lumber-grade recovery from 110-year-old Douglas-fir thinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    What lumber-grade and yield recovery is possible from thinnings in low Site III, 110-year-old, young-growth Douglas -fir stand? A lumber-grade recovery study of sawtimber cut in recent thinning experiments at the Wind River Experimental Forest, Skamania County, Washington, gives some idea of the answer. The thinning experiments were designed to determine increment and...

  16. A Design of 2L-Channel FIR Paraunitary Filter Banks with Complex Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the design of 2L-channel FIR paraunitary filter banks with complex coefficients to meet the requirement of processing complex signals. The filter designed with the algorithm has the property of near linear-phase. Thus, there is no more phase distortions introduced to the phase spectrum.

  17. Carbon Sequestration in Soils Affected by Douglas Fir Reforestation in Apennines (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Di Biase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas fir reforestation plays an important role in Italian forest because no indigenous conifer has similar characteristics of productivity and timber quality. Few studies on physicochemical properties of soils under Douglas fire are noticeable. The aim of this work is to evaluate the organic C stock into soils under Douglas fir plantation in different selected areas. The areas of study are located in the North Apennine (Italy; Corno alle Scale (COR, Vallombrosa (VAL, Mulino Mengoni (MEN, respectively are chosen for the presence of Douglas fir reforestation of 60 years old. Two soil profiles for each area have been open and described. The pH value decreased along the profile depth. The organic C amount in organic layers was higher in Val and Men pedons than that determined in COR one. Higher amount of organic C were detected in organo-mineral horizons of Co pedons, highlighting a rapid turnover of soil organic matter. The C stock calculated in the first 30 cm of soil showed that the higher C amount is stored in highest altitudes profiles (COR6 and VAL6 than the other. The soil are classified as Lithic Dystrudepts in the highest altitudes (COR 6, 7 and VAL 6, 7, respectively while as Humic Dystrudepts in MEN (4 and 5 pedons. We conclude that no dangerous effects on soil quality of Douglas fir were investigated and they seem to be similar to those of native tree species, even if other different aspects should be investigated.

  18. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair

    2010-01-01

    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  19. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  20. Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut

    1993-01-01

    An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...

  1. A Comparative Study on LUT and Accumulator Radix-4 Based Multichannel RNS FIR Filter Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto Pari. J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of two architectures proposed for multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter are performed in terms of complexity and speed. The proposed architectures, viz, dual port memory based LUT multiplier and accumulator based radix-4 multiplier architectures, are designed to reduce the complexity and to improve the speed of operation of multiplier used in multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter. Both the architectures accepts residues of given binary input in which the 3n-bit binary input is converted into three residues using binary to Residue Number System (RNS converter, and then processed in three FIR sub filters constructed in direct form. The reconfigurable structure is achieved by combining Power of Two (PoT FIR sub modules and altering the filter taps based on select signals. The proposed designs can be realized up to 20-taps and has been tested for 4, 8, 16 and 20 taps. The architectures have been realized in Verilog HDL and synthesized using Altera FPGA device Stratix II EP2S15F672C5. The performance comparison of two architectures shows that dual port memory based LUT multiplier architecture significantly reduces the area by 20% and accumulator based Radix-4 multiplier increases the speed by 90% regardless of the number of taps.

  2. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; G.R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Stem sinuosity is a highly visible stem-form trait in the leaders of fast-growing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees, yet its cause is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that sinuous stems have longer expanses of primary growth than nonsinuous stems (putting the leader at higher risk for...

  3. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes

    2005-01-01

    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  4. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams

    2010-01-01

    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  5. The Douglas-Fir Genome Sequence Reveals Specialization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Neale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb. Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50 = 340,704 bp. Incremental improvements in sequencing and assembly technologies are in part responsible for the higher quality reference genome, but it may also be due to a slightly lower exact repeat content in Douglas-fir vs. pine and spruce. Comparative genome annotation with angiosperm species reveals gene-family expansion and contraction in Douglas-fir and other conifers which may account for some of the major morphological and physiological differences between the two major plant groups. Notable differences in the size of the NDH-complex gene family and genes underlying the functional basis of shade tolerance/intolerance were observed. This reference genome sequence not only provides an important resource for Douglas-fir breeders and geneticists but also sheds additional light on the evolutionary processes that have led to the divergence of modern angiosperms from the more ancient gymnosperms.

  6. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the Eu

  7. Effects of Different Types of Chinese Fir Stands on Nutrient Status of Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYUAN-CHUN; ZHANGHUAN-CHAO

    1995-01-01

    The effects of different types of Chinese fir stand,including those with varous composition (pure and mixed),in various cropping systems (first and continuous cropping system)and at different ages,on the nutrient status of soils the hilly regions of southern Anhui Province were studied by means of ecological sequential comparison on the basis of similar climate and soil type.The work was carried out in the Xiaoxi Forest Farm of Jingxian County and the Caijiaqiao Forest Farm of Jingde Coundy,where the soil is parayellow soil derived from phyllite and sandstone,The results revealed that with the increase of age,Chinese fir pure stand could accumulate organic matter and nitrogen in the soil but it resulted in decreasing of soil pH and base ions(especially Ca2+) compared to its mixed stand with broad-leaf trees such as Chinese sassafras,In order to improve the soil fertility,It would be better to mix Chinese fir with broad-leaf trees when afforestation In the management of Chinese fir pure stand,base compounds and phosphates should be added to the soil for mintaining soil fertility and raising and raising forest productivity.

  8. Training aspects in the use and production of food composition databases. The EuroFIR experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Witthöft, C.; Busstra, M.C.; Elburg, L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of national food databases have been published on the internet. However, these internet databases can only be searched individually, and the data have been compiled at a national level, resulting in incompatibilities. To resolve these problems, the Network of Excellence EuroFIR

  9. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...

  10. Frequency invariant beamforming via optimal array pattern synthesis and FIR filters design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shefeng; MA Yuanliang

    2005-01-01

    An approach to designing time domain broadband frequency invariant beamformer via optimal array pattern synthesis and optimal FIR filters design is proposed. First, the working frequency band is decomposed into a number of narrow band frequency bins. The array weights at each frequency bin are designed via optimal array pattern synthesis methods to insure that the synthesized pattern approximates the desired one within the mainlobe area.Then, a bank of FIR filters corresponding to the input channels are designed to provide the frequency responses that approximate the array weights in the working frequency band for each sensor. Finally, each sensor feeds a FIR filter and the filter outputs are summed to produce the beam output time series. Both array pattern synthesis and FIR filters design problems are formulated as the second-order cone programming (SOCP), which can be easily solved using well-developed interior-point methods. Results of computer simulations and lake-experiment for a twelve-element semicircular array demonstrate satisfactory performance of the proposed approach.

  11. High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. López-Sepulcre; V. Taquet; A. Sánchez-Monge; C. Ceccarelli; C. Dominik; M. Kama; E. Caux; F. Fontani; A. Fuente; P.T.P. Ho; R. Neri; Y. Shimajiri

    2013-01-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of

  12. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  13. Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2016-01-01

    Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on comminution energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...

  14. Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and nutrition were compared with similar foreign experi

  15. Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    An optimalized method of micropropagation of Douglas fir is described. Seasonal changes were found in optima for nitrate and sucrose in the medium and in the optimum for the light intensity during the culture of shoot initials. Differences in morphogenesis were obtained from shoot initials that had

  16. Simulation of carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Kohsiek, W.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The forest growth/hydrology model FORGRO–SWIF, consisting of a forest growth and a soil water model, was applied to quantify the inter-annual variability of the carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) in The Netherlands. With these budgets, the water

  17. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  18. Effect of Mixed Forests of Chinese Fir and Tsoong‘s Tree on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYUSHAN; DINGYINGXIANG

    1998-01-01

    An investigation and on 13-year-old(1984-1996) Chinese fir and Tsoong's tree mixed forests in Jianou City,Fujian Province,China was carried out to compare the influences of different interplanting types of individual tree-tree,row-row,row-strip(three rows)and pure Chinese fir stands on soil properties.Compared with the pure stands of Chinese fir ,the mixed stands exerted a posivtive effect on soil fertility,with increases in soil organic matter,total N,available P and available K.Moreover,improvements were also observed in soil enzymatic activities ,aggregate structure,structure,stability,status of soil porosity,soil aeration and penetrability in miexd stands.The row-row interplanted stands had the best effect on tree growth and soil properties among these mixed forests.In the southern subtropical region,the spreading of the row-row mixing model of the two tree species would be helpful to preventin ghe soil from fertility deterioratio caused by successive plantation of Chineses fir.

  19. Lactococcal Abortive Infection Protein AbiV Interacts Directly with the Phage Protein SaV and Prevents Translation of Phage Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Samson, J.E.; Labrie, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    with the phage p2 protein SaV. First, we showed that during phage infection of lactococcal AbiV(+) cells, AbiV rapidly inhibited protein synthesis. Among early phage transcripts, sav gene transcription was slightly inhibited while the SaV protein could not be detected. Analyses of other phage p2 m......RNAs and proteins suggested that AbiV blocks the activation of late gene transcription, probably by a general inhibition of translation. Using size exclusion chromatography coupled with on-line static light scattering and refractometry, as well as fluorescence quenching experiments, we also demonstrated that both...

  20. Developmental pathway of somatic embryogenesis in Picea abies as revealed by time-lapse tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonova, L H; Bozhkov, P V; von Arnold, S

    2000-02-01

    Several coniferous species can be propagated via somatic embryogenesis. This is a useful method for clonal propagation, but it can also be used for studying how embryo development is regulated in conifers. However, in conifers it is not known to what extent somatic and zygotic embryos develop similarly, because there has been little research on the origin and development of somatic embryos. A time-lapse tracking technique has been set up, and the development of more than 2000 single cells and few-celled aggregates isolated from embryogenic suspension cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and embedded in thin layers of agarose has been traced. Experiments have shown that somatic embryos develop from proembryogenic masses which pass through a series of three characteristic stages distinguished by cellular organization and cell number (stages I, II and III) to transdifferentiate to somatic embryos. Microscopic inspection of different types of structures has revealed that proembryogenic masses are characterized by high interclonal variation of shape and cellular constitution. In contrast, somatic embryos are morphologically conservative structures, possessing a distinct protoderm-like cell layer as well as embryonal tube cells and suspensor. The lack of staining of the arabinogalactan protein epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM13 was shown to be an efficient marker for distinguishing proembryogenic masses from somatic embryos. The vast majority of cells in proembryogenic masses expressed this epitope and none of cells in the early somatic embryos. The conditions that promote cell proliferation (i.e. the presence of exogenous auxin and cytokinin), inhibit somatic embryo formation; instead, continuous multiplication of stage I proembryogenic masses by unequal division of embryogenic cells with dense cytoplasm is the prevailing process. Once somatic embryos have formed, their further development to mature forms requires abscisic acid and shares a

  1. EFFICIENT FIR FILTER DESIGN METHODOLOGY USING DYNAMIC REGIONAL HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM WITH OPPOSITION AND LOCAL LEARNING (DRHS-OLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nirmala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of FIR filter is carried out using a “Dynamic Regional Harmony Search algorithm (DRHS with Opposition and Local Learning”. The Harmony Search (HS is a robust optimization algorithm which mimics the musician’s improvisation method and has been used by many researchers for solving and optimizing various real-world optimization problems and numerical solutions. For optimizing the functionality of the FIR filter, DRHS algorithm which is an enhanced variant of the HS algorithm is adopted to avoid pre-mature convergence and stagnation. BY adopting DRHS algorithm the low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop FIR filters are constructed and their performances are evaluated and compared with the other existing optimization techniques. A comparison of the DRHS with other optimization algorithms for constructing FIR filter clearly shows the DRHS finds the optimal solution and the convergence is clearly guaranteed.

  2. Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: New spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

    2014-11-01

    We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants.

  3. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  4. Peroxidase activity, soluble proteins and chlorophyll content in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles affected by cement dust

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, Hrvoje

    2001-01-01

    The correlation between the peroxidase activity, chlorophyll and soluble protein content as well as the changes in vascular bundle structure in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles affected by cement dust were studied. In spite of the absence of any yellowing symptoms, a significantly lower chlorophyll content was measured in spruce needles affected by cement dust. Observed sieve cells distortions in needle samples indicated that spruce trees grown near the cement factory were Mg def...

  5. La Huella del montaje Aby Warburg; Aldo van Eyck, Jerzy Grotowski : recorridos a partir del Atlas Mnemosyne

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantopoulou, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2010-2011, àmbit d’Arquitectura, Urbanisme i Edificació The thesis consists in constructing an itinerary through three fields "culture of science, architecture, theatre" and three authors Aby Warburg, Aldo van Eyck, Jerzy Grotowski, on the basis of the idea of the montage. Its methodological reference in spite of the inadequacy of any literal reference to the term "method" in this case' is Warburg's Atlas Mnemosyne; on the one hand, since it constitutes it...

  6. Shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in relation to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Sabine [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: sabine.braun@iap.ch; Schindler, Christian [Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Basel, Steinengraben 49, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: christian.schindler@unibas.ch; Rihm, Beat [Meteotest, Fabrikstrasse 14, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rihm@meteotest.ch; Flueckiger, Walter [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Epidemiological analysis of sequential growth data may be a tool in assessing ozone sensitivity of mature trees. Annual shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica in 83 Swiss permanent forest observation plots and of Picea abies in 61 plots was evaluated for 11 and 8 consecutive years, respectively, using branches harvested every 4 years. The data were assessed as annual deviation from average growth and related to fructification, ozone, meteorological parameters, and modelled soil water content using a mixed linear model. In beech, a significant association between ozone and shoot growth was observed which corresponded to a 7.4% growth reduction between 0 and 10 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated ozone over threshold 40). This is in the same order of magnitude as the response observed in experiments with seedlings. No interaction was found between ozone and drought parameters. In Norway spruce, shoot growth was neither associated with ozone nor with drought. - Epidemiological assessment of shoot growth suggests an ozone sensitivity of mature beech which is similar to seedlings.

  7. Vertical foliage distribution determines the radial pattern of sap flux density in Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the causes determining the radial pattern of sap flux density is important both for improving knowledge of sapwood functioning and for up-scaling sap flow measurements to canopy transpiration and ecosystem water use. To investigate the anatomical connection between whorls and annual sapwood rings, pruning-induced variation in the radial pattern of sap flux density was monitored with Granier probes in a 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst tree that was pruned from the crown bottom up. Modifications in the radial pattern of sap flux density were quantified by a shape index (SI), which varies with the relative contribution of the outer and inner sapwood to tree transpiration. The SI progressively diminished during bottom up pruning, indicating a significant reduction in sap flow contribution of the inner sapwood. Results suggest that the radial pattern of sap flux density depends mainly on the vertical distribution of foliage in the crown, with lower shaded branches hydraulically connected with inner sapwood and upper branches connected with the outer rings.

  8. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  10. Novel lanostane and rearranged lanostane-type triterpenoids from Abies sachalinensis - II -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui Yuan; Wu, Li Jun; Nakane, Takahisa; Shirota, Osamu; Kuroyanagi, Masonori

    2008-04-01

    In the previous work we reported five A-seco-rearranged lanostane triterpenoids as antibacterial constituents from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Abies sachalinensei leaves. In further study on the isolation of constituents from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction, two new rearranged lanostane and lanostane-type triterpenoids (3, 4) and three reported compound (1, 2, 5) were isolated. The structures of new compound 3 and 4 were determined to be 3,4-seco-4(28),6,8(14),24-mariesatetraen-26,23-olide-23-hydroxy-3-oic acid and 3,4-seco-4(28),7,24-lanostatrien-26,23-olide-23-hydroxy-3-oic acid, respectively, by spectral studies on HR-MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectra. Compound 1 was identified with pindrolactone and its structure was revised as 7,14,22Z,24-mariesatetraen-26,23-olide-3alpha-ol. Structures of 2 and 5 were determined as 7,14,24-mariesatrien-26,23-olide-3alpha,23-diol and 3alpha-hydroxy-7,14,24E-mariesatrien-23-oxo-26-oic acid. Of these compounds, 2, 3 and 4 were obtained as lactol tautomer mixtures at gamma-lactone structures of side chains.

  11. Eight pairs of epimeric triterpenoids involving a characteristic spiro-E/F ring from Abies faxoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Lv, Chao; Fang, Xin; Tian, Xin-Hui; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-Liang; Shan, Lei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-23

    Five pairs of new epimeric lanostane-type triterpenoids, abiespirones A-D (1-4) and G (7), two pairs of new epimeric cycloartane-type triterpenoids, abiespirones E and F (5, 6), and a pair of new epimeric 7(8→9)abeo-spirolanostane abiespirones H (8) with spiro-B/C and -E/F ring systems were isolated from Abies faxoniana as inseparable mixtures of C-23 epimers in a specific proportion. The HPLC plots showed that each purified isomer rapidly equilibrated with the C-23 epimer in solution. The structures of compounds 1-8 were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 6 showed cytotoxicity against three hepatoma cell lines, namely, HepG2, Huh7, and SMMC7721, with IC50 values of 9.8, 7.5, and 10.7 μM, respectively, but exerted low cytotoxicity on normal QSG7701 hepatic cells, indicating its selective cytotoxicity for hepatoma cells. Compound 6 arrests the cell cycle at G2/M and induces cell apoptosis in Huh7 cells. In addition, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in Huh7 cells when treated with compound 6, and a ROS scavenger partly blocked the effects of compound 6-induced Huh7 cell death, suggesting that compound 6-induced apoptosis is associated with elevated levels of ROS in Huh7 cells.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  13. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  14. FACTORES DE INFLUENCIA EN EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daniel Castillo-Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D. F. afecta a Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región con difícil capacidad de enraizamiento que requiere propagación en la zona. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa con el fin de determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dicha especie. En este experimento se utilizó un sustrato compuesto por turba y agrolita para probar estacas de dos procedencias, con y sin síntomas de declinación, generadas en dos estaciones de crecimiento, y dos auxinas, manteniendo una humedad de 75-80 %. La combinación de estos factores produjo 16 tratamientos, los cuales se repitieron 50 veces. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza factorial. Los resultados indican que a principios de diciembre es la mejor época de recolecta de material vegetal para enraizamiento de estacas de A. religiosa, siendo las estacas más jóvenes y las que recibieron indol-3-butírico las que mejor enraizaron. La procedencia y la sintomatología no tuvieron efecto en el enraizamiento.

  15. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  16. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  17. Comparison of phloem and xylem hydraulic architecture in Picea abies stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of xylem and phloem differ but the magnitude and functional consequences of the differences are not well understood. Phloem and xylem functional areas, hydraulic conduit diameters and conduit frequency along the stems of Picea abies trees were measured and expressed as allometric functions of stem diameter and distance from stem apex. Conductivities of phloem and xylem were estimated from these scaling relations. Compared with xylem, phloem conduits were smaller and occupied a slightly larger fraction of conducting tissue area. Ten times more xylem than phloem was annually produced along the stem. Scaling of the conduit diameters and cross-sectional areas with stem diameter were very similar in phloem and xylem. Phloem and xylem conduits scaled also similarly with distance from stem apex; widening downwards from the tree top, and reaching a plateau near the base of the living crown. Phloem conductivity was estimated to scale similarly to the conductivity of the outermost xylem ring, with the ratio of phloem to xylem conductivity being c. 2%. However, xylem conductivity was estimated to increase more than phloem conductivity with increasing tree dimensions as a result of accumulation of xylem sapwood. Phloem partly compensated for its smaller conducting area and narrower conduits by having a slightly higher conduit frequency. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2017-09-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  19. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankeviandccaron;ius, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Material/Methods The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. Results The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. Conclusions The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity. PMID:28132065

  20. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. RESULTS The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. CONCLUSIONS The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity.

  1. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  2. Evolution of a short-term study of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe vectors that turned into a long-term study of the remarkable gray jay on the Fraser Experimental Forest,Colorado, 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    This is a summary of a 5-year short-term study that evolved into 28 years of long-term research on the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service's Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado. The study was begun in 1982 by Forest Service Research Scientists Thomas H. Nicholls and Frank G. Hawksworth to determine the importance of mammal and bird vectors in the long-...

  3. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  4. Generic Feasibility of Perfect Reconstruction with Short FIR Filters in Multi-channel Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    We study the feasibility of short finite impulse response (FIR) synthesis for perfect reconstruction (PR) in generic FIR filter banks. Among all PR synthesis banks, we focus on the one with the minimum filter length. For filter banks with oversampling factors of at least two, we provide prescriptions for the shortest filter length of the synthesis bank that would guarantee PR almost surely. The prescribed length is as short or shorter than the analysis filters and has an approximate inverse relationship with the oversampling factor. Our results are in form of necessary and sufficient statements that hold generically, hence only fail for elaborately-designed nongeneric examples. We provide extensive numerical verification of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the gap between the derived filter length prescriptions and the true minimum is small. The results have potential applications in synthesis FB design problems, where the analysis bank is given, and for analysis of fundamental limitations in blin...

  5. Pathology of a Gammabaculovirus in Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neodiprion abietis Gammabaculovirus (Baculoviridae: NeabNPV is virulent, highly contagious, and infects only midgut epithelial cells of balsam fir sawfly larvae, but infections can carry through to adult sawflies in the midgut. Larval infections are characterized by hypertrophy of midgut epithelial cell nuclei, where virogenic stromata develop to produce nucleocapsids that are singly enveloped before occlusion into occlusion bodies. Infected, occlusion body-laden cells slough from the midgut epithelium as a result of a dissolution of the basal lamina. Infected cells undergo lysis, and viral occlusion bodies exit affected larvae in a watery diarrhea to infect other balsam fir sawfly larvae. A budded virus stage was not observed, but nucleocapsid and occlusion body formation resembled the development of occlusion-derived virions and occlusion bodies in lepidopteran alphabaculoviruses.

  6. Sharpening the response of an FIR filter using Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Chaturvedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented FIR filter with the help of Kaiser Window and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT. The window shape parameter is tuned for the transition band by considering linear phase FRFT Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. Here FRFT of Kaiser Window is taken and convolved with the response function for tuning purposes of the transition band which makes effective transition band. This proposed method includes the change of parameters of Kaiser window by which other windows like Rectangle, Bartlett, Hamming Blackman and Hanning windows are generated by using FRFT. The efficiencies of this method in terms of main lobe and side ripples are better than the above mentioned windows under Fourier transform.

  7. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence......BASIS. Of the 222 defined article 14 claims, 21 pertain to plants or plant-based bioactive compounds, of which 19 are in eBASIS. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap between eBASIS and the submitted health claims that relate to plant-based bioactive compounds. EuroFIR eBASIS is a useful tool for regulators...... to independently check completeness of health claims applications relating to phytochemicals and is a potentially valuable resource to assist claimants in the compilation of dossiers on functional foods and health claims. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, S101-S107; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.219...

  8. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that experience distinctly different climate in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Under an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas-fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  9. Comparisons of FIR and IIR implementations of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, Meysam; Chiel, Hillel J; Mohseni, Pedram

    2007-01-01

    Finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) temporal filtering techniques are investigated to assess the feasibility of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) implementation of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection (SAR) algorithm in implantable, closed-loop neuroprostheses. The two approaches are compared in terms of their system architectures, overall performances, and the associated computational costs. Pre-recorded neural data from an Aplysia californica are used to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed implementations. Digital building blocks for an FIR-based system are also simulated in a 0.18-microm CMOS technology, showing a total power consumption of IIR-based system can further reduce the required power consumption and die area.

  10. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-08-23

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  11. Increased Biomass of Nursery-Grown Douglas-Fir Seedlings upon Inoculation with Diazotrophic Endophytic Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings are periodically challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability of endophytes to colonize the interior of plants could confer benefits to host plants that may play an important role in plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this greenhouse study, nursery-grown Douglas-fir seedlings were inoculated with diazotrophic endophytes previously isolated from poplar and willow trees and grown for fifteen months in nutrient-poor conditions. Inoculated seedlings had significant increases in biomass (48%, root length (13% and shoot height (16% compared to the control seedlings. Characterization of these endophytes for symbiotic traits in addition to nitrogen fixation revealed that they can also solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Colonization was observed through fluorescent microscopy in seedlings inoculated with gfp- and mkate-tagged strains. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes could prove to be valuable for increasing the production of planting stocks in forest nurseries.

  12. Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Dyka, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the a priori known filter. The best result were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return from the market, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

  13. EFFECT OF STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment often brings about some negative effects on mechanical properties of wood. Chinese fir is currently underutilized due to some inherent properties that limit its further applications. Using steam as a heating medium and a shielding gas, the heartwood and sapwood of Chinese fir were treated at a temperature ranging from 170ºC to 230ºC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an airtight chamber. Both the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were increased for the sapwood specimens under the temperature less than 200ºC for short treatment times. The hardness was increased for both two kinds of specimens under the temperature less than or about 200ºC, compared to the untreated specimens. The temperature has a stronger effect on mechanical properties of wood than the time, and the temperature of 200 ºC is a critical point in modifying mechanical properties of wood.

  14. Soil-mediated effects of atmospheric deposition on eastern US spruce-fir forests. Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.; Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The coincident observation of Waldsterben in Germany and red spruce decline in the northeastern U.S. has naturally led to some speculation that similar mechanisms may be involved. In the German situation, soil-mediated hypotheses played (and still play) a major role; namely, soil acidification and aluminum toxicity and base cation deficiencies. In the red spruce case, there has been much concern that cation deficiencies and/or aluminum toxicity may also play a major role. The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) review some of the basic properties of soils, nutrition, and nutrient cycling in spruce-fir and fir ecosystems, both in the polluted and in the relatively unpolluted regions of the U.S. and Canada, and (2) to evaluate several soil acidity-related hypotheses for red spruce decline.

  15. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  16. Aspirated pits in wetwood and micromorphology of microbial degradation in subalpine fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoli; CAI Liping; XU Yongji

    2006-01-01

    Differentiating from normal wood,pit membranes in wetwood of subalpine fir contain bacteria of water drop shape or orbicular shape,and flaky shape,as observed using Scanning Electronic Microscope.Not only are ray parenchyma cells in wetwood partially degraded but also margo strands in pit membranes are somewhat degraded by bacterial activities.Most of the bordered-pit membranes in normal wood are unaspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood account for only 6.8% and 13.4%,respectively.Nevertheless,most of the bordered-pit membranes in wetwood are aspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits account for 77.7% and 72.1%,respectively.The problem of hard-to-dry for subalpine fir could be reasoned from the considerable amount of aspirated pit membranes in wetwood.

  17. HR approximation of FIR filters via discrete-time hybrid-domain vector fitting

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We present a discrete-time hybrid-domain vector fitting algorithm, called HD-VFz, for the HR approximation of FIR filters with an arbitrary combination of time- and frequency-sampled responses. The core routine involves a two-step pole refinement process based on a linear least-squares solve and an eigenvalue problem. Through hybrid-domain data approximation and digital partial fraction basis with relative stability consideration, HD-VFz exhibits fast computation and remarkable fitting accura...

  18. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  19. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii var. glauca): a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Rehfeldt

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of 3rd-year height of 228 seedling populations, grown in four separate studies in two of the same common gardens, were used to summarize patterns of genetic variation for Douglas-fir across 250 000 km 2 of forested lands in Idaho and Montana, U.S.A. Because each study was conducted in different years with a different set of populations, measurements were...

  20. On the Nature of the Deeply Embedded Protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stanke, T.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L ⊙, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L ⊙. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L ⊙. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L ⊙, while the luminosity of the colder (~20 K) extended core could be around 100 L ⊙, with a mass of about 27 M ⊙. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L ⊙. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  1. Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a 47-year-old Douglas-fir plantation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ranger; Gelhaye, D.

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Biomass and nutrient content of the root system of a Douglas-fir stand were calculated using the regression technique. Nine trees, evenly distributed in the girth classes of the stand, were felled for measurements and sampling. Results were compared to published data. Statistically significant relationships between tree circumference at 1.30 m and root biomass or nutrient content were observed. The root biomass was 58 t of dry matter, which was 18% of the total stand b...

  2. Ability of natural extracts to limit mold growth on Douglas-fir sapwood

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Maoz; Joseph J. Karchesy; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    2012-01-01

    The ability of selected plant extracts from wood and foliage to inhibit mold regrowth on fungal colonized wood was evaluated on Douglas-fir sapwood. Most foliage extracts produced some inhibition of Graphium or Trichoderma species, but isolations of other fungi increased following treatment. Five out of eight wood extracts produced 50% reductions in isolations, and those from Alaska cedar, western juniper, and incense cedar produced at least 80% reductions. The results indicate that wood ext...

  3. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ali, B. [NHSC/IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Adams, J. D. [USRA-SOFIA, DAOF, 2825 E. Ave. P, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States); Tobin, J. J., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlotttesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ☉}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ☉}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ☉}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ☉}, while the luminosity of the colder (∼20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ☉}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ☉}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ☉}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  4. Design and Efficiency Analysis of one Class of Uniform Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Pantić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One class of uniform linear phase filter banks with different numbers of band-pass channels will be considered in this study, concentrating on 5, 9 and 17-band filter banks and their mutual comparison concerning delay and implementation complexity. Designed banks are based on the FIR filters and frequency response masking technique and are also compared to the banks with direct realization considering complementarity and delay.

  5. A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...... to the designer, and generates a synthesizable VHDL description of the filter taking into account several design constraints such as: delay, area and energy....

  6. Acidification Sources in Red Alder and Douglas-Fir Soils -- Importance of Nitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Miegroet, Helga Van; Cole, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation, throughfall, forest floor, and soil leachate samples were monitored continuously in 1981 and 1982 in a N-poor Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forest and a red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) forest growing adjacently on a glacial soil in western Washington. The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative importance of atmospheric vs. natural sources of H+ input to forest soil acidification, and to determine the role of N transformation processes in the overa...

  7. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Yannis Raftoyannis; Dimitrios Bakaloudis

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildf...

  8. Time-Varying FIR Equalization for MIMO Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose time-varying FIR equalization techniques for spatial multiplexing-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission over doubly selective channels. The doubly selective channel is approximated using the basis expansion model (BEM, and equalized by means of time-varying FIR filters designed according to the BEM. By doing so, the time-varying deconvolution problem is converted into a two-dimensional time-invariant deconvolution problem in the time-invariant coefficients of the channel BEM and the time-invariant coefficients of the equalizer BEM. The timevarying FIR equalizers are derived based on either the matched filtering criterion, or the linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE or the zero-forcing (ZF criteria. In addition to the linear equalizers, the decision feedback equalizer (DFE is proposed. The DFE can be designed according to two different scenarios. In the first scenario, the DFE is based on feeding back previously estimated symbols from one particular antenna at a time. Whereas, in the second scenario, the previously estimated symbols from all transmit antennas are fed back together. The performance of the proposed equalizers in the context of MIMO transmission is analyzed in terms of numerical simulations.

  9. High angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sepulcre, A; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Ceccarelli, C; Dominik, C; Kama, M; Caux, E; Fontani, F; Fuente, A; Ho, P T P; Neri, R; Shimajiri, Y

    2013-01-01

    OMC-2 FIR 4 is one of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters, located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2 and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. In order to investigate the morphology of this region, we used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution which allows us to resolve structures of 5", equivalent to 2000 AU. Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure w...

  10. FIR Spectroscopy of the Galactic Center: Hot and Warm Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Pety, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    The angular resolution (~10'') achieved by the Herschel Space Observatory ~3.5 m telescope at FIR wavelengths allowed us to roughly separate the emission toward the inner parsec of the galaxy (the central cavity) from that of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (the CND). The FIR spectrum toward Sgr A* is dominated by intense [O III], [O I], [C II], [N III], [N II], and [C I] fine-structure lines (in decreasing order of luminosity) arising in gas irradiated by the strong UV field from the central stellar cluster. The high-J CO rotational line intensities observed at the interface between the inner CND and the central cavity are consistent with a hot isothermal component at T k ~ 103.1 K and n(H2)~ 104 cm-3. They are also consistent with a distribution of lower temperatures at higher gas density, with most CO at T k~300 K. The hot CO component (either the bulk of the CO column density or just a small fraction depending on the above scenario) likely results from a combination of UV and shock-driven heating. If UV-irradiated and heated dense clumps do not exist, shocks likely dominate the heating of the hot molecular gas component. Although this component is beam diluted in our FIR observations, it may be resolved at much higher angular resolution. An ALMA project using different molecular tracers to characterize UV-irradiated shocks in the innermost layers of the CND is ongoing.

  11. Performance of swarm based optimization techniques for designing digital FIR filter: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear phase FIR filter is designed through recently proposed nature inspired optimization algorithm known as Cuckoo search (CS. A comparative study of Cuckoo search (CS, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony (ABC nature inspired optimization methods in the field of linear phase FIR filter design is also presented. For this purpose, an improved L1 weighted error function is formulated in frequency domain, and minimized through CS, PSO and ABC respectively. The error or objective function has a controlling parameter wt which controls the amount of ripple in the desired band of frequency. The performance of FIR filter is examined through three key parameters; Maximum Pass Band Ripple (MPR, Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR and Stopband Attenuation (As. Comparative study and the simulation results reveal that the designed filter with CS gives better performance in terms of Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR, and Stopband Attenuation (As for low order filter design, and for higher order it also gives better performance in term of Maximum Passband Ripple (MPR. Superiority of the proposed technique is also shown through comparison with other recently proposed methods.

  12. An advanced strategy for wind speed forecasting using expert 2-D FIR filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGHADDAM, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies such as wind and solar have become the most attractive means of electricity generation nowadays. Social and environmental benefits as well as economical issues result in further utilization of such these energy resources. In this regard, wind energy plays an important roll in operation of small-scale power systems like Micro Grid. On the other hand, wind stochastic nature in different time and place horizons, makes accurate forecasting of its behavior an inevitable task for market planners and energy management systems. In this paper an advanced strategy for wind speed estimation has been purposed and its superior performance is compared to that of conventional methods. The model is based on linear predictive filtering and image processing principles using 2-D FIR filters. To show the efficiency of purposed predictive model different FIR filters are designed and tested through similar data. Wind speed data have been collected during the period January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009 from Casella automatic weather station at Plymouth. It is observed that 2-D FIR filters act more accurately in comparison with 1-D conventional representations; however, their prediction ability varies considerably through different filter sizing.

  13. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media.

  14. The Fras1/Frem family of extracellular matrix proteins: structure, function, and association with Fraser syndrome and the mouse bleb phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Petros; Makrygiannis, Apostolos K; Chalepakis, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Fras1 and the structurally related proteins Frem1, Frem2, and Frem3, comprise a novel family of extracellular matrix proteins, which localize in a similar fashion underneath the lamina densa of epithelial basement membranes. They are involved in the structural adhesion of the skin epithelium to its underlying mesenchyme. Deficiency in the individual murine Fras1/Frem genes gives rise to the bleb phenotype, which is equivalent to the human hereditary disorder Fraser syndrome, characterized by cryptophthalmos (hidden eyes), embryonic skin blistering, renal agenesis, and syndactyly. Recent studies revealed a functional cooperation between the Fras1/Frem gene products, in which Fras1, Frem1 and Frem2 are simultaneously stabilized at the lowermost region of the basement membrane by forming a macromolecular ternary complex. Loss of any of these proteins results in the collapse of the protein assembly, thus providing a molecular explanation for the highly similar phenotypic defects displayed by the respective mutant mice. Here, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the structure, function, and interplay between the proteins of the Fras1/Frem family and further propose a possible scenario for the evolution of the corresponding genes.

  15. Diversity in needle morphology and genetic markers in a marginal Abies cephalonica (Pinaceae population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis C. Papageorgiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in needle traits of coniferous tree species are considered as the combined result of direct environmental pressure and specific genetic adaptations. In this study, diversity and differentiation within and among four Abies cephalonica subpopulations of a marginal population on Mt. Parnitha - Greece, were estimated using needle morphological traits and gene markers. We tested the connection of morphological variability patterns of light and shade needles with possible adaptation strategies and genetic diversity. Six morphological characteristics were used for the description of both light and shade needles at 100 trees, describing needle size and shape, stomatal density and needle position on the twigs. Additionally, six RAPD and three ISSR markers were applied on DNA from the same trees. Light needles were significantly different than shade needles, in all traits measured, apparently following a different light harvesting strategy. All four subpopulations exhibited high genetic diversity and the differentiation among them was relatively low. Differences among populations in light needles seemed to depend on light exposure and aspect. In shade needles, the four subpopulations seemed to deviate stronger from each other and express a rather geographic pattern, similarly to the genetic markers. Two of the subpopulations studied were lost during a wildfire, two years after sampling. Although the subpopulations burnt were most diverse and most differentiated, we expect a large part of the total genetic diversity of the burnt trees to still exist in the surviving subpopulations, since gene flow must have been effective in keeping all subpopulations connected.

  16. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  17. A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundås-Larsson, A.; Svenson, M.; Liao, H.; Engström, P.

    1998-01-01

    Many homeobox genes control essential developmental processes in animals and plants. In this report, we describe the first cDNA corresponding to a homeobox gene isolated from a gymnosperm, the HBK1 gene from the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce). The sequence shows distinct similarities specifically to the KNOX (knotted-like homeobox) class of homeobox genes known from different angiosperm plants. The deduced amino acid sequence of HBK1 is strikingly similar within the homeodomain (84% identical) to the maize gene Knotted1 (Kn1), which acts to regulate cell differentiation in the shoot meristem. This similarity suggested that the phylogenetic association of HBK1 with the KNOX genes might be coupled to a conservation of gene function. In support of this suggestion, we have found HBK1 to be expressed in the apical meristem in the central population of nondifferentiated stem cells, but not in organ primordia developing at the flanks of the meristem. This pattern of expression is similar to that of Kn1 in the maize meristem. We show further that HBK1, when expressed ectopically in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, causes aberrations in leaf development that are similar to the effects of ectopic expression of angiosperm KNOX genes on Arabidopsis development. Taken together, these data suggest that HBK1 has a role, similar to the KNOX genes in angiosperms, in the control of cellular differentiation in the apical meristem of spruce. The data also indicate that KNOX-gene regulation of vegetative development is an ancient feature of seed plants that was present in the last common ancestor of conifers and angiosperms. PMID:9844025

  18. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  19. Climate signal in a Picea abies tree ring chronology in Eastern Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, I.; Holobâcǎ, I. H.; Pop, O.; Irimuş, I. A.; Georgescu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Trees are both sensitive and adaptive to environmental change; consequently they are often used as indicators for past climate variability. The correlation between climate and growth of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) in Eastern Romanian Carpathians was tested by choosing a sample site situated beneath the upper timberline (where the climatic factor would be more restrictive), at the altitude of 900 - 1000 m, on the north facing left slope of the Gošman valley (Neamt county). The tree ring width chronology covering most of the last three centuries was derived from the 25 living spruce trees sampled. The climatic dataset comprises monthly average temperature and precipitation values from the closest 7 weather stations, as well as for the nearest grid point of CRU TS. 3.1 dataset. One of the methods consists of detrending and standardization the tree ring using a negative exponential function and a linear function, the average population index being calculated using a bi-weight robust mean. The statistical significance of correlation is tested with the bootstrap method and the coefficients that exceed the 95% confidence level are highlighted. Preliminary results indicate a significant correlation between the tree ring chronology and the average winter temperatures (November, December and January) of the grid dataset. The length of this temperature dataset also allows the performance of correlation with evolutionary and moving intervals, which is not possible in the case of instrumental data. Further on, differences in standardization methods used and the corresponding results are detailed. The results of Regional Curve Standardization are of particular interest, considering the limited length of the chronology, and the possible bias introduced by the modern sample of uneven aged trees that is prone to a contemporaneous-growth-rate-bias. Keywords: dendroclimatology, tree ring, standardization, correlation, RCS method.

  20. Technical and structural reading on ode Alraieah of Omar ibn Abi Rabieah and its emotional characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article examines the famous Rbheah ode of Omar ibn Abi With The aim of finding The Structural form and some nice features. Knowing that this ods is the most famous and longest ode of Omar and there is in it the most characteristic of his poetry in the storied format which includes elements of the short story with its modern sense and depicts a happy life of The Umayyad period particularly those aspects that relate to women. And from this perspective has become the registered office of the poet's life and Reflection for his inner emotions. The formation of discussion like the following: Discussion Started With the introduction of what it should be noted Based on the announce new version.Then Addressed in this fifth issues and termination: 1.the main Thoughts and ideas in the Ode and its position and the way in which the poet has written ode.2.The Storied Level and dialog in theOde.3.The music in the ode and role of its weighs.4.The imaging level of the Ode in reflection for the Hejaz life. 5. Structural level of the Ode and its emotional aspects. in the end, The Paper achieved some conclusions, such as: the most remarkable is that Ibn Rbia is Sensory and womanish school leader that could link the Old dialogue Soul to Our contemporary world with poeticlyrics and dialogue Fiction.He is first real poet that granted to lyric poem the numerous technical features such as storytelling and dialogue and simplifying weights to singing.and this ode became famous for High precision in the selection of words.

  1. Heterobasidion annosum root rot in Picea abies: Variability in aggressiveness and resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedjemark, G.

    1995-12-31

    In greenhouse experiments 3-4 year-old plants of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were inoculated with the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The growth rates of 25 S and 14 P isolates of the fungus were measured in the sapwood of about 25 rametes each of 98 Norway spruce clones and in 150 seedlings each of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Correlations were determined between fungal sapwood growth and a variety of variables, i.e. the physical stage, growth rhythm, size and condition of the cuttings, provenance and the growth capacity of the clones estimated in field tests. Genetic parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance and broad sense heritability were calculated. H. annosum infection incidence was close to 100 % for inoculated Norway spruce clones, and the mortality rate was about 1 %. Fungal growth in sapwood differed significantly among clones and among fungal isolates. The genotypic correlation coefficient was large (30 %) and broad sense heritability was 0.35. This suggests that good selection progress can be achieved in breeding programs. The physical stage (bud-flush, vegetative and post bud-set stage) of the clones contributed significantly to the total variation in fungal growth. The population structure of H. annosum was studied in two 25-year-old, first generation stands of Norway spruce. The stands had been thinned one and seven years earlier, respectively. All stumps and remaining trees were sampled for H. annosum isolates. The isolates were tested with somatic incompatibility to detect single genets and the distribution of genets in the stand was determined. About 70 % of the 7-year-old thinning stumps were colonized by H, annosum, and 50 % of these stumps were colonized by more than one fungal genet. Sixty-three percent of the remaining trees were infected with H. annosum but among them there was only one genet per tree. 104 refs, 12 figs

  2. Evaluation of growth disturbances of Picea abies (L.) Karst. to disturbances caused by landslide movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilhán, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic methods are frequently used in landslide analyses. Although methods of landslide dating based on tree rings are well developed, they still indicated many questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequently used theoretical scheme based on the event-response relationship. Seventy-four individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) exhibiting visible external disturbance, were sampled on the Girová landslide (the largest historical flow-like landslide in the Czech Republic). This landslide reactivated in May 2010, and post-landslide tree growth responses were studied in detail. These growth responses were compared with the intensity and occurrence of visible external tree disturbance: tilted stems, damaged root systems, and decapitation. Twenty-nine trees (39.2%) died within one to four years following the 2010 landslide movement. The trees that died following the landslide movement were significantly younger and displayed significantly greater stem tilting than the live trees. Abrupt growth suppression was a more-frequent response among the dead trees, whereas growth release dominated among the live trees. Only two trees (2.7%) created no reaction wood in response to the landslide movement. Forty-four percent of the trees started to produce reaction wood structure after a delay, which generally spanned one year. Some eccentric growth was evident in the tree rings of the landslide year and was significant in the first years following the landslide movement. Missing rings were observed only on the upper sides of the stems, and no false tree rings were observed. The results confirm the general validity of event-response relationship, nevertheless this study points out the limitations and uncertainties of this generally accepted working scheme.

  3. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  4. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  5. High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Taquet, V.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Caux, E.; Fontani, F.; Fuente, A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Neri, R.; Shimajiri, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. Aims: We aim to disentangle the core multiplicity, to investigate the morphology of this region in order to study the formation of a low- and intermediate-mass protostar cluster, and to aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands. Methods: We used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion transitions that used the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures of 5″, which is equivalent to ~2000 AU. Results: Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. Two of these sources have elongated shapes and are associated with dust continuum emission peaks, thus likely containing at least one molecular core each. One of them also displays radio continuum emission, which may be attributed to a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. The third identified source displays a DCO+(2-1) emission peak and weak dust continuum emission. Its higher abundance of DCO+ relative to the other two regions suggests a lower temperature, hence its possible association with either a younger low

  6. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  7. Number of chromosomes and chromosome rearrangement of Norway spruce Picea abies (L. H. Karst. in the forests of Rilo-Rhodope mountain in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative investigations of chromosome numbers and chromosome rearrangements in populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. growing in the territory of State Forest Service «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa», «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte» in Rila-Rhodope mountain region (Bulgaria. Populations are located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive 92/43. It was found that diploid set of seed progeny of P. abies from the 4 populations studied includes 24 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 24. Mixoploidy (2n = 24, 36; 2n = 24, 48; 2n = 24, 36, 48 was detected in some germinating seeds of all studied populations of P. abies. Metaphase cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Garmen» and «Eleshnitsa» contain supernumerary, or B-chromosomes, while the variability of their number and occurrence was observed. In cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte», B-chromosomes are not revealed. Some chromosome rearrangements such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of P. abies from populations of «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa» and «Dobrinishte». Probably occurrence of mixoploids, B chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements in P. abies populations growing in Rila-Rhodope mountain region is connected with adaptation of trees to the extreme environmental conditions and such a serious factor that presently forests in the studied region located in the zone of natural radioactivity and in the past, the region of study was subjected to substantial anthropogenic pressure due to uranium extraction industry.

  8. Streamwater chemistry and flow dynamics along vegetation-soil gradient in a subalpine Abies fabri forest watershed,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Bao-qing; WANG Wei-dong; YIN Cheng-qing

    2004-01-01

    Streamwater chemistry and spatial flow dynamics from a subalpine Abies fabri forest in an experimental watershed located in the east slope of Gongga Mountain were analyzed to gain insights into the gradient effect of primary community succession on the stream biogeochemical process. Results showed that high sand content(exceeding 80%) and porosity in the soil(exceeding 20% in A horizon and 35% in B horizon), as well as a thick humus layer on the soil surface, made the water exchange quickly in the Huangbengliu(HBL) watershed. Consequently, no surface runoff was observed, and the stream discharge changed rapidly with the daily precipitation. The flow trends of base ions in the stream water were influenced by the Abies fabri succession gradient. Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- were the dominant anions in the streamwater in this region. A significant difference of Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- concentration exported between the succession stages in the watershed can be found. But they had the similar temporal change in the stream flow. Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- showed significantly negative correlations with the daily precipitation and the stream discharge. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were low in all streamwaters monitored and we observed no differences along the Abies fabri succession gradient. Low ratios of Na:(Na+Ca) (range from 0.1 to 0.2) implied cations were from bedrock weathering(internal source process in the soil system) in this region. But, a variance analysis showed there were almost no differences between rainwater and streamwaters for Mg2+, Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. This indicated that they might be come from rainfall inputs (external source). We suggest that the highly mobile capacity, rapid water exchange between precipitation and discharge, and long-term export lead to this observed pattern.

  9. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines fourteen fossil pollen datasets from Romania. It aims to investigate the temporal and spatial variability in the range distribution and abundance of three forest taxa, Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus, during the Holocene. This is essential for understanding their current status in the forests of Eastern Europe, the conditions under which they arose, and the timing and processes responsible for their variability. Results from this synthesis do not indicate any apparent time lag in the establishment of Pinus diploxylon type ( Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo), Pinus cembra, P. abies, and Quercus across Romania within the limits of the dating resolution. However, the onset of the mass expansion of P. abies was not uniform, spreading earlier from sites in the western and north-western Carpathians (11,000-10,500 yr BP) than in the east (10,000 yr BP). We found that sites from the western, north-western, and northern Carpathians contained higher abundances of P. abies, whilst Quercus was in higher abundances in sites from the east, but there was no regional distinctiveness in the abundance of Pinus across the study area. However, P. diploxylon type was found in much higher abundance than P. cembra. Additionally, results indicate a greater proportion of Pinus (mainly P. diplxylon type) at high elevations, P. abies at mid to high elevations, and Quercus at low elevations (Pinus in the early Holocene boreal forest is likely the legacy of its local glacial refugia, fast life history strategies, high stress tolerance, and large habitat availability. In contrast, Pinus exhibited poor competitive abilities and was quickly replaced with P. abies and temperate deciduous taxa after 10,500 yr BP. P. abies has persisted in large abundances at higher elevations (above 1000 m) until the present day, as a result of good competitive abilities, and resilience to climate change and disturbance. The long-term dominance of P. abies appears to have been spatially

  10. Lignans from the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis and their anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chang-Ling; Xiong, Juan; Xu, Peng; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yang, Guo-Xun; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2017-06-01

    During a further and comprehensive phytochemical investigation on the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis, one new (1) and ten known (2-11) lignans with diverse structures were isolated. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the new structure was established to be (7S,8R,8'R)-4'-methoxyl-α-conidendrin (1). Among the isolated lignans, (-)-matairesinol (5) and (-)-arctigenin (6) showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting the overproduction of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 11.5 and 19.0 μM, respectively.

  11. Natural decay process affects the abundance and community structure of Bacteria and Archaea in Picea abies logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinta-Kanto, J. M.; Sinkko, H.; Rajala, T.

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes colonize decaying wood and contribute to the degradation process, but the dynamics of prokaryotic communities during wood decay is still poorly understood. We studied the abundance and community composition of Bacteria and Archaea inhabiting naturally decaying Picea abies logs....... The results show that Bacteria and Archaea are an integral and dynamic component of decaying wood biota. The abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes increase as wood decay progresses. Changes in bacterial community composition are clearly linked to the loss of density of wood, while specific...

  12. ABI Research:2016年家庭自动化系统出货量将突破1200万

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    ABI Research最新报告指出,家庭自动化系统(home automation system)2011年度全球出货量将达到180万套,并预计2016年将达1200万套。基于不需添加新电缆线的无线技术如ZigBee等标准的解决方案将系统的成本降低,成为该市场强劲成长的动力。

  13. Stand Composition, Tree Proximity and Size Have Minimal Effects on Leaf Function of Coexisting Aspen and Subalpine Fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Aaron C; Barney, Trevor; St Clair, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    Forest structural heterogeneity due to species composition, spatial relationships and tree size are widely studied patterns in forest systems, but their impacts on tree function are not as well documented. The objective of this study was to examine how stand composition, tree proximity relationships and tree size influence the leaf functional traits of aspen, an early successional species, and subalpine fir, a climax species. We measured foliar nutrients, nonstructural carbohydrates (aspen only), defense chemistry and xylem water potential of aspen and subalpine fir trees in three size classes growing in close proximity or independently from other trees under three stand conditions: aspen dominant, aspen-conifer mixed, and conifer dominant stands. Close proximity of subalpine fir to aspen reduced aspen's storage of starch in foliar tissue by 17% suggesting that competition between these species may have small effects on carbon metabolism in aspen leaves. Simple sugar (glucose + sucrose) concentrations in aspen leaves were slightly higher in larger aspen trees than smaller trees. However, no differences were found in stem water potential, foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, or secondary defense chemicals of aspen or subalpine fir across the gradients of stand composition, tree proximity or tree size. These results suggest that mechanisms of coexistence allow both aspen and subalpine fir to maintain leaf function across a wide range of stand structural characteristics. For aspen, resource sharing through its clonal root system and high resource storage capacity may partially contribute to its functional stability in mixed aspen-conifer stands.

  14. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  15. In vivo evaluation of the effect of stimulus distribution on FIR statistical efficiency in event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J Martijn; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H; Drevets, Wayne C; Furey, Maura L

    2013-05-15

    Technical developments in MRI have improved signal to noise, allowing use of analysis methods such as Finite impulse response (FIR) of rapid event related functional MRI (er-fMRI). FIR is one of the most informative analysis methods as it determines onset and full shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) without any a priori assumptions. FIR is however vulnerable to multicollinearity, which is directly related to the distribution of stimuli over time. Efficiency can be optimized by simplifying a design, and restricting stimuli distribution to specific sequences, while more design flexibility necessarily reduces efficiency. However, the actual effect of efficiency on fMRI results has never been tested in vivo. Thus, it is currently difficult to make an informed choice between protocol flexibility and statistical efficiency. The main goal of this study was to assign concrete fMRI signal to noise values to the abstract scale of FIR statistical efficiency. Ten subjects repeated a perception task with five random and m-sequence based protocol, with varying but, according to literature, acceptable levels of multicollinearity. Results indicated substantial differences in signal standard deviation, while the level was a function of multicollinearity. Experiment protocols varied up to 55.4% in standard deviation. Results confirm that quality of fMRI in an FIR analysis can significantly and substantially vary with statistical efficiency. Our in vivo measurements can be used to aid in making an informed decision between freedom in protocol design and statistical efficiency.

  16. An Innovations-Based Noise Cancelling Technique on Inverse Kepstrum Whitening Filter and Adaptive FIR Filter in Beamforming Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Jeong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure.

  17. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Organised?

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    Jiri Petrek

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters.The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst.. We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs. The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we investigated the effect of

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  19. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jolanta E; Scambler, Peter J; Woolf, Adrian S

    2008-12-15

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, the bl/bl bud fails to invade metanephric mesenchyme which undergoes involution, events replicated in organ culture. The expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and growth-differentiation factor 11 was defective in bl/bl renal primordia in vivo, whereas, in culture, the addition of either growth factor restored bud invasion into the mesenchyme. Mutant primordia also showed deficient expression of Hoxd11 and Six2 transcription factors, whereas the activity of bone morphogenetic protein 4, an anti-branching molecule, was upregulated. In wild types, Fras1 was also expressed by nascent nephrons. Foetal glomerular podocytes expressed Fras1 transcripts and Fras1 immunolocalized in a glomerular BM-like pattern. On a mixed background, bl mutants, and also compound mutants for bl and my, another bleb strain, sometimes survive into adulthood. These mice have two kidneys, which contain subsets of glomeruli with perturbed nephrin, podocin, integrin alpha3 and fibronectin expression. Thus, Fras1 protein coats branching UB epithelia and is strikingly upregulated in the nephron lineage after mesenchymal/epithelial transition. Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli.

  20. The Physical, Geochemical and Microbial Conditions and Processes in the Hyporheic Zone of a Large Tidally Influenced River: The Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, M.; Roschinski, T.; Ross, K.; Leslie, S.; William, M.; Beckie, R.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes that occur in the hyporheic zone of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia. The large flows of between 2000 and 10000 cubic meters per second, the 10 15 m deep, 250 m wide channel, the 1 m tidal fluctuations, the localized scour and redeposition of sediments during freshet and the strong geochemical contrast between groundwater and surface water distinguish this investigation from studies on smaller channels and streams and required the development of novel characterization tools and strategies. The geochemistry of water samples collected with a push-in profiler, bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurements collected with a push-in tool and hydraulic head measurements indicate that groundwater principally discharges into the river approximately 100 m offshore in a 10 m wide band. River water and groundwater mix to a maximum depth of between 0.75 and 1.5 m. While hydraulic heads show strong tidal reversals, bulk EC profiles show only moderate changes during the tidal cycle. It was hypothesized that high iron (10's mg/L of Fe(II)) in reduced groundwater would precipitate from solution as secondary iron-oxide phases in the zone where groundwater mixes with aerobic river water. Sediments were collected with a freeze-shoe corer and depth profiles through the hyporheic zone and into the underlying aquifer were analyzed by selective extractions. The 15-30 mg/g of total extractable iron in both the aquifer and hyporheic zone is relatively high. The lack of noticeable iron accumulation in the hyporheic zone may indicate that iron precipitates on shallow sediments that are subsequently scoured from the river bed during freshet. Microbial DNA from sediments was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and showed a relatively diverse community structure but an overall low biomass.