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Sample records for francisco romero aguirre

  1. «Theater of Sorrows»: Rhetoric and Space in Francisco Romero's «Llanto Sagrado de la América Meridional»

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    Jorge Martín García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the text entitled Llanto sagrado de la América Meridional written by the Augustinian friar Francisco Romero. The work presents a kind of spiritual mapping of american land. Therefore, the text divides the territory of the continent according to their proximity or remoteness from the true faith. Our main objective will be to examine the rhetorical mechanisms that lie behind this description of the Indian space.

  2. Carlos Romero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista (en español Presentación Carlos Romero, politólogo, es profesor-investigador en el Instituto de Estudios Políticos de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, en donde se ha desempeñado como coordinador del Doctorado, subdirector y director del Centro de Estudios de Postgrado. Cuenta con ocho libros publicados sobre temas de análisis político y relaciones internacionales, siendo uno de los últimos Jugando con el globo. La política exter...

  3. Las dimisorias del P. Juan Francisco Romero, Procurador General de la Compañía de Jesús en Filipinas

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    Santiago LORENZO GARCÍA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La llegada de la orden de expulsión de los jesuítas a Filipinas creó una grave crisis en su vida religiosa. Como demuestra el episodio de las dimisorias del P. Procurador Juan Francisco Romero, entre las máximas autoridades jesuítas afloraron enemistades que dieron paso a abiertas contiendas. En esta coyuntura, el Arzobispo de Manila rescató la cuestión de la Visita Pastoral y salieron a relucir planteamientos regalistas y propuestas que defendían la independencia de las religiones de poderes externos. El gobierno político de las Islas tampoco se mantuvo al margen en estas disputas. La temida cohesión de la Compañía de Jesús en el archipiélago acabó siendo herida de muerte; el regalismo también asomaba la cabeza en el otro rincón del mundo, allí donde los regulares habían creído que su independencia estaba más asegurada. Palabras clave·. Compañía de Jesús, expulsión de los jesuítas, regalismo, Islas Filipinas, siglo xvm.ABSTRACT: The arrival of the expulsion decree of the Jesuits in the Philippines created a serious crisis in their religious life. As the episode of the Father procurator Juan Francisco Romero's «dimisorias» shows, enmities arose among the highest Jesuits authorities, which gave rise to open disputes. On this occasion, the Archbishop of Manila recovered the question of the Pastoral Visitation, and regalist points of view and proposals appeared, wich defended the independence of religions from external authorities. The political government of the Islands did not stay out of these disputes either. The feared cohesion of the Society of Jesus in the archipelago ended up being deadly wounded; the regalism was also appearing in the other corner of the world, where the regulars had thought their independence was more assured.

  4. The Lo Aguirre research reactor refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Oviedo, G.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the main work which had to be performed on the experimental reactor of the Lo Aguirre nuclear power plant (RECH-2), following which it recently came into operation. In particular, an outline is given of the main changes and improvements made with regard to reactor physics calculations, the systems and components in the facility, and repair of existing fuel elements. Special importance was attached to the definition, application and meeting of nuclear safety requirements and the implementation of a consistent quality assurance programme. Certain aspects of the work performed, by virtue of the scope and importance of the tasks involved, resulted in clear improvements to and modernization of the facility - for example, the construction of a new control room, the construction of a computerized radiation protection and surveillance control room, the reconstruction of the primary coolant circuit, the complete refitting of reactor instrumentation to incorporate a computerized data acquisition system, the redesign and construction of reactor water treatment plants, improvements in experimental devices and the design and construction of new experimental devices. The reactor, construction of which was resumed in 1986, attained criticality on 6 September 1989 using the HEU fuel available. We are now at the stage of characterizing the reactor by measuring process and nuclear parameters prior to commencing power operation

  5. Seismic analysis of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Soza, Cristian

    1999-01-01

    This thesis aims to verify the seismic design of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor using the finite elements method and comparing the results with the original analysis. The study focused on the dynamic interaction of soil and structures, using the ANSYS program for the analysis, which was implemented for a work station under a UNIX platform belonging to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The modeling of the structures was carried out following International Atomic Energy recommendations, those of the makers of the Swanson Analysis Systems program and the prior study by S y S Ingenieros Consultores. Two-dimensional models were developed with axial and symmetry and three-dimensional models with symmetric and asymmetric plans, where the retaining building, the pond block and the soil down to the basal rock were included. The seismic stresses were defined according to the Chilean Standard NCh433.of96, using the spectrum of design accelerations for type II soils for the structural models and type IV for the soil-structure interaction models.The results of interest for this study are: the compression and cutting tensions, the unitary cut distortions and the displacements, which are shown graphically and are compared between the different models and with the original analysis. A sensitivity analysis was prepared for the models with axial symmetry considering soil reaction coefficient values of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1 and 0.5 kp/cm 3 ; and four screens with maximum sizes of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 cm. The behavior of the stressed materials was studied as well as the result of the seismic stress (CS)

  6. 78 FR 26341 - Aguirre Offshore GasPort, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... LNG terminal, the Aguirre Offshore GasPort Project will include a non-jurisdictional Energy Bridge Regasification Vessel functioning as the floating storage and regasification unit for the Project. The project...

  7. Puelles romero, Luis: Honoré Daumier: la risa republicana

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    Óscar Ortega Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, Abada Editores ha puesto a disposición de sus lectores el nuevo ensayo de Luis Puelles Romero, titular de Estética y Teoría de las Artes de la Universidad de Málaga. Honoré Daumier: la risa republicana se interna en la vida y la obra de este marsellés nacido en 1808 y muerto en París en 1879, cuyo trabajo se desarrolló durante cincuenta años decisivos de la historia de Francia, desde el final del periodo legitimista hasta los inicios de la III República.

  8. Il mito di Lope de Aguirre in due opere della drammaturgia franchista e postfranchista

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    Arianna Fiore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Twentieth-century Spanish theatre is often inspired by the figure of Lope de Aguirre, with motifs and modes that change depending on time, considering 1939 and 1975 two crucial watershed moments in the cultural history of the Iberian Peninsula. The dramatic works analysed date back precisely to the years of Franco’s dictatorship and the democratic period: in 1941 Gonzalo Torrente Ballester was the first twentieth-century dramatist to devote a text, entitled Lope de Aguirre, to the life of the Basque conqueror. The work, for reasons that will be explored in the present essay, was never staged in Franco’s time: Ballester’s Aguirre is a romantic hero who defies the king to defeat the injustices which he is forced to witness, and everyone, men, women, blacks, indios, will at last be free under his red-black banner. Dona Elvira, Imaginate Euskadi (1985, by Ignacio Amestoy Egiguren, is the first published work in the democratic era. It can be read as a great metaphor of the Basque issue, the tragedy of Euskadi and the climate of violence and tension that characterized the Basque Country in the 1980s.

  9. La Última Cena y la Ascensión, anverso y reverso de una puerta, atribuidas a Matías de Aguirre

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    Mateo Gómez, Isabel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Discusses a cabinet door to save a custody and paintings of the Last Supper and the Ascension that are painted on it on the sides: these paintings are attributed to Matías Aguirre.

    Se estudia una puerta de armario para guardar una custodia y las pinturas de la Cena y la Ascensión que aparecen pintadas en ella en el anverso y reverso: estas pinturas se atribuyen a Matías de Aguirre.

  10. Los sueños del poder : novela por Flor Romero de Nohra

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    Julian Garavito

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available La novelista colombiana, oriunda de Cundinamarca, Flor Romero de Nohra ya tiene una interesante trayectoria como periodista (fundadora y directora de la revista mujer de América, como cuentista (La Ruta de El Dorado, y como novelista. Su primera obra en este genero, Tres Kilates ocho puntos obtuvo el premio Esso en 1964, Mi Capitán Fabián Sicachá fue finalista del Premio Planeta 1967 y Triquitraques del Trópico (1972 acaba de ser traducida al francés por Antoine Berman con el título Crépitant Tropique.

  11. Carlos Aguirre Bastos y Roland R. Rebois, "Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación: conceptos y prácticas" [book review

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Vázquez, José María

    1995-01-01

    Este artículo reseña: Aguirre Bastos, Carlos y Roland R. Rebois. Ciencia, tecnología e innovación: conceptos y prácticas. Sucre (Bolivia), Proyecto de Monitoreo de Nuevas Tecnologías, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Comisión Europea, 1994 Publicado

  12. Radiometric survey of radioactive minerals in the Matias Romero dam, in Oaxaca; Exploracion radiometrica de minerales radiactivos en la presa Matias Romero, en Oaxaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J H; Pena, P; Balcazar, M; Lopez, A M [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, S F; Cabrera, M O [IGEFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Huizar, R [IGEUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Migration of radioactive Uranium and Thorium minerals from the old mine El Muerto, to the dam Matias Romero in Oaxaca was detected in dam sediments. The identified elements were Th and U, from the decay series of the last one; {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa and {sup 214}Bi from the radioactive series of {sup 238}U. The mineral was in the past extracted from high fractured zones. Total activity measurements in sediments from the dam increases as the particle size decrease, which indicates that main reason of the movement is produced by erosion of small particles from high altitude deposits to lower parts where the dam is located. Geo statistical analysis gives a general picture of mineral distribution. ICP-MS, Ge(hp) detector, and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for associated minerals and radioactive content evaluation. Oaxaca State presents a complex geology. Pre cambric metamorphic rocks (600 ma) are present at the southern part, covering 25% of the state surface; intrusive metamorphic and igneous rocks form the Paleozoic (375 m.a.) cover 6 % of the surface. (Author)

  13. "Sentire cum Ecclesia" –Archbishop Oscar Romero in a crossfire of dissent

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    Andrzej Dobrzyński

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article Sentire cum Ecclesia Archbishop Romero caught between the fires of division: presents a clear picture of the difficult situation the Archbishop was involved in while ministering the war torn politically explosive Archdiocese of San Salvador (1977-1998 and the importance of maintaining his relationship with Rome. He lived his life between two burning fires: the cold war and the revolution, right and left wing factions, the unity of the Church and Liberation theology, and at the same time bearing within the strain of the dichotomy between the tendency for the mystic and his prophetic gift. The Archbishop was committed to put into practice the teaching of Vatican II, the social doctrine of the Church, and to the documents written by the Latin American Bishops in the conferences of Medellin (1968 and Puebla (1979. Paying attention to the circumstances of the Archdiocese and to the needs of Salvadorian society as a whole, Romero searched for solutions, taking into account his conscience and the Magisterium of the Church, while living a deeply spiritual life. His Episcopal motto, “To be of one mind with the Church” signifies his dedication and compassion with the suffering poor and disenfranchised, and the Church as an institution. Proof of this stems from always referring his feelings back to Rome and his dedication to the poor and persecuted. Even though it is not easy to draw any conclusions or make any judgments regarding Oscar Romero’s mission of the Church in the midst of the countries crisis, the article underlines the Historical-Ecclesiastical perspective that allows the avoidance of myths that continue to exist, in both liberal and conservative Catholic surroundings.

  14. La Victoria de Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas para una renovación urbana sin gentrificación para Santiago./ La Victoria of Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas for an urban renewal without gentrification in Santiago.

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    Ernesto López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de renovación urbana en altura de Santiago, en expansión hacia áreas populares del pericentro, es una forma de acumulación de renta de suelo, con efectos de desplazamiento social, es decir, gentrificación. Sin embargo, el pericentro de Santiago es un espacio donde coexisten amplias necesidades y capacidades de densificación urbana sin desplazamiento. Tomando como caso de estudio el desarrollo urbano histórico y actual de la población La Victoria, en Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, se plantea una investigación enfocada en dos perspectivas: histórica, definiendo este espacio desde la dialéctica entre movimientos sociales urbanos y producción espacial específica; y normativa, como una propuesta espacial que combina aspectos claves de mejoramiento barrial y densificación inclusiva y autosustentable. Se evidencia de esta forma la alta complejidad espacial del pericentro de Santiago de Chile, así como la existencia de alternativas de renovación residencial pericentral que sean social y políticamente inclusivas y de bajo impacto en términos de expulsión./ The model of high-rise urban renewal sprawls towards Santiago de Chile’s inner city. This model can be understood as a form of gentrification based on considerable accumulation of the rent gap, while its externalities generate social displacement and physical dilapidation. Notwithstanding, Santiago’s inner city is also a lived space where both needs and capacities of urban regeneration (without displacement coexist. Focusing on the case of La Victoria población, located in the southern municipality of Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, this article seeks to address the following two topics: historically, the inner city responds to a dialectic of urban social movements and specific spatial production; normatively, as an ongoing research project shows, it is feasible to combine neighbourhood regeneration, urban density increase, and citizen participation. The article substantiates the

  15. The Agony of Creativity Representations of the Apocalyptic In Day of the Dead by George A. Romero

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    Emiliano Aldegani

    2016-07-01

    I will consider Romero's approach to certain exhaustion of the world, expressed by means of the metaphor of the zombie apocalypse, particularly in the contrast between two images of the first scenes of the film Day of the Dead (1985. On the basis of the recovery of the concept of zombie that has been appearing in recent critical essays, I aim at also recovering the relevance that mimesis, as social behavior, makes manifest in the characterization of Romero's zombie and the importance of this aspect in relation to some social phenomena connected to his cinema. The trends in critical philosophy that will be reconsidered here are identified mainly with the early evaluation of philosophy developed by Friedrich Nietzsche in his observations about history and Western societies difficulty for creating culture. On the basis of this interpretation, the theoretical contributions made by Cornelius Castoriadis and Byung-Chul Han will be also reconsidered.

  16. Edward A. Delgado-Romero: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Edward A. Delgado-Romero, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. "Societies, professions, and individual citizens are enriched by the contributions of those who care. Edward A. Delgado-Romero has demonstrated through his scholarship, leadership in psychological associations such as the National Latina/Latino Psychological Association, and collaborations with universities and school districts in Georgia that he cares and is committed to addressing challenges in the provision of culturally sensitive psychological services to benefit the public interest. His example of servant leadership leaves a legacy to other early career professionals and graduate students alike. Es un hijo honorado." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Radiometric survey of radioactive minerals in the Matias Romero dam, in Oaxaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J.H.; Pena, P.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.M.; Juarez, S.F.; Cabrera, M.O.; Huizar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Migration of radioactive Uranium and Thorium minerals from the old mine El Muerto, to the dam Matias Romero in Oaxaca was detected in dam sediments. The identified elements were Th and U, from the decay series of the last one; 234 Th, 234 Pa and 214 Bi from the radioactive series of 238 U. The mineral was in the past extracted from high fractured zones. Total activity measurements in sediments from the dam increases as the particle size decrease, which indicates that main reason of the movement is produced by erosion of small particles from high altitude deposits to lower parts where the dam is located. Geo statistical analysis gives a general picture of mineral distribution. ICP-MS, Ge(hp) detector, and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for associated minerals and radioactive content evaluation. Oaxaca State presents a complex geology. Pre cambric metamorphic rocks (600 ma) are present at the southern part, covering 25% of the state surface; intrusive metamorphic and igneous rocks form the Paleozoic (375 m.a.) cover 6 % of the surface. (Author)

  18. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  19. Validación clínica y seguimiento en la oficina de farmacia de la utilidad del aceite esencial de romero como agente hipertensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martín, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es probar que el uso tradicional del aceite esencial de romero en el tratamiento de la hipotensión esencial o primaria se basa en una evidencia que puede ser puesta de manifiesto mediante la realización e interpretación un estudio clínico.

  20. Catástrofe y no catastrofismo en las poéticas de Benedetti, Gelman, Hahn y Romero

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    Silvana Serrani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Which significant expressive singularities can be pointed out in the poetic expression of apocalyptic issues in Southern Cone Spanish American poetry? This paper focuses on the poetics of four authors who produced part of their work in exile, as a result of apocalyptic XXth Century dictatorships in the Latin-American Southern Cone: Mario Benedetti (Uruguay, Juan Gelman (Argentina,Oscar Hahn (Chile and Elvio Romero (Paraguay. Our thematic approach does not concentrate on the Biblical Apocalypse or St John´s myths in literature, but, rather, on the poetic expressions of historical ruptures or extraordinary disasters. The paper takes into account the notion of (poetic constellation (Monteleone, 2003 & 2010 to explain the non-exhaustivity of the group of poetics and the relevance of considering these four formally dissimilar poetics together. A synthetic characterization of each of the poetics is presented, based on well-known critical studies, discussing and exemplifying: neo-manierism and elements of fantasy literature in Hahn´s poetry; torrential wordiness and symbolism in Gelman´s poetry; “realism” and songs of heroic deeds in Romero´s poetry and “humorous” colloquialism in Benedetti´s poetry. Finally, using Discourse Studies, mainly, the interdiscourse concept (Foucault, [1969]2012; Pêcheux, [1990]2009, we show that, despite the underlying differences between the four poetics, two points of convergence can be pointed out: non-catastrophism and the universal approach of (even local issues pervading the constellation composed by those four poetic expressions.

  1. La escritura huérfana: Miguel Romero Esteo o la sublimidad del grotesco en la última vanguardia

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    Cornago Bernal, Óscar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Romero Esteo's work from a cultural and aesthetic background rarely founded in the peninsular hispanic studies, in spite of being the appropiate one regarding his times. This complex theoretical frame, which has been related afterwards to diverse currents as Posestructuralism, the «New Left» and «Postmodernity», began to be developed in Europe during the sixties. Among the main names of these tendencies, who are the basis for my present approach, Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard, Gille Deleuze y Felix Guattari, Jean Baudrillard, Umberto Eco o Eugenio Trías are included. Starting from this wide corpus of aesthetic philosophy, which is going to be given an unitary interpretation through a consideration of the barroque condition of contemporary culture —reconsidering the theory of alegory by Benjamin—, this study intends to understand the specifity of an aesthetic project of great originality as well as the cultural background where it has risen.Este estudio analiza la obra de Miguel Romero Esteo desde un contexto cultural y estético escasamente transitado en el hispanismo peninsular, pero que es, sin embargo, el que le corresponde por generación histórica. Este complejo marco teórico, que ha sido relacionado posteriormente con corrientes diversas como el Posestructuralismo, la «nueva izquierda » o la Posmodernidad, comenzó a desarrollarse en Europa a medida que avanzaban los años sesenta. Entre los nombres que lo han protagonizado, y que son la base de este trabajo, se incluyen Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard, Gille Deleuze y Felix Guattari, Jean Baudrillard, Umberto Eco o Eugenio Trías. A partir de este amplio corpus de filosofia estética, al que se le dará una lectura unitaria mediante la condición barroca de la cultura actual —recuperando la teoría de la alegoría de Benjamin—, se trata de entender la especificidad que

  2. Efecto del extracto de romero (rosmarinus officinalis) y el proceso de fritura sobre la calidad y vida útil de aceite y productos pre-fritos

    OpenAIRE

    Teruel Gutierrez, María del Rocío

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene como objetivo principal mejorar la calidad y estabilidad del medio y los productos de fritura. Con este propósito han sido realizados cuatro ensayos experimentales. El primer y segundo experimental tuvieron como objetivos caracterizar diferentes extractos comerciales de romero, y posteriormente, evaluar el efecto de los mismos en diferentes matrices alimentarias (nuggets de pollo y el aceite de fritura). Para lo cual se llevaron a cabo los siguientes métodos analít...

  3. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  4. Estudio de la Actividad Antioxidante e Inhibición Oxidativa de Tres Plantas Aromáticas Romero (Rosmarinus officinalis), Tomillo (Thymus vulgaris) y Lavanda (Lavandula officinalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Iradi, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    El romero, tomillo y lavanda son plantas aromáticas con destacadas propiedades, entre ellas, la actividad antioxidante, por ser ricas en compuestos conocidos como polifenoles. Los polifenoles se caracterizan por prevenir o retardar la oxidación de aceites y grasas, como los ácidos grasos. Se debe a que neutralizan los radicales libres que se forman y, que al propagarse, oxidan las grasas. Esta oxidación lipídica es una de las principales causas de deterioro de los alimentos que...

  5. La boda de penalty: el romance de Los primos romeros o la resolución poética de un conflicto vulgar

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    Baltanás, Enrique

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Although superficially the romance of Los primos romeros could be interpreted since a surrealist, anticlerical and incestuous perspective, here it is offered a lecture coherent with most of the romancistic oral texts: a conflict so familiar and vulgar as the "wedding by penalty", viewed since a poetic and inclosed indulgent perspective. For the purpose of this romance, theoretical questions as the role of the transmitter ¿author or reader? and the nature of oral texts are examined at once.Aunque a simple vista el romance de Los primos romeros pueda entenderse desde una perspectiva surrealista, anticlerical o incestuosa, aquí se propone una lectura coherente con la mayoría de los textos romancísticos orales modernos: un conflicto tan familiar y vulgar como la "boda de penalty", visto desde una perspectiva poética e incluso indulgente. Al mismo tiempo, y a propósito de este romance, se dilucidan algunas cuestiones teóricas como el papel del transmisor (¿autor o lector? y la propia naturaleza del texto oral.

  6. ¿Literatura Hispano-Filipina Contemporánea? Un ejemplo en la poesía de Edmundo Farolán Romero

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    Andrea Gallo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the results of my research on Spanish-Filipino literature through an analysis of one of its representative voices, Edmundo Farolán Romero.The Philippines has been able to absorb in a positive and constructive way the contribution of different cultural influences, which eventually became an integral part of its own culture. Some European and American cultural and linguistic elements were assimilated into a strong original Asian-Malay basis to create the modern Filipino identity. For the most part, this influence came from Spain and can be plainly seen from the interesting literary production in Spanish. This later on became the new literary voice of the Philippines from the late 18th century until the 1940s.My analysis, thus, intends to show that the literary production of Farolán Romero is a proof that the Spanish language is part of the cultural patrimony of the country. At the end of the study, I will try to analyze if the Philippines still has any trace of this rich autochthonous tradition, or if it has disappeared and just left moral and aesthetic influences in the literary production of the country.

  7. ¿Y por qué no la revolución del teatro? El T.E.P.A o la "propaganda política con forma teatral" de Isidora Aguirre

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    Andrés Grumann Sölter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La dramaturga chilena Isidora Aguirre desarrolló una prolífica y ampliamente reconocida carrera artística como dramaturga tanto en nuestro país como en el extranjero donde se tradujeron algunas de sus principales obras de teatro. Entre sus trabajos más celebrados se encuentra La Pérgola de las Flores (1960 y Los que van quedando en el camino (1969. El artículo tiene por objetivo presentar un aspecto poco estudiado, pero altamente influyente en la formación teatral y la vinculación política de la dramaturga. En tiempos de la Unidad Popular, Aguirre ideó y presentó una forma teatral de pequeño formato que denominó T.E.P.A (Teatro Experimental, Popular, Aficionado con el que expandió la "revolución" que propuso Salvador Allende en varios pueblos del norte y sur del país tanto en la campaña para llegar al gobierno como durante los dos primeros años del Gobierno Popular bajo en nombre de Los Cabezones de la Feria.

  8. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  9. La Diagonal Pedro Aguirre Cerda

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    Graciela Mahias

    1986-06-01

    Este trazado se mantuvo sin alteraciones por largos años. La ciudad creció consolidándose lentamente, aunque no se desarrolló significativamente. Arquitectónicamente logró cierta dignidad y prestancia merced al desarrollo de una sociedad económica y culturalmente autónoma.

  10. The contribution of the International Atomic Energy Agency to peace and development. Address at the conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero', Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the Conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero' (Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999), the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the IAEA and its contribution to peace and development, focussing in four areas: technology transfer, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, nuclear safety, and the Agency's verification system

  11. ROMERO SÁNCHEZ, Guadalupe. Los pueblos de indios en Nueva Granada. Granada: Atrio y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2010, 364 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Todavía hoy en día sigue abrumando a los historiadores del arte la complejidad y vastedad del territorio iberoamericano. Por ello, debemos loar el esfuerzo de aquellos que estudian, y además en profundidad, procesos tan laberínticos como el de la fundación de los llamados pueblos de indios. La obra que nos ocupa, primera de la Colección Atrio Patrimonio dirigida por Rafael López Guzmán, es fruto del laborioso trabajo de Guadalupe Romero, y resultado de sus fascinantes viajes por el territorio del antiguo Virreinato de Nueva Granada. Es consecuencia también del estudio de numerosas y variadas fuentes: contratos, relaciones de visitas, y por supuesto de un análisis certero de las mismas...

  12. Trouble Brewing in San Francisco. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Francisco will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Francisco faces an aggregate $22.4 billion liability for pensions and retiree health benefits that are underfunded--including $14.1 billion for the city…

  13. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0196] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA. (a) Location. The limits of this safety zone...

  14. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  15. April 1906 San Francisco, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the largest event (magnitude 8.3) to occur in the conterminous United States in the 20th Century. Recent estimates indicate...

  16. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  17. San Francisco folio, California, Tamalpais, San Francisco, Concord, San Mateo, and Haywards quadrangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew Cowper

    1914-01-01

    The five sheets of the San Francisco folio the Tamalpais, Ban Francisco, Concord, Ban Mateo, and Haywards sheets map a territory lying between latitude 37° 30' and 38° and longitude 122° and 122° 45'. Large parts of four of these sheets cover the waters of the Bay of San Francisco or of the adjacent Pacific Ocean. (See fig. 1.) Within the area mapped are the cities of San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Alameda, Ban Rafael, and San Mateo, and many smaller towns and villages. These cities, which have a population aggregating about 750,000, together form the largest and most important center of commercial and industrial activity on the west coast of the United States. The natural advantages afforded by a great harbor, where the railways from the east meet the ships from all ports of the world, have determined the site of a flourishing cosmopolitan, commercial city on the shores of San Francisco Bay. The bay is encircled by hilly and mountainous country diversified by fertile valley lands and divides the territory mapped into two rather contrasted parts, the western part being again divided by the Golden Gate. It will therefore be convenient to sketch the geographic features under four headings (1) the area east of San Francisco Bay; (2) the San Francisco Peninsula; (3) the Marin Peninsula; (4) San Francisco Bay. (See fig. 2.)

  18. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... America's Cup air shows. These safety zones are established to provide a clear area on the water for... announced by America's Cup Race Management. ADDRESSES: Documents mentioned in this preamble are part of...

  19. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the San....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA... NAGPRA Program has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  20. 78 FR 21403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the San....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA... NAGPRA Program has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  1. 75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... can better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0221] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY...

  2. Mitología grecolatina y rock. El mito de Prometeo en letras de Extremoduro, Tierra Santa y Kutxi Romero & Ja ta Ja / Greek-latin mythology and rock. The myth of Prometheus in lyrics of Extremoduro, Tierra Santa and Kutxi Romero & Ja ta Ja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    http://iesgtballester.juntaextremadura.net/web/profesores/tejuelo/vinculos/articulos/r17/04.pdf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A pesar de la creencia de que las letras de la música rock española actual están llenas de mensajes vacíos y de tópicos repetidos, podemos encontrar grupos y solistas cuyas composiciones se alejan de ese cliché para servir de vehículo de transmisión de cuestiones culturales como pueda ser la mitología clásica. Además, esta transmisión no siempre se queda en la mera anécdota de la cita culturalista, sino que en ocasiones va más allá, haciendo que el mito sirva como elemento de comparación o, incluso, recreándolo.Las siguientes páginas pasarán revista a la aparición del mito de Prometeo en las letras de tres grupos de rock nacional contemporáneos: Extremoduro, Tierra Santa y la colaboración entre el cantante y letrista de Marea, Kutxi Romero, con Ja ta Ja.Abstract: In spite of the belief that the lyrics of current Spanish rock music are full of empty messages and repeated topics, we can find groups and soloist whose compositions move away from that chiclé to serve as a transmission vehicle of cultural questions such as classical mythology. Besides, this transmission is not always just a mere anecdote of the culturalist quote, but on some occasions it goes further, making the myth an element of comparison, or even recreating it.The following pages will review the appearance of the Prometheus myth in the lyrics of three contemporary national rock groups: Extremoduro, Tierra Santa and the collaboration between the singer and composer of Marea, Kutxi Romero, with Ja ta Ja.

  3. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  4. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  5. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  6. City of San Francisco, California street tree resource analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Street trees in San Francisco are comprised of two distinct populations, those managed by the city’s Department of Public Works (DPW) and those managed by private property owners with or without the help of San Francisco’s urban forestry nonprofit, Friends of the Urban Forest (FUF). These two entities believe that the public’s investment in stewardship of San Francisco...

  7. Public Involvement and Response Plan (Community Relations Plan), Presidio of San Francisco, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    passenger ship destination, and tourist attraction. San Francisco’s location and cultural and recreational opportunities make it a prime tourism center...equestrians, she said. C-52 m% smm : - TUESDAY, JUNE 19,1990 * . COPYKIGHT 1*90/THE TIMES MlRkOX COMPANY /CC/1 JO PAGES P. A-l, 22, 23 Complex

  8. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone is... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note) directs agencies to use...), of the Instruction. This rule involves establishing, disestablishing, or changing Regulated...

  9. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  10. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200

  11. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Presidio of San Francisco Military Reservation, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    CAD981415656 Filmore Steiner Bay San Francisco 24 PG&E Gas Plant SanFran 502-IG CAD981415714 Bay North Point Buchanan Laguna 25 PG&E Gas Plant SanFran 502-1H...76-ioV /5,JO /0.7 /,230 PSF Water PSF, Main U.N. Lagunda Honda Analvte Plant Clearwell Reservoir Plaza Reservoi- Chlordane inetab. ə.2 ə.2 (1.2 ə.2

  12. 77 FR 60897 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... navigable waters of the San Francisco Bay in vicinity of San Francisco West Yacht Harbor Light 2... vicinity of San Francisco West Yacht Harbor Light 2. Unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from... San Francisco West Yacht Harbor Light 2. This safety zone establishes a temporary restricted area on...

  13. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco.... Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory... waters of San Francisco Bay, 1,000 yards off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks...

  14. Developing solar power programs : San Francisco's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, F.

    2006-01-01

    This keynote address discussed an array of solar programs initiated in government-owned buildings in San Francisco. The programs were strongly supported by the city's mayor,and the voting public. Known for its fog and varying microclimates, 11 monitoring stations were set up throughout the city to determine viable locations for the successful application of solar technologies. It was observed that 90 per cent of the available sunshine occurred in the central valley, whereas fog along the Pacific shore was problematic. Seven of the monitoring sites showed excellent results. Relationships with various city departments were described, as well as details of study loads, load profiles, electrical systems, roofs and the structural capabilities of the selected government buildings. There was a focus on developing good relations with the local utility. The Moscone Convention Center was selected for the program's flagship installation, a 675 kW solar project which eventually won the US EPA Green Power Award for 2004 and received high press coverage. Cost of the project was $4.2 million. 825,000 kWh solar electricity was generated, along with 4,500,000 kWh electricity saved annually from efficiency measures, resulting in a net reduction of 5,325,000 kWh. Savings on utilities bills for the center were an estimated $1,078,000. A pipeline of solar projects followed, with installations at a sewage treatment plant and a large recycling depot. A program of smaller sites included libraries, schools and health facilities. Details of plans to apply solar technology to a 500 acre redevelopment site in southeast San Francisco with an aging and inadequate electrical infrastructure were described. A model of efficient solar housing for the development was presented, with details of insulation, windows, heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating, lighting, appliances and a 1.2 kilowatt solar system. Peak demand reductions were also presented. tabs., figs

  15. San Francisco-Pacifica Coast Landslide Susceptibility 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The San Francisco-Pacifica Coast grid map was extracted from the California Geological Survey Map Sheet 58 that covers the entire state of California and originally...

  16. San Francisco Bay Multi-beam Bathymetry: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These multi-beam bathymetric data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were...

  17. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  18. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  19. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  20. San Francisco, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Francisco, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  1. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Project Locations, San Francisco CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  2. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Map Service, San Francisco CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  3. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  4. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  5. Dos edificios administrativos, en San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arquitectos

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crown Zellerbach has been built on a large triangular plaza, at the outskirts of San Francisco. This is one of the most recent tall buildings in the city. The Wells Fargo Bank is also situated on this plaza. It is of special interest, both as regards its shape and functional organisation. It has a ground floor, where most of the mercantile activities take place, and a basement, containing a Council room; the strong rooms, with 2,500 private boxes as well as the bank's own safe; washing rooms; mechanical equipment rooms; a rest room; a bar for the employees and independent stairs. The building has a circular planform, 21.5 m in diameter and 354 m2 in area. The structure is metallic, the vertical supports are along the periphery, spaced every 1.626 m. The enclosing curtain walls are glass and anodized aluminium. The roof has radially distributed metal beams, interconnected by prefabricated concrete units, covered with copper sheeting. This bank, shaped like a hunting lodge, and finished with delicate care, contrasts sharply with the powerful volume of the Crown Zellerbach, and of other nearby buildings, and adds distinction to the plaza.Sobre una gran plaza triangular del extrarradio de San Francisco se alzan: el Crown Zellerbach, uno de sus más recientes rascacielos, y un bello pabellón independiente, el Wells Fargo Bank. El resto de la plaza es de dominio público. La originalidad, en forma y organización del segundo, ha hecho que le dediquemos la mayor atención: consta de una planta baja, en la que se desarrollan, prácticamente, todas las actividades mercantiles, y un piso inferior, en donde se distribuyen: un Salón de Consejos, el departamento de cajas de seguridad, con 2.500 unidades, y las cajas del Banco, los aseos, equipos mecánicos, etc., una sala de descanso y bar para los empleados, con escalera de acceso independiente. Tiene planta circular, de 21,5 m de diámetro y 354 m2 de superficie. La estructura es metálica, con

  6. Mercury in San Francisco Bay forage fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Ben K., E-mail: ben@sfei.or [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 7770 Pardee Lane, Oakland, CA 94621 (United States); Jahn, Andrew, E-mail: andyjahn@mac.co [1000 Riverside Drive, Ukiah, CA 95482 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In the San Francisco Estuary, management actions including tidal marsh restoration could change fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. From 2005 to 2007, small forage fish were collected and analyzed to identify spatial and interannual variation in biotic methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. The average whole body total Hg concentration was 0.052 {mu}g g{sup -1} (wet-weight) for 457 composite samples representing 13 fish species. MeHg constituted 94% of total Hg. At a given length, Hg concentrations were higher in nearshore mudflat and wetland species (Clevelandia ios, Menidia audens, and Ilypnus gilberti), compared to species that move offshore (e.g., Atherinops affinis and Lepidogobius lepidus). Gut content analysis indicated similar diets between Atherinops affinis and Menidia audens, when sampled at the same locations. Hg concentrations were higher in sites closest to the Guadalupe River, which drains a watershed impacted by historic Hg mining. Results demonstrate that despite differences among years and fish species, nearshore forage fish exhibit consistent Hg spatial gradients. - Total mercury in estuarine forage fish varies with species, habitat, and proximity to a historic mercury mine.

  7. Trans Women Doing Sex in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin J; Weinberg, Martin S; Rosenberger, Joshua G

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the sexuality of trans women (individuals who were assigned male status at birth who currently identify as women), by focusing on the "bodily techniques" (Crossley, 2006) they use in "doing" sexuality. The "doing sexuality" framework not only is modeled after the "doing gender" approach of West and Zimmerman (1987), but also utilizes the idea of "sexual embodiment" to emphasize the agency of trans women as they conceptualize and organize their sexuality in a socially recognized way. This is often difficult as they confront discrimination from medical and legal professionals as well as intimate partners who may find it difficult to adapt to the trans woman's atypical body and conception of gender. However, with a study group of 25 trans women from San Francisco, we found the study participants to be adept at overcoming such hurdles and developing techniques to "do" their sexuality. At the same time, we found trans women's agency constrained by the erotic habitus (Green, 2008) of the wider society. The interplay between innovation and cultural tradition provides an opportunity to fashion a more general model of "doing" sexuality.

  8. Mercury in San Francisco Bay forage fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, Ben K.; Jahn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the San Francisco Estuary, management actions including tidal marsh restoration could change fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. From 2005 to 2007, small forage fish were collected and analyzed to identify spatial and interannual variation in biotic methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. The average whole body total Hg concentration was 0.052 μg g -1 (wet-weight) for 457 composite samples representing 13 fish species. MeHg constituted 94% of total Hg. At a given length, Hg concentrations were higher in nearshore mudflat and wetland species (Clevelandia ios, Menidia audens, and Ilypnus gilberti), compared to species that move offshore (e.g., Atherinops affinis and Lepidogobius lepidus). Gut content analysis indicated similar diets between Atherinops affinis and Menidia audens, when sampled at the same locations. Hg concentrations were higher in sites closest to the Guadalupe River, which drains a watershed impacted by historic Hg mining. Results demonstrate that despite differences among years and fish species, nearshore forage fish exhibit consistent Hg spatial gradients. - Total mercury in estuarine forage fish varies with species, habitat, and proximity to a historic mercury mine.

  9. La figuración de síntesis en la plástica moderna de Córdoba. El caso de Horacio Álvarez lector de Romero Brest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sol Alderete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern visual arts in Córdoba, in the time span between 1939 and 1945, pose an analytic problem that can be approached from multiple perspectives. The starting point of this article is the first solo exhibition of Horacio Álvarez, held in November 1944: significant connections are suggested between thematic, conceptual and formal exploration in the artworks included, and the participation of the artist in the local Association of Painters and Sculptors during the previous years to the exhibition. The study of this relation entails the inquiry into representation and self-representation of the artists as politically and ideologically engaged intellectuals. Therefore, it is considered jointly with the study of the reception of a long and detailed critique of the artistic scene in Argentina, published by Jorge Romero Brest in the beginning of 1941, confirmed to be read in Córdoba in those years. In the study case presented here, the synthetic figurative language of representation, and its local modulation, represented an anti-fascist engagement developed from the specificity of the artistic means

  10. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  11. San Francisco urban partnership agreement, national evaluation : exogenous factors test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing exogenous factors data for the San Francisco Urban : Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. : The San Francisco UPA proj...

  12. Vabariigi aastapäev San Franciscos / Heino Valvur ; foto: Heino Valvur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valvur, Heino

    2006-01-01

    veebruarikuu möödus San Franciscos Eesti Vabariigi 88. aastapäeva pühitsedes: traditsiooniliselt tähistas aastapäeva San Francisco Seenioride Klubi koosviibimisega, E.E.L.K. San Francisco koguduses peeti jumalateenistus ja koosviibimine, kus noored esitasid rahvalaule, San Francisco Eesti Selts tähistas aastapäeva 25. veebruaril aktuse ja koosviibimisega

  13. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  14. Francisco Pino: el poeta de los agujeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Francisco Pino (1910-2002, en sus dos vertientes, experimental y no-experimental, posee una coherencia absoluta en cuanto a su concepción creacionista, que considera el poema como «manifestación de existencia». En este contexto aparecen en los años setenta sus libros de agujeros troquelados, que son su característica más relevante y constituyen una muestra de osadía artística y rebeldía vital. Estos libros de agujeros, minúsculas maquetas del uni-verso, poseen un sentido metafísico-religioso: Pino representa en ellos el vacío y el silencio consustancial a la poesía como música inaudible y espacio invisible, y nos ofrece los planos de una arquitectura poética que comunica con el infinito por medio de la ventana troquelada. Hay una búsqueda de la palabra poética total en toda su obra, desde sus primeros versos, en los que ya aparecen intuiciones reveladoras de sus hallazgos posteriores. Aunque, para Pino, la poesía es búsqueda constante, persecución de una presa inalcanzable. En esa persecución, hallará los caligramas, los libros troquelados y los poemas visua-les realizados en todo tipo de soportes desechables, pues Pino afirmó siempre su deseo de permanecer en la órbita de lo efímero, ajeno al anhelo de eterni-dad y ajeno también a las convenciones de la Historia del Arte, aunque su postura condenara a su obra al ostracismo o la expusiera a la irrisión. En la ilustración de uno de sus últimos libros, el titulado Tejas: lugar de Dios. Obertura, un pájaro se deshace en el poema. Sin trino ni mensaje posible, el poeta recoge la pluma del pájaro y con ella escribe. Así pues, la poesía surge tras la destrucción del poeta, como consecuencia de su disolución en el texto, una inmolación feliz e inexplicable, que inunda de luz cegadora el poema, iluminándole, sin llegar a desvelar su misterio.

  15. 77 FR 59969 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, Department of Anthropology, San Francisco, CA... Francisco State University, NAGPRA Program (formerly in the Department of Anthropology). The human remains... State University Department of Anthropology records. In the Federal Register (73 FR 30156-30158, May 23...

  16. Ethnicity and Phonetic Variation in a San Francisco Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lew, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation advances research in sociolinguistics by analyzing phonetic variation in a majority Asian American community in San Francisco, California. As one of the first community studies focusing on Asian Americans in an urban US context, this work speaks to ongoing discussions about speaker ethnicity, phonetic variation, and regional…

  17. Auckland--New Zealand's Los Angeles or San Francisco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovich, Dushko

    1995-01-01

    Compares Auckland (New Zealand) with San Francisco (California) in terms of topographical structure, geographic location, and urban development. Both cities contain striking similarities. Maintains that Auckland can become a world-class city renowned for its beauty if developers and government work in tandem. (MJP)

  18. Working Paper for the Revision of San Francisco's Cable Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Public Library, CA. Video Task Force.

    Ideas are presented for the revision of San Francisco's cable franchise. The recommendations in the report are based upon national research of library and urban use of cable communications and are designed to help the city's present and future cable franchises to comply with the regulations of the Federal Communications Commission by March 31,…

  19. The poetics of Francisco Pino, rare avis in Spanish poetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Hub.

    Francisco Pino (1910-2002) can be considered as a "rara avis" in Spanish poetry. Having published dozens of books rather anonymously, and generally with small private presses, he began publishing through more renowned publishing companies in 1978. His various new editions, anthologies and editions

  20. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  1. Reseña de libro: Prevención de lesiones en el deporte. Claves para un rendimiento deportivo óptimo. Romero Rodríguez, Daniel y Tous Fajardo, Julio : Medica Panamericana D. L., Madrid, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pascuas, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    La obra conjunta presentada por Romero Rodríguez y Tous Fajardo, aborda al deportista desde el concepto de economía del movimiento y balance muscular. Brinda información de cómo detectar puntos débiles, y resolver las alteraciones anátomo-funcionales y neuromusculares que pueden intervenir negativamente en el proceso del incremento de la forma deportiva de cualquier individuo. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  2. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California. (b... siren, radio, flashing light, or other means, the operator of a vessel shall proceed as directed. [COTP...

  3. New fault picture points toward San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent earthquakes and a new way of looking at faults suggest that damaging earthquakes are closing in on the San Francisco area. Earthquakes Awareness Week 1989 in northern California started off with a bang on Monday, 3 April, when a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck 15 kilometers northeast of San Jose. The relatively small shock-its primary damage was the shattering of an air-control tower window-got the immediate attention of three U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo Park near San Francisco. David Oppenheimer, William Bakun, and Allan Lindh had forecast a nearby earthquake in a just completed report, and this, they thought, might be it. 

  4. IDEOLOGIA E TRANSITIVIDADE NO DISCURSO DO PAPA FRANCISCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Nicéas Nascimento (UFPE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artigo tem como objetivo principal apresentar uma análise dos Processos mentais presentes nos pronunciamentos do Papa Francisco proferidos durante a Jornada Mundial da Juventude 2013. Nossa pesquisa fundamentou-se na Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional, na sua concepção da língua como atividade social, e na Análise Crítica do Discurso. Observamos o sistema de transitividade e os diversos processos verbais, bem como os aspectos ideológicos que permearam os pronunciamentos analisados. Os resultados obtidos nos possibilitam perceber que os processos mentais analisados são, nos pronunciamentos do Papa Francisco, corresponsáveis pela construção da argumentação e do sentido e indicam a maneira como a Igreja Católica sustenta suas relações de poder.

  5. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  6. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  7. CONVERSATORIO CON EL PROFESOR DANIEL FRANCISCO JARAMILLO JARAMILLO

    OpenAIRE

    VICTOR IGNACIO LÓPEZ RÍOS

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo es ingeniero agronomo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, especialista de Fotointerpretacion aplicada a estudios de suelos, Magister en Suelos y Aguas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Palmira. Ha participado como reconocedor de suelos en levantamientos realizados en varias regiones de los departamentos de Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila. Caldas y La Guajira, y desde hace 35 años esta dedicado a la docencia, en pregr...

  8. Back to the Rio São Francisco valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the Fourth French-Brazilian itinerant seminar, “Cities and river in the history of Brazil: Rio São Francisco”, the text revisits articles published in 1978, 1980 and 1981, illustrated with 1977 photographs and new maps. Though often portrayed as one of the most promising regions in Brazil, and despite having been object, for the last seventy years, of various development projects, the São Francisco valley remains one of the most underdeveloped areas of the country. The history of its occupation partly accounts for this situation, as the São Francisco is the river of the sertão. The various attempts at reclaiming the region, since 1946, are due to various motives, some of them political, but they are also due to a mythical view of the São Francisco as being the “river of national unity”. From 1948 to 1967, the CVSF was rather unsuccessful, probably given too many tasks to carry out. Since 1967, the Suvale and then the Codevasf have focused their action on a few areas in which their main activity is irrigation, but the needs of hydroelectric-power threatens its development. The competition for water therefore makes it necessary to reappraise the future of the valley, gradually integrated into the economy of Brazil’s coastal regions.

  9. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  10. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  11. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  12. Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Veiga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

  13. La pena de muerte según Francisco de Vitoria

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez, Niceto

    1989-01-01

    Francisco de Vitoria defendió la licitud moral de la pena de muerte como castigo jurídico impuesto por la suprema autoridad del Estado contra determinados delincuentes, lo que plantea un problema serio desde el punto de vista de la defensa de los derechos fundamentales del hombre, entre los cuales hay que destacar el primero y más fundamental, cual es el derecho a la propia vida. El maestro de Salamanca sigue sin ninguna reserva la tesis de Santo Tomás, para cuya defensa añade algunos razonam...

  14. Francisco Giner de los Ríos en el campo.

    OpenAIRE

    Anónimo (siglo XX)

    2010-01-01

    1 fot.; papel. - Hombre mayor sentado en campo.Francisco Giner de los Rios, filósofo, ensayista y pedagogo. Fundador y director de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza. (Emulsión de plata de ennegrecimiento directo montada sobre cartulina del mismo tamaño. Imagen muy arrugada y dañada en márgenes. Pequeña pérdida de materia en centro de lateral derecho. Imagen amarillenta y desvanecida). - Procedencia: fondo Miguel de Unamuno. - Buena Conservación.

  15. Proyecto Desarrollo del Sitio Web Biblioteca Perito Francisco P. Moreno

    OpenAIRE

    Coali, Catalina Beatriz

    2005-01-01

    Project presented as final work at the Curso de Especialización en Gestión de Unidades de Información (Specialization Course in Units of Information Management), organized by the Dirección Nacional del Sistema Nacional de Capacitación of the Instituto Nacional de la Administración Pública, in which participated the main libraries of the national public sector. In the frame of the project to reform the Administración de Parques Nacionales’ web site in behalf of the library Perito Francisco P. ...

  16. Proceedings of the Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research Symposium: February 4-6, 2004, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Tierney; Deborah J. (Tech. coords.) Chavez

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research (SARR) Symposium was held February 4-6, 2004 in San Francisco, California at the Presidio of San Francisco, a component of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and at San Francisco State University. The theme was: Linking People to the Outdoors: Connections for Healthy Lands, People and Communities.

  17. 77 FR 49865 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Francisco Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4331 et seq.), the Council on...) for the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC) Long Range Development Plan (LRDP... Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121 or by telephone...

  18. Characteristics of AA amyloidosis patients in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejmi, Hiba; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Olson, Jean L; James, Sam H; Sam, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    AA amyloidosis due to subcutaneous injection of drugs of abuse has been described in the USA, but all the existing literature is from more than 20 years ago. There is more recent literature from Europe. We have observed a high incidence of AA amyloidosis in the county hospital in San Francisco. Here, we describe 24 patients who had kidney biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis from our hospital from 1998 to 2013. All the patients were thought to have AA amyloidosis from skin popping of illicit drugs after having exhausted the intravenous route. These patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis were analysed further. All patients were found to have hepatitis C infection, hypertension was not common, most had advanced kidney failure, and acidosis was common as was tubulointerstitial involvement on the kidney biopsy. Other organ involvement included hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in a number of patients; direct myocardial involvement was not seen, but pulmonary hypertension, history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were common. The prognosis of these patients was poor. The mortality rate approached 50% 1 year after biopsy, and most of the patient needed dialysis shortly after diagnosis. Cessation of drug use seemed beneficial but rarely achievable. AA amyloidosis from skin popping is common in San Francisco. Most patients with renal involvement end up on dialysis, and mortality rates are exceedingly high. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. SÈNECA, L. A.: Tragèdies, edició crítica de Tomàs Martínez Romero, 2 volums, Barcelona, Barcino, 1995 («Els Nostres Clàssics», Col.lecció B, núm. 14-15)

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol i Gómez, Josep

    1998-01-01

    Obra ressenyada: L. A. SÈNECA; edició crítica de Tomàs MARTÍNEZ ROMERO, Tragèdies. Barcelona: Barcino, 1995. Tomàs Martínez fa una edició crítica de les traduccions catalanes medievals de les següents tragèdies de Sèneca: 'Hercules furens', 'Thyestes', 'Thebais (Phoenissiae)', 'Hippolytus (Phaedra)' 'Oedipus', 'Troades', 'Medea' i 'Agamemnon'. A banda de l'edició, tracta qüestions com la difusió tardomedieval de Sèneca a la corona d'Aragó, la bibliografia sobre la diversitat dels mètodes d...

  20. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  1. Rocks and geology in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the San Francisco Bay region is host to a greater variety of rocks than most other regions in the United States. This introductory guide provides illustrated descriptions of 46 common and important varieties of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock found in the region. Rock types are described in context of their identification qualities, how they form, and where they occur in the region. The guide also provides discussion about of regional geology, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, the significance of the selected rock types in relation to both earth history and the impact of mineral resources on the development in the region. Maps and text also provide information where rocks, fossils, and geologic features can be visited on public lands or in association with public displays in regional museums, park visitor centers, and other public facilities.

  2. Las ideas y la obra de Francisco Pascasio Moreno

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardi, Alberto Carlos

    1989-01-01

    Francisco Pascasio Moreno consagró su vida a servir a la Patria, según su propia definición. Felices aquéllos que, inspirados por altos ideales, los ejecutan en una misión de servicio para contribuir a que los demás seamos mejores. En tal sentido Moreno es un paradigma para todos los argentinos, de hoy y de siempre. Creyó, pensó, actuó, superó tremendas dificultades con voluntad y convicción férreas, y nos legó sus obras, sus ideas y su ejemplo. Fue un auténtico, creativo e inspirado héroe ci...

  3. El doctor Francisco Guerra, bibliófilo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Mariana, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Biografía del doctor Francisco Guerra, médico y uno de los bibliófilos más representativos de comienzos del s. XXI, poseedor de una importantísima biblioteca, donada por decisión propia, en el año 2006 a la Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense. La biblioteca está compuesta por más de 4000 impresos y manuscritos de una variada seleccion de títulos humanísticos y científicos: clásicos griegos, romanos y españoles, clásicos de economía, descubrimiento de América, crónicas españolas...

  4. Francisco de Goya: tres cuadros, tres épocas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnáiz, José Manuel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The author publishes three works in his opinion belonging to three periods of Goya's activity: The first one The Death of San Francisco Javier is the definitive version based on the "bozetto" now in the Zaragoza Museum which derives from a drawing and canvass by the italian painter Bertucci. The second is The Portrait of Child Pedro Jordan de Urríes, heir of the Marquesado de Ayerbe, as first boom of one of the most aristocratic and rich families of Zaragoza. The third work is a sketch for The Tribunal of the Inquisición now in the Academy of San Fernando with remarkable differences, which raises again the problem of the series of small panels in the Munich Museum. The author includes interesting letters addressed by Matheron to Valentin Carderera asking information about Goya, and reproduce the original text of Goya's letter to Zapater dated of 15th. April 1777, until now homeless.No disponible

  5. Wave attenuation across a tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Martinez, Madeline R.; Lacy, Jessica; Ferner, Matthew C.; Variano, Evan A.

    2018-01-01

    Wave attenuation is a central process in the mechanics of a healthy salt marsh. Understanding how wave attenuation varies with vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions informs models of other marsh processes that are a function of wave energy (e.g. sediment transport) and allows for the incorporation of marshes into coastal protection plans. Here, we examine the evolution of wave height across a tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay. Instruments were deployed along a cross-shore transect, starting on the mudflat and crossing through zones dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia pacifica. This dataset is the first to quantify wave attenuation for these vegetation species, which are abundant in the intertidal zone of California estuaries. Measurements were collected in the summer and winter to assess seasonal variation in wave attenuation. Calculated drag coefficients of S. foliosa and S. pacifica were similar, indicating equal amounts of vegetation would lead to similar energy dissipation; however, S. pacifica has much greater biomass close to the bed (<20 cm) and retains biomass throughout the year, and therefore, it causes more total attenuation. S. foliosa dies back in the winter, and waves often grow across this section of the marsh. For both vegetation types, attenuation was greatest for low water depths, when the vegetation was emergent. For both seasons, attenuation rates across S. pacifica were the highest and were greater than published attenuation rates across similar (Spartina alterniflora) salt marshes for the comparable depths. These results can inform designs for marsh restorations and management plans in San Francisco Bay and other estuaries containing these species.

  6. Al margen de las Obras de Francisco de la Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Abadín Barro, Soledad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de la Torre's Works, published by Quevedo in 1631, enclose a second part, described in later years as an «appendix», with translations that did not belong in the original project prepared by the author some decades before. The summary of the 1588 license for printing describes the work's content as «lyric and adonic verse, and bucolic», without mentioning the translations. The new date throws into question the participation of Almeida and Brocense in the preparation and transmission of the manuscript that came to Quevedo. Therefore, the volume of 1631 cannot be considered as an example of salmantin group's collective poetical essay. Related chronological considerations also throw new light on the relationship between the author and Fernando de Herrera.Las Obras de Francisco de la Torre, publicadas por Quevedo en 1631, incluyen una segunda parte, que más tarde se llamaría «apéndice», con traducciones ajenas al proyecto inicial preparado por el propio autor décadas antes. El sumario de la licencia de impresión de 1588 describe el contenido de la obra aprobada como «los versos líricos y adónicos y la bucólica», sin mencionar las traducciones. La nueva fecha lleva a cuestionar el protagonismo de Almeida y el Brócense en la preparación y transmisión del manuscrito que más tarde llegaría a Quevedo. El volumen de 1631, por lo tanto, no puede considerarse como un exponente de un ejercicio poético colectivo del círculo salmantino. Los datos cronológicos también permiten replantear la relación del autor con Fernando de Herrera.

  7. Francisco Giralte y el sepulcro del obispo Gutierre de Carvajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasallo Toranzo, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high valuation placed on the tomb of Bishop Gutierre de Carvajal, sculpted by Francisco de Giralte, resulted in a lawsuit for which the most important artists from Toledo, Alcalá and Madrid were called to testify. Their testimonies, made during the crucial moment when Berruguete died and the court arrived at Madrid are very useful for understanding the artistic appreciation of a work. Thus, relevant artists of the period –Pompeyo Leoni, Nicolás Vergara el Viejo, Jácome Trezo or Juan Bautista de Toledo– attested to the perfect technique, the beauty of the carving, the multiplicity of personages represented next to the dead Bishop, and the wish to achieve their portrait likenesses.La alta tasación alcanzada por el sepulcro del obispo Gutierre de Carvajal, obra de Francisco Giralte, motivó un pleito al que fueron llamados los principales artistas de Toledo, Alcalá y Madrid. Sus testimonios, realizados en el crucial momento en que se produjo la muerte de Berruguete y llegó la corte a Madrid, son muy útiles para conocer la estimación artística de una obra, de la que personajes como Pompeyo Leoni, Nicolás de Vergara el Viejo, Jácome Trezo o Juan Bautista de Toledo ponderaron la perfección técnica, la belleza de su talla, la multiplicación de personajes representados junto al finado y la voluntad retratística presente en todos ellos.

  8. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters, 1969-1976 (NODC Accession 8400194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One magnetic tape containing the physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters was forwarded to NODC by Mr. Richard Smith of the U.S Geological Survey...

  9. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  10. San Francisco urban partnership agreement, national evaluation : content analysis test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing information on outreach activities, media coverage, : and reactions of the public, policy makers, and other groups to the UPA projects for the San Francisco Urban : Partnership Agreement...

  11. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  12. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  13. Francisco de Valderrama, verdadero autor de las mazas del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Márquez, Antonio Joaquín

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author reveals the true creator of the maces of Seville Town Hall, Francisco de Valderrama, a rediscovered silversmith about whom new biographical data is offered. Also included is a detailed study of these civic maces (traditionally attributed erroneously to Francisco de Alfaro, key works of Sevillian Mannerism.

    En este artículo se da a conocer el verdadero autor de las mazas del ayuntamiento de Sevilla, Francisco de Valderrama, orfebre redescubierto del que además aportamos nuevos datos biográficos. Asimismo, hacemos un estudio pormenorizado de estas mazas capitulares, obra clave de la plástica manierista sevillana y que tradicionalmente había sido atribuida erróneamente a Francisco de Alfaro.

  14. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  15. Records of contaminant input to San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geen, A. van; Luoma, S.N.; Hornberger, M.; Fuller, C.; Pereira, W.; Hostettler, F.; Kvenvolden, K.; Anima, R.; Ritson, P.; Flegal, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the few large estuaries on the West Coast of North America, was subjected to great change as mining, agriculture, industrialization and urbanization accelerated after 1849, and river flows were diverted for agriculture. Trends in contamination were evident in sediment cores analyzed from seven sites. Sedimentation rates increased with human activities. Industrialization was a greater source of contamination than mining. Nearest the mouth of the estuary, concentrations of Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and PAH began to increase around 1900. Isotopes of Pb indicated sediments were affected by a mixture of atmospheric, industrial and erosional inputs. Peaks in some contaminants were evident since the 1950s, notably Ag, Cd in water (as recorded in foraminifers tests), and DDT. Chromium and vanadium were naturally enriched throughout the cores. Declines in metal concentrations in surface sediments were not evident. Vertical mixing could delay response of sediments to changed metal inputs. Nearer the head of the estuary, contaminant concentrations, TOC and indicators of terrigenous carbon increased sharply where 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu was present (presumably post-1950). Diversion of river flows may have affected accumulation of sediments contaminated by post-war industrialization and acceleration of agricultural development

  16. La pena de muerte según Francisco de Vitoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niceto BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Vitoria defendió la licitud moral de la pena de muerte como castigo jurídico impuesto por la suprema autoridad del Estado contra determinados delincuentes, lo que plantea un problema serio desde el punto de vista de la defensa de los derechos fundamentales del hombre, entre los cuales hay que destacar el primero y más fundamental, cual es el derecho a la propia vida. El maestro de Salamanca sigue sin ninguna reserva la tesis de Santo Tomás, para cuya defensa añade algunos razonamientos apologéticos sobre los cuales me propongo hacer algunas reflexiones críticas. Vitoria plantea el problema siguiendo el orden riguroso de la Suma Teológica, pero teniendo en cuenta el contexto sociológico, religioso y cultural de su tiempo, lo que le lleva a discutir directamente con protestantes y escotistas, frente a los cuales trata de justificar el pensamiento tomasiano sobre la pena capital por parte del estado.

  17. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  18. São Francisco e os caminhos da pedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Faria Góis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da pedra, no período colonial, limitou-se bastante, em termos locais, à alvenaria e à cantaria, mas também ocorreu seu emprego como material, delimitado, em geral, às obras escultóricas complementares da arquitetura. Uma valorização e ampliação desse limite verificou-se com o lioz, assim como, mais especificamente, em Salvador, com o acréscimo de outros tipos de pedra, igualmente lusitanos e participantes da decoração ambiental. Essa contribuição tem, no conjunto conventual de São Francisco, uma interessante variedade de exemplos, por nós abordada no presente artigo, sendo nosso objetivo indicar dados mais específicos para o exame de um percurso histórico. Partindo do ambiente europeu – não circunscrito à metrópole portuguesa, mas a essa interligado –, tal percurso se reveste do caráter universal que honrosamente nos inclui, dando-nos a oportunidade de avaliar a dimensão cultural e a tradição técnica de obras que enriquecem nosso acervo.

  19. La potestad tributaria en Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Amezúa Amezúa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Suárez es el teólogo más relevante de la escuela española de derecho natural o Escuela de Salamanca en sentido amplio. Según piensa, el derecho de imponer tributos justos reside en exclusiva en la autoridad suprema, sin necesitar el consentimiento de las Cortes. El Estado tiene ese poder de establecer leyes tributarias para asegurar la paz, el orden y el buen gobierno de la comunidad. Es el poder más importante entre todas las facultades propias de la soberanía, pero debe respetar las exigencias de un impuesto justo: además de la autoridad legítima, una causa justa y distribución proporcional. En este artículo, desarrollaremos la doctrina de Suárez, su interpretación acerca de la duda probable sobre la injusticia del impuesto, y su aceptación de los impuestos sobre el consumo. Todos estos razonamientos iban dirigidos a fortalecer al gobernante, que debe actuar dentro de un marco ético respetuoso con el bien común.

  20. Los diálogos lucianescos de Francisco Sobrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Arribas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1708, el impresor François Foppens publica en Bruselas los Dialogues Nouveaux [...] de Francisco Sobrino, un oficial reformado y maestro de Corte que plagia, incrementándola, la colección de César Oudin (Dialogos muy apazibles [...] Marc Orry, 1608, quien a su vez había hecho lo propio con los siete de John Minsheu (Pleasant and Delightfull Dialogues, Londres, 1599 en una de la líneas editoriales más importantes, paralela a la de otras constelaciones (como la inaugurada por Noel de Berlaimont de la riquísima tradición paneuropea de coloquios didácticos creados para dar muestras de conversacionalidad a quienes desearan aprender segundas lenguas. De los seis diálogos originales de Sobrino, cuatro son fantasiosos y de éstos, hay tres lucianescos en el sentido de que usan la ‘estrategia de Luciano’ pues sus interlocutores son personajes muertos (Mahoma, Colón, Moctezuma, etc.. Será trazado aquí un análisis de las características de los mismos, con especial atención a los componentes didácticos e ideológicos.

  1. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  2. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  3. Convocando os hermeneutas da república iletrada: o prêmio Francisco Alves - Gathering the hermenauts of illiterate’s republic: the prize Francisco Alves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto da Silva Monarcha, Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de estudos e pesquisas centrados no Prêmio Francisco Alves, instituído pela Academia Brasileira de Letras sob a denominação de O melhor meio de disseminar o ensino primário no Brasil. A pesquisa básica localizou, recuperou e analisou inúmeros artigos e notas publicados na Revista da Academia Brasileira de Letras e, posteriormente, monografias premiadas de intelectuais expressivos: Marques Pinheiro, Jorge Augusto Büchler, Pedro Deodato de Moraes, Achilles Lisboa, Manoel Bomfim e Sud Mennucci. Conclui-se que, durante a sua vigência, o Prêmio Francisco Alves funcionou como convocatória quinquenal dos intelectuais dispostos a pensar e dar a conhecer as possibilidades de outro futuro para o Brasil, pela via da instrução popular disseminada.  Palavras-chave: prêmio Francisco Alves, Academia Brasileira de Letras, escola elementar, instrução popular.GATHERING THE HERMENAUTS OF ILLITERATE’S REPUBLIC: THE PRIZE FRANCISCO ALVESAbstractThis article presents results of studies and researches focused in the Prize Francisco Alves, instituted by Academia Brasileira de Letras under the name The best way to disseminate primary education in Brazil, besides it addresses the origin and trajectory of the prize. The basic research found, recovered, and analyzed several articles and notes published in Revista da Academia Brasileira de Letras and, posteriorly, different prizewinning monographs, of several expressive intellectuals: Marques Pinheiro, Jorge Augusto Büchler, Pedro Deodato de Moraes, Achilles Lisboa, Manoel Bomfim, and Sud Mennucci. It concludes that, during its terms, the prize Francisco Alves worked as a quinquennial call for the intellectuals willing to think and know the possibilities of another future for Brazil, via dissemination of popular instruction.Key-words: Prize Francisco Alves, Brazilian Academy of Letters, elementary school, popular instruction.CONVOCANDO A LOS HERMENÉUTICOS DE LA REP

  4. Edificio para ambulatorio San Francisco – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid, John Lyon

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The 50,470 m2 the total area of the hospital is distributed as follows: 18,900 m2 for the 22 main clinics and for the additional clinics; 2,770 m2 for complementary activities; and the remaining 28,800 m2 for a parking lot with space for 700 cars. The building occupies a site that slopes strongly towards the north across which runs the pedestrian access from one of the circumference roads to the main façade; the access road for the vehicles leads to the back facade, where the natural slope of the ground has been taken advantage of to build the 5 storey parking building. The two main functions —the clinics and the parking house— are conveniently separated though connected with each other by means of corridors and lifts. The interior design of the clinics is very flexible so as to allow for further enlargements. The patients' waiting rooms are provided with a glazed façade and have a beautiful view over the San Francisco Bay and its surroundings. The construction is entirely of concrete and its structure is calculated ín such a manner as to allow for two additional storeys.Cuenta con una superficie total construida de 50.470 m2, repartidos de la siguiente forma: 18.900 se destinan a la distribución de 22 clínicas principales y otras secundarias; 2.770 a locales de actividades complementarias; y el resto, 28.800 m2, a aparcamiento con capacidad para 700 plazas. El edificio ocupa una parcela fuertemente inclinada hacia el norte, inclinación que permite el acceso peatonal a la clínica, por la fachada principal, desde una de las avenidas perimetrales; y el vehicular, por la fachada posterior, en donde, aprovechando el desnivel del terreno, se han organizado las cinco plantas del aparcamiento. Las dos funciones principales —clínicas y aparcamiento— se hallan convenientemente separadas, estableciéndose el enlace entre los distintos niveles mediante ascensores que relacionan las clínicas, el centro médico, los aparcamientos

  5. Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use in Homeless Youth: A Preliminary Comparison of San Francisco and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernika G. Quimby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18–24 years-old in San Francisco (N = 31 and Chicago (N = 56. Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  6. A Summary of the San Francisco Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  7. The construction of a revitalization program for the São Francisco River watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Antonio Thomaz da Mata

    2008-01-01

    A construção de um Programa de Revitalização da bacia do Rio São Francisco está em curso. Um decreto presidencial de 2001 e os Planos de Recursos Hídricos das bacias dos rios São Francisco e Velhas introduziram critérios e conceitos inovadores na definição de propostas para a recuperação hidroambiental de bacias hidrográficas. A polêmica em torno das obras de transposição de águas do Rio São Francisco e da implementação da lei das águas na bacia determina o processo de construção do programa....

  8. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary AGENCY... the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Bay Delta Estuary) in California. EPA is... programs to address recent significant declines in multiple aquatic species in the Bay Delta Estuary. EPA...

  9. 77 FR 32716 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two...: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $149.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  10. 76 FR 17752 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the San Francisco Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4331 et seq.), the Council on Environmental... the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC) Institutional Master Plan AGENCY...: Comments should be addressed to John Pechman, Facility Planner, San Francisco VA Medical Center (001), 4150...

  11. Health, Traffic, and Environmental Justice: Collaborative Research and Community Action in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammas, Charlie; Seto, Edmund; Bhatia, Rajiv; Rivard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Health impacts on neighborhood residents from transportation systems can be an environmental justice issue. To assess the effects of transportation planning decisions, including the construction of an intraurban freeway, on residents of the Excelsior neighborhood in southeast San Francisco, PODER (People Organizing to Demand Environmental and Economic Rights), a local grassroots environmental justice organization; the San Francisco Department of Public Health; and the University of California, Berkeley, collaborated on participatory research. We used our findings regarding traffic-related exposures and health hazards in the area to facilitate community education and action to address transportation-related health burdens on neighborhood residents. PMID:19890147

  12. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  13. Anthropogenic influences on shoreline and nearshore evolution in the San Francisco Bay coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, K.L.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of four historical bathymetric surveys over a 132-year period has revealed significant changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar, an ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay estuary. From 1873 to 2005 the San Francisco Bar vertically-eroded an average of 80 cm over a 125 km2 area, which equates to a total volume loss of 100 ± 52 million m3 of fine- to coarse-grained sand. Comparison of the surveys indicates the entire ebb-tidal delta contracted radially, with the crest moving landward an average of 1 km. Long-term erosion of the ebb-tidal delta is hypothesized to be due to a reduction in the tidal prism of San Francisco Bay and a decrease in coastal sediment supply, both as a result of anthropogenic activities. Prior research indicates that the tidal prism of the estuary was reduced by 9% from filling, diking, and sedimentation. Compilation of historical records dating back to 1900 reveals that a minimum of 200 million m3 of sediment has been permanently removed from the San Francisco Bay coastal system through dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining. Of this total, ~54 million m3 of sand-sized or coarser sediment was removed from central San Francisco Bay. With grain sizes comparable to the ebb-tidal delta, and its direct connection to the bay mouth, removal of sediments from central San Francisco Bay may limit the sand supply to the delta and open coast beaches. SWAN wave modeling illustrates that changes to the morphology of the San Francisco Bar have altered the alongshore wave energy distribution at adjacent Ocean Beach, and thus may be a significant factor in a persistent beach erosion ‘hot spot’ occurring in the area. Shoreline change analyses show that the sandy shoreline in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta experienced long-term (1850s/1890s to 2002) and short-term (1960s/1980s to 2002) accretion while the adjacent sandy shoreline exposed to open-ocean waves experienced long-term and short-term erosion. Therefore

  14. City College of San Francisco 1997 Sexual Harassment Student Opinion Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA. Office of Institutional Research, Planning and Grants.

    This document describes the findings of a 1997 sexual harassment student opinion survey conducted at City College of San Francisco. Survey questions were jointly developed by the Sexual Harassment Prevention Sub-Committee of the Diversity Advisory Committee and the Office of Research and Planning, approved by the College Advisory Council, and…

  15. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters..., California. 165.1192 Section 165.1192 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport...

  16. Stratigraphical analysis of the neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Mariela; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2007-01-01

    A stratigraphic analysis was performed under the principles of Sequence Stratigraphy on the neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences of the Sao Francisco Basin (Central Brazil). Three periods of deposition separated by unconformities were recognized in the Sao Francisco Megasequence: (1) Sequences 1 and 2, a cryogenian glaciogenic sequence, followed by a distal scarp carbonate ramp, developed during stable conditions, (2) Sequence 3, a Upper Cryogenian stack homoclinal ramps with mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation, deposited under a progressive influence of compressional stresses of the Brasiliano Cycle, (3) Sequence 4, a Lower Ediacaran shallow platform dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation of molassic nature, the erosion product of the nearby uplifted thrust sheets. Each of the carbonate-bearing sequences presents a distinct δ 13 C isotopic signature. The superposition to the global curve for carbon isotopic variation allowed the recognition of a major depositional hiatus between the Paranoa and Sao Francisco Megasequences, and suggested that the glacial diamictite deposition (Jequitai Formation) took place most probably around 800 Ma. This constrains the Sao Francisco Megasequence deposition to the interval between 800 and 600 Ma (the known ages of the Brasiliano Orogeny defines the upper limit). A minor depositional hiatus (700.680 Ma) was also identified separating sequences 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses suggest that from then on, more restricted environmental conditions were established in the basin, probably associated with a first order global event, which prevailed throughout deposition of the Sequence 3. (author)

  17. 33 CFR 165.1190 - Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. 165.1190 Section 165.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1190 Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: All navigable waters of the Oakland Estuary, California, from the surface to...

  18. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas...

  19. 76 FR 55261 - Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht. This temporary safety zone is established to ensure the safety of... Events will sponsor the Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht on September 17, 2011, in the navigable...

  20. The Quality Teacher and Education Act in San Francisco: Lessons Learned. Policy Brief 09-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather J.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief reviews the recent experience of the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) with the development and approval of Proposition A. Proposition A (also known as the Quality Teacher and Education Act, or QTEA) included a parcel tax mainly dedicated to increasing teachers' salaries, along with a variety of measures introducing…

  1. Dogs Are Talking: San Francisco's social marketing campaign to increase syphilis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Sally C; Bernstein, Kyle T; McCright, Jacqueline E; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-03-01

    To promote regular syphilis testing among men who have sex with men in San Francisco, a social marketing campaign, Dogs Are Talking, was created. An evaluation of the campaign found no difference in syphilis testing among men who recalled the campaign and those that did not. A significant difference was seen among HIV-infected men.

  2. Making Whites from the Dark Side: Teaching Whiteness Studies at San Francisco State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Amy

    2013-01-01

    While whiteness studies at most institutions aims to expose the persistence of white supremacy to a disbelieving audience, whiteness studies within the College of Ethnic Studies (COES) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) begins with the assumption that racism still exists. The course then traces how whiteness is constructed and fortified to…

  3. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast... America's Cup races. This safety zone and no loitering area are established to enhance the safety of spectators and mariners near the north east corner of the America's Cup regulated area. All persons or...

  4. Travel and Tourism Industry: Program Options for City College of San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    In an effort to determine the current occupational outlook and resulting implications for education and training, the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, undertook a study of current trends in the travel and tourism industry. This report provides findings from the project, which involved consultation with local and national…

  5. Realizing a Progressive Pedagogy: A Comparative Case Study of Two Reggio Emilia Preschools in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Marwa

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to uncover how a particular imported philosophy of early childhood education, Reggio Emilia, is implemented in the context of one public and one private preschool in San Francisco. The philosophy of Reggio Emilia is believed to be progressive and to be developmentally appropriate for children in early childhood. The study involved…

  6. Communications and Collaboration Keep San Francisco VA Medical Center Project on Track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-01-01

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities

  7. CAREER TRAINING IN HOTEL AND RESTAURANT OPERATION...AT CITY COLLEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BATMALE, LOUIS F.; MULLANY, GEORGE G.

    THE HOTEL AND RESTAURANT PROGRAM, ONE OF 35 SEMIPROFESSIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMS AT CITY COLLEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO, COMBINES GENERAL EDUCATION, RELATED BUSINESS INSTRUCTION, HOTEL AND RESTAURANT CLASSES, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE TRAINING, AND WORK EXPERIENCE. THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM INCLUDES (1) PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES, (2) CURRICULUM,…

  8. 78 FR 75249 - Safety Zone: Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, Alameda, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, Alameda, CA AGENCY: Coast... Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Displays on December 7, 2013 and December 14, 2013. These safety zones... Coast Guard to establish safety zones. Google will sponsor the Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Displays...

  9. 77 FR 43161 - Special Local Regulation; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleetweek Parade of Ships and Blue Angels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    .... 3. Privacy Act Anyone can search the electronic form of comments received into any of our dockets by... tactical coxswains from Sector San Francisco's boat stations, has led the Coast Guard to determine that a...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay - 1998, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay, California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  12. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  13. Uudised : Neeme Järvi San Franciscos. Tõnis Mägi Moskvas. TMKK Norras ja Ungaris / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    N. Järvi juhatab San Francisco Ooperis Rimski-Korsakovi ooperit "Tsaari mõrsja", esietendus 11. sept. T. Mägi esines 1. sept. Eesti Suursaatkonnas Moskvas. TMKK Kammerkoori kontsertreisidest Norrasse ja Ungarisse

  14. Precarious City: Marginal Workers, The State, And Working-Class Activism In Post-Industrial San Francisco, 1964-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laura Renata

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the effects of San Francisco's transition from an industrial to a post-industrial economy on the city's social movements between 1964 and 1979. I re-contextualize the city's Black freedom, feminist, and gay and transgender liberation movements as struggles over the changing nature of urban working-class life and labor in the postwar period. I argue that as San Francisco was increasingly emptied of its white ethnic industrial work force, working-class life became more...

  15. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  16. Francisco Guerra (1916-2011), medical historian for the world and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2012-06-01

    This brief celebration of the work of Francisco Guerra (1916-2011) highlights his role as mentor for an international community, his study of local events in the context of global developments, and his contributions to the understanding of the medical history of Puerto Rico. A selective review of Francisco Guerra's methods and publications shows that his principal works are characterized by their vast scope and exhaustive coverage of ancient and modern published sources, coupled with clarity and conciseness of exposition. At least eight of his books (presented here) provide important information on events and personalities in Puerto Rico up to about 1940. Guerra, through his clinical experience, profound scholarship, and personal contacts, recovered the local medical developments of peripheral areas and incorporated them to a global context.

  17. [Historical notes on Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz in Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    The Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, is the oldest in Latin America. It is over 100 years old and has a history worthy of pride. It became known as "Hospital of the pests" and was preceded by the old House of Insulation, which served as a quarantine station during epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and smallpox. The new House of Insulation, built in the neighborhood of Parque Patricios ("Barracks Hospital"), was renamed in 1904 in memory of Francisco Javier Muñiz, a former military doctor, naturalist and paleontologist. Its technical name is "Porteño Care Centre and National Reference Regional Infectious-Contagious Disease". It receives numerous national and foreign undergraduate and postgraduate students in its Departments of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Diseases.

  18. Surveillance for previously unmonitored organic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Daniel R; Jarman, Walter M; Lowe, Theresa; David, Nicole; Lowe, Sarah; Davis, Jay A

    2003-09-01

    The San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program initiated surveillance monitoring to identify previously unmonitored synthetic organic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary. Organic extracts of water samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. The major contaminant classes identified in the samples were fire retardants, pesticides, personal care product ingredients, and plasticizers. Evidence from the literature suggests that some of these contaminants can persist in the environment, induce toxicity, and accumulate in marine biota and in higher food chain consumers. The major sources of these contaminants into the marine environment are the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater effluents, urban stormwater, and agricultural runoff. As a proactive effort, it is suggested that surveillance studies be used routinely in monitoring programs to identify and prevent potential problem contaminants from harming the marine environment.

  19. Earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.; Wong, Florence L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.0 in the greater San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two earthquakes magnitude 5.0 and greater are indicated on the map and listed chronologically in an accompanying table. The data are compiled from records from 1970-2003. The bathymetry was generated from a digital version of NOAA maps and hydrogeographic data for San Francisco Bay. Elevation data are from the USGS National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from seven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes. Fault data are reproduced with permission from the California Geological Survey. The earthquake data are from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog.

  20. The geotectonic evolution of southern part of Sao Francisco Craton, based in geochronologic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available radiometric data from poly metamorphic terranes of southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton demonstrates the importance of geochronology as a tool in the study of ancient crustal evolution. In addition, radiometric study of basic intrusive magmatism helps define the most important epochs of crustal rifting during the Proterozoic. The definition of the southern border of the cratonic area based on distinctive age patterns of the geochronological provinces is also discussed. Finally, the geochronologic evolution of the Bambui platform cover is presented. Approximately 250 radiometric age determinations (Rb-Sr, K-Ar and Pb-Pb methods) were interpreted principally through the use of iso chronic diagrams. The geologic history tectonomagnetic events identified in this study is compared to the crustal evolution of similar segments of the Sao Francisco Craton and elsewhere. (author)

  1. Migration and HIV Risk Among Men Who Have Sex With Men, San Francisco, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, T T; Sudhinaraset, M; McFarland, W; Raymond, H F

    2015-12-01

    In San Francisco, MSM account for nearly 90% of HIV infections. Studies have postulated increased risk for HIV faced by MSM who migrate, particularly to urban environments, yet empirical data are lacking. In this study we analyzed data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System collected in 2011 to ascertain whether nativity (U.S. versus foreign born) was associated with HIV prevalence, risk behavior, and service use. Among 510 MSM enrolled, HIV prevalence was 23.0%. Multivariable analyses demonstrate that while nativity was not associated with increased risk for HIV infection, those who had lived in San Francisco for more than five years had higher HIV prevalence compared to those who had lived for less than a year even after adjusting for age, race, income, education, and location of birth.

  2. Modified Mercalli intensities for some recent California earthquakes and historic San Francisco Bay Region earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) data for recent California earthquakes were used by Bakun and Wentworth (1997) to develop a strategy for bounding the location and moment magnitude M of earthquakes from MMI observations only. Bakun (Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., submitted) used the Bakun and Wentworth (1997) strategy to analyze 19th century and early 20th century San Francisco Bay Region earthquakes. The MMI data and site corrections used in these studies are listed in this Open-file Report. 

  3. Religiosidad e identidad en San Francisco de Campeche. Siglos XVI y XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Rocher Salas, Adriana Delfina

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the problems concomitant to the development of a common identity among the Spanish settlers of San Francisco de Campeche during the Colonial period, with focus on the role played by religious elements in the shaping of this identity – in particular, the cult to the saints. An analysis of factors such as the characteristics of the saints in the neighborhood and local associations; processes of cult adoption, adaptation or dismissal; as well as the participation of the ...

  4. Global Health Diplomacy, "San Francisco Values," and HIV/AIDS: From the Local to the Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    San Francisco has a distinguished history as a cosmopolitan, progressive, and international city, including extensive associations with global health. These circumstances have contributed to new, interdisciplinary scholarship in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). In the present review, we describe the evolution and history of GHD at the practical and theoretical levels within the San Francisco medical community, trace related associations between the local and the global, and propose a range of potential opportunities for further development of this dynamic field. We provide a historical overview of the development of the "San Francisco Model" of collaborative, community-owned HIV/AIDS treatment and care programs as pioneered under the "Ward 86" paradigm of the 1980s. We traced the expansion and evolution of this model to the national level under the Ryan White Care Act, and internationally via the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In parallel, we describe the evolution of global health diplomacy practices, from the local to the global, including the integration of GHD principles into intervention design to ensure social, political, and cultural acceptability and sensitivity. Global health programs, as informed by lessons learned from the San Francisco Model, are increasingly aligned with diplomatic principles and practices. This awareness has aided implementation, allowed policymakers to pursue related and progressive social and humanitarian issues in conjunction with medical responses, and elevated global health to the realm of "high politics." In the 21st century, the integration between diplomatic, medical, and global health practices will continue under "smart global health" and GHD paradigms. These approaches will enhance intervention cost-effectiveness by addressing and optimizing, in tandem with each other, a wide range of (health and non-health) foreign policy, diplomatic, security, and economic priorities in a synergistic manner

  5. Liminalidad social y negociación cultural: inmigrantes yucatecos en San Francisco, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Cornejo-Portugal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante los conceptos de liminalidad social y negociación cultural analizamos tres estudios de caso de yucatecos migrantes en San Francisco, California. Los migrantes estudiados dan cuenta de las diversas formas como utilizan los recursos sociales a los cuales tienen acceso (familiares, de creencia, de amistad y vecinales y que les permiten encontrar un equilibrio emocional relativo, frente a la tensión cultural de la sociedad destino.

  6. After the I-Hotel : Material, Cultural, and Affective Geographies of Filipino San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Tagle, Thea Quiray

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation traces the cultural and economic trajectories of Filipino migration to, settlement in, and displacement from the San Francisco Bay Area from the 1960s through the present moment as represented in the work of local poets, visual artists, and performers. After the I-Hotel argues that the shifting representations of urban and suburban space over this time period not only reveal the structural forces behind the displacement of old and new Filipino migrants in the Bay Area, but a...

  7. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. The tectonic evolution of Southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.

    1986-01-01

    The potentiality of geochronology when it is applied to the geologic context of craton basement of archean areas is shown. Samples from southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton, in Brazil, were collected for petrographic analysis and geochronological data interpretation. The set of radiometric determinations was obtained by K-Ar, Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Paleomagnetic investigation of late Quaternary sediments of south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.

    1977-01-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Quaternary sediments of South San Francisco Bay were determined from bore hole samples collected near Dumbarton Bridge. The sediments consist of estuarine muds and nonmarine sand deposits, floored by bedrock of the Mesozoic Franciscan Formation. - Beneath Dumbarton Bridge the entire sedimentary fill is normally polarized; therefore, the fill postdates the Brunhes-Matayama polarity reversal (700,000 y. B.P.). Magnetic time lines such as the Mono Lake excursion (24,000 y. B.P.) and the reversed Blake event (110,000 y B.P.) were not found in this bore hole. In addition to Holocene and modern deposits of San Francisco Bay, an older estuarine unit occurs in the stratigraphic section. The older unit was deposited during a period of high sea level, tentatively correlated with the Sangamon interglacial period. Because evidence of the Blake event is not present in the older estuarine unit, the proposed age of this unit could not be confirmed. Although the Holocene estuarine deposits of South San Francisco Bay carry stable remanent magnetization, a reliable record of geomagnetic secular variation could not be recovered because the water-saturated sdiment was deformed by drilling.

  10. Modeling Trace Element Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Estuary from Remote Measurement of Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended and dissolved trace elements are key determinants of water quality in estuarine and coastal waters. High concentrations of trace element pollutants in the San Francisco Bay estuary necessitate consistent and thorough monitoring to mitigate adverse effects on biological systems and the contamination of water and food resources. Although existing monitoring programs collect annual in situ samples from fixed locations, models proposed by Benoit, Kudela, & Flegal (2010) enable calculation of the water column total concentration (WCT) and the water column dissolved concentration (WCD) of 14 trace elements in the San Francisco Bay from a more frequently sampled metric—suspended solids concentration (SSC). This study tests the application of these models with SSC calculated from remote sensing data, with the aim of validating a tool for continuous synoptic monitoring of trace elements in the San Francisco Bay. Using HICO imagery, semi-analytical and empirical SSC algorithms were tested against a USGS dataset. A single-band method with statistically significant linear fit (p Arsenic, Iron, and Lead in the southern region of the Bay were found to exceed EPA water quality criteria for human health and aquatic life. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of monitoring programs using remote observation of trace element concentrations, and provide the foundation for investigation of pollutant sources and pathways over time.

  11. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Roxo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1 a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2 odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3 a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4 a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5 by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6 a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7 lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8 higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso.

  12. UCSF partnership to enrich science teaching for sixth graders in San Francisco's schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, H J

    1999-04-01

    Increasing the diversity of students entering the health professions is a challenging goal for medical schools. One approach to this goal is to share the enthusiasm and energy of medical students with younger students, who may pursue medical education in the future. The MedTeach program, established in 1989 and coordinated by the Science & Health Education Partnership of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), does so by partnering volunteer medical students from UCSF with sixth-grade classes studying the human body. In 1997-98, around 350 sixth-graders in the San Francisco Schools benefitted from the program. Each team of medical student's visits its class ten to 12 times a year to present engaging, hands-on lessons on body systems and health. The medical students are also role models for the middle-school students. In addition, the diverse student population of San Francisco public schools provides a rich environment for the medical students to improve their communication and teaching skills.

  13. Anthropogenic influence on recent bathymetric change in west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2010-01-01

    Two multibeam sonar surveys of west-central San Francisco Bay, California, were conducted in 1997 and 2008. Bathymetric change analysis between the two surveys indicates a loss of 14.1 million cubic meters (-3.1 cm/yr-1) of sediment during this time period, representing an approximately three-fold acceleration of the rate that was observed from prior depth change analysis from 1947 to 1979 for all of Central Bay, using more spatially coarse National Ocean Service (NOS) soundings. The portions of the overlapping survey areas between 1997 and 2008 designated as aggregate mining lease sites lost sediment at five times the rate of the remainder of west-central San Francisco Bay. Despite covering only 28% of the analysis area, volume change within leasing areas accounted for 9.2 million cubic meters of sediment loss, while the rest of the area lost 4.9 million cubic meters of sediment. The uncertainty of this recent analysis is more tightly constrained due to more stringent controls on vertical and horizontal position via tightly coupled, inertially aided differential Global Positioning Systems (GPS) solutions for survey vessel trajectory that virtually eliminate inaccuracies from traditional tide modeling and vessel motion artifacts. Further, quantification of systematic depth measurement error can now be calculated through comparison of static surfaces (e.g., bedrock) between surveys using seafloor habitat maps based on acoustic backscatter measurements and ground-truthing with grab samples and underwater video. Sediment loss in the entire San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half-century,as estimated from a series of bathymetric change studies, is 240 million cubic meters, and most of this is believed to be coarse sediment (i.e., sand and gravel) from Central Bay and the San Francisco Bar, which is likely to limit the sand supply to adjacent, open-coast beaches. This hypothesis is supported by a calibrated numerical model in a related study that indicates

  14. Waterbird nest monitoring program in San Francisco Bay (2005-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri), American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) were uncommon residents of San Francisco Bay, California (Grinnell and others, 1918; Grinnell and Wythe, 1927; Sibley, 1952). Presently, however, avocets and stilts are the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). More than 4,000 avocets and 1,000 stilts, roughly 20 percent of their San Francisco Bay wintering populations, breed within the estuary, making San Francisco Bay the largest breeding area for these species on the Pacific Coast (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). Forster’s Terns were first observed breeding in the San Francisco Bay in 1948 (110 nests); they had increased to over 4000 individuals by the 1980s (Sibley, 1952; Gill, 1977; Harvey and others, 1992; Carter and others, 1990) and were estimated at 2000–3000 for 1998–2002; (Strong and others, 2004).It is hypothesized that the relatively large size of the current waterbird breeding populations is a result of the creation of artificial salt evaporation ponds from the 1930s through the 1950s (Gill, 1977; Goals Project, 1999). Until recently, these salt ponds and associated islands used by waterbirds for nesting have been managed relatively similarly and have supported large breeding waterbird populations. Recently, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project has implemented plans to convert 50–90 percent of the 15,000 acres of salt ponds in the South San Francisco Bay back to tidal marsh habitat. Therefore, there is concern that the Restoration Project, while benefiting other native species, could negatively influence local breeding populations of waterbirds that are reliant on salt pond habitats for both breeding and foraging. A primary goal of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is to maintain current breeding waterbird populations (South Bay Salt Pond Long

  15. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Heavy or high-specific gravity minerals make up a small but diagnostic component of sediment that is well suited for determining the provenance and distribution of sediment transported through estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. By this means, we see that surficial sand-sized sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System comes primarily from the Sierra Nevada and associated terranes by way of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and is transported with little dilution through the San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate. Heavy minerals document a slight change from the strictly Sierran-Sacramento mineralogy at the confluence of the two rivers to a composition that includes minor amounts of chert and other Franciscan Complex components west of Carquinez Strait. Between Carquinez Strait and the San Francisco Bar, Sierran sediment is intermingled with Franciscan-modified Sierran sediment. The latter continues out the Gate and turns southward towards beaches of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Sierran sediment also fans out from the San Francisco Bar to merge with a Sierran province on the shelf in the Gulf of the Farallones. Beach-sand sized sediment from the Russian River is transported southward to Point Reyes where it spreads out to define a Franciscan sediment province on the shelf, but does not continue southward to contribute to the sediment in the Golden Gate area.

  16. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  17. Space use and habitat selection of migrant and resident American Avocets in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Scott A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Warnock, N.; Athearn, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is a wintering area for shorebirds, including American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana). Recently, a new resident population of avocets has emerged, presumably because of the development of tidal marshes into salt-evaporation ponds. In habitat restoration now underway, as many as 90% of salt ponds will be restored to tidal marsh. However, it is unknown if wintering and resident avocets coexist and if their requirements for space and habitat differ, necessitating different management for their populations to be maintained during restoration. We captured and radio-marked wintering avocets at a salt pond and a tidal flat to determine their population status (migrant or resident) and examine their space use and habitat selection. Of the radio-marked avocets, 79% were migrants and 21% were residents. At the salt pond, residents' fidelity to their location of capture was higher, and residents moved less than did migrants from the same site. Conversely, on the tidal flat, fidelity of residents to their site of capture was lower, and residents' home ranges were larger than those of migrants from the same site. Habitat selection of migrants and residents differed little; however, capture site influenced habitat selection far more than the birds' status as migrants or residents. Our study suggests that individual avocets have high site fidelity while wintering in San Francisco Bay, although the avocet as a species is plastic in its space use and habitat selection. This plasticity may allow wintering migrant and resident avocets to adapt to habitat change in San Francisco Bay. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  18. Knowledge, Indications and Willingness to Take Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Transwomen in San Francisco, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C Wilson

    Full Text Available Safe and effective HIV prevention strategies are needed for transwomen. Transwomen in the US have a 34 times greater odds of being infected with HIV than all adults age 15-49, and in San Francisco, California 42.4% of transwomen are estimated to be infected with HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is the first biomedical intervention with promise for reducing HIV acquisition in transwomen. However, little is known about whether transwomen know about PrEP, are taking PrEP and would be good candidates for PrEP based on their risk profile and behaviors. A population-based dataset was analyzed to determine how many transwomen in San Francisco knew about PrEP by the end of 2013 - more than a year after iPrex results demonstrated efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV. We found that of 233 transwomen, only 13.7% had heard of PrEP. Transwomen who were living with HIV compared to those who were HIV-negative, and those who recently injected drugs compared to non-injection drug users were more likely to have heard of PrEP. Based on CDC guidelines for PrEP among MSM and IDU, 45 (30.2% transwomen of the 149 HIV-negative transwomen in the sample were candidates for PrEP. This estimate based on CDC criteria is arguably low. Given that almost half of transwomen in San Francisco are living with HIV, this findings points to a need for further consideration of PrEP criteria that are specific and tailored to the risks for HIV faced by transwomen that are different from MSM and injection drug users. Research to scale up access and test the effectiveness of PrEP for transwomen is also urgently needed.

  19. Parnaíba and San Francisco rivers: traveler's fascination and technicians' rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercinair Silvério Gandara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the environmental variable opens up the prospect of countless historical approaches, I will give attention (having Parnaíba and San Francisco river as scenery to the travelers' accounts,the reports of technicians and engineers, to the political speeches and governmental decisionsundertaken in order to promote better navigability in both rivers. I will also highlight the studies and services aimed to the removal of obstacles the environment from the Parnaíba and San Franciscorivers in the second half the nineteenth century and first half of the twentieth century.

  20. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  1. Francisco Gil y Lemos, gobernador de las islas Malvinas (1774-1777

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    Iago Gil Aguado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La colonia de Puerto Soledad en las islas Malvinas, guarnecida de 1767 a 1811 por tropas españolas, constituía una de las posesiones más remotas y aisladas de la Monarquía Española. Aunque la existencia de la misma ha sido escasamente estudiada, era considerada en la época de gran importancia estratégica para el control de la América meridional y el paso por el Cabo de Hornos. En este artículo se reconstruye la vida y características de la colonia, estudiando el mandato del futuro virrey y ministro de Marina Francisco Gil y Lemos a la cabeza de la misma. Se trata de años clave para su configuración definitiva, en los que, debido a las condiciones climatológicas extremas, se abandonó definitivamente el proyecto de establecer una colonia de población en las islas, reformándose su estructura de gobierno para convertir Puerto Soledad en un presidio destinado exclusivamente a garantizar la soberanía de España sobre el archipiélago. Son asimismo años clave para determinar la soberanía de las islas, ya que hasta 1776 existió una delicada cohabitación con la factoría británica de Port Egmont, que sería definitivamente abandonada por los ingleses durante el gobierno de Francisco Gil y Lemos.The colony of Puerto Soledad in the Falkland Islands, garrisoned by Spain from 1767 to 1811, was one of the most remote and isolated possessions of the Spanish Empire. Despite the fact that it was considered of the utmost strategic importance at the time, it has scarcely received any serious attention. This article studies the characteristics of and daily life in the colony, analysing the governorship of the future Viceroy and First Lord of the Spanish Admiralty Francisco Gil y Lemos. During his years as Governor, plans for the establishment of a permanent civilian settlement in the Falklands were finally dropped due to the extreme climatic conditions on the islands, and Puerto Soledad assumed its definitive role as a purely military outpost

  2. Modeling the Joint Labor-Commute Engagement Decisions of San Francisco Bay Area Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ory, David T.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-demographic, personality, and attitudinal data from 1,680 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, we develop and estimate binary, multinomial, and nested logit models of the choice to work or not, whether or not to work at home, and whether to commute all of the time or some of the time (either by only working part time, or by working a compressed work week, or by telecommuting some of the time). To our knowledge, these are the first models of all these choices simultaneously. Th...

  3. Arquetipos femeninos en las obras de Francisco Umbral y Mario Vargas Llosa

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy Cossío, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Sin duda, investigar a dos escritores como Francisco Umbral y Mario Vargas Llosa ambos situados en el Olimpo de los grandes escritores del siglo XX, no ha sido tarea fácil, pero sí verdaderamente fascinante. Poseedores de talento, creatividad y de genio literario son portadores de una marca propia e indeleble en el periodismo, en el ensayo crítico y en la narrativa. Dos columnas equidistantes y equivalentes con voz propia que se han coronado por igual gracias a sus productivas vidas. En suma,...

  4. Monitoring of water in soil in asparagus irrigated culture in Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonino, Antonio C. Dantas; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall' Ollio, Attilio; Bernardo, Ana L. Alves; Audry, Pierre

    1996-08-01

    For many years the brazilian government has inactivated the implantation of irrigated areas in the Sao Francisco valley, obtaining high productivity.After the most appropriated areas having been occupied, the irrigation of second choice soils, usually more shallower and more clay is been tried. In one of these areas, the productivity of asparagus is less than the expected. trying to improve productivity by optimization of irrigation, the movement of water on soil and plants is being monitored far the last year and a half. the main results are shown with emphasis on the raining season, the most problematic

  5. Long path optical extinction and meteorology in the San Francisco bay area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porch, W M; Galloway, T R; Green, T J; Ellsaesser, H W

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of night-time long path extinction (25 km) across San Francisco Bay and local meteorological measurements at Oakland Airport revealed a dominant role of boundary layer mixing on visibility. Inversion depth and inversion depth multiplied by wind speed were both strongly inversely correlated with night-time atmospheric extinction. Oakland Airport wind speed and humidity showed little correlation with the extinction measurements. Stellar extinction was also found to be sensitive to mixing depth. This is important as visibility and turbidity trend studies rarely include mixing depth measurements. These results indicate the importance of developing instruments to use the same light source for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents, wind and humidity.

  6. Earthquake outlook for the San Francisco Bay region 2014–2043

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Blair, James Luke; Boatwright, John; Garcia, Susan H.; Harris, Ruth A.; Michael, Andrew J.; Schwartz, David P.; DiLeo, Jeanne S.; Jacques, Kate; Donlin, Carolyn

    2016-06-13

    Using information from recent earthquakes, improved mapping of active faults, and a new model for estimating earthquake probabilities, the 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities updated the 30-year earthquake forecast for California. They concluded that there is a 72 percent probability (or likelihood) of at least one earthquake of magnitude 6.7 or greater striking somewhere in the San Francisco Bay region before 2043. Earthquakes this large are capable of causing widespread damage; therefore, communities in the region should take simple steps to help reduce injuries, damage, and disruption, as well as accelerate recovery from these earthquakes.

  7. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  8. The core of Francisco Suárez’s doctrine about resistance and tyrannicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Font Oporto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to resume the exposition of Francisco Suárez about the problem of the resistance to the tyrant and its interpretation in the scientific doctrine. Suárez distinguishes betweentwo kinds of tyrants: the bad ruler and the usurper. The first only can be murdered in self-defense ofproper life or community; the second can be murdered by any person member of the community, on several conditions. Suárez is criticized because the only limits he establishes to political power are resistance and tyrannicide. However, these mean a democratic control really and physically possible inthe sociopolitical reality of his days.

  9. The thread of the memory in Francisco José Viegas’ fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenize Aparecida Franco

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, based on the analysis of the contemporary Portuguese novel Lourenço Marques (2002, by Francisco José Viegas, some considerations about the constitution of the memory and the identities shaped in the postcolonial context that reached Africa of Portuguese language and the post Carnation Revolution, in Portugal. It is highlighted, firstly, the verification and cataloging of contemporary novels published in Portuguese in the last two decades and that establish relations with the recent historical memory of countries held on totalitarian regimes. Following, there is the analysis of the novel Lourenço Marques as a narrative that configures such elements.

  10. SF-ROCKS: Reaching Out to Communities and Kids With Science in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Grove, K.; La Force, M. J.; Pestrong, R.; Dempsey, D. P.; Garcia, O.; Garfield, N.

    2002-12-01

    The SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University (SFSU), funded by a grant from the NSF-OEDG program, aims to increase the number of traditionally underrepresented students who enter college as geoscience majors through a multi-faceted collaborative watershed research project that provides teacher training, student education, and several tiers of mentoring relationships. In partnership with the San Francisco Unified School District and the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), SFSU Geosciences Department faculty guide urban high school students and their teachers in field-based research projects in the Islais, Yosemite, and Mission creek watersheds in southeastern San Francisco. SFSU and CCSF students assist teachers in the classroom and help to mentor their students. The collaborative program has a research base at SFSU and during the next several years will involve five high schools in communities that have highly diverse populations and ongoing environmental problems. Our goal with each high school is to focus earth and environmental science teachers on the geologic setting around their school, and to provide teachers and their students with relevant resources via teacher workshops, frequent interactions with college faculty and students, and an interactive web site and GIS database. During the summer of 2002, project scientists worked with 9th grade Integrated/Environmental Science teachers at Phillip and Sala Burton High School on a multi-layered, hands-on mapping and sampling partnership designed to identify and monitor environmental hazards and watershed characteristics in the Yosemite Creek watershed. The watershed - within which Burton High School is located - provides an interdisciplinary focus for collecting and analyzing rocks, soils, water chemistry and rainfall characteristics. SFSU faculty incorporated concepts and data from the project into ten watershed-theme lesson plans that are now part of the year-long Integrated Science curriculum at the

  11. Contribución a la iconografía del venerable Juan de Palafox. Una nueva obra firmada de Francisco Bayeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón García, Wifredo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new painting about the venerable Juan de Palafox, signed by Francisco Bayeu, is here presented. It was probably an oil sketch for an altarpiece.

    Se da a conocer una nueva pintura sobre el venerable Juan de Palafox, firmada, de Francisco Bayeu, posible boceto para un cuadro destinado a un retablo.

  12. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 2. Key to the Phytoplankton Phyla and Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helrich, Jane

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. This document is the second of a series of guides designed to help students and teachers gather data concerning the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex and to organize these data to make a contribution to the literature of…

  13. Sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Lester J. McKee,

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue feature state-of-the-art approaches to understanding the physical processes related to sediment transport and geomorphology of complex coastal-estuarine systems. Here we focus on the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, extending from the lower San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta, through the Bay, and along the adjacent outer Pacific Coast. San Francisco Bay is an urbanized estuary that is impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities common to many large estuaries, including a mining legacy, channel dredging, aggregate mining, reservoirs, freshwater diversion, watershed modifications, urban run-off, ship traffic, exotic species introductions, land reclamation, and wetland restoration. The Golden Gate strait is the sole inlet connecting the Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and serves as the conduit for a tidal flow of ~ 8 x 109 m3/day, in addition to the transport of mud, sand, biogenic material, nutrients, and pollutants. Despite this physical, biological and chemical connection, resource management and prior research have often treated the Delta, Bay and adjacent ocean as separate entities, compartmentalized by artificial geographic or political boundaries. The body of work herein presents a comprehensive analysis of system-wide behavior, extending a rich heritage of sediment transport research that dates back to the groundbreaking hydraulic mining-impact research of G.K. Gilbert in the early 20th century.

  14. Reflexiones sobre el viaje de Francisco de Miranda al Imperio Otomano

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    Mehmet Necati Kutlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Miranda, en sus viajes por Europa, permanció casi tres meses en el Imperio Otomano (en Esmirna y Estambul. En sus escritos, el político venezolano se refirió especialmente a la vida social y cultural, a la economía y al ejército y a la defensa de Turquía. Por ello, el conocimiento de primera mano de estos aspectos parece la motivación fundamental de su estancia, sin que sea posible señalar ninguna gestión en busca de apoyo a la causa de la independencia americana.Francisco de Miranda, in his travels across Europe, visited for almost three months the Ottoman Empire (Izmir and Istambul. In his writings, the Venezuelan politician dealt especially with social and cultural life, the economy and the army and defence of the country. This is why the first-hand knowledge of these aspects seems to be the main reason of his stay; instead, it is not possible to find any step in the search of support for the American independence.

  15. Francisco Ferreira Saturnino Braga: negócios e fortuna em Campos dos Goytacazes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz Carneiro de Mattos Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende investir no estudo da dinâmica da economia em Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, nas duas décadas que antecedem a abolição da escravatura no Brasil, a partir dos negócios e da fortuna de Francisco Ferreira Saturnino Braga, proprietário de terras, escravos, usineiro, industrial, concessionário de ferrovias e banqueiro, figura-chave para se perceberem as transformações ocorridas em uma área de produção açucareira voltada para o mercado interno. As singularidades e particularidades obtidas pela observação em escala reduzida podem revelar a possibilidade de perceber uma articulação mais ampla com as estruturas de uma economia de mercado.The article intends to invest in the study of the dynamics of the economy in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, in the two decades preceding the abolition of slavery in Brazil, from the business and fortune of Francisco Ferreira Saturnino Braga, owner of land, slaves, mill owner, industrial, railroad dealer and banker, a key figure to understand the changes occurred in an area of the sugar production directs to the domestic market. The singularities and particularities obtained by observation in small scale may reveal the possibility of perceiving a broader articulation with the structures of a market economy.

  16. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. La poética iluminada de la locura: Francisco Matos Paoli contra el imperio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Giulianna Zambrano Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una exégesis del poema carcelario “Canto de la locura” (1962 del puertorriqueño Francisco Matos Paoli (1915-2000 como una defensa de la locura como posibilidad epistémica y poética liberadora frente a la biopolítica carcelaria y colonial. En los años cincuenta, el nacionalismo puertorriqueño, además de ser proscrito mediante la Ley 53, conocida como la Mordaza, fue estigmatizado como una amenaza delirante a la estabilidad del Gobierno en la isla. Con una voz poética hiperlúcida que desborda los límites del lenguaje, Matos Paoli insiste en la pregunta por la libertad de la isla mientras denuncia la violencia colonial estadounidense. This article proposes a reading of the poem “Canto de la locura” (1962, written by Puerto Rican Francisco Matos Paoli (1915-2000, as defending madness as an epistemic possibility as well as an emancipatory poetics in the face of penitentiary and colonial biopolitics. In the 1950s, Puerto Rican nationalism, in addition to being prohibited by Law 53, known as la Mordaza (Gag Law, was stigmatized as a delirious threat to the stability of the island’s government. With a hyperlucid poetic voice that exceeds the limits of language, Matos Paoli insists on the question of freedom for Puerto Rico while denouncing the colonial violence of the United States.

  18. Strontium-90 in human bone: 1981 results for New York City and San Francisco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusek, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of determinations of Sr-90 content of 102 specimens of vertebrae obtained during 1981 in New York City and San Francisco. The average Sr-90 to Ca ratios for adult vertebrae are 0.95 pCi/g Ca (0.037 Bq/g Ca) in New York and 0.61 pCi/g Ca (0.023 Bq/g Ca) in San Francisco, little changed from the average values of the previous year. Average Sr-90 concentrations in children's bone are now little different from the adult values. A two compartment bone model, which accounts for both short and long term retention of Sr-90 in bone, is used to describe the variations of Sr-90 content of bone and provide correlation with dietary Sr-90 intake. Regression analysis of the 21 years of survey data provides values of the relative retention of dietary Sr-90 and the effective bone turnover rates. The bone model gives satisfactory description of observed Sr-90 levels and allows reliable assessment of the long-term behavior of Sr-90 in man

  19. Strontium-90 in human bone: 1980 results for New York City and San Francisco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusek, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of determinations of 90 Sr content of 75 specimens of vertebrae obtained during 1980 in New York City and San Francisco. The average 90 Sr to Ca ratios for adult vertebrae are 0.95 pCi/g Ca (0.037 Bq/g Ca) in New York and 0.60 pCi/g Ca (0.022 Bq/g Ca) in San Francisco, little changed from the average values of the previous year. Average 90 Sr concentrations in children's bone are now little different from the adult values. A two compartment bone model, which accounts for both short and long term retention of 90 Sr in bone, is used to describe the variations of 90 Sr content of bone and provide correlation with dietary 90 Sr intake. Regression analysis of the 20 years of survey data provides values of the relative retention of dietary 90 Sr and the effective bone turnover rates. The bone model gives satisfactory description of observed 90 Sr levels and allows reliable assessment of the long-term behavior of 90 Sr in man

  20. Secciones en doble T Invertida en el aeropuerto de San Francisco – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, T. Y.

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available In the carrying out of this work of enlarging the San Francisco International Airport, a criterion has been maintained which has allowed a series of interesting results to be obtained. The building technique is very unusual, giving it the mark of innovation. This technique has made use of prestressed, prefabricated parts, thus reducing by about 40 % the amount of materials that ordinary building methods would have required, lightening the loads, and keeping as far as possible within the limitations imposed by traffic and the terrain. And all without detriment to a considerable aesthetic effect.En la realización de esta obra para la ampliación del aeropuerto internacional de San Francisco se ha mantenido un criterio que ha permitido obtener una serie de resultados interesantes. Presenta un carácter innovador, ya que la técnica constructiva es muy poco habitual. Dicha técnica ha facilitado emplear elementos prefabricados pretensados, reducir en un 40 % la cantidad de materiales que hubieran sido necesarios de haber utilizado una técnica de construcción normal, aligerar las cargas y ceñirse al máximo a una serie de limitaciones impuestas por el tráfico y la naturaleza del terreno; todo ello sin detrimento de obtener un efecto estético considerable.

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  2. The validity of Francisco Suarez’s Philosophy of Law in the Spanish Silver Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Manzanero

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to present the revitalization that occurs during the Spanish Silver Age of the topics and the juridical methodology of the Spanish Natural Law Classics, which has in the Jesuit philosopher and theologian Francisco Suarez, one of the prime leading figures. In order to deal with this stage of revitalization of the iusnaturalist Suarezian theses and their repercussions in the Spanish Natural Law Philosophy that unfolds during the last third of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century, we will emphasize the concomitances between the nineteenth-century Krausists and those who lived the magni Hispani, to reach what we consider to be an indispensable link in this phase of recovery of the Natural Law theory: the substantial reading on Francisco Suarez’s legal work made by the iusphilosopher Recasens Siches, where we can appreciate the suggestive inspiration contained in the work of our great Spanish classic and where it develops a renew iusnaturalist conception appropriate for our present time.

  3. La estatua de Francisco Pizarro en Lima. Historia e identidad nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varón Gabai, Rafael

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical account of the statue of Francisco Pizarro in Lima, one of the few that recalls the memory of a conquistador in Latin America. Mention is made of the foundry and exhibition of the different statues of Pizarro as conceived by artist Charles Cary Rumsey, and popular ideas about it. Finally, analysis is offered of the present day perception Peruvians have of the Conquest and what Pizarro’s statue symbolizes to them.

    Recuento histórico de la estatua dedicada a Francisco Pizarro en Lima, una de las pocas que conmemoran a un conquistador español en Hispanoamérica. Se relata la fabricación y exhibición de las diversas estatuas gemelas que realizó el artista Charles Cary Rumsey y las creencias populares al respecto. Asimismo, se analiza la vigencia que mantiene entre la población peruana actual el impacto de la conquista y el símbolo que representa la estatua de Pizarro.

  4. Three-dimensional Modeling of Tidal Hydrodynamics in the San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of circulation in the San Francisco Estuary were performed with the three-dimensional TRIM3D hydrodynamic model using a generic length scale turbulence closure. The model was calibrated to reproduce observed tidal elevations, tidal currents, and salinity observations in the San Francisco Estuary using data collected during 1996-1998, a period of high and variable freshwater flow. It was then validated for 1994-1995, with emphasis on spring of 1994, a period of intensive data collection in the northern estuary. The model predicts tidal elevations and tidal currents accurately, and realistically predicts salinity at both the seasonal and tidal time scales. The model represents salt intrusion into the estuary accurately, and therefore accurately represents the salt balance. The model’s accuracy is adequate for its intended purposes of predicting salinity, analyzing gravitational circulation, and driving a particle-tracking model. Two applications were used to demonstrate the utility of the model. We estimated the components of the longitudinal salt flux and examined their dependence on flow conditions, and compared predicted salt intrusion with estimates from two empirical models.

  5. Francisco López de Gómara y la Orden de Alcántara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Martínez, María del Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to light new aspects concerning the biography of Francisco López de Gómara. His desire to take the religious habit of the Order of Alcántara, and the information this provides, allows us to clear up many aspects of his affiliation, his degree of bachelor, and the studies he followed during his stay in Bologna. Among the witnesses are his master, Pedro de Rúa, old companions from the Spanish College of San Clemente, and neighbours from the town of Gómara.Este artículo da a conocer aspectos inéditos de la biografía de Francisco López de Gómara. Su solicitud de un hábito de religioso de la Orden de Alcántara y la consiguiente información permite aclarar su filiación, su grado de bachiller y los estudios realizados durante su estancia en Bolonia. Entre los testigos están su maestro Pedro de Rúa, antiguos compañeros del Colegio de San Clemente y algunos vecinos de la villa de Gómara.

  6. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  7. Microphytobenthos potential productivity estimated in three tidal embayments of the San Francisco Bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Jean-Marc; Cloern, James E.; Edmunds, Jody L.; Gros, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-step procedure to infer the spatial heterogeneity in microphytobenthos primary productivity at the scale of tidal estuaries and embayments. The first step involves local measurement of the carbon assimilation rate of benthic microalgae to determine the parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curves (using non-linear optimization methods). In the next step, a resampling technique is used to rebuild pseudo-sampling distributions of the local productivity estimates; these provide error estimates for determining the significance level of differences between sites. The third step combines the previous results with deterministic models of tidal elevation and solar irradiance to compute mean and variance of the daily areal primary productivity over an entire intertidal mudflat area within each embayment. This scheme was applied on three different intertidal mudflat regions of the San Francisco Bay estuary during autumn 1998. Microphytobenthos productivity exhibits strong (ca. 3-fold) significant differences among the major sub-basins of San Francisco Bay. This spatial heterogeneity is attributed to two main causes: significant differences in the photosynthetic competence (P-E parameters) of the microphytobenthos in the different sub-basins, and spatial differences in the phase shifts between the tidal and solar cycles controlling the exposure of intertidal areas to sunlight. The procedure is general and can be used in other estuaries to assess the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability of microphytobenthos productivity at the level of the ecosystems.

  8. Microphytobenthic potential productivity estimated in three tidal embayments of the San Francisco Bay: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Cloern, James E.; Edmunds, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-step procedure to infer the spatial heterogeneity in microphytobenthos primary productivity at the scale of tidal estuaries and embayments. The first step involves local measurement of the carbon assimilation rate of benthic microalgae to determine the parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curves (using non-linear optimization methods). In the next step, a resampling technique is used to rebuild pseudo-sampling distributions of the local productivity estimates; these provide error estimates for determining the significance level of differences between sites. The third step combines the previous results with deterministic models of tidal elevation and solar irradiance to compute mean and variance of the daily areal primary productivity over an entire intertidal mudflat area within each embayment. This scheme was applied on three different intertidal mudflat regions of the San Francisco Bay estuary during autumn 1998. Microphytobenthos productivity exhibits strong (ca. 3-fold) significant differences among the major sub-basins of San Francisco Bay. This spatial heterogeneity is attributed to two main causes: significant differences in the photosynthetic competence (P-E parameters) of the microphytobenthos in the different sub-basins, and spatial differences in the phase shifts between the tidal and solar cycles controlling the exposure of intertidal areas to sunlight. The procedure is general and can be used in other estuaries to assess the magnitude and patterns of spatial variability of microphytobenthos productivity at the level of the ecosystems.

  9. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region...part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for determining the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. Currently a program is in progress to measure seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region at an estimated 150 sites. At each site seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill hole cuttings, undisturbed samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the site. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. The broad data base available in the San Francisco Bay region suggests using the area as a pilot area for the development of general techniques applicable to other areas.

  10. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L

    2005-04-22

    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high

  11. 76 FR 54529 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement: San Francisco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ..., Acting Director, Local Programs, Federal Highway Administration, Sacramento, CA. [FR Doc. 2011-22349... To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement: San Francisco County, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway..., Oakland, California 94623-0660, Telephone: (510) 286-5231, E-mail: [email protected]ca.gov...

  12. Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortes, and Francisco Pizzaro: A Qualitative Content Analysis Examining Cultural Bias in World History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillejord, Jebadiah Serril

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent contemporary high school world history textbooks portray Christopher Columbus, Hernán Cortés, and Francisco Pizarro within the context of being "sacred," "profane," or someplace in between. To evaluate for existence of content bias this study employed qualitative…

  13. Risk Behaviors among Asian Women Who Work at Massage Parlors in San Francisco: Perspectives from Masseuses and Owners/Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Oh, Hyun Joo; Wong, Serena; Nguyen, Hongmai

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive, cultural, and contextual factors that influence HIV-related risk behaviors among Asian women who engage in sex work at massage parlors in San Francisco. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted for Vietnamese and Thai masseuses and massage parlor owners/managers. Economic pressure as well as…

  14. Sea change under climate change: case studies in rare plant conservation from the dynamic San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present case studies supporting management of two rare plant species in tidal wetlands of the San Francisco Estuary. For an annual hemiparasite, we used demographic analyses to identify factors to enhance population establishment, survivorship and fitness, and to compare reintroduced with natura...

  15. Comparative analysis of long-term chlorophyll data with generalized additive model - San Francisco Bay and St. Lucie Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health of estuarine ecosystems is often influenced by hydraulic and nutrient loading from upstream watersheds. We examined four decades of monitoring data of nutrient export into the Indian River Lagoon and San Francisco Bay, both of which have received considerable attentio...

  16. Identifying Telemedicine Services to Improve Access to Specialty Care for the Underserved in the San Francisco Safety Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Russell Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety-net settings across the country have grappled with providing adequate access to specialty care services. San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, serving as the city's primary safety-net hospital, has also had to struggle with the same issue. With Healthy San Francisco, the City and County of San Francisco's Universal Healthcare mandate, the increased demand for specialty care services has placed a further strain on the system. With the recent passage of California Proposition 1D, infrastructural funds are now set aside to assist in connecting major hospitals with primary care clinics in remote areas all over the state of California, using telemedicine. Based on a selected sample of key informant interviews with local staff physicians, this study provides further insight into the current process of e-referral which uses electronic communication for making referrals to specialty care. It also identifies key services for telemedicine in primary and specialty care settings within the San Francisco public health system. This study concludes with proposals for a framework that seek to increase collaboration between the referring primary care physician and specialist, to prioritize institution of these key services for telemedicine.

  17. Providing Specialty Care for the Poor and Underserved at Student-Run Free Clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Max Bolun; Xiong, Grace; Boggiano, Victoria Lynn; Ye, Patrick Peiyong; Lin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the model of specialty clinics implemented at Stanford University's two student-run free clinics, Arbor Free Clinic and Pacific Free Clinic, in the San Francisco Bay Area. We describe our patient demographic characteristics and the specialty services provided. We discuss challenges in implementing specialty care at student-run free clinics.

  18. Novel Analyses of Long-Term Data Provide a Scientific Basis for Chlorophyll-a Thresholds in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay (SFB), USA, is highly enriched in nitrogen and phosphorus, but has been resistant to the classic symptoms of eutrophication associated with over-production of phytoplankton. Observations in recent years suggest that this resistance may be weakening, shown by: si...

  19. Density and elevational distribution of the San Francisco Peaks ragwort, Packera franciscana (Asteraceae), a threatened single-mountain endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Packera franciscana (Greene) W. A. Weber and A. Love is endemic to treeline and alpine habitats of the San Francisco Peaks, Arizona, USA and was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act in 1983. Species abundance data are limited in scope, yet are critical for recovery of the species, especially in light of predictions of its future extinction...

  20. La teoría de la causalidad natural de Francisco Sánchez el escéptico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael V. Orden Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular work of Francisco Sánchez, Quo nihil scitur (1581, transmits an absolutely sceptic thought. However, other writings like Carmen de Cometa anni M.D.LXXVII (1578, offer us different ideas about how Sánchez considers possible the scientific knowledge like, for example, his idea about the casual relations between natural objects.

  1. Affective foodscapes in an economy of passion : repetition, opposition and adaptation in Mexican restaurants in Amsterdam, Madrid and San Francisco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matus Ruiz, M.

    2012-01-01

    The
 main
 goal
 of
 my
 research
 was
 to
 analyze
 how
 the
 desire
 to
 affect
 and
 be
 affected
 by
 foreign
 signs
relates
 to
 the
 commoditization
 of
 food
 products
 offered
 in
 Mexican
 restaurants
 in
 Amsterdam,
 Madrid
and
 San
 Francisco.
 I
 conceive
 restaurants
 as


  2. Un documento inedito: Historia de Sebastián de Belalcázar, escrita por su hijo, Don Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán Friede

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available El documento que publicamos, inédito hasta ahora es una breve historia de Sebastián de Belalcázar, gobernador de Popayán, muerto en 1550, escrita por su hijo dos Francisco hacia 1557, cuando se encontraba en España.

  3. Infermeria Medicoquirúrgica II. Temari corresponent al Professor Francisco Pérez Dolz. Curs 2017-2018

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Dolz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    El document forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València. Temari corresponent al professor Francisco Pérez Dolz

  4. Infermeria Médico-Quirúrgica II. Temari corresponent al Professor Francisco Pérez Dolz. Curs 2017-2018

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Dolz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    El document forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València Infermeria Médico-Quirúrgica II. Temari corresponent al Professor Francisco Pérez Dolz. Curs 2017-2018.

  5. The language of human law in the thought of Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Centenera Sánchez-Seco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the language of human law in the thought of Francisco Suárez. Its chief focus is on the Treatise on Laws and on God the Lawgiver and its views on the prescriptive nature of legislative language, written and spoken language, the lexical-semantic level, and linguistic clarity from the viewpoints of convenience, the essence of the law and justice. The issues Suárez deals with in relation to these points have continued to attract attention up to the present day, and a reading of the Treatise confirms the impression that some of them are still valid. Accordingly, as well as setting out, describing and offering a guide to understanding Suárez ideas, the article offers a comparative and contemplative analysis of them, without forgetting that their author belonged to the early modern period.

  6. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  7. Francisco Ibarra Martínez: renovador de la pedagogía cubana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Osmar Oliva-Crespo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled Francisco Ibarra Martínez: reformer of Cuban Pedagogy, is first of all a well deserved homage to one of the most important pedagogues of the republican period. His thought and his work are approached, from his initial stage of academic formation to his contributions to the educational cuban thought. Stands out his social dimension of his pedagogic work, his integration to the civic life of the city, his reforming vision of the practice of sports and study of the history of his country. Likewise, we refer to his contributions to the historiography as a science, the journalism and his concern for the social and political destination of the country. For this reason this work has among its contributions the treatment to the local history from the specific fild of pedagogy and education, modestly contributing to the rescue of historic memory.

  8. What We Have Learned from San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment and Leiden Manifesto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Ming-Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research performance evaluation of members of the academic community conducted by government or institutions has been applied with multiple indicators and peer review, however, there are many controversies about the design and application of research evaluation indicators. This article aims to introduce the development process of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA and Leiden Manifesto and summarize their contents of guidelines and attempts to compare the differences between these two documents. It hopes that this article can arise the attention and reflection of research evaluation indicators and relevant issues from Taiwan academic community to reach consensus of utilization of research evaluation indicators. It will be beneficial to develop the version of declaration with local characteristics in the future.

  9. Masculinity and undocumented labor migration: injured latino day laborers in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nicholas; Bourgois, Philippe; Loinaz, H. Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data collected through clinical practice and ethnographic fieldwork, this study examines the experience of injury, illness and disability among undocumented Latino day laborers in San Francisco. We demonstrate how constructions of masculine identity organize the experience of embodied social suffering among workers who are rendered vulnerable by the structural conditions of undocumented immigrant status. Theoretical concepts from critical medical anthropology and gender studies extend the scholarly analysis of structural violence beyond the primarily economic to uncover how it is embodied at the intimate level as a gendered experience of personal and familial crisis, involving love, respect, betrayal and patriarchal failure. A clinical ethnographic focus on socially structured patriarchal suffering elucidates the causal relationship between macro-forces and individual action with a fuller appreciation of the impact of culture and everyday lived experience. PMID:15210088

  10. Francisco Mejía: el testimonio de una sociedad que se complace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Restrepo

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos dos años la familia Mejía donó al Faes (Fundación Antioqueña para los Estudios Sociales parte de los archivos fotográficos de Francisco Mejía (1899-1979, concretamente lo que podríamos llamar su archivo comercial en contraposición al de sus retratos de gabinete. Compuesto por unos siete mil negativos de diferentes materiales (vidrio, nitrato y acetato de celulosa, su calidad y variedad fueron motivo para que el Banco de la República resolviera apoyar el trabajo de identificación, procesamiento y preservación, labor llevada a cabo por el Centro de Memoria Visual de Medellín, que forma parte del Faes.

  11. Francisco de Miranda: Precursor de la independencia o espía al servicio de Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rafael Lombardi Boscán

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Miranda es una de las grandes figuras emblemticas de la Historia de Venezuela. En nuestro medio le consideramos el adalid de la libertad continental en contra de la Monarquía hispnica. Hace doscientos años que intentó invadir a Venezuela y fracasó (1806; aunque contribuyó a crear las condiciones para la transición de colonia a republica. Aquí llevamos a cabo un acercamiento a su vida como conspirador bajo la dicotomía y paradoja de servir tanto a los intereses geopolíticos ingleses como a la causa de la libertad republicana.

  12. 1993 Annual Report: San Francisco estuary regional monitoring program for trace substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.; Lacy, Jessica; Hardin, Dane; Grovhaug, Tom; Taberski, K.; Jassby, Alan D.; Cloern, James E.; Caffrey, J.; Cole, B.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    1993-01-01

    This first annual report of the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program contains the results of monitoring measurements made in 1993. Measurements of conventional water quality parameters and trace contaminant concentrations were made at 16 stations throughout the Estuary three times during the year: the wet period (March), during declining Delta outflow (May), and during the dry period (September). Water toxicity tests were conducted at 8 of those stations. Measurements of sediment quality and contaminant concentrations were made at the same 16 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods. Sediment toxicity was measured at 8 of those stations. Transplanted, bagged bivalve bioaccumulation and condition was measured at 11 stations during the wet and dry sampling periods.

  13. La desconocida historia de la construcción de la iglesia de San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan V. Webster

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece una nueva cronología e historia de la construcción de la iglesia de San Francisco de Quito a través de documentos históricos inéditos que demuestran, contrariamente a lo postulado en la historiografìa tradicional, que la actual iglesia no fue construida en el siglo XVI. El estudio ilustra los participantes y el proceso de construcción, empleando documentos, planos e imágenes. Se abarcan temas de autoría, particularmente las identidades de los diseñadoresy constructores, y se ofrece una reconsideración del legado historiográfico del imponente templo franciscano a la vista de la nueva documentación

  14. BRICKS, BRANDING, AND THE EVERYDAY: DEFINING GREATNESS AT THE UNITED NATIONS PLAZA IN SAN FRANCISCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Lindsay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After over a decade of reports, designs, and public outreach, the United Nations Plaza in San Francisco was dedicated in 1976. Using historical documents such as government reports, design guidelines, letters, meeting minutes, and newspaper articles from archives, I argue that while the construction of the UN Plaza has failed to completely transform the social and economic life of the area, it succeeds in creating a genuinely public space. The history of the UN Plaza can serve both as a cautionary tale for those interested in changing property values purely through changing design, and as a standard of success in making a space used by a true cross-section of urban society.

  15. NA BACIA DO RIO SÃO FRANCISCO, EM MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rezende Gomide

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: to compare and to apply indices that quantify diversity, equability and similarity in the studied area; to identify possible diversity gradients, and to apply multivariate analysis to create dendrograms of similarity. The studied area was composed of 20 native forest fragments sited in riparian permanent preservation areas along the basin of São Francisco River, in Minas Gerais. The diversity presented a large variation according to all indices: Shannon: 2,176 to 4,389; Simpson: 0,019 to 0,206; Mixture quotient: 0,029 to 0,166, Equability 0,625 to 0,875. The floristic similarity among fragments using the Jaccard and Simpson quotients formed 5 and 4 floristic groups, respectively, with a cut level of 25%.

  16. Francisco Prat Puig: His pedagogical praxis at the Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Hierrezuelo-Planas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doctor Francisco Prat Puig was one of the spanish intellectualist who sheltered in the Island of Cuba after the falling down of the Spanish Republic and in 1948 was part of the staff of professors of the recently founded Universidad de Oriente. He developed a teaching process which was centered on instruction through education and which followed the transmission and formation of values departing from his personal behavior and attitude. This took peace until his death in may, 1997. These aspect constitute one of the mastery strategies of the High Level Education Ministry of Cuba. The fact that most of his educational performance was done by the time when these aspect were not deeply applied, gives his pedagogical praxis a precursory character.

  17. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area

  18. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  20. Improved Storm Monitoring and Prediction for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chandrasekar, V.; Anderson, M.; Davis, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) System is a multi-faceted project to improve precipitation and hydrologic monitoring, prediction, and decision support for the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area faces a multitude of threats from extreme events, including disrupted transportation from flooded roads and railroad lines, water management challenges related to storm water, river and reservoir management and storm-related damage demanding emergency response. The threats occur on spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire region and time scales ranging from hours to days. These challenges will be exacerbated by future sea level rise, more extreme weather events and increased vulnerabilities. AQPI is a collaboration of federal, state and local governments with assistance from the research community. Led by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, USGS, and Scripps, AQPI is a four-year effort funded in part by a grant from the California Department of Water Resource's Integrated Regional Water Management Program. The Sonoma County Water Agency is serving as the local sponsor of the project. Other local participants include the Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, and the Bay Area Flood Protection Agencies Association. AQPI will provide both improved observing capabilities and a suite of numerical forecast models to produce accurate and timely information for benefit of flood management, emergency response, water quality, ecosystem services, water supply and transportation management for the Bay Area. The resulting information will support decision making to mitigate flood risks, secure water supplies, minimize water quality impacts to the Bay from combined sewer overflows, and have improved lead-time on coastal and Bay inundation from extreme storms like Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The project is expected to

  1. Unmet healthcare need among women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powelson, Elisabeth; Lorvick, Jennifer; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn; Klausner, Jeffery; Kral, Alex H

    2014-02-01

    Methamphetamine use has increased substantially in the United States since the 1990s. Few studies have examined the healthcare service needs of women who use methamphetamine. This study describes unmet medical needs in a community-based sample of women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, CA. Women who use methamphetamine were recruited in San Francisco and participated in a computer-assisted survey (N = 298 HIV-negative women). Multivariate analysis was performed to explore associations among sociodemographic variables, drug use, use of health and social services, and unmet healthcare need across three domains: chronic health problems, dermatologic problems, and women's preventive healthcare. Sixty-nine percent of participants reported a need for care for a chronic health condition, and 31% of them had an unmet need for care, in the last six months. Thirty-five percent of participants reported a need for dermatologic healthcare, and 66% had an unmet need for care in the last 6 months. Ninety-two percent of participants reported a need for women's preventive healthcare and 46% had an unmet need for care in the last year. Women who reported having a healthcare provider had lower odds of reporting an unmet need for a chronic health condition or women's preventive healthcare. Women who used a case manager had lower odds of having an unmet need for dermatologic care. A significant proportion of women who use methamphetamine in this sample had an unmet need for women's preventive healthcare, and overall these women had a significant unmet need for healthcare. These findings suggest that contact with a healthcare provider or a caseworker could help to expand access to healthcare for this vulnerable population.

  2. Pedro de Valencia, Francisco de Gurmendi and the Plomos de Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnier, Grace

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Inquisition in 1618 seized all the papers of Pedro de Valencia, renowned humanist, biblical scholar and chronicler of Philip III. The papers of other members of his circle were also confiscated. In this article I examine the two most important texts: Sobre el pergamino y láminas de Granada of Valencia and a Libelo Segundo of Francisco de Gurmendi, interpreter of Oriental languages for Philip III. The article is structured around Gurmendi's response to a memorial published in 1617 by Archbishop Pedro de Castro in defence of one of his translators. Gurmendi, working from his translation of the first two Lead Books, shows how these contain heretical ideas on the Trinity and how the memorialista has mistranslated many passages.

    En 1618 la Inquisición confiscó todos los papeles de Pedro de Valencia, humanista insigne, exegeta bíblico y cronista del reino y de las Indias de Felipe III. También confiscó los papeles de otros miembros de su círculo. En este artículo examino los dos textos más importantes: Sobre el pergamino y láminas de Granada de Valencia y un Libelo segundo de Francisco de Gurmendi, intérprete en lenguas orientales del rey. El artículo se centra en la respuesta de Gurmendi a un memorial del Arzobispo Pedro de Castro en el que se defiende a uno de sus traductores. Partiendo de su traducción de los dos primeros libros plúmbeos, Gurmendi muestra las herejías trinitarias que éstos contienen y cómo el memorialista ha traducido mal muchos pasajes.

  3. An Introduction to the San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands may provide an important tool for improving ecological health and water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Given the large losses of tidal wetlands from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the last 150 years, it seems logical to assume that restoring tidal wetlands will have benefits for a variety of aquatic and terrestrial native species that have declined during the same time period. However, many other changes have also occurred in the Estuary concurrent with the declines of native species. Other factors that might be important in species declines include the effects of construction of upstream dams, large and small water diversions within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, agricultural pesticides, trace elements from industrial and agricultural activities, and invasions of alien species. Discussions among researchers, managers, and stakeholders have identified a number of uncertainties regarding the potential benefits of tidal wetland restoration. The articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series address four major issues of concern. Stated as questions, these are: 1. Will tidal wetland restoration enhance populations of native fishes? 2. Will wetland restoration increase rates of methylation of mercury? 3. Will primary production and other ecological processes in restored tidal wetlands result in net export of organic carbon to adjacent habitats, resulting in enhancement of the food web? Will the carbon produced contribute to the formation of disinfection byproducts when disinfected for use as drinking water? 4. Will restored tidal wetlands provide long-term ecosystem benefits that can be sustained in response to ongoing physical processes, including sedimentation and hydrodynamics? Reducing the uncertainty surrounding these issues is of critical importance because tidal wetland restoration is assumed to be a critical tool for

  4. Religiosidad e identidad en San Francisco de Campeche. Siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Salas, Adriana Delfina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the problems concomitant to the development of a common identity among the Spanish settlers of San Francisco de Campeche during the Colonial period, with focus on the role played by religious elements in the shaping of this identity – in particular, the cult to the saints. An analysis of factors such as the characteristics of the saints in the neighborhood and local associations; processes of cult adoption, adaptation or dismissal; as well as the participation of the different local sectors in promoting the to their respective saints will be presented. This analysis will take into consideration the conflictive relationship between Spanish settlers and native people in Yucatán, a situation that prevented the using of aboriginal cultural elements in the shaping of a new identity

    Este trabajo estudia los problemas que acompañaron la gestación de una identidad propia y común para los residentes hispanos de la villa y puerto de San Francisco de Campeche durante el período colonial y la participación de elementos religiosos, particularmente el culto a los santos patronos, en el proceso. Teniendo como telón de fondo la peculiaridad de la región yucateca, donde una conflictiva relación entre españoles e indígenas impidió la utilización de elementos culturales prehispánicos en la formación de una conciencia identitaria, se analizan diversos factores, como las características de los santos tutelares de los barrios y de algunas corporaciones locales, los procesos de adopción, adaptación u olvido de sus cultos por parte del vecindario porteño y la participación de los diferentes sectores locales en la promoción de sus santos patronos.

  5. Literature Review of Unconsolidated Sediment in San Francisco Bay and Nearby Pacific Ocean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry R. Keller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the geologic literature regarding sedimentation in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system shows that the main part of the bay occupies a structural tectonic depression that developed in Pleistocene time. Eastern parts, including San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay, have had sedimentation throughout late Mesozoic and Tertiary. Carquinez Strait and the Golden Gate may represent antecedent stream erosion. Sedimentation has included estuarine, alluvial, and eolian deposition. The ages of estuarine deposition includes the modern high sea level stand and earlier Pleistocene interglacial periods. Sediment sources can be generally divided into the Coast Ranges, particularly the Franciscan Complex, and “Sierran.” Much of the estuarine system is floored by very fine sediment, with local areas of sand floor. Near the Golden Gate, sediment size decreases in both directions away from the deep channel. Bedforms include sand waves (submarine dunes, flat beds, and rock and boulders. These are interpreted in terms of dominant transport directions. Near the Golden Gate is an ebb-tidal delta on the outside (including San Francisco bar and a flood-tidal delta on the inside (parts of Central Bay. The large tidal prism causes strong tidal currents, which in the upper part of the estuary are normally much stronger than river currents, except during large floods. Cultural influences have altered conditions, including hydraulic mining debris, blasting of rocks, dredging of navigation channels, filling of the bay, and commercial sand mining. Many of these have served to decrease the tidal prism, correspondingly decreasing the strength of tidal currents.

  6. Application of INAA to provenance study of ceramics from Baixo Sao Francisco River, Sergipe, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Vergne, C.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the physical and chemical characteristics of crafts, in association with historical and archaeological research, has allowed for the reconstruction of ancient community habits. Archaeological studies include several techniques to reconstruct ancient cultures. Since ceramics represent a sophisticated merging of previously separate domains of human knowledge and experience, these objects are studied by means of archaeometric methods. In recent years an interdisciplinary research program was started between Museu Arqueologico de Xingo (MAX) and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to study the ancient ceramist cultures from Xingo region, located in Sergipe, Brazilian Northeast. Recent studies conducted in the area have showed the existence of an independent ceramist group without relation to the ceramist group well established in the Brazilian Northeast, Tupiguarani and Aratu. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, is a suitable technique for provenance studies. In this work the chemical composition of 103 samples: 30 clays and 73 ceramics from Barracao archaeological site, from Baixo Sao Francisco, were analyzed. This analysis allowed for the definition of compositional groups of ceramics according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste, which reveals the raw material composition used in the manufacturing process by prehistoric man. The outliers were identified by means robust Mahalanobis distance. The results were interpreted by means of cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. The results obtained in this work, in association with archaeological information, allowed for the identification of the ceramic groups in relation to the ceramist occupations of the Xingo area. This work contributes for the reconstruction of the Baixo Sao Francisco region communities and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast ceramist population. (author)

  7. Structure and flow-induced variability of the subtidal salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Kimmerer, W.; Burau, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay and how it is affected by freshwater flow are discussed. Two datasets are examined: the first is 23 years of daily salinity data taken by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation along the axis of northern San Francisco Bay: the second is a set of salinity transects taken by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1988 and 1993. Central to this paper is a measure of salinity intrusion. X2: the distance from the Golden Gate Bridge to where the bottom salinity is 2 psu. Using X2 to scale distance, the authors find that for most flow conditions, the mean salinity distribution of the estuary is nearly self-similar with a salinity gradient in the center 70% of the region between the Golden Gate and X2 that is proportional to X2-1. Analysis of covariability of Q and X2 showed a characteristics timescale of adjustment of the salinity field of approximately 2 weeks. The steady-state response deduced from the X2 time series implies that X2 is proportional to riverflow to the 1/7 power. This relation, which differs from the standard 1/3 power dependence that is derived theoretically assuming constant exchange coefficients, shows that the upstream salt flux associated with gravitational circulation is more sensitive to the longitudinal salinity gradient than theory supposes. This is attributed to the strengthening of stratification caused by the stronger longitudinal salinity gradient that accompanies larger river flows.

  8. State of transition: Marijuana use among young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-09-01

    California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution and Invasion Potential of Limonium ramosissimum subsp. provinciale in San Francisco Estuary Salt Marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Archbald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-native sea lavenders (Limonium spp. are invasive in salt marshes of southern California and were first documented in the San Francisco Estuary (the estuary in 2007. In this study, we mapped distributions of L. ramosissimum subsp. provinciale (LIRA and L. duriusculum within the estuary and investigated how the invasion potential of the more common species, LIRA, varies with elevation and edaphic conditions. We contacted colleagues and conducted field searches to find and then map sea lavender populations. In addition, we measured LIRA’s elevational range at three salt marshes. Across this range we measured (1 soil properties: salinity, moisture, bulk density, and texture; and (2 indicators of invasion potential: LIRA size, seed production, percent cover, spread (over 1 year, recruitment, and competition with native halophytes (over 6 months. We found LIRA in 15,144 m2 of upper salt marsh habitat in central and south San Francisco bays and L. duriusculum in 511 m2 in Richardson and San Pablo bays. LIRA was distributed from mean high water (MHW to 0.42 m above mean higher high water (MHHW. In both spring and summer, soil moisture and salinity were lowest at higher elevations within LIRA’s range, which corresponded with greater rosette size, inflorescence and seed production (up to 17,400 seeds per plant, percent cover, and recruitment. LIRA cover increased on average by 11% in 1 year across marshes and elevations. Cover of the native halophytes Salicornia pacifica, Jaumea carnosa, and Distichlis spicata declined significantly at all elevations if LIRA were present in plots (over a 6-month, fall–winter period. Results suggest LIRA’s invasion potential is highest above MHHW where salinity and moisture are lower, but that LIRA competes with native plants from MHW to above MHHW. We recommend removal efforts with emphasis on the salt marsh-terrestrial ecotone where LIRA seed output is highest.

  10. Francisco Antonio Zea: periodista, botánico y político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Arango, Diana E.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the journalistic facet of Francisco Antonio Zea, whose first article, «Avisos de Hebephilo», was published in 1791 in the Papel Periódico de la ciudad de Santa Fé de Bogotá. His interest for the press shows at his stage of student in the National Institute of France, but won't be up to 1803, at his return to Madrid, when he proves his talent for the organization and journalistic administration on The Mercury and on the Gazette de Madrid. Later on, being manager of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, he shares the management of the Semanario de Agricultura y Artes, and, finally, in 1818 establishes and directs the Venezuelan Correo del Orinoco.

    Este trabajo analiza la faceta periodística de Francisco Antonio Zea, cuyo primer artículo, «Avisos de Hebephilo», se publicó en 1791 en el Papel Periódico de la ciudad de Santa Fé de Bogota. Su interés por la prensa se manifiesta en su etapa de estudiante en el Instituto Nacional de Francia, pero no será hasta 1803, a su regreso a Madrid, cuando evidencie sus dotes para la organización y dirección periodísticas en El Mercurio y en la Gaceta de Madrid. Posteriormente, siendo director del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, comparte la dirección del Semanario de Agricultura y Artes, y, finalmente, en 1818 funda y dirige el venezolano Correo del Orinoco.

  11. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  12. Empirical evidence for synchrony in the evolution of TB cases and HIV+ contacts among the San Francisco homeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Mohtashemi

    Full Text Available The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB in the mid-1980s in many parts of the world, including the United States, is often attributed to the emergence and rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Although it is well established that TB transmission is particularly amplified in populations with high HIV prevalence, the epidemiology of interaction between TB and HIV is not well understood. This is partly due to the scarcity of HIV-related data, a consequence of the voluntary nature of HIV status reporting and testing, and partly due to current practices of screening high risk populations through separate surveillance programs for HIV and TB. The San Francisco Department of Public Health, TB Control Program, has been conducting active surveillance among the San Francisco high-risk populations since the early 1990s. We present extensive TB surveillance data on HIV and TB infection among the San Francisco homeless to investigate the association between the TB cases and their HIV+ contacts. We applied wavelet coherence and phase analyses to the TB surveillance data from January 1993 through December 2005, to establish and quantify statistical association and synchrony in the highly non-stationary and ostensibly non-periodic waves of TB cases and their HIV+ contacts in San Francisco. When stratified by homelessness, we found that the evolution of TB cases and their HIV+ contacts is highly coherent over time and locked in phase at a specific periodic scale among the San Francisco homeless, but no significant association was observed for the non-homeless. This study confirms the hypothesis that the dynamics of HIV and TB are significantly intertwined and that HIV is likely a key factor in the sustenance of TB transmission among the San Francisco homeless. The findings of this study underscore the importance of contact tracing in detection of HIV+ individuals that may otherwise remain undetected, and

  13. Plankton data collected using net casts from the FRANCISCO DE ULLOA in the North Pacific Ocean from 15 July 1998 to 30 July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Plankton data were collected using net casts in the North Pacific Ocean from FRANCISCO DE ULLOA. Data were collected from 15 July 1998 to 30 July 1998. Data were...

  14. Zooplankton data collected using net casts from the FRANCISCO DE ULLOA in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 January 1999 to 31 January 1999 (NODC Accession 0000912)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using net casts in the North Pacific Ocean from FRANCISCO DE ULLOA. Data were collected from 01 January 1999 to 31 January 1999. Data...

  15. PCDD/F, PCB, HXCBZ, PAH, AND PM EMISSION FACTORS FOR FIREPLACE AND WOODSTOVE COMBUSTION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from residential fireplace and woodstove appliances burning fuels available from the San Francisco Bay area were sampled for polychlornated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), particulatematter (P...

  16. University of California San Francisco (UCSF-2): Expression Analysis of Superior Cervical Ganglion from Backcrossed TH-MYCN Transgenic Mice | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at University of California San Francisco (UCSF-2) used genetic analysis of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system to identify potential therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma. Read the abstract Experimental Approaches Read the detailed Experimental Approaches

  17. EX1006 Hawaii to San Francisco Transit to Drydock (EX1006, EM302) on Okeanos Explorer in Hawaii, US West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Okeanos Explorer (EX) will transit from Honolulu, HI to San Francisco for the winter inport and drydock period. During the transit, the EX will perform 24-hour...

  18. ESCARABAJOS TIGRE (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE DEL MUSEO ENTOMOLÓGICO FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA TIGER BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE AT THE ENTOMOLOGICAL MUSEUM FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NEW RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ramírez Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez las especies de escarabajos tigre (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae presentes en el Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG. Se identificaron 167 especimenes distribuidos en ocho géneros y 27 especies, se reportan 24 nuevos registros para diferentes departamentos de Colombia. Se señalan aspectos importantes de la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Además, se presentan comentarios biológicos y de distribución de las especies.Tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae species at the Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG are registered by first time. 167 specimens in 8 genus and 27 species were identified, 24 new records for different Colombian states are reported. Some important aspects of the group’s taxonomy and systematic are pointed. Additionally, species’ biological and distributional comments are presented.

  19. Thermal modeling and geomorphology of the south border of the Sao Francisco Craton: thermochronology by fission tracks in apatites;Modelagem termica e geomorfologia da borda sul do Craton do Sao Francisco: termocronologia por tracos de fissao em apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackspacher, Peter Christian [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de; Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geologia Regional; Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Brandini [NUCLEARGEO, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2007-12-15

    Recent developments in Fission Track thermochronology associated to mesozoic-cenozoic erosion and tectonic presented trough thematic maps (isotemperature), permit to model the landscape evolution in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton, southeastern Brazil. Paleotemperature, obtained by fission track analysis in apatite, is closely related to geomorphologic interpretations. The area suffered a complex imprint of endogenous and exogenous processes resulting diversified and differentiated relieves. The landscape is strongly controlled by exhumation between Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, uplift with tectonic denudation related to crustal heating at the Upper Cretaceous and reactivation of faults until the Miocene. This scenario is a result of reactivations of different brittle structures that accommodate the deformation in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton. The landscape reflects denudations of up to 3 km with preserved remains of erosive surfaces in the topographical tops and chronocorrelates deposits in the basins of the region. (author)

  20. A Política Econômica Regional do Vale do São Francisco: Uma Busca do Desenvolvimento do Interior Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vieira Camelo Filho-Zuza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O rio São Francisco é um marco econômico do interior do Brasil desde o século XVI, com o desenvolvimento da pecuária no seu Vale e este trabalho procura contribuir com a discussão a respeito da política econômica regional aplicada nesta parte do país. A água é a principal riqueza do rio e do seu Vale e foco das atividades econômicas no decorrer de 6 décadas, cuja política de desenvolvimento regional é a mais antiga do País, iniciada com a criação da empresa estatal Companhia Hidrelétrica do São Francisco -CHESF, em 1945. No ano seguinte, a nova Constituição do País estabeleceu que 1% do orçamento da União deveria ser destinado ao desenvolvimento do Vale do Francisco durante 20 anos. Em 1948, o Governo Central criou a Comissão do Vale do São Francisco - CVSF para realizar a infra-estrutura do Vale, mas foi substituída pela Superintendência do Vale do São Francisco - SUVALE, em 1967. A partir de 1974, a SUVALE deu lugar a Companhia de Desenvolvimento do Vale do São Francisco - CODEVASF, empresa responsável pelo desenvolvimento do Vale. Paralelamente esta região vem recebendo uma série investimentos públicos e privados como a implantação da Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco- UNIVASF em 2003. O início das obras de transferência de água do São Francisco para outras bacias hidrográficas e da E.F. Transnordestina, ambas em 2007.

  1. Acculturation, Dietary Practices and Risk for Childhood Obesity in an Ethnically Heterogeneous Population of Latino School Children in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4–6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to ...

  2. Distribution and demography of San Francisco gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) at Mindego Ranch, Russian Ridge Open Space Preserve, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard; Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2018-04-26

    San Francisco gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) are a subspecies of common gartersnakes endemic to the San Francisco Peninsula of northern California. Because of habitat loss and collection for the pet trade, San Francisco gartersnakes were listed as endangered under the precursor to the Federal Endangered Species Act. A population of San Francisco gartersnakes resides at Mindego Ranch, San Mateo County, which is part of the Russian Ridge Open Space Preserve owned and managed by the Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District (MROSD). Because the site contained non-native fishes and American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), MROSD implemented management to eliminate or reduce the abundance of these non-native species in 2014. We monitored the population using capture-mark-recapture techniques to document changes in the population during and following management actions. Although drought confounded some aspects of inference about the effects of management, prey and San Francisco gartersnake populations generally increased following draining of Aquatic Feature 3. Continued management of the site to keep invasive aquatic predators from recolonizing or increasing in abundance, as well as vegetation management that promotes heterogeneous grassland/shrubland near wetlands, likely would benefit this population of San Francisco gartersnakes.

  3. Tras ser desfigurado, Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla entra en el parnaso español. Los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the presence of the theater of Francisco de Rojas in the Spanish scenes of centuries XVIII and XIX, as well as the way in which the critical and historians of Literature valued that author. The refundiciones of their works, their relation with Fernandez de Moratín and their entrance in the national Parnaso are detailed.El artículo estudia la presencia del teatro de Francisco de Rojas en los escenarios españoles de los siglos XVIII y XIX, así como el modo en que los críticos e historiadores de la literatura valoraron a ese autor. Se detallan las refundiciones de sus obras, su relación con Fernández de Moratín y su entrada en el Parnaso nacional.

  4. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  5. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  6. Part I, Introduction: Ecology and Regional Context of Tidal Wetlands in the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Ferner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This two-part special issue reviews the basic ecology of tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary. Several articles highlight the well-preserved tracts of historic tidal marsh found at China Camp State Park and Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve. These two protected areas serve as important reference sites for wetland restoration and conservation and also comprise San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (SF Bay NERR. SF Bay NERR is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s nationwide network of 28 estuarine research reserves (http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov that all share common goals: (1 conducting standardized long-term monitoring, (2 supporting applied environmental research, (3 providing stewardship of estuarine natural resources, and (4 linking science with decision making in pursuit of effective solutions to coastal management problems.

  7. Crisis of the social and emergence of sociality in the new scenarios of identity. The San Francisco district of Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cavia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The San Francisco district in Bilbao (Spain is undergoing a deep process of urban transformation in which there is a convergence of different dynamics —economic (property speculation, social (appearance of associations and social movements and political (rehabilitation plans. In order to explain this transformation, we test two hypotheses in the article: gentrification and the crisis of the social institutions (politics, religion and work that traditionally articulated society. To counterbalance the shortcomings of the two hypotheses we redefine them as mere “conditions of possibility” of the emergence of new forms of sociality, the depoliticisation of signifieds and the production of new spaces. San Francisco constitutes a variable cronotope that provokes a blurring in sociological configurations and in social norms and sanctions.

  8. Promoting Health and Safety in San Francisco's Chinatown Restaurants: Findings and Lessons Learned from a Pilot Observational Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Megan; Bhatia, Rajiv; Morales, Alvaro; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Krause, Niklas; Minkler, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Noncompliance with labor and occupational health and safety laws contributes to economic and health inequities. Environmental health agencies are well positioned to monitor workplace conditions in many industries and support enhanced enforcement by responsible regulatory agencies. In collaboration with university and community partners, the San Francisco Department of Public Health used an observational checklist to assess preventable occupational injury hazards and compliance with employee notification requirements in 106 restaurants in San Francisco's Chinatown. Sixty-five percent of restaurants had not posted required minimum wage, paid sick leave, or workers' compensation notifications; 82% of restaurants lacked fully stocked first-aid kits; 52% lacked antislip mats; 37% lacked adequate ventilation; and 28% lacked adequate lighting. Supported by a larger community-based participatory research process, this pilot project helped to spur additional innovative health department collaborations to promote healthier workplaces. PMID:21836739

  9. Destigmatizing hepatitis B in the Asian American community: lessons learned from the San Francisco Hep B Free Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Fang, Ted; Zola, Janet; Dariotis, Wei Ming

    2012-03-01

    Compared to any other racial/ethnic group, Asian Americans represent a population disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a leading cause of liver cancer. Since 2007, the San Francisco Hep B Free (SFHBF) Campaign has been actively creating awareness and education on the importance of screening, testing, and vaccination of HBV among Asian Americans. In order to understand what messages resonated with Asian Americans in San Francisco, key informant interviews with 23 (n = 23) individuals involved in community outreach were conducted. A key finding was the ability of the SFHBF campaign to utilize unique health communication strategies to break the silence and normalize discussions of HBV. In addition, the campaign's approach to using public disclosures and motivating action by emphasizing solutions towards ending HBV proved to resonate with Asian Americans. The findings and lessons learned have implications for not only HBV but other stigmatized health issues in the Asian American community.

  10. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  11. Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, pastor del rebaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Herrera, Rocío

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Which was the pastoral profile of Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, archbishop of Mexico? Through the dates of the Book of visit in his fourth journey in the regions of Chalco, Amilpas, Xochimilco and Coyoacan from december 4th 1686 to april 9th 1687, and making use of the thematic biography as method, the answer to the initial question has arrived. After the Council of Trent, the bishop had the duty to promote the reform of customs in his diocese; the pastoral visit was a privileged way to achieve it. The archbishop Aguiar, educated from the tridentine discipline in the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, made of his pastoral visit a really popular mission among the people. He takes a small itinerant curia, to govern and discharging justice in a delegated manner. A disciplined, austere and conciliator man, he served as a souls shepherd more than a court official.¿Cuál fue el perfil pastoral de Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, arzobispo de México? A través de los datos que aporta el Libro de visita de su cuarta salida a las regiones de Chalco, Amilpas, Xochimilco y Coyoacán del 4 de diciembre de 1686 al 9 de abril de 1687, y utilizando la metodología de la biografía temática, se ha dado respuesta a la pregunta inicial. Luego del Concilio de Trento, el obispo tenía el grave deber de suscitar la reforma de las costumbres en su diócesis; la visita pastoral fue un medio privilegiado para lograrlo. El arzobispo Aguiar, formado bajo la disciplina tridentina en la arquidiócesis compostelana, hizo de su visita pastoral una verdadera misión popular entre la gente. Acompañado de una pequeña curia itinerante, gobernó e impartió justicia con características de delegación de poder. Hombre disciplinado, austero y de carácter conciliador se dirigió más como pastor de almas que como funcionario real. [gl] Cal foi o perfil pastoral de Francisco de Aguiar e Seijas, arcebispo de México? A través dos datos que achega o libro de visita da s

  12. Sub-tidal benthic habitats of central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles; Vallier, Tracy; Golden, Nadine E.; Cross, Jeffery; Ryan, Holly F.; Dieter, Bryan; Niven, Eric; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water potential estuarine and marine benthic habitat types were defined from a variety of new and interpreted data sets in central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area including multibeam echosounder (MBES), side-scan sonar and bottom grab samples. Potential estuarine benthic habitats identified for the first time range from hard bedrock outcrops on island and mainland flanks and some Bay floor

  13. Distribution and Genetic Structure of Fucus distichus Linnaeus 1953 (formerly F. gardneri within Central San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Whitaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art4Fucus distichus, a rockweed common to the mid-intertidal shoreline within the San Francisco Estuary (previously known as F. gardneri, was injured during the Cosco Busan oil spill in November 2007 and subsequent clean-up actions. Restoration planning activities are underway to help recover F. distichus at sites within central San Francisco Bay where damage occurred. As a first step, we conducted shoreline surveys during the summers of 2012–2013 to map the occurrence of this rockweed. Of the 151.73 km of rocky shoreline within the central bay, F. distichus covered 32.16 km of shoreline. The alga generally occurred in narrow bands but formed expansive beds at locations with natural, flat bedrock benches. We also observed F. distichus on artificial substrata such as seawalls and riprap, but not on pilings. Samples of F. distichus from 11 sites throughout the central / east San Francisco Bay were genetically analyzed (microsatellite genotyping. The populations analyzed (1 had low genetic diversity, (2 the frequency of homozygotes was higher than expected (suggesting high inbreeding, and (3 also displayed geographic population structure, in part driven by very small differences in the midst of extremely low within-population genetic diversity. However, these genetic data do not raise concerns for restoration methods in terms of choosing donor populations and mixing F. distichus from different sites within the central bay. The choice of donor populations should be based on practical criteria for effective restoration; individuals will nonetheless be taken from locations as nearby to donor sites as possible. Various locations throughout the central San Francisco Bay are composed of cobble or small riprap that are populated with F. distichus, which could provide efficient means of translocating rockweed for future restoration activities.

  14. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children’s oral health. Methods SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science–informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Outcome Through SFHIP’s efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. Interpretation The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity. PMID:28333598

  15. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A

    2017-03-23

    The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children's oral health. SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science-informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Through SFHIP's efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity.

  16. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  17. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Arag?n, Tom?s J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report o...

  18. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  19. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  20. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  1. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  2. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay Region; part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Roth, Edward F.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for estimating the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. In the current program seismic velocities have been measured at 59 locations 1n the San Francisco Bay Region. This report is the third in a series of Open-File Reports and describes the in-situ velocity measurements at locations 35-59. At each location seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill cuttings, undisturbed (cored) samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the sites. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. There is a variety of geologic and seismic data available in the San Francisco Bay Region for use 1n developing the general zoning techniques which can then be applied to other areas. Shear wave velocities 1n near-surface geologic materials are of especial interest for engineering seismology and seismic zonation studies, yet in general, they are difficult to measure because of contamination by compressional waves. A comparison of various in-situ techniques by Warrick (1974) establishes the reliability of the method utilizing a "horizontal traction" source for sites underlain by bay mud and alluvium. Gibbs, and others (1975a) present data from 12 holes and establishes the reliability of the method for sites underlain by a variety of different rock units and suggest extending the measurements to

  3. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA), by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. I. Introduction and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, James T.; Thompson, Janet K.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1990-01-01

    The euryhaline bivalve mollusc Potamocorbula amurensis (family Corbulidae), a native of China, Japan, and Korea, has recently appeared and become very abundant in San Francisco Bay. This clam appears to have been introduced as veliger larvae in the seawater ballast of cargo vessels. It was first collected in northern San Francisco Bay in late 1986. P, amurensis then spread throughout the estuary within 2 yr and reached densities at some sites exceeding 10 000 m-2 It lives primarily in the subtidal on all substrates (mud, sand, peat, and clay) and is found in the full range of bay salinities (estuary ecosystem. These could include changes in (1) trophic dynamics (through competition with other suspension-feeding and deposit-feeding infauna; changes in benthic community energy flow; availability of a new and abundant prey item for birds, fish, and crabs; and reduction - as a result of its filter feeding - of phytoplankton standmg stock) and (2) benthic dynamics (through inhibition and/or enhancement of infauna due to substrate destabilization; alteration of suspended sediment load of near-bottom water; and change of sediment surface redox balance). The early detection of the appearance and spread of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay makes this one of the best documented invasions of any estuary in the world.

  4. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  5. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion; human modification of sediment supply; introduction of non-native species; sewage input; environmental policy; and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion; decreasing turbidity; restructuring of plankton communities; nutrient enrichment; elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota; and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The wide range of variability time scales and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs. But the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  6. Mercury burdens in Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in three tributaries of southern San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Clifford A. [US Geological Survey, 7801 Folsom Blvd, Suite 101, Sacramento, CA 95826 (United States)]. E-mail: bioinvestigations@sbcglobal.net; Rudnick, Deborah [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Erin [US Fish and Wildlife Service, 4001 N. Wilson Way, Stockton, CA 95205 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators. - Hepatopancreas concentrations of mercury decline with crab size, which may have important consequences for bio-magnification in food webs.

  7. Drivers of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems: Discoveries from four decades of study in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.

    2012-12-01

    Poised at the interface of rivers, ocean, atmosphere and dense human settlement, estuaries are driven by a large array of natural and anthropogenic forces. San Francisco Bay exemplifies the fast-paced change occurring in many of the world's estuaries, bays, and inland seas in response to these diverse forces. We use observations from this particularly well-studied estuary to illustrate responses to six drivers that are common agents of change where land and sea meet: water consumption and diversion, human modification of sediment supply, introduction of nonnative species, sewage input, environmental policy, and climate shifts. In San Francisco Bay, responses to these drivers include, respectively, shifts in the timing and extent of freshwater inflow and salinity intrusion, decreasing turbidity, restructuring of plankton communities, nutrient enrichment, elimination of hypoxia and reduced metal contamination of biota, and food web changes that decrease resistance of the estuary to nutrient pollution. Detection of these changes and discovery of their causes through environmental monitoring have been essential for establishing and measuring outcomes of environmental policies that aim to maintain high water quality and sustain services provided by estuarine-coastal ecosystems. The many time scales of variability and the multiplicity of interacting drivers place heavy demands on estuarine monitoring programs, but the San Francisco Bay case study illustrates why the imperative for monitoring has never been greater.

  8. Mercury burdens in Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in three tributaries of southern San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Clifford A.; Rudnick, Deborah; Williams, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators. - Hepatopancreas concentrations of mercury decline with crab size, which may have important consequences for bio-magnification in food webs

  9. Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

  10. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.

  11. Changes in causes of death among persons with AIDS: San Francisco, California, 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Vu, Annie; Hsu, Ling Chin; Hessol, Nancy A

    2014-10-01

    The increased life expectancy among HIV-infected persons treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), risk behaviors, and co-morbidities associated with ART place HIV-infected persons at risk for non-HIV-related causes of death. We used the San Francisco HIV/AIDS registry to identify deaths that occurred from January 1996 through December 2011. Temporal trends in AIDS- and non-AIDS-related mortality rates, the proportion of underlying and contributory causes of death, and the ratio of observed deaths in the study population to expected number of deaths among California men aged 20-79 (standardized mortality ratio [SMR]) of underlying causes of death were examined. A total of 5338 deaths were identified. The annual AIDS-related death rate (per 100 deaths) declined from 10.8 in 1996 to 0.9 in 2011 (pdeath rate from non-AIDS-related causes declined from 2.1 in 1996 to 0.9 in 2011 (pdeaths due to all types of heart disease combined, all non-AIDS cancers combined, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse, drug overdose, suicide and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased significantly over time. The SMRs for liver diseased decreased significantly over time but remained elevated. Our data highlight the importance of age-related causes of death as well as deaths from causes that are, at least in part, preventable.

  12. Geophysical Analysis of Young Monogenetic Volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, S.; Porter, R. C.; Riggs, N.

    2017-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), located in northern Arizona, USA, contains some of the youngest intracontinental volcanism within the United States and, given its recent eruptive history, presents an excellent opportunity to better understand how these systems behave. Geophysical techniques such as magnetics, paleomagnetics, and seismic refraction can be used to understand eruptive behavior and image shallow subsurface structures. As such, they present an opportunity to understand eruptive processes associated with the monogenetic volcanism that is common within the SFVF. These techniques are especially beneficial in areas where erosion has not exposed shallow eruptive features within the volcano. We focus on two volcanoes within the SFVF, Merriam Crater and Crater 120 for this work. These are thought to be some of the youngest volcanoes in the field and, as such, are well preserved. Aside from being young, they both exhibit interesting features such as multiple vents, apparent vent alignment, and lack of erosional features that are present at many of the other volcanoes in the SFVF, making them ideal for this work. Initial results show that shallow subsurface basaltic masses can be located using geophysical techniques. These masses are interpreted as dikes or lava flows that are covered by younger scoria. Propagating dikes drive eruptions at monogenetic volcanoes, which often appear in aligned clusters. Locating these features will further the understanding of how magma is transported and how eruptions may have progressed.

  13. Breast cancer characteristics of Vietnamese women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Scarlett S; Phan, John C; Lin, Albert Y

    2002-03-01

    To examine breast cancer characteristics of women of Vietnamese ancestry living in the San Francisco Bay Area in comparison with those of other racial or ethnic groups in the same area. Data were obtained from the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We included breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1988 to 1999 and compared the age at diagnosis, stage and histologic grade at diagnosis, estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status, and surgery types across racial or ethnic groups. We also modeled the effect of patient and clinical characteristics and hospital and physician on the racial or ethnic variations in surgery type. Vietnamese women were younger at diagnosis than other racial or ethnic subgroups (mean age, 51.0 years), with 49.6% of the diagnoses occurring in patients younger than 50. They were also significantly more likely to have received mastectomy for their in situ and localized tumors (61.1% having mastectomy) than women of other racial or ethnic groups. The increased likelihood of having mastectomy among Vietnamese women was not affected greatly by age, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, histologic grade, or physician, but was partly attributable to the hospital of diagnosis. The effects of a lower mean age at diagnosis and the reasons for an unexpectedly higher percentage of mastectomies in this Asian subgroup should be further explored.

  14. Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkyoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether and to what extent wind discourages sustainable transportation mode choice, which includes riding public transportation, bicycling, and walking. A six month-long field study was carried out at four locations in San Francisco, a city that has been promoting sustainable transportation mode choice but that experiences high wind levels. It involved surveying pedestrians and on-site recording of microclimate data using various instruments. The survey adopted a mixed-method approach to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Statistical analyses using Kruskal Wallis tests and ordinal logistic regression models identified the significant effect of wind speed on San Francisco’s residents in estimating their discouragement for waiting at transit stop without shelter, bicycling, and walking. Qualitative data revealed a deeper understanding of how wind influences their sustainable transportation mode choice. This research argues for the need to adopt climate-based efforts in urban planning and policy and sheds light on the climate resilience of cities

  15. Fundamentos teológicos de la censura en Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lázaro Pulido

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available La censura es un acto recogido dentro del Código de Derecho Canónico. La teología subyacente se inscribe dentro de la historia de la salvación propia del concilio Vaticano II. Varios siglos antes, el maestro jesuita Francisco Suárez reflexionó sobre la censura en un voluminoso tratado (Disputationum de censuris…, en el que anticipa los elementos pertenecientes a la censura que aparecen en el actual CDC. Suárez realiza una lectura teológica en el que destaca el carácter medicinal de la censura, a partir de la lectura sacramental de la pena y desde un antropología de la voluntad, que supone una apuesta por la prevención del hombre y su salvación, antes que por su carácter penal, o si se quiere por dotar a la ley penal de un carácter salvífico.

  16. Elevational dependence of projected hydrologic changes in the San Francisco Estuary and watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N.; Cayan, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    California's primary hydrologic system, the San Francisco Estuary and its upstream watershed, is vulnerable to the regional hydrologic consequences of projected global climate change. Previous work has shown that a projected warming would result in a reduction of snowpack storage leading to higher winter and lower spring-summer streamflows and increased spring-summer salinities in the estuary. The present work shows that these hydrologic changes exhibit a strong dependence on elevation, with the greatest loss of snowpack volume in the 1300-2700 m elevation range. Exploiting hydrologic and estuarine modeling capabilities to trace water as it moves through the system reveals that the shift of water in mid-elevations of the Sacramento river basin from snowmelt to rainfall runoff is the dominant cause of projected changes in estuarine inflows and salinity. Additionally, although spring-summer losses of estuarine inflows are balanced by winter gains, the losses have a stronger influence on salinity since longer spring-summer residence times allow the inflow changes to accumulate in the estuary. The changes in inflows sourced in the Sacramento River basin in approximately the 1300-2200 m elevation range thereby lead to a net increase in estuarine salinity under the projected warming. Such changes would impact ecosystems throughout the watershed and threaten to contaminate much of California's freshwater supply.

  17. Predator removal and nesting waterbird success at San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of long-term predator removal in urbanized areas is poorly understood. The impact of predation on ground-nesting waterbirds, as well as predator abundance and composition in predator removal versus non-removal or reference sites were examined at South San Francisco Bay. The success of natural nests and predator activity was monitored using track plates, trip cameras, wire haircatchers and simulated nests. Removal sites had higher nest densities, but lower hatching success than reference sites. Predator composition and abundance were not different at the removal and reference sites for any predator other than feral Cat (Felis domesticus). Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) comprised the majority (84%) of predators removed, yet remained the most abundant predators in removal and reference sites. Urban environments provide supplemental food that may influence skunks and other nest predators to immigrate into vacancies created by predator removal. Based on the findings from this study, predator removal should be applied intensively over a larger geographic area in order to be a viable management strategy for some mammalian species in urbanized areas.

  18. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter backscatter for quantification of suspended sediment concentration in South San Francisco Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Work, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    A data set was acquired on a shallow mudflat in south San Francisco Bay that featured simultaneous, co-located optical and acoustic sensors for subsequent estimation of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). The optical turbidity sensor output was converted to SSC via an empirical relation derived at a nearby site using bottle sample estimates of SSC. The acoustic data was obtained using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Backscatter and noise were combined to develop another empirical relation between the optical estimates of SSC and the relative backscatter from the acoustic velocimeter. The optical and acoustic approaches both reproduced similar general trends in the data and have merit. Some seasonal variation in the dataset was evident, with the two methods differing by greater or lesser amounts depending on which portion of the record was examined. It is hypothesized that this is the result of flocculation, affecting the two signals by different degrees, and that the significance or mechanism of the flocculation has some seasonal variability. In the earlier portion of the record (March), there is a clear difference that appears in the acoustic approach between ebb and flood periods, and this is not evident later in the record (May). The acoustic method has promise but it appears that characteristics of flocs that form and break apart may need to be accounted for to improve the power of the method. This may also be true of the optical method: both methods involve assuming that the sediment characteristics (size, size distribution, and shape) are constant.

  19. Basta de perseguir al pensamiento disidente: ¡Libertad al profesor Francisco Toloza!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Kohan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Todo el tiempo encarcelan a nuestros compañeros. Buscan cansarnos y desgastarnos.  No  hay  mes  que  no  haya  que escribir  solidarizándose con algún revolucionario que acaban de encarcelar. ¿A esto llaman “libertad”? ¿A esto denominan “pluralismo”? ¿Esto es “el mundo libre”? ¡Por favor! Largan a uno y al día siguiente hay otro encarcelado. Acaban de soltar al cantante y compositor Julián Conrado y al mismo tiempo encarcelan al profesor Francisco Toloza. Nos mantienen “ocupados” pidiendo y reclamando todo el tiempo “suelten a fulano”, “liberen a mengano”. En Colombia. También en Argentina. En Paraguay. En todo el continente. No acabamos de ir a ver a un dirigente piquetero a la cárcel que ya hay otro campesino que está preso. No terminan de soltar a un cantante popular que ya metieron tras las rejas a un conocido profesor universitario. Y en ese vaivén se nos va la vida. Visitando presos, escribiendo todo el tiempo estas cartas de solidaridad, tratando de frenar la represión, la persecución, la demonización. ¿Hasta cuándo?

  20. El acuerdo cubano-americano y la diplomacia del papa Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Mazzina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El acuerdo celebrado entre Cuba y Estados Unidos en el último diciembre de 2014 por el que se acordó la reanudación de las relaciones entre ambos países, después de más de cincuenta años de interrupción, demuestra un cambio histórico y una oportunidad recíproca. El presente artículo hace un recorrido por las relaciones bilaterales en clave histórico-política para luego revisar los hechos que desembocaron en el acuerdo, teniendo en cuenta que este implicó una negociación compleja y el esfuerzo de una serie de actores heterogéneos. Entre los distintos actores, el artículo destaca la actuación del papa Francisco como posibilitador del acuerdo y constructor del puente del diálogo entre Obama y Raúl Castro. Finalmente se introduce y reflexiona acerca de los puntos aún controversiales para el avance de las relaciones bilaterales.

  1. Leadership lessons from curricular change at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Irby, David M

    2007-04-01

    After successive Liaison Committee on Medical Education accreditation reports that criticized the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine for lack of instructional innovation and curriculum oversight, the dean issued a mandate for curriculum reform in 1997. Could a medical school that prided itself on innovation in research and health care do the same in education? The authors describe their five-phase curriculum change process and correlate this to an eight-step leadership model. The first phase of curricular change is to establish a compelling need for change; it requires leaders to create a sense of urgency and build a guiding coalition to achieve action. The second phase of curriculum reform is to envision a bold new curriculum; leaders must develop such a vision and communicate it broadly. The third phase is to design curriculum and obtain the necessary approvals; this requires leaders to empower broad-based action and generate short-term wins. In the fourth phase, specific courses are developed for the new curriculum, and leaders continue to empower broad-based action, generate short-term wins, consolidate gains, and produce more change. During the fifth phase of implementation and evaluation, leaders need to further consolidate gains, produce more change, and anchor new approaches in the institution. Arising from this experience and the correlation of curricular change phases with leadership steps, the authors identify 27 specific leadership strategies they employed in their curricular reform process.

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by a mini-symposium on Tuesday May 22, with one featured speaker and presentation of nine abstracts covering a range of research topics. Mattias Salathe (University of Miami, USA and Stephen Brody (Washington University, St Louis, USA chaired the symposium session. Presentations focused on the clinical spectrum of PCD, the genetics of PCD, a proteomics approach to detail the structure of cilia, the role of cilia in the embryology of situs laterality, and airway epithelial cell biology. The mini-symposium was chaired by Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina, USA and Malcolm King (University of Alberta, USA and included presentations on the use of PCD as a human disease model, accurate definition of the phenotype using clinical and cell biologic markers, and molecular studies. The latter reports ranged from isolation of a protein involved in ciliary structure and function to genetic studies using linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach. Clinicians and scientists alike displayed considerable interest at both sessions, and there were several lively question–answer sessions.

  3. Breast cancer among American Japanese in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J E

    1977-12-01

    The Japanese-American population was particularly well suited for the study of cancer occurrence because: 1) An American-born population as well as the immigrant Japanese-American population could be studied; 2) good cancer incidence and mortality data from Japan could be compared with data from the United States; and 3) some differences in the rate of occurrence of several specific cancer sites in Japan as compared with the United States were striking. The most significant of these involved the gastrointestinal tract and sex organs. Data were presented concerning cancer incidence rates for the Japanese-American population of the San Francisco Bay area. The high gastric rates for the Japanese in Japan were reduced in a stepwise fashion in the immigrant Japanese-American population to the American-born Japanese who were approaching the low rate of the United States. Colon cancer rates, which were low in Japan, approached the rates in the United States in both the immigrants from Japan and in Japanese Americans. The low rates of cancers of the breast, uterine corpus, and ovary of Japanese women in Japan and for prostate cancer among men rapidly approached the higher rates for these cancer sites that existed in the United States. A study of nutritional factors related to the increase of cancer of the breast in Japanese Americans is being conducted.

  4. Delta smelt: Life history and decline of a once abundant species in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Peter B.; Brown, Larry R.; Durand, John R; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews what has been learned about Delta Smelt and its status since the publication of The State of Bay-Delta Science, 2008 (Healey et al. 2008). The Delta Smelt is endemic to the upper San Francisco Estuary. Much of its historic habitat is no longer available and remaining habitat is increasingly unable to sustain the population. As a listed species living in the central node of California’s water supply system, Delta Smelt has been the focus of a large research effort to understand causes of decline and identify ways to recover the species. Since 2008, a remarkable record of innovative research on Delta Smelt has been achieved, which is summarized here. Unfortunately, research has not prevented the smelt’s continued decline, which is the result of multiple, interacting factors. A major driver of decline is change to the Delta ecosystem from water exports, resulting in reduced outflows and high levels of entrainment in the large pumps of the South Delta. Invasions of alien species, encouraged by environmental change, have also played a contributing role in the decline. Severe drought effects have pushed Delta Smelt to record low levels in 2014–2015. The rapid decline of the species and failure of recovery efforts demonstrate an inability to manage the Delta for the “co-equal goals” of maintaining a healthy ecosystem and providing a reliable water supply for Californians. Diverse and substantial management actions are needed to preserve Delta Smelt.

  5. Avian communities in baylands and artificial salt evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Lu, C.T.; Pratt, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    San Francisco Bay wetlands, seasonal and tidal marshes between the historic low and high tide lines, are now highly fragmented because of development during the past 150 years. Artificial salt pond systems in the Bay are hypersaline and typically support simple assemblages of algae and invertebrates. In order to establish the value of salt ponds for migratory waterbirds, we used datasets to conduct a meta-analysis of avian communities in the baylands and salt ponds of San Pablo Bay. Fifty-three species of waterbirds in the salt ponds represented six foraging guilds: surface feeders, shallow probers, deep probers, dabblers, diving benthivores and piscivores. The total number of species and the Shannon-Weiner diversity index was higher in baylands than in salt ponds during all four seasons. However, overall bird density (number/ha) was higher in salt ponds compared with baylands in the winter and spring, primarily because of large concentrations of benthivores. Cessation of salt production in 1993 and subsequent reduction in water depth resulted in a decline of some diving duck populations that used the salt ponds.

  6. Tipos de tirano y resistencia en Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Font Oporto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende analizar la discusión que Francisco Suárez mantiene con las tesis contrarias a la distinción entre tipos de tirano en la cuestión del tiranicidio (Defensio fidei, Libro VI, capítulo IV, números 10-13. Para esta visión no le es lícito a una persona privada matar a ninguno de los dos tipos de tirano; sólo es posible darles muerte en legítima defensa, porque se entiende que en tal caso se actúa en ejercicio de autoridad pública. Suárez acaba admitiendo esta tesis en el número 13, lo que parece contradecirse con lo sostenido en el número 7, donde se aceptaba la muerte del usurpador por cualquier particular. Sin embargo, en el fondo mantiene la diferencia entre ambos tipos de tirano, por cuanto que en el caso del usurpador sostiene que siempre se dan las condiciones para alegar legítima defensa. Queda sin aclarar qué ocurre en tal caso con las condiciones dispuestas en los números 8 y 9.

  7. The Role of Tidal Marsh Restoration in Fish Management in the San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Herbold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011. Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha. In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta, one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013. The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010. This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium. 

  8. Survival of postfledging Forster's terns in relation to mercury exposure in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Iverson, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors influencing mercury concentrations in 90 fledgling Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and evaluated whether mercury influenced postfledging survival in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations (??SE) in chicks 21-29 days old (just before fledging) were 0.33 ?? 0.01 ??g g-1 ww for blood and 6.44 ?? 0.28 ??g g -1 fw for breast feathers. Colony site had an overriding influence on fledgling contamination, however hatching date and age also affected blood, but not feather, mercury concentrations. Blood mercury concentrations decreased by 28% during the 50-day hatching period and increased with chick age by 30% during the last week prior to fledging. Using radio-telemetry, we calculated that cumulative survival during the 35-day postfledging time period was 0.81 ?? 0.09 (SE). Postfledging survival rates increased with size-adjusted mass, and cumulative survival probability was 61% lower for terns with the lowest, compared to the highest, observed masses. Conversely, survival was not influenced by blood mercury concentration, time since fledging, sex, or hatch date. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of fledglings found dead at nesting colonies also were no different than those in live chicks. Our results indicate that colony site, hatching date, and age influenced mercury concentrations in fledgling Forster's terns, but that mercury did not influence postfledging survival. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  10. Impact of certification on fruit producers in the Sao Francisco Valley in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina DÖRR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Producers and exporters of fresh fruits and vegetables from developingcountries like Brazil are increasingly required to demonstrate the safety andtraceability of their produce up to the consumption stage. In fact, the Brazilianexport market is still relatively underdeveloped, with an export share of only2.4% of the total produced volume. However, certification may also have theeffect of a non-tariff trade barrier, undermining the capability and financialability of especially small-scale farmers in exporting to international markets.This study, therefore, aims at providing an economic analysis of certification onmango and grapes producers. A survey of 303 grapes and mango farmers wasconducted in 2006 in the Juazeiro and Petrolina regions of the Sao FranciscoValley in Brazil. Certified and non-certified farmers as well as those in processto obtain certification were included in the sample. Empirical analysis using alogit model shows that grapes farmers have higher probability to certify thanmango growers. There are two variables which have a positive and significanteffect: education and experience. However, small-scale farms, the dependencyon non-agricultural income and a trust-based arrangement have a negative butsignificant effect.

  11. Predictors of gambling behaviors in Filipino Americans living in Honolulu or San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Isok; Nochajski, Thomas H

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the prevalence and predictors of gambling behaviors between Filipino Americans who live in San Francisco (S.F.) or Honolulu. Data from the 1998-1999 Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey were used to answer two research questions: (1) What are the prevalence and types of gambling behaviors among Filipino Americans and (2) What are the protective/risk factors of heavy gambling for Filipino Americans in S.F. and Honolulu? Overall, S.F. Filipino Americans had a higher level of participation in gambling, and the odds of gambling increased among older age groups, males, those who were US-born, and those with more health problems. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that factors associated with infrequent and regular gambling participation were different between the S.F. group (older, male, higher education) and Honolulu group (male, US-born, more health concerns). Differential gambling environments, i.e., wide open gambling in S.F. and the restrictive gambling in Honolulu, may contribute to gambling participation and predictors of risk gambling Filipino Americans living in Honolulu and S.F. Policy makers and health professionals need to be aware of these differences to serve this population more effectively.

  12. Examining the Effects of Transphobic Discrimination and Race on HIV Risk Among Transwomen in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayasirikul, Sean; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-09-01

    Transwomen, in particular transwomen of color (TWOC), are among the most vulnerable populations at risk for HIV. This secondary analysis is organized using a gender minority stress framework to examine the effects of transphobic discrimination and race on HIV risk factors. We describe the sample of 149 HIV- adult transwomen in San Francisco and use binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between levels of transphobic discrimination and TWOC status on binge drinking and condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), controlling for potential confounders. Those with high levels of transphobic discrimination had 3.59 fold greater odds of engaging in binge drinking compared to those who reported a low level of transphobic discrimination (95% CI 1.284-10.034; P = 0.015). TWOC had nearly threefold greater odds of CRAI compared to white transwomen (95% CI 1.048-8.464; P = 0.040). We discuss implications for gender minority stress research and future interventions for this population.

  13. Bathymetry and digital elevation models of Coyote Creek and Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Finlayson, David P.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fregoso, Theresa A.

    2012-01-05

    In 2010 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center completed three cruises to map the bathymetry of the main channel and shallow intertidal mudflats in the southernmost part of south San Francisco Bay. The three surveys were merged to generate comprehensive maps of Coyote Creek (from Calaveras Point east to the railroad bridge) and Alviso Slough (from the bay to the town of Alviso) to establish baseline bathymetry prior to the breaching of levees adjacent to Alviso and Guadalupe Sloughs as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (http://www.southbayrestoration.org). Since 2010 the USGS has conducted twelve additional surveys to monitor bathymetric change in this region as restoration progresses.The bathymetry surveys were conducted using the state-of-the-art research vessel R/V Parke Snavely outfitted with an interferometric sidescan sonar for swath mapping in extremely shallow water. This publication provides high-resolution bathymetric data collected by the USGS. For the 2010 baseline survey we have merged the bathymetry with aerial lidar data that were collected for the USGS during the same time period to create a seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. The series of bathymetry datasets are provided at 1 m resolution and the 2010 bathymetric/topographic DEM at 2 m resolution. The data are formatted as both X, Y, Z text files and ESRI Arc ASCII files that are accompanied by Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata.

  14. HIV Prevalence, Sexual Partners, Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition Risk Among Trans Men, San Francisco, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-12-01

    We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.

  15. Rescaled range analysis of streamflow records in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marcelo Vitor Oliveira; Celeste, Alcigeimes B.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological time series are sometimes found to have a distinctive behavior known as long-term persistence, in which subsequent values depend on each other even under very large time scales. This implies multiyear consecutive droughts or floods. Typical models used to generate synthetic hydrological scenarios, widely used in the planning and management of water resources, fail to preserve this kind of persistence in the generated data and therefore may have a major impact on projects whose design lives span for long periods of time. This study deals with the evaluation of long-term persistence in streamflow records by means of the rescaled range analysis proposed by British engineer Harold E. Hurst, who first observed the phenomenon in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, Hurst's procedure is enhanced by a strategy based on statistical hypothesis testing. The case study comprises the six main hydroelectric power plants located in the São Francisco River Basin, part of the Brazilian National Grid. Historical time series of inflows to the major reservoirs of the system are investigated and 5/6 sites show significant persistence, with values for the so-called Hurst exponent near or greater than 0.7, i.e., around 40% above the value 0.5 that represents a white noise process, suggesting that decision makers should take long-term persistence into consideration when conducting water resources planning and management studies in the region.

  16. Grazer Functional Roles, Induced Defenses, and Indirect Interactions: Implications for Eelgrass Restoration in San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the individual and interactive roles of consumer species is more than academic when the host plant is a subject of intense conservation interest. In a mesocosm experiment, we compared effects of common invertebrate grazers in San Francisco Bay seagrass (Zostera marina, eelgrass beds, finding that some species (a native opisthobranch, Phyllaplysia taylori; a native isopod, Idotea resecata; and an introduced gastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta enhanced eelgrass growth through removal of epiphytic algae, as is often predicted for small invertebrate grazers on seagrasses, while one (an introduced caprellid amphipod, Caprella cf. drepanochir had neutral effects. In contrast, the putatively-introduced gammaridean amphipod, Ampithoe valida, had strong negative effects on eelgrass (in addition to epiphytes through consumption, as we had previously observed in the field during restoration programs. We tested whether other common grazer species could influence the effects of the eelgrass-grazing Ampithoe, and found that Idotea induced production of phenolic compounds and limited eelgrass damage by Ampithoe, without affecting Ampithoe abundance. These results have implications for restoration strategies, and contribute to a growing awareness of the importance of trait-mediated indirect grazer interactions through grazer-induced changes in plant traits, providing the first example in a seagrass system.

  17. Prediction of maximum earthquake intensities for the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Gibbs, James F.

    1975-01-01

    The intensity data for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the empirical relation derived between 1906 intensities and distance perpendicular to the fault for 917 sites underlain by rocks of the Franciscan Formation is: Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance) (km). For sites on other geologic units intensity increments, derived with respect to this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (AHSA) determined from 99 three-component recordings of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada. The resulting empirical relation is: Intensity Increment = 0.27 +2.70 log (AHSA), and average intensity increments for the various geologic units are -0.29 for granite, 0.19 for Franciscan Formation, 0.64 for the Great Valley Sequence, 0.82 for Santa Clara Formation, 1.34 for alluvium, 2.43 for bay mud. The maximum intensity map predicted from these empirical relations delineates areas in the San Francisco Bay region of potentially high intensity from future earthquakes on either the San Andreas fault or the Hazard fault.

  18. Prediction of maximum earthquake intensities for the San Francisco Bay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Gibbs, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The intensity data for the California earthquake of Apr 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the empirical relation derived between 1906 intensities and distance perpendicular to the fault for 917 sites underlain by rocks of the Franciscan formation is intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (distance) (km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived with respect to this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the average horizontal spectral amplifications (AHSA) determined from 99 three-component recordings of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada. The resulting empirical relation is intensity increment = 0.27 + 2.70 log (AHSA), and average intensity increments for the various geologic units are -0.29 for granite, 0.19 for Franciscan formation, 0.64 for the Great Valley sequence, 0.82 for Santa Clara formation, 1.34 for alluvium, and 2.43 for bay mud. The maximum intensity map predicted from these empirical relations delineates areas in the San Francisco Bay region of potentially high intensity from future earthquakes on either the San Andreas fault or the Hayward fault.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fundamental parameters of Kepler stars (Silva Aguirre+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Creevey, O.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Casagrande, L.; Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.; Nissen, P. E.; Chaplin, W. J.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Stello, D.; van Eylen, V.; Campante, T. L.; Elsworth, Y.; Gilliland, R. L.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Our sample has been extracted from the 77 exoplanet host stars presented in Huber et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJ/767/127). We have made use of the full time-base of observations from the Kepler satellite to uniformly determine precise fundamental stellar parameters, including ages, for a sample of exoplanet host stars where high-quality asteroseismic data were available. We devised a Bayesian procedure flexible in its input and applied it to different grids of models to study systematics from input physics and extract statistically robust properties for all stars. (4 data files).

  20. Daimón: Jednota a protikladnost světa Lopeho de Aguirre

    OpenAIRE

    Janoušková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused on interpretation of the novel Daimón, written by Argentinian writer Abel Posse. It indicates the context of the "Latin America's new historical novel", comments the historical background of the story, touches the concept of time in the novel. Then the work analyses in detail the composition of the novel which is structured as a Tarot cards reading, explains the importance of the Tarot not only for interpretation of the Daimón novel, but also for understanding the ...

  1. Seasonal changes in the microzooplankton off the Aguirre Power Complex, Jobos Bay, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    Of the total microzooplankton at the site copepods formed, on the average, 59 percent of the standing stock numbers and 72 percent of the biomass. Six groups accounted for most of the remaining abundance and biomass. These are in order of numerical dominance: tintinnids, larvaceans, mollusc veligers, pelagic rotifers and polychaete larvae. Together with the copepods they constituted more than 90 percent of the microzooplankton. The majority of the groups and species encountered during the study were embayment forms. The microzooplankton assemblage they formed differed from Puerto Rico coastal plankton associations in species composition, diversity, and abundances, the former having a lower diversity and maintaining standing stocks an order of magnitude higher. The smaller zooplankton populations in Jobos Bay showed many affinities in structure to microzooplankton in other similar areas. Two exceptions are notable. Abundances and biomass levels are higher than would be predicted from the literature, and the persistence of larvaceans at the high densities observed at the site has not been noted elsewhere

  2. Examining social supply among nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma; Lau, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know. Coomber and colleagues' (2007; 2013) concept of "social supply" raises the question: When friends supply or facilitate supply of drugs to friends, is this really dealing? Further, if dealing and supplying are distinct kinds of social transactions, should different types of criminal justice approaches be applied? Social supply extends our understanding of drug dealing as a complex social activity. In this article, we examine the issue of social supply among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We conducted a 36-month National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project to conduct a qualitative, mixed methods study of 150 adult nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area. We explore intersecting factors, including life stage and social location, that contribute to decisions to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, motivations to use, knowledge about risks and benefits of prescription stimulant use, any adverse health or social consequences experienced, availability, acquisition and diversion of prescription stimulants, and differences in attitudes and behaviours. For this analysis, we rely on participants' narratives concerning prescription stimulant acquisition practices and how they understood these interactions, purchases, and exchanges with the suppliers of prescription stimulants in their social networks. The authors argue that acknowledging the

  3. Understanding the Occurrence and Transport of Current-use Pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Kuivila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and potential effects of current-use pesticides are of concern in the San Francisco Estuary watershed but our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination is limited. This paper summarizes almost two decades of historical data and uses it to describe our current knowledge of the processes controlling the occurrence of current-use pesticides in the watershed. Monitoring studies analyze fewer than half of the pesticides applied in the watershed and most of our knowledge is about inputs of dissolved pesticides in the upper watershed. The four major seasonal patterns of riverine inputs of pesticides to the estuary can be identified by usage and transport mechanism. Dormant spray insecticides applied to orchards and herbicides applied to a variety of crops are transported by rainfall during the winter. Alfalfa pesticides are detected following rainfall and irrigation return flow in the spring, and rice pesticides are detected following release of rice field water in the summer. Irrigation return flows transport a variety of herbicides during the summer. In addition, pesticides applied on Delta islands can cause elevated pesticide concentrations in localized areas. Although not as well characterized, urban creeks appear to have their own patterns of insecticide concentrations causing toxicity throughout most of the year. Current-use pesticides have also been detected on suspended and bed sediments throughout the watershed but limited data make it difficult to determine occurrence patterns. Data gaps include the lack of analysis of many pesticides (or degradates, changing pesticide use, limited information on pesticide transport within the Delta, and an incomplete understanding of the transport and persistence of sediment-associated pesticides. Future monitoring programs should be designed to address these data gaps.

  4. Mercury dynamics in a San Francisco estuary tidal wetland: assessing dynamics using in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Downing, Bryan D.; Boss, Emmanuel; Pellerin, Brian A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Byington, Amy A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Stephenson, Mark; Fujii, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We used high-resolution in situ measurements of turbidity and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) to quantitatively estimate the tidally driven exchange of mercury (Hg) between the waters of the San Francisco estuary and Browns Island, a tidal wetland. Turbidity and FDOM—representative of particle-associated and filter-passing Hg, respectively—together predicted 94 % of the observed variability in measured total mercury concentration in unfiltered water samples (UTHg) collected during a single tidal cycle in spring, fall, and winter, 2005–2006. Continuous in situ turbidity and FDOM data spanning at least a full spring-neap period were used to generate UTHg concentration time series using this relationship, and then combined with water discharge measurements to calculate Hg fluxes in each season. Wetlands are generally considered to be sinks for sediment and associated mercury. However, during the three periods of monitoring, Browns Island wetland did not appreciably accumulate Hg. Instead, gradual tidally driven export of UTHg from the wetland offset the large episodic on-island fluxes associated with high wind events. Exports were highest during large spring tides, when ebbing waters relatively enriched in FDOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and filter-passing mercury drained from the marsh into the open waters of the estuary. On-island flux of UTHg, which was largely particle-associated, was highest during strong winds coincident with flood tides. Our results demonstrate that processes driving UTHg fluxes in tidal wetlands encompass both the dissolved and particulate phases and multiple timescales, necessitating longer term monitoring to adequately quantify fluxes.

  5. Trace metal associations in the water column of South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Cloern, J.E.; Fries, T.L.; Davis, J.A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial distributions of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were followed along a longitudinal gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in South San Francisco Bay (herein referred to as the South Bay). Dissolved Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 24 to 66 nM, from 20 to 107 nM and from 1??2 to 4??7 nM, respectively, in samples collected on five dates beginning with the spring phytoplankton bloom and continuing through summer,1985. Dissolved Cu and Zn concentrations varied indirectly with salinity and directly with DOC concentration which ranged from 2??1 to 4??1 mg l-1. Available thermodynamic data strongly support the hypothesis that Cu speciation may be dominated by association with dissolved organic matter. Analogous control of Zn speciation by organic complexation was, however, not indicated in our computations. Computed free ion activity estimates for Cu, Zn and Cd were of the order of 10-10, 10-8 and 10-10 M, respectively. The availability of these metals may be among the factors regulating the growth of certain phytoplankton species within this region of the estuary. In contrast to dissolved Cu, dissolved Cd was directly related to the concentration of suspended particulate matter, suggesting a source of dissolved Cd coincident with elevated particle concentrations in the South Bay (e.g. runoff and solute desorption). Consistent with work in other estuaries, partitioning of all three trace metals onto suspended particulates was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with increases in particulate organic carbon associated with the phytoplankton bloom. These results for the South Bay indicate that sorption processes influence dissolved concentrations of these trace metals, the degree of this influence varies among metals, and processes controlling metal distribution in this estuary appear to be more element-specific than spatially- or temporally-specific. ?? 1989.

  6. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT: THE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, water resource management has been developed using an essentially technical approach. Currently, public opinion on water resource management is formed as a result of growing environmental concerns and social conflicts arising from poorly planned actions. Environmental problems are complex and have multiple dimensions, including social and economic. Therefore, the inclusion of a human dimension in integrated assessment methodologies is required for the introduction of new elements to the water management planning process. Environmental water allocation (EWA is understood as the quantity, quality and distribution of water required for the maintenance of the functions and processes of aquatic ecosystems on which people depend. Within the various holistic assessment methodologies, the Building Block Methodology (BBM was found to be the most suitable, in the Brazilian context, for maintaining and restoring essential elements of the natural flow regime. This article describes the process of social participation in the environmental flow assessment (EFA for the Sao Francisco River, and compares it with some of the lessons learned from EFA in other parts of the world. The process involved multiple stakeholders who have conflicting interests. BBM was used to guide the field interviews, to incorporate the empirical observations by the local population and to guide the methodological procedures of the multidisciplinary team. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of this holistic approach in organizing the elements to be evaluated. It also facilitated important contributions to the establishment of a dialogue between the actors to achieve a better understanding of the multiple aspects involved in the decisions associated with the EWA.

  7. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  8. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  10. Arguments for the Existence of God in the Francisco Suarez’ "Metaphysical Disputations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Vdovina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers arguments for the existence of God that are presented in Francisco Suarez’ treatise Metaphysical Disputations. The work of Suarez contains the most developed and detailed exposition of natural theology that exists in the scholastic tradition. Suarez explicitates the problem, formulating three questions: what is a being that we call God? Is it possible to prove or justify his existence? How is it possible? Suarez answers the first question by showing that we come to a concept of the prime and excellent being through a series of divisions in the concept of being. That prime being is infinite, absolute, necessary and uncreated. The second question is answered by the procedure of that division and its result. In his answer to the third question, Suarez distinguishes physical and metaphysical arguments. According to Suarez, the most significant physical proofs are the argument from motion and the argument from the rational soul. Nevertheless, he demonstrates that purely physical arguments cannot lead us to a being, which we call God. Only metaphysical argument from the principle, everything which is produced, is produces by something else, is really effective. The logic of the metaphysical proof is as follows: first, we have to demonstrate the necessary existence of the first non-produced thing: secondly, we are to show that such a thing can only be one. The first point is proved through the demonstration of an absolutely first cause in each series of causes, the second one is made evident through a demonstration of the impossibility to coexist simultaneously for two equally perfect first causes of equal causing power.

  11. San Francisco Bay nutrients and plankton dynamics as simulated by a coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianqian; Chai, Fei; Dugdale, Richard; Chao, Yi; Xue, Huijie; Rao, Shivanesh; Wilkerson, Frances; Farrara, John; Zhang, Hongchun; Wang, Zhengui; Zhang, Yinglong

    2018-06-01

    An open source coupled physical-biogeochemical model is developed for San Francisco Bay (SFB) to study nutrient cycling and plankton dynamics as well as to assist ecosystem based management and risk assessment. The biogeochemical model in this study is based on the Carbon, Silicate and Nitrogen Ecosystem (CoSiNE) model, and coupled to the unstructured grid, Semi-Implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM). The SCHISM-CoSiNE model reproduces the spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and plankton biomass, and its physical and biogeochemical performance is successfully tested using comparisons with shipboard and fixed station observations. The biogeochemical characteristics of the SFB during wet and dry years are investigated by changing the input of the major rivers. River discharges from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers affect the phytoplankton biomass in North SFB through both advection and dilution of nutrient (including ammonium, NH4) concentrations in the river. The reduction in residence time caused by increased inflows can result in decreased biomass accumulation, while the corresponding reduction in NH4 concentration favors the growth of biomass. In addition, the model is used to make a series of sensitivity experiments to examine the response of SFB to changes in 1) nutrient loading from rivers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), 2) a parameter (ψ) defining NH4 inhibition of nitrate (NO3) uptake by phytoplankton, 3) bottom grazing and 4) suspended sediment concentration. The model results show that changes in NH4 input from rivers or WWTPs affect the likelihood of phytoplankton blooms via NH4 inhibition and that the choice of ψ is critical. Bottom grazing simulated here as increased plankton mortality demonstrates the potential for bivalve reduction of chlorophyll biomass and the need to include bivalve grazing in future models. Furthermore, the model demonstrates the need to include sediments and their contribution

  12. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  13. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinpress, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  14. Remotely Sensing Pollution: Detection and Monitoring of PCBs in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, A.; Kudela, R. M.; Bausell, J.

    2016-12-01

    While the EPA banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1977, they continue to persist in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay), often at dangerously high concentrations due to their long half-life. However, in spite of their associated health and environmental risks, PCB monitoring within SF Bay is extremely limited, due in large part to the high costs, both in terms of labor and capital that are associated with it. In this study, a cost effective alternative to in-situ PCB sampling is presented by demonstrating the feasibility of PCB detection via remote sensing. This was done by first establishing relationships between in-situ measurements of sum of 40 PCB concentrations and total suspended sediment concentration (SSC) collected from 1998-2006 at 37 stations distributed throughout SF Bay. A correlation was discovered for all stations at (R2 =0.32), which improved markedly upon partitioning stations into north bay, (R2 =0.64), central bay (R2 =0.80) and south bay (R2 =0.52) regions. SSC was then compared from three USGS monitoring stations with temporally consistent Landsat 8 imagery. The resulting correlation between Landsat 8 (Rrs 654) and SSC measured at USGS stations (R2 =0.50) was validated using an Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image. The end product is a two-step empirical algorithm that can derive PCB from Landsat 8 imagery within SF Bay. This algorithm can generate spatial PCB concentration maps for SF Bay, which can in turn be utilized to increase ability to forecast PCB concentration. The observation that correlation between AVIRIS (Rrs 657) and SSC was stronger than that of Landsat 8 suggests that the accuracy of this algorithm could be enhanced with improved atmospheric correction.

  15. Sedimentary provenance in the southern sector of the São Francisco Basin, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Macedo de Paula-Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We present new Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Hf isotope geochronological data for the siliciclastic rocks in the southern sector of the São Francisco Basin. An abrupt change in the Sm-Nd data is observed from the Carrancas Formation’s oligomitic conglomerates (TDM ages between 2.7 and 3.3 Ga; εNd(550 Ma values between -25.09 and -17.98, its finer facies, and the finer facies of the the Moema Laminite (TDM ages from 1.4 to 2.1 Ga; εNd(550 Ma values between -9.46 and -5.59. No further significant changes in the Sm-Nd data occur farther upwards in the Bambuí Group (Sm-Nd TDM ages within the 1.3-2.0 Ga interval; εNd(550 Ma values from -9.53 to -4.09, showing a lack of reorganization in the source areas throughout the deposition of the basin. This is yet another argument to dismiss an unconformity within the Bambuí Group. The presence of the index fossil Cloudina sp. in the lower Sete Lagoas Formation makes the glaciation probably Late Ediacaran in age. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons of the Bambuí Group range from the Archean to the early Ediacaran, but the current data is insufficient to distinguish between the contribution from sources in the Brasília and Araçuaí belts.

  16. Fine-Scale Distributions of Zooplankton in the Northern San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art2 We studied zooplankton distributions in the upper San Francisco Estuary at nested scales of tens to thousands of meters. The purposes of the study were to assess how well the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP zooplankton monitoring represents abundance, and to investigate the variability of plankton on scales similar to those of foraging by fish. Samples were taken at three sites in the western Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We took 18 sets of six samples each with a plankton net along transects from near shore to center channel, and six sets of ten samples in the vicinity of a drifter either in mid-channel or near shore. Sampling took place in June–July 2014 during neap and spring tides, ebb and flood, day and night (transects only. Analysis focused on three common copepod species. Transect samples showed little consistent variation along transects, except that Pseudodiaptomus forbesi was less abundant nearshore than offshore by day at Big Break, the most landward site. The ratio of adults to adults + copepodites was strongly and positively related to turbidity by day but not by night, indicating demersal behavior. Drifter samples showed a minimum standard deviation of log10 sample counts of about 0.1, indicating that about two-thirds of replicate abundance values were within 80 % to 125% of the mean. A measure of difference between plankton samples at pairs of sample points was unrelated to distance between sample points for drifter samples, weakly related along transects for Limnoithona spp. stages, and strongly related for P. forbesi mainly because of the along-transect gradients at Big Break. The IEP sampling program is representative of plankton abundance except for demersal organisms, which can be ten-fold more abundant by night than by day. Small planktivorous fish could forage in patches of up to ~25% higher abundance than the mean.

  17. From autopoiesis to neurophenomenology: Francisco Varela's exploration of the biophysics of being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID RUDRAUF

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews in detail Francisco Varela's work on subjectivity and consciousness in the biological sciences. His original approach to this "hard problem" presents a subjectivity that is radically intertwined with its biological and physical roots. It must be understood within the framework of his theory of a concrete, embodied dynamics, grounded in his general theory of autonomous systems. Through concepts and paradigms such as biological autonomy, embodiment and neurophenomenology, the article explores the multiple levels of circular causality assumed by Varela to play a fundamental role in the emergence of human experience. The concept of biological autonomy provides the necessary and sufficient conditions for characterizing biological life and identity as an emergent and circular self-producing process. Embodiment provides a systemic and dynamical framework for understanding how a cognitive -a mind- can arise in an organism in the midst of its operational cycles of internal regulation and ongoing sensorimotor coupling. Global subjective properties can emerge at different levels from the interactions of components and can reciprocally constrain local processes through an ongoing, recursive morphodynamics. Neurophenomenology is a supplementary step in the study of consciousness. Through a rigorous method, it advocates the careful examination of experience with first-person methodologies. It attempts to create heuristic mutual constraints between biophysical data and data produced by accounts of subjective experience. The aim is to explicitly ground the active and disciplined insight the subject has about his/her experience in a biophysical emergent process. Finally, we discuss Varela's essential contribution to our understanding of the generation of consciousness in the framework of what we call his "biophysics of being."

  18. Suspended-sediment dynamics in the tidal reach of a San Francisco Bay tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand suspended-sediment transport in a tidal slough adjacent to a large wetland restoration project, we deployed continuously measuring temperature, salinity, depth, turbidity, and velocity sensors in 2010 at a near-bottom location in Alviso Slough (Alviso, California, USA). Alviso Slough is the downstream reach of the Guadalupe River and flows into the far southern end of San Francisco Bay. River flow is influenced by the Mediterranean climate, with high flows (∼90 m3 s−1) correlated to episodic winter storms and low base flow (∼0.85 m3 s−1) during the summer. Storms and associated runoff have a large influence on sediment flux for brief periods, but the annual peak sediment concentrations in the slough, which occur in April and May, are similar to the rest of this part of the bay and are not directly related to peak discharge events. Strong spring tides promote a large upstream sediment flux as a front associated with the passage of a salt wedge during flood tide. Neap tides do not have flood-directed fronts, but a front seen sometimes during ebb tide appears to be associated with the breakdown of stratification in the slough. During neap tides, stratification likely suppresses sediment transport during weaker flood and ebb tides. The slough is flood dominant during spring tides, and ebb dominant during neap tides. Extreme events in landward (salt wedge) and bayward (rainfall events) suspended-sediment flux account for 5.0 % of the total sediment flux in the slough and only 0.55 % of the samples. The remaining 95 % of the total sediment flux is due to tidal transport, with an imbalance in the daily tidal transport producing net landward flux. Overall, net sediment transport during this study was landward indicating that sediment in the sloughs may not be flushed to the bay and are available for sedimentation in the adjacent marshes and ponds.

  19. Gregorio y Francisco Esparza: hermanos enfrentados ante la independencia de Texas, 1835-1836 Gregorio and Francisco Esparza: Brothers Who Fought Each Other During the Independence of Texas, 1835-1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ernesto Emmerich

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1836 el ejército mexicano tomó el fuerte de El Álamo, en las afueras de San Antonio. Todos sus defensores, que combatían por la independencia de Texas, murieron en la acción, entre ellos Gregorio Esparza, un nativo de esa ciudad. Tras la batalla, su hermano Francisco, enrolado en el bando mexicano, le dio cristiana sepultura. Este artículo examina la saga de ambos hermanos virtualmente desconocida en México. La primera sección de este artículo contextualiza la independencia de Texas, la segunda contiene resultados de investigación documental realizada por el autor sobre Gregorio y Francisco Esparza. La tercera comenta una entrevista realizada a un hijo de Gregorio sobre los papeles de su padre y su tío en El Álamo. La cuarta evalúa críticamente las evidencias. La quinta ofrece una reflexión sobre los motivos que habrían llevado a los hermanos Esparza -y en general a la comunidad texana de origen mexicano- a enfrentarse respecto a la independencia de Texas y, finalmente, en los anexos se transcriben los registros parroquiales y censales de la época y se extractan y comentan diversos relatos del hijo de Gregorio y de otros descendientes.In 1836, the Mexican army captured Fort Alamo outside San Antonio. All its defenders, who were fighting for the independence of Texas, died in action. Among these was Gregorio Esparza, a native of that city. After this battle, his brother Francisco, enlisted in the Mexican army, gave him a Christian burial. This article examines the saga of the two brothers, virtually unknown in Mexico. The first section contextualizes the independence of Texas. The second contains the results of the author's documentary research on Gregorio and Francisco Esparza. The third comments on an interview with one of Gregorio's sons on the roles played by his father and uncle at The Alamo. The fourth critically evaluates the evidence. The fifth provides a reflection on the reasons that led the Esparza brothers -and the

  20. Monitoring of water in soil in asparagus irrigated culture in Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil; Monitoracao da agua no solo em cultura irrigada de aspargo no Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonino, Antonio C. Dantas; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall` Ollio, Attilio; Bernardo, Ana L. Alves [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Audry, Pierre [Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d`Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), 75 - Paris (France). Departement Eaux Continentales

    1996-08-01

    For many years the brazilian government has inactivated the implantation of irrigated areas in the Sao Francisco valley, obtaining high productivity.After the most appropriated areas having been occupied, the irrigation of second choice soils, usually more shallower and more clay is been tried. In one of these areas, the productivity of asparagus is less than the expected. trying to improve productivity by optimization of irrigation, the movement of water on soil and plants is being monitored far the last year and a half. the main results are shown with emphasis on the raining season, the most problematic 5 figs.

  1. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, part I: Validation using the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We compute ground motions for the Beroza (1991) and Wald et al. (1991) source models of the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake using four different wave-propagation codes and recently developed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. In preparation for modeling the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we use this well-recorded earthquake to characterize how well our ground-motion simulations reproduce the observed shaking intensities and amplitude and durations of recorded motions throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the simulations generate ground motions consistent with the large-scale spatial variations in shaking associated with rupture directivity and the geologic structure. We attribute the small variations among the synthetics to the minimum shear-wave speed permitted in the simulations and how they accommodate topography. Our long-period simulations, on average, under predict shaking intensities by about one-half modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units (25%-35% in peak velocity), while our broadband simulations, on average, under predict the shaking intensities by one-fourth MMI units (16% in peak velocity). Discrepancies with observations arise due to errors in the source models and geologic structure. The consistency in the synthetic waveforms across the wave-propagation codes for a given source model suggests the uncertainty in the source parameters tends to exceed the uncertainty in the seismic velocity structure. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that a source model with slip more evenly distributed northwest and southeast of the hypocenter would be preferable to both the Beroza and Wald source models. Although the new 3D seismic velocity model improves upon previous velocity models, we identify two areas needing improvement. Nevertheless, we find that the seismic velocity model and the wave-propagation codes are suitable for modeling the 1906 earthquake and scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  2. Synthesis of studies in the fall low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary, September-December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Baxter, Randall; Castillo, Gonzalo; Conrad, Louise; Culberson, Steven; Erickson, Gregg; Feyrer, Frederick; Fong, Stephanie; Gehrts, Karen; Grimaldo, Lenny; Herbold, Bruce; Kirsch, Joseph; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Slater, Steven B.; Sommer, Ted; Souza, Kelly; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2011, a large-scale investigation (fall low-salinity habitat investigation) was implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation in cooperation with the Interagency Ecological Program to explore hypotheses about the ecological role of low-salinity habitat in the San Francisco Estuary—specifically, hypotheses about the importance of fall low-salinity habitat to the biology of delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and listed as threatened or endangered under federal and state endangered species legislation. The Interagency Ecological Program is a consortium of 10 agencies that work together to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the Estuary and the effects of the State Water Project and Federal Central Valley Project operations on the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the San Francisco Estuary. The fall low-salinity habitat investigation constitutes one of the actions stipulated in the Reasonable and Prudent Alternative issued with the 2008 Biological Opinion of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which called for adaptive management of fall Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta outflow following “wet” and “above normal” water years to alleviate jeopardy to delta smelt and adverse modification of delta smelt critical habitat. The basic hypothesis of the adaptive management of fall low-salinity habitat is that greater outflows move the low-salinity zone (salinity 1–6), an important component of delta smelt habitat, westward and that moving the low-salinity zone westward of its position in the fall of recent years will benefit delta smelt, although the specific mechanisms providing such benefit are uncertain. An adaptive management plan was prepared to guide implementation of the adaptive management of fall low-salinity habitat and to reduce uncertainty. This report has three major objectives:

  3. Iglesia y participación comunitaria en salud: el caso del Municipio San Francisco del estado Zulia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Guillermo García

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto identificar en forma comparada los factores que condicionan la participación de las comunidades Betulio González y 24 de Julio del municipio San Francisco del estado Zulia en el subprograma de Medicina Natural que promociona la Iglesia Católica. Bajo un esquema conceptual que combina principios de las teorías: Elección Racional, Movilización de Recursos, Privación Relativa, Identidades Colectivas y Capital Social, se plantea la hipótesis que la par...

  4. Conflitos socioambientais no extrativismo da aroeira (Schinus terebebinthifolius Raddi), Baixo São Francisco - Sergipe/Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Nádia Batista de; Gomes, Laura Jane

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa analisou os conflitos socioambientais envolvidos no extrativismo da aroeira no Baixo São Francisco, Sergipe e Alagoas. A pesquisa aconteceu entre os anos de 2001 e 2011, por meio da realização de entrevistas com os atores envolvidos e pesquisa documental. As informações foram analisadas quanto à conduta diante do extrativismo e tipificação dos conflitos. A ausência de normatização para o manejo da espécie é o fator central gerador do conflito que se dá pela apropriação e acesso ...

  5. Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Autos sacramentales - Francisco de Quevedo, Prosa satírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews of Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Autos sacramentales. El divino Jasón. El gran mercado del Mundo. El gran teatro del Mundo. La viña del Señor, ed. I. Arellano, Homo Legens (Bibliotheca Homolegens, 50, Madrid, 2010, 406 pp. ISBN: 978-84-92518-54-8 y Francisco de Quevedo, Prosa satírica, ed. I. Arellano, Homo Legens (Bibliotheca Homolegens, 58, Madrid, 2011, 206 pp. ISBN: 978-84-92518-69-2.

  6. Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Autos sacramentales - Francisco de Quevedo, Prosa satírica

    OpenAIRE

    Plata, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Reseñas de Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Autos sacramentales. El divino Jasón. El gran mercado del Mundo. El gran teatro del Mundo. La viña del Señor, ed. I. Arellano, Homo Legens (Bibliotheca Homolegens, 50), Madrid, 2010, 406 pp. ISBN: 978-84-92518-54-8 y Francisco de Quevedo, Prosa satírica, ed. I. Arellano, Homo Legens (Bibliotheca Homolegens, 58), Madrid, 2011, 206 pp. ISBN: 978-84-92518-69-2. Reviews of Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Autos sacramentales. El divino Jasón. El gran mercado d...

  7. Praecipio firmiter, Francisco de Asís en Tommaso da Celano: ¿dureza o ductilidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Castillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone indagar sobre la construcción del personaje “Francisco” que hace Tommaso da Celano en relación a la posible –o no – dureza del fraile a la hora de imponer castigos. Por otro lado, nos proponemos analizar cuáles son aquellas situaciones conflictivas en las cuales Francisco, a la luz de su biógrafo, considera ameritada una punición. Por fin, se pretende examinar el rol del castigo/amonestación en el marco de las hagio-biografías.

  8. Ciudades invisibles. Tijuana en la obra de Federico Campbell, Luis Humberto Crosthwaite, Francisco Morales y Heriberto Yépez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2014-06-01

    This essay employs the concepts of “the haunted place” (Michel de Certeau and “the sense of place” (Kent Ryden to examine the representation of the US-Mexico border in the works of Federico Campbell, Luis Humberto Crosthwaite, Francisco Morales and Heriberto Yépez. While Campbell, Crosthwaite, and Morales represent Tijuana as a place imbued with personal and collective history, Yépez, in his most recent novel, Al otro lado, offers an apocalyptic vision of this border city, defined by narcoviolence, illegal immigration, and militarization.

  9. Geographies of displacement: Latina/os, oral history, and the politics of gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel

    2009-05-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.

  10. The Power of the Dramatic «Auctoritas»: Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla in front of the Byzantine Comedy

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    Julián González-Barrera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla was one of the poets most favoured by the Court, even more than Calderón de la Barca. That royal favour gave him a creative freedom that lead to experiment with new methods, genres and motifs. That was the case of Persiles and Sigismunda, not only a mere adaptation of the cervantine novel, but also an attempt to surpass the model that Lope de Vega had created for the byzantine comedy, adding new formulas to a genre considered closed.

  11. Climate and Streamflow Reconstruction on the São Francisco Basin, Brazil, Using Tree-Ring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G. D. A.; Barbosa, A. C. M. C.; Granato-Souza, D.; Stahle, D. W.; Torbenson, M.; dos Santos, R. M.; Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The São Francisco River crosses the most drought-prone region of Brazil and regional economic dynamics are dependent on the water availability in the basin. The seasonally dry forests are widely distributed in the basin, where Cedrela fissilis Vell (cedro) are frequently found. This semi-arid region provides a favorable setting where the deciduous cedro trees form well-defined semi-ring porous annual rings that can be exactly crossdated and used to build climate sensitive chronologies. Therefore, we have developed chronologies of cedro from seasonally dry forest fragments of three sites located in the middle-sector of the São Francisco River basin and south limit of the Brazilian Drought Polygon. The samples were analyzed according to standard procedures: sample preparation, ring count, crossdating and measurement of the tree rings. Dating quality was tested using the computer program COFECHA and ring-width time series where detrended and standardized to produce the final index chronology using the ARSTAN program. The results show that crossdating within and among trees from different sites demonstrate the potential to expand the spatial sampling. The tree-ring chronologies are sensitive with wet season precipitation totals (October - March), and can explain approximately 40% of the variance (1961-2015). Significant correlation was also observed with total annual discharge of the Rio São Francisco River measured at Barra (r=0.48; 1961-2015). However, the correlation disapears after 1993 (r=0.64 for 1961-1993, but r=-0.004 for 1994-2015) and we suspect that the stream gage at Barra has been impacted by human activity. Tree-ring chronologies can provide important information on climate and streamflow variability of São Francisco River, where hydrological records are often short and discontinuous. This chronology is now being extended with 150-yr old trees from the region and may be used to reconstruct climate and streamflow records back to the pre

  12. O Desenvolvimento do Enoturismo no Vale do São Francisco: um segmento em expansão

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    Pollyana Pugas Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo

    A região do Vale do São Francisco vem se destacando no cenário nacional como o mais novo destino enoturístico. A atividade cresce no mundo como uma alternativa interessante para as regiões vitivinicultoras agregarem valor aos seus produtos e diversificarem a fonte geradora de renda ao mesmo tempo em que envolvem outros setores da região, distribuindo os frutos do seu negócio. Por meio da realização de entrevistas e de uma extensa pesquisa de dados secundários, este trabalho objetivou descrever como esse processo vem se desenvolvendo em pleno semiárido nordestino. Verificou-se como principais evidências do franco crescimento do enoturismo no Vale do São Francisco o envolvimento crescente das vinícolas da região com a atividade, o forte investimento do poder público em prol do segmento e a recente diversificação dos produtos turísticos oferecidos. Os bons resultados que o enoturismo vem apresentando na região podem ser atribuídos ao esforço e integração dos agentes envolvidos e ao contraste de paisagens promovido pela inserção da atividade de fruticultura irrigada, e deve ser interpretada como ferramenta de transformação social e econômica.

    Palavras-chave: turismo; Vale do São Francisco; vitivinicultura. AbstractThe region

  13. Diagnostico de flora, fauna terrestre y aves marinas en el Área Marina Costera Protegida Francisco Coloane. Informe Final.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    De acuerdo con el compromiso contraído por la Fundación Centro de Estudios del Cuaternario Fuego-Patagonia y Antártica (CEQUA) ante la Secretaría Ministerial de Bienes Nacionales XII Región Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, se eleva a consideración de la Unidad Técnica el presente informe que contiene las siguientes partes: a.-Identificar espacialmente los tipos de hábitat en el AMCP “Francisco Coloane”. b.- Determinar la distribución y abundancia relativa de las poblaciones de ...

  14. La niña-mujer en el huerto narrativo de Francisco Umbral y Mario Vargas Llosa

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy Cossío, Ana

    2017-01-01

    El artículo aborda la preeminencia de la niña-mujer como uno de los arquetipos femeninos predominantes en las narrativas de Francisco Umbral y Mario Vargas Llosa. Desde la perspectiva espacio-temporal, el estudio proyecta el doble microcosmos ficcional/no ficcional de la infancia/niñez, en cuyas etapas imperan los episodios obsesivos como marcas indelebles de la memoria individual y colectiva, restauradas por el narrador/protagonista/testigo. En sus textos, las niñas son el núcleo del paraíso...

  15. Spatial distribution and interaction of four species of the catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède with bottom of Rio São Francisco, Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe, Brazil (Pisces, Loricariidae, Hypostominae

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    J. C. Garavello

    Full Text Available The large catfishes, genus Hypostomus Lacépède, are common species in almost all freshwater environments of South America. The behavior of specimens from the species Hypostomus alatus, Hypostomus francisci, Hypostomus cf. wuchereri, and Hypostomus sp., from the region downstream from the Xingó Hydroelectric Power Dam, located in Canindé do São Francisco on the Rio São Francisco, were observed. Morphological characters collected from preserved specimens were also studied in the laboratory, in order to shed light on interactions between those fishes and the river bottom. In addition, the formulation of Gatz (1979 was applied to better explain the environmental interactions of Hypostomus species. This study revealed that the fishes utilize their suckers, through a mouth equipped with an oral disk, as well as the pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins areas, to interact with the rocky river-bottom. The comb-toothed inferior mouth of the Hypostomus showed itself able to grasp green algae on the river bottom. With the help of the oral disk and sucker mouth, which anchor the fishes, in conjunction with the arched design of pectoral and pelvic fin spines, they are also able to remain upright while exploring this substratum. In addition, their large, concave caudal-fin is associated with fast locomotion over short distances. This combination of characteristics allow these fish to live on the bottom of large South American rivers.

  16. La labor reconstructora de Francisco Somolinos en Langreo, Asturias: la iglesia parroquial de Santiago Apóstol = The Rebuilding Task of Francisco Somolinos in Langreo, Asturias: The Parish Church of Santiago Apostol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández García

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Después de la Guerra Civil, la arquitectura española estuvo regida por el estilo establecido por la Dirección General de Regiones Devastadas. A partir de este momento, en la construcción de los templos se recuperaron los historicismos más representativos de la historia del catolicismo, tales como serían el románico y el gótico, por ser considerados los adecuados para mostrar el espíritu de la Iglesia. Así, la iglesia parroquial de Santiago Apóstol, construida por Francisco Somolinos en el concejo asturiano de Langreo, resulta un ejemplo clave de la arquitectura religiosa de posguerra ya que evidencia claramente las nuevas formas de actuación arquitectónica durante el primer franquismo.After the Civil War, the style established by the so -called General Direction of Devastated Regions ruled Spanish architecture. Since that moment, the most representative historic styles of Catholicism were recovered for the construction of new churches, such as the Romanesque or the Gothic style, because they were considered as suitable to show the essence and spirit of the religious institution. Thus, Santiago Apóstol parish church, built by Francisco Somolinos in the council of Langreo, is a great example of post-war religious architecture because it shows the new architectural tendencies during the first years of Franco’s dictatorship.

  17. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  18. Suspended particulate matter flocculation in a natural tidal wetland located in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, J.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Wright, S. A.; Boss, E.; Downing, B. D.; Fleck, J.; Ganju, N. K.

    2011-12-01

    flocculation. Additionally, the timing of flocculation was coincident with periods of elevated dissolved organic matter, suggesting organic matter played a role in the formation of large aggregates. Measurements of SPM organic content in ebb water revealed that SPM was enriched in organic matter by up to 50% following interaction with the wetland. Newly formed aggregates were carried out to the estuary with the ebb tide. These results indicate that the Browns Island wetland (and presumably other similar wetlands throughout the San Francisco Bay-Delta) plays an important role in estuarine biogeochemistry and particle cycling because flocculated particles have higher settling velocities and optical properties than their component particles and will behave differently. The implications of these findings are relevant to several tidal wetland management concerns such as the maintenance of marsh elevation, the cycling and transport of contaminants, and water clarity.

  19. Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: A north San Francisco Bay estuary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid

  20. Insights into microbial communities involved in mercury methylation in the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machak, C.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary is the largest estuary on the western coast of the United States, draining a watershed covering more than one third of the state of California. Mercury (Hg) contamination in SFB, as a result of gold and mercury mining in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada region, has been observed for at least 150 years. Additional sources of Hg contamination to SFB come from active oil refineries, manufacturing, and wastewater treatment plants in the area. Concentrations of methylmercury in the sediment at the time of sample collection for the present study ranged from 0.011-3.88 μg/kg (dry weight). At some sites, the concentration exceeds wetland toxicity limits, posing a threat to the health of the ecosystem and potentially endangering humans that use the estuary for food and recreation. This study attempts to understand the factors that control the transformation of Hg to methylmercury by microorganisms in aquatic sediments, where the majority of Hg methylation is known to occur. Under anoxic conditions, some sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria have the capacity to transform Hg into methylmercury. To better understand the microbial communities involved in Hg methylation, an extensive library of 16S rRNA sequences was generated (via Illumina sequencing) from sediment samples at 20 sites throughout the SFB estuary. In addition to genomic data, we have access to a massive database of geochemical measurements made by the SFB Regional Monitoring Program at the sampling locations. These measurements show that our sediment samples have varying methylmercury concentrations and span gradients in porewater sulfate and Fe(III), which are the two known alternative electron acceptors for mercury-methylating anaerobic bacteria. The sampling sites also span gradients in other geochemical factors known to influence microbial community composition (and potentially Hg mercury methylation), such as available organic carbon, pH, and salinity. We will present the

  1. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

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    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  2. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: Implications for habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with

  3. Examining and Comparing Earthquake Readiness in East San Francisco Bay Area Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Bul, V.; Chavez, A.; Chin, W.; Cuff, K. E.; Girton, C.; Haynes, D.; Kelly, G.; Leon, G.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, R.; Rodriquez, F.; Ruiz, D.; Torres, J.

    2009-12-01

    Based on past experiences, the potential for casualties and mass destruction that can result from a high magnitude earthquake are well known. Nevertheless, given the East San Francisco Bay Area’s proximity to the Hayward and San Andreas faults, learning about earthquakes and disaster preparedness is of particular importance. While basic educational programs and materials are available both through emergency relief agencies and schools, little research has been done on their effectiveness. Because of the wide socioeconomic spread between communities in the East Bay, we decided to investigate understandings of issues related to disaster and earthquake preparedness among local populations based upon average household income. To accomplish this, we created a survey that was later uploaded to and implemented using Palm Treo Smart Phones. Survey locations were selected in such a way that they reflected the understandings of residents in a diverse set of socio-economic settings. Thus, these locations included a grocery store and nearby plaza in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA (zip=94601; median household income= 33,152), as well as the nearby town of Alameda, CA (zip=94502, median household income= 87,855). Preliminary results suggest that in terms of the objective questions on the survey, people from Alameda who participated in our study performed significantly better (difference in percentage correct greater than 10%) than the people from Fruitvale on two of the advanced earthquake knowledge questions. Interestingly enough, people in Fruitvale significantly outperformed people in Alameda on two of the basic earthquake knowledge questions. The final important finding was that while houses in Alameda tended to be newer and more often retrofitted than houses in Fruitvale, the people of the latter location tended to have a higher percentage of respondents claim confidence in the ability of their house to withstand a major earthquake. Based on preliminary results we

  4. Vulnerabilidade Sócio Ambiental de Pescadores e Marisqueiras em S. Francisco do Conde/Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da identificação dos determinantes socioambientais em saúde, este estudo tem como objetivo mapear aspectos relativos aos riscos e vulnerabilidade social e ambiental de um grupo de pescadores e marisqueiras no município de São Francisco do Conde, região metropolitana de Salvador, Ba. Com o propósito de colaborar na formulação de políticas públicas voltadas a promoção da qualidade de vida das marisqueiras e pescadores artesanais, tomou-se como base 2 diagnósticos complementares: o ambiental e sócio demográfico. Foi verificado a qualidade microbiológica das águas, presença de metais pesados nos sedimentos, mariscos e peixes; contaminantes microbiológicos do esgoto doméstico e 6 metais pesados mais comuns nos efluentes industriais. O diagnóstico sócio demográfico levantou as condições de trabalho e habitação além de aspectos relativos à saúde. Aliados à observação de campo e estudos similares, constatou-se que o oficio da pesca e coleta de mariscos, vem sofrendo declínio enquanto atividade ligada a tradição, despertando pouco interesse das gerações mais jovens, além das características artesanais que restringem sua inserção no modo de produção capitalista. Resultados indicam comprometimento do ecossistema costeiro, o manguezal, pela contaminação por metais pesados e coliformes fecais que potencializam os agravos de ordem ocupacional, decorrentes da ergonomia e exposição à contaminação. Refere-se ainda as condições de habitabilidade destes sujeitos e sua condição de invisibilidade que recorrentemente fortalece e amplia o grau de vulnerabilidade social e ambiental. Assim, as raízes negras do município, manifestadas na composição da população, encontra-se ameaçada face a vulnerabilidade social das comunidades, grupos remanescentes e seus descendentes.

  5. Geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area: A field-trip guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    A National Association of Geoscience Teachers Far Western Section (NAGT-FWS) field conference is an ideal forum for learning about the geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area. We visit classic field sites, renew old friendships, and make new ones. This collection of papers includes field guides and road logs for all of the Bay-area trips held during the NAGT-FWS 2001 Fall Field Conference and supplemental chapters on other aspects of the area’s natural and human history. The trips touch on many aspects of the geology and natural hazards of the Bay area, especially urban problems associated with living on an active tectonic plate margin: earthquake faults, coastal erosion, landslides, and the utilization of land and natural resources. We hope this conference not only provides a two-day learning opportunity for conference participants but that students and educators will use this field guidebook for future teaching and research.Many thanks are due to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and San José State University (SJSU) for cohosting the conference. We are grateful to each of the field trip leaders for preparing the trips and writing the accompanying guides. We especially appreciate the many hours put in by the guidebook reviewers, Robert I. Tilling (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and to the USGS Western Publications Group for editing, layout, and web posting. Additional guidebook contributions include articles by John Galloway, Scott Starratt, Page Mosier, and Susan Toussaint. During the conference guest speakers include Robert I. Tilling (USGS Volcano Hazards Team) and Ross Stein (USGS Earthquake Hazards Team). Workshops prepared for the conference include GIS in the classroom, using USGS data by John Vogel (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and The Best of BAESI (Bay Area Earth Science Institute), a teacher training organization under the direction of Ellen Metzger (SJSU) and Richard Sedlock (SJSU). The conference provides an opportunity to

  6. The HayWired Scenario - How Can the San Francisco Bay Region Bounce Back Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wein, A. M.; Cox, D. A.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K.; Johnson, L. A.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic and quantitative depiction of a moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 earthquake occurring on April 18, 2018, at 4:18 p.m. on the Hayward Fault in the east bay part of the San Francisco Bay area, California. The hypothetical earthquake has its epicenter in Oakland, and strong ground shaking from the scenario causes a wide range of severe impacts throughout the greater bay region. In the scenario, the Hayward Fault is ruptured along its length for 83 kilometers (about 52 miles). Building on a decades-long series of efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the SF Bay area, the hypothetical HayWired earthquake is used to examine the well-known earthquake hazard of the Hayward Fault, with a focus on newly emerging vulnerabilities. After a major earthquake disaster, reestablishing water services and food-supply chains are, of course, top priorities. However, problems associated with telecommunication outages or "network congestion" will increase and become more urgent as the bay region deepens its reliance on the "Internet of Things." Communications at all levels are crucial during incident response following an earthquake. Damage to critical facilities (such as power plants) from earthquake shaking and to electrical and telecommunications wires and fiber-optic cables that are severed where they cross a fault rupture can trigger cascading Internet and telecommunications outages, and restoring these services is crucially important for emergency-response coordination. Without good communications, emergency-response efficiency is reduced, and as a result, life-saving response functions can be compromised. For these reasons, the name HayWired was chosen for this scenario to emphasize the need to examine our interconnectedness and reliance on telecommunications and other lifelines (such as water and electricity). Earthquake risk in the SF Bay area has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for

  7. Airborne Quantification of Methane Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Martien, P. T.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate protection goal. The Air District maintains a regional GHG emissions inventory that includes emissions estimates and projections which influence the agency's programs and regulatory activities. The Air District is currently working to better characterize methane emissions in the GHG inventory through source-specific measurements, to resolve differences between top-down regional estimates (Fairley and Fischer, 2015; Jeong et al., 2016) and the bottom-up inventory. The Air District funded and participated in a study in Fall 2016 to quantify methane emissions from a variety of sources from an instrumented Mooney aircraft. This study included 40 hours of cylindrical vertical profile flights that combined methane and wind measurements to derive mass emission rates. Simultaneous measurements of ethane provided source-apportionment between fossil-based and biological methane sources. The facilities sampled included all five refineries in the region, five landfills, two dairy farms and three wastewater treatment plants. The calculated mass emission rates were compared to bottom-up rates generated by the Air District and to those from facility reports to the US EPA as part of the mandatory GHG reporting program. Carbon dioxide emission rates from refineries are found to be similar to bottom-up estimates for all sources, supporting the efficacy of the airborne measurement methodology. However, methane emission estimates from the airborne method showed significant differences for some source categories. For example, methane emission estimates based on airborne measurements were up to an order of magnitude higher for refineries, and up to five times higher for landfills compared to bottom-up methods, suggesting significant

  8. Edonio and Muza the Moor in Auto del Triunfo de la Virgen, by Francisco Bramón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad Barrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Auto del Triunfo de la Virgen is practically the IIIrd Book of Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado, by the Mexican Francisco Bramón. One of the characters of the Auto, the gracioso Edonio, at a certain moment begins to recite the romance of D. Manuel Ponce de León and the Moor Muza. This paper analyses the meaning of the inclusion of that text in relation with the message of the play.Resumen:El Auto del Triunfo de la Virgen constituye prácticamente el Libro III de Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado del mexicano Francisco Bramón. Uno de los personajes del Auto, el gracioso Edonio, empieza a recitar en determinado momento el romance de D. Manuel Ponce de León y el moro Muza. Se analiza el significado de la inserción de ese texto en relación con el mensaje de la obra.

  9. Seasonal study of concentration of heavy metals in waters from lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we determined the concentration of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the water lower São Francisco River basin, to evaluate the influence of urbanization and industrialization on environmental changes in the water resource. All samples were analyzed using the IUPAC adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sampling stations located near the industrial areas were influenced by industrialization because they presented higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu. The other sampled locations showed changes with regard the trace elements probably originating in the soil, like Fe, Zn and Pb. There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of metals, in general, in the period of highest rainfall of the hydrographic network. Overall, except for Zn and Mn, the trace elements exceeded the maximum allowed value established by national legislation (CONAMA. Lower São Francisco River basin has suffered interference from urbanization and industrialization, so awareness programs should be developed so as to control and lessen future problems.

  10. The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

  11. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Colette L; Lin, Jessica S; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15-24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3-18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3-47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0-18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state's general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population.

  12. The integration of engineering and architecture: A perspective on natural ventilation for the new San Francisco Federal Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConahey, Erin; Haves, Philip; Christ, Tim

    2002-01-01

    A description of the in-progress design of a new Federal Office Building for San Francisco is used to illustrate a number of issues arising in the design of large, naturally ventilated office buildings. These issues include the need for an integrated approach to design involving the architects, mechanical and structural engineers, lighting designers and specialist simulation modelers. In particular, the use of natural ventilation, and the avoidance of air-conditioning, depends on the high degree of exposed thermal mass made possible by the structural scheme and by the minimization of solar heat gains while maintaining the good daylighting that results from optimization of the facade. Another issue was the need for a radical change in interior space planning in order to enhance the natural ventilation; all the individual enclosed offices are located along the central spine of each floorplate rather than at the perimeter. The role of integration in deterring the undermining of the design through value engineering is discussed. The comfort criteria for the building were established based on the recent extension to the ASHRAE comfort standard based on the adaptive model for naturally ventilated buildings. The building energy simulation program EnergyPlus was used to compare the performance of different natural ventilation strategies. The results indicate that, in the San Francisco climate, wind-driven ventilation provides sufficient nocturnal cooling to maintain comfortable conditions and that external chimneys do not provide significant additional ventilation at times when it when it would be beneficial

  13. Influence of Plastic Covering on the Microclimate in Vineyards in the São Francisco River Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Miranda Vilas Boas Ramos Leitão

    Full Text Available Abstract Data from field experiments conducted in table grape vineyards variety of Festival in Petrolina-PE in the period from September 19 to October 12, 2010 were used to evaluate the influence of plastic cover on microclimate conditions of vineyards in São Francisco River Valley region. Three treatments were studied: canopies without plastic cover (WC; with plastic cover positioned at 50 cm (PC50, and at 100 cm (PC100 above canopy. The results indicate that the plastic cover prevented the passage of about 40% of the global and net radiation, retained the relative humidity inside the canopy, generated an increase of air temperature and marked reduction in wind speed over the canopy of treatment PC50. However, treatment PC100 had a higher incidence of short wavelength and net radiation under canopy (on the berries than WC and PC50 treatments, resulting in more favorable weather conditions, providing about 40% greater productivity in this treatment. Therefore, the vineyard with plastic cover placed at 100 cm above canopy represents a more suitable alternative to the climatic conditions of the region of the São Francisco River Valley.

  14. Vozes da seca: representações da transposição do Rio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriston Araújo Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1847 the project about the transposition of the São Francisco River is materialized. Its resumption in 2004 causes a huge repercussion in the media and civil society, which follows the steps of the project. This study aimed to understand the Social Representations of the Transposition of the waters of the São Francisco River at two newspapers from Pernambuco, Gazzeta and Jornal do Comércio, in 2004 and 2005. The data was analyzed for the Theme analysis of Bardin. The results show the geographical location and proximity to the river, as determining factors in the form and presentation of content. While Gazzeta Journal anchors the discussion on the livelihoods of coastal communities and presents images of this interaction with the river, the Jornal do Commercio is anchored in depicting the theme economic issues. The newspapers have diffusion characteristics and keep the same representation on the transposition with taking position against the project, it would be the "salvation of the Northeast''

  15. Prevalência de adiposidade abdominal em adultos de São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Brasil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carneiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência de adiposidade abdominal e identificar fatores associados em adultos no município de São Francisco do Conde, estado da Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com amostra aleatória de 456 indivíduos com idade igual e superior a 18 anos, cadastrados na Estratégia Saúde da Família do município de São Francisco do Conde-BA em 2010; a presença de adiposidade abdominal foi determinada pela aferição da circunferência da cintura. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de adiposidade abdominal foi de 62,1%; nas mulheres, essa prevalência foi de 76,9% e esteve associada com maior idade (mais de 24 anos e ter mais de três filhos; nos homens, a prevalência foi de 32,9%, superior entre aqueles que referiram nunca terem fumado ou serem ex-fumantes; também foi observada associação entre adiposidade abdominal e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, em ambos os sexos. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se elevada prevalência de adiposidade abdominal, especialmente em mulheres.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M.P.B.S. de Ponzzes-Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  17. Trophic structure and avian communities across a salinity gradient in evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Athearn, N.D.; Saiki, M.K.; Duffy, W.D.; Kleinschmidt, S.; Shellenbarger, G.G.; Jannusch, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial salt evaporation ponds comprise a large proportion of baylands adjacent to the San Francisco Bay, a highly urbanized estuary. In the past two centuries, more than 79% of the historic tidal wetlands in this estuary have been lost. Resource management agencies have acquired more than 10 000 ha of commercial salt ponds with plans to undertake one of the largest wetland restoration projects in North America. However, these plans have created debate about the ecological importance of salt ponds for migratory bird communities in western North America. Salt ponds are unique mesohaline (5–18 g l−1) to hyperhaline (> 40 g l−1) wetlands, but little is known of their ecological structure or value. Thus, we studied decommissioned salt ponds in the North Bay of the San Francisco Bay estuary from January 1999 through November 2001. We measured water quality parameters (salinity, DO, pH, temperature), nutrient concentrations, primary productivity, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds across a range of salinities from 24 to 264 g l−1. Our studies documented how unique limnological characteristics of salt ponds were related to nutrient levels, primary productivity rates, invertebrate biomass and taxa richness, prey fish, and avian predator numbers. Salt ponds were shown to have unique trophic and physical attributes that supported large numbers of migratory birds. Therefore, managers should carefully weigh the benefits of increasing habitat for native tidal marsh species with the costs of losing these unique hypersaline systems.

  18. Avian response to early tidal salt marsh restoration at former commercial salt evaporation ponds in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of former commercial salt evaporation ponds in the San Francisco Bay estuary is intended to reverse a severe decline (>79%) in tidal salt marshes. San Francisco Bay is a critical migratory stopover site and wintering area for shorebirds and waterfowl, and salt ponds are important high tide roosting and foraging areas. Conservation of past bird abundance is a stated goal of area restoration projects, and early adaptive management will be critical for achieving this objective. However, initial avian response at sites restored to tidal flow may not be indicative of long-term results. For example, winter shorebirds at a 529 ha pond breached in 2002 showed a marked increase in shorebird abundance following breaching. Shorebirds comprised 1% of area totals during 1999-2002 and increased to 46% during 2003-2008. These changes accompanied increased tidal range and sedimentation, but minimal vegetation establishment. Conversely, a fully vegetated, restored 216 ha pond in the same system consistently supported less than 2% of all waterbirds in the region. Early restoration may temporarily increase habitat, but managed ponds will be needed for long-term waterbird abundance within a restored pond-marsh system.

  19. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  20. Evaluation of quality of clay used in red ceramic arising from the region of Baixo Sao Francisco - Sergipe (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, T.F.; Andrade, C.E.C. de; Santos, C.R. dos; Griza, S.; Barreto, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of red ceramic production in the territory of the Baixo Sao Francisco, in Sergipe had its origin 20 years ago and involves the cities of Neopolis, Santana do Sao Francisco, Propria and Telha, marketed primarily for the State of Alagoas. The clay used is extracted in the flood plain of the River. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of clay used in the manufacture of ceramic blocks with and without addition of residue (5, 10 and 15%). Were used a clay composition of the industrial process. Measurements were made RD-X, TGA, plasticity index, retraction, absorption, mechanical strength. The samples were prepared by extrusion and treated at temperatures of 600 ° C, 800 ° C and 900 ° C. The results showed a significant reduction in the absorption, decrease with increasing temperature and plasticity indexes suitable for extrusion. The values of mechanical strength at 800 ° C and 900 ° C were higher than 1.5 MPa. (author)

  1. Noticias de Francisco de Herrera el Viejo en Madrid y del retablo mayor del Colegio de San Basilio, de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornejo, Francisco J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Documents are presented here attesting to the presence of the painter Francisco de Herrera el Viejo in Madrid between 1647 and 1648. Likewise, important new information concerning the altarpiece of San Basilio in Seville is brought to light: the measurements of the architectural structure, the delay of almost ten years in its installation and payment to the artist; and, above all, the three paintings now located – a Christ Child from the door of the ciborium, and the portraits of Saint Basil the Great and Saint Eumelia, parents of Saint Basil – still attached to a fragment of the original alterpiece.

    En este artículo se dan a conocer documentos que certifican la presencia en Madrid del pintor Francisco de Herrera el Viejo en 1647 y 1648. Además, se aportan importantes novedades acerca del retablo de San Basilio, de Sevilla: las medidas de su arquitectura; el retraso en casi diez años de su instalación y pago al pintor; y, sobre todo, las tres pinturas localizadas - un Niño Jesús, de la puerta del sagrario y los retratos de San Basilio el Mayor y de Santa Eumelia, padres de San Basilio - que continúan insertas en un fragmento del retablo original.

  2. Impacts of an underwater high voltage DC power cable on fish migration movements in the San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, M. T.; Kavet, R.; Klimley, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasingly strong interest on a global scale in offshore renewable energy production and transportation. However, there is concern that the electromagnetic fields (EMF) produced by these underwater cables may alter the behavior and physiology of marine species. Despite this concern, few studies have investigated these effects in free-living species. In 2009, a 85 km long high-voltage DC (HVDC) power cable was placed within the San Francisco Bay, running parallel, then perpendicular to, the migration route of anadromous species moving from the inland river system to the oceans. In this study, we assess the impacts of this HVDC cable on the migration behaviors of EMF-sensitive fish, including juvenile salmonids (Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and adult green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Acoustic telemetry techniques were used to track fish migration movements through the San Francisco Bay both before and after the cable was activated; individuals implanted with acoustic transmitters were detected on cross-channel hydrophone arrays at key locations in the system. Magnetic fields were surveyed and mapped at these locations using a transverse gradiometer, and models of the cable's magnetic field were developed that closely matched the empirically measured values. Here, we present our analyses on the relationships between migration-related behavioral metrics (e.g., percent of successful migrations, duration of migration, time spent near vs. far from cable location, etc.) and environmental parameters, such as cable activation and load level, local magnetic field levels, depth, and currents.

  3. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette L. Auerswald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15–24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3–18.9]. Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3–47.1] for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0–18.4] for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state’s general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population.

  4. Sediment transport of streams tributary to San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bays, California, 1909-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, George

    1980-01-01

    A review of historical sedimentation data is presented, results of sediment-data collection for water years 1957-59 are summarized, and long-term sediment-discharge estimates from a preliminary report are updated. Comparison of results based on 3 years of data to those for the 10 water years, 1957-66, provides an indication of the adequacy of the data obtained during the short period to define the long-term relation between sediment transport and streamflow. During 1909-66, sediment was transported to the entire San Francisco Bay system at an average rate of 8.6 million cubic yards per year. The Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins provided about 83% of the sediment inflow to the system annually during 1957-66 and 86% during 1909-66. About 98% of this inflow was measured or estimated at sediment measuring sites. Measured sediment inflow directly to the bays comprised only about 40% of the total discharged by basins directly tributary to the bays. About 90% of the total sediment discharge to the delta and the bays in the San Francisco Bay system thus was determined on the basis of systematic measurements. (USGS)

  5. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  6. Benthic flux of nutrients and trace metals in the northern component of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Parcheso, Francis; Engelstad, Anita C.; Greene, Valerie E.

    2009-01-01

    Two sets of sampling trips were coordinated in late summer 2008 (weeks of July 8 and August 6) to sample the interstitial and overlying bottom waters at 10 shallow locations (9 sites meters in depth) within the northern component of the San Francisco Bay/Delta (herein referred to as North Bay). The work was performed to better understand sources of biologically reactive solutes (namely, dissolved macronutrients and trace metals) that may affect the base of the food web in this part of the estuary. A nonmetallic pore-water profiler was used to obtain the first centimeter-scale estimates of the vertical solute-concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. This study, performed in collaboration with scientists from San Francisco State University?s Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, provides information to assist in developing and refining management strategies for the Bay/Delta system and supports efforts to monitor changes in food-web structure associated with regional habitat modifications directed by the California Bay-Delta Authority. On July 7, 2008, and August 5, 2008, pore-water profilers were successfully deployed at six North Bay sites per trip to measure the concentration gradient of dissolved macronutrients and trace metals near the sediment-water interface. Only two of the sites (433 and SSB009 within Honker Bay) were sampled in both series of profiler deployments. At each sampling site, profilers were deployed in triplicate, while discrete samples and dataloggers were used to collect ancillary data from both the water column and benthos to help interpret diffusive-flux measurements. Benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) inorganic phosphate (that is, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)) ranged from negligible levels (-0.003?0.005 millimole per square meter per day (mmole m-2d-1) at Site 4.1 outside Honker Bay) to 0.060?0.006 mmole m-2d-1 near the northern coast of Brown?s Island. Except for the elevated flux at Browns

  7. The Female/Male Salary Differential in Public Schools: Some Lessons from San Francisco, 1879. Program Report No. 79-B7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Myra H.; Best, Laura

    This paper develops a theory of sex differences in the earnings of school personnel, with emphasis on the role of labor market segmentation. Several aspects of the theory are then tested using data for the San Francisco school system in 1879. Section 1 develops a theory of sex differences in the earnings of school personnel. Section 2 discusses…

  8. Historia editorial de la traducción al inglés de Muertes de Perro en el archivo de la Fundación Francisco Ayala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia, P.

    2016-01-01

    Muertes de Perro has gathered the attention of several critical studies. However, so far, it was still missing a thorough analysis and reconstruction of the editorial history of its translation to English. This article, thanks to the existing documentation in the Archive of the Francisco Ayala’s

  9. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  10. Ferroelectric Thin Films III, Symposium Held in San Francisco, California on April 13 - 16, 1993. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 310

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    Publication Data Ferroelectric thin films III : symposium held April 13-16, 1993, San Francisco,California, U.S.A. / editors, Bruce A. Turtle , Edwlrd R...All solutions were placed in a modified Collison Nebulizer which generated the droplets in an oxygen carrier gas. The droplets were transported into

  11. 33 CFR 165.1182 - Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: San... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1182 Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay...

  12. La música sacra instrumental de órgano y el gregoriano: Francisco Correa de Arauxo (1584-1654 y la Salve Regina Solemne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón de la Campa Carmona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study approaches on the music introduction and the organ compositions in the catholic cult in the Counter Reformation Age, described by means of one of the more important Spanish musicians in the Baroque time, Francisco Correa de Arauxo, through the analysis of his Salve Regina.

  13. Muusikamaailm : Brüsseli La Monnaie ئ 300. Uusooper San Franciscos. Sibeliuse nädal esiettekannetega. Cesare Valletti surnud / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Brüsseli teater Theatre Royal de la Monnaie sai linnalt 300. juubeli kingituseks lisaruume, hooaja ooperiesiettekannetest teatris. J. Heggie ooperi "Dead man walking" maailmaesiettekandest San Francisco Ooperis. 30.sept.-8. okt. toimunud Sibeliuse nädalast Järvenpää-talos. Lühidalt C. Vallettist

  14. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  15. Engineers at the Golden Gate: A History of the San Francisco District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1866-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    long-distance, endurance horse ride. A rather unique activity is the special observance of Native American Day, held to pay tribute to the Porno ...by San Francisco District in conjunction with the Mendocino Porno Council, a Native-American organization, to promote American Indian heritage and

  16. Creep and drying shrinkage of high performance concrete for the skyway structures of the new San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and cement paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of admixtures on long term drying shrinkage and creep of high : strength concrete (HSC). Creep and shrinkage of the mix utilized in segments of the Skyway Structure of the San : Francisco-Oak...

  17. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.A.; Looker, R.E.; Yee, D.; Marvin-Di Pasquale, M.; Grenier, J.L.; Austin, C.M.; McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K.; Brodberg, R.; Blum, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  18. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A., E-mail: jay@sfei.org [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Looker, R.E. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Yee, D. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Marvin-Di Pasquale, M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grenier, J.L. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Austin, C.M. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Brodberg, R. [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States); Blum, J.D. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  19. Co-Production of Actionable Science: Recommendations to the Secretary of Interior and a San Francisco Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, D. H.; Pfeffer, W. T.; Beier, P.

    2015-12-01

    "Actionable Science provides data, analyses, projections, or tools that can support decisions regarding the management of the risks and impacts of climate change. It is ideally co-produced by scientists and decision makers and creates rigorous and accessible products to meet the needs of stakeholders. (Report to the Secretary of the Interior, Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS), March 30, 2015)During one 17 month period ending in 2013, three major reports on sea level rise from three highly respected science providers produced three divergent estimates of sea level rise. These reports collectively flummoxed the lay reader seeking direction for adaptation planning. Guidance documents soon emerged from state entities which caused further confusion. The City and County of San Francisco began developing "Guidance for Incorporating Sea Level Rise into Capital Planning" in 2013 at the direction of San Francisco Mayor Edwin Lee (http://onesanfrancisco.org/staff-resources/sea-level-rise-guidance/). The first task in developing this Guidance was to convert these highly technical reports into "actionable science." This required extensive expert elicitation to tease out their meaning and use value for decision making. This process, which resulted in detailed guidance on the use of SLR science in planning, is increasingly being called "co-production."Co-production requires both scientist and decision-maker to hear the other's perspective, reflect upon the decision-maker's precise needs, and translate peer review science into lay language and practical advice for decision making. The co-production dynamic was the subject of extensive discussion in the federal Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science. The ACCCNRS recommendations (https://nccwsc.usgs.gov/acccnrs) include not only the new definition of Actionable Science cited above, but also a "How-To-Guide" that outlines principles for successfully creating a co

  20. Proterozoic intracontinental basin succession in the western margin of the São Francisco Craton: Constraints from detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Ferreira, Marco Antonio Caçador; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Dias, Airton Natanael Coelho; Campos, José Eloi Guimarães

    2018-01-01

    The age and stratigraphic position of Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic covers that occur along the western border of the São Francisco Craton (SFC) are still uncertain. Based on detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic survey, combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon dating, we present a new proposal for the stratigraphy and correlation with similar sequences, situated in other regions of the SFC, the Chapada Diamantina and Northern Espinhaço. Our study demonstrates that the so-called Traíras Formation (Araí Group) has a maximum depositional age of 1543 ± 31 Ma. The zircon distribution pattern shows a dominant Rhyacian source and minor contribution of Statherian, Calymmian, Neoarchean and Paleoarchean sources. The Rhyacian zircon grains have dominant positive εHf (t) signature, suggesting a large contribution from the juvenile Paleoproterozoic terranes, most probably from the Goiás Massif, located west of the study area. The Calymmian maximum depositional age, calculated for the upper Araí Group (Traíras Formation), leads to the conclusion that the Serra da Mesa Group (ca. 1.55 Ga maximum depositional age) and the Traíras Formation have coexisted in time, possibly forming a larger sag basin, although laterally heterogeneous. The data presented also allow a new geotectonic interpretation for the Goiás Massif, since it necessarily had to be connected to the São Francisco Craton during the Mesoproterozoic. This excludes the possibility that this massif was accreted to the São Francisco Craton in the Brasiliano Collage, as previously believed. The study also sheds light to the always debated tectonic relationship between the Serra da Mesa Granite (intrusive or basement) and Serra da Mesa Group (ca. 1.57 crystallization age and 1.55 Ga maximum depositional age, respectively). Furthermore, based on the new data, we present a stratigraphic revision for the actual Araí and Paranoá groups, proposing to raise the Traíras Formation to group status and its

  1. Effects of local geology on ground motion in the San Francisco Bay region, California—A continued study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The seismograms, Fourier amplitude spectra, spectral amplification curves for the signal, and the Fourier amplitude spectra of the seismic noise are presented for 60 locations. Analog amplifications, based on the maximum signal amplitude, are computed for an additional 39 locations. The recordings of the nuclear explosions show marked amplitude variations which are consistently related to the local geologic conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1, 1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (2.3, 2.3), for other pre-Tertiary and Tertiary rocks, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for older bay sediments, and (3.7, 11.3) for younger bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies for younger bay mud sites and for some older bay sediment sites. The predominant frequencies for most sites were not clearly defined by the amplitude spectra computed from the seismic background noise. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance Km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical rela.tion, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (MISA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment= 0.27 + 2.70 log(AHSA). Average

  2. Diversidade genética de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. no Baixo Rio São Francisco, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. in the low San Francisco river by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgea da Cruz Santana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum Vell. Morong (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae é uma espécie muito utilizada em programas de recuperação de matas ciliares no Baixo Rio São Francisco, devido ao seu rápido crescimento inicial. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD, a diversidade genética de oito indivíduos de uma população remanescente dessa espécie, visando contribuir para a definição de estratégias de coleta de sementes. Os indivíduos estão situados em uma área de 100 ha de mata ciliar do Baixo Rio São Francisco. Para a extração do DNA, pelo método CTAB 2%, foram utilizadas folhas tenras dos indivíduos. Testaram-se 20 oligonucleotídios de 10 bases de seqüência arbitrária, cujos produtos foram separados em gel de agarose 0,8%, submetidos à eletroforese horizontal, corados com brometo-de-etídio e visualizados em luz ultravioleta. A similaridade genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada pelo Coeficiente de Similaridade de Jaccard e a construção do dendrograma, realizada utilizando-se o método UPGMA. O valor médio de diversidade genética entre as matrizes foi de 49%, variando de 33 a 85%. Os indivíduos 6 e 7 apresentaram relativa proximidade genética (67%, não sendo indicado o plantio de suas mudas ou semeadura direta para recuperação de área ciliar em locais muito próximos. A partir dos resultados observados, podem-se desenvolver estratégias para a coleta de sementes e produção de mudas, auxiliando, assim, programas de restauração ambiental.Enterolobium contortisiliquum Vell. Morong (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae is very much used in riparian forest restoration programs in the Low San Francisco River because of its fast initial growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate by RAPD molecular markers the genetic diversity of eight individuals of a remaining population of this species, in order to contribute for the definition of strategies for seed production. The

  3. Energy agriculture in the Vale do Sao Francisco: electric power production from the sugar cane; Agricultura de energia no Vale do Sao Francisco: a cogeracao de energia eletrica a partir da queima do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga Neto, Amintas Ferreira; Pinto, Adeon Cecilio [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Producao], E-mail: adeon.pinto@univasf.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increasing on energy demand has generated some preoccupation for both public and private sectors involved on search and creation of new sources of energy. Within this context, fossil and hydraulic energy sources have encountered barriers to its development. In order to solve this puzzle, a new paradigm emerges based on the use of renewable sources of energy. Among these energy sources it can be mentioned solar plants, wind mills and biomass. The option for determined energy source is related to aspects such as: technological knowledge, tradition on use and availability. In a global view, the renewable resources represent 20% of the overall energy supply. This datum shows the relevance of this topic. This paper aims to expose a theoretic discussion about the adoption of renewable energy sources in the San Francisco Valley. It also offers a diagnosis of the use of such sources in household energy. (author)

  4. Competição de genótipos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. na região do submédio São Francisco Evaluation of guava genotypes in the submiddle of San Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Neto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar e selecionar genótipos de goiabeira que possam incrementar o sistema de produção da cultura na região do Submédio São Francisco foi desenvolvido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, base física da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina-PE, um experimento em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (Paluma, Red Fleshed, Surubim, Red Selection of Florida e Ruby Supreme e cinco repetições. Considerando os resultados obtidos relativos a primeira e segunda poda de frutificação e análise conjunta dos dois anos de produção, observou-se que a variedade Surubim apresentou tendência de maior produção e maior número de frutos, entre os genótipos estudados.The objective of this study was to discriminate and select guava genotypes to improve the crop production system in the Submiddle of San Francisco Valley. An experiment was carried out at the Bebedouro Experimental Sation that belongs to Embrapa Semiarid in Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, with five genotypes of guava: Paluma, Red Fleshed, Surubim, Red Selection of Florida and Ruby Supreme. A randomized block design was used as statistical model with five treataments, and five repetitions. The results, related to the first and the second fruit set prunings and two year of combined analyses for fruit yield, indicated that Surubim variety tended to higher yield and greater number of fruits among the five genotypes tested.

  5. Memoria y olvido de Francisco Amorós y de su modelo educativo gimnástico y moral. Memory and oblivion of Francisco Amoros and his educative model gymnastic and moral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Sirvent, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo pretende ser un intento de síntesis de la memoria que, después de la muerte de Francisco Amorós y Ondeano (1848, quedó de su persona y, sobre todo, de su método de educación físico-moral, así como de la imagen que los numerosos seguidores y detractores de la concepción gimnástica "amorosiana" lograron forjar de un modo tan convincente que, en la mayor parte de sus puntos, se mantiene aún en la actualidad y sigue siendo propagada -presuponiéndo la válida- en algunos escritos recientes. Asimismo, se esbozan algunas de las principales vías de difusión de la gimnasia e ideas de Amorós en los dos países donde desarrolló y puso en práctica su peculiar sistema educativo: España y Francia.AbstractThis article pretends to be a summary from the memory after Francisco Amorós y Ondeano’s death (1848, himself and especially of his educative method physical and moral, as well as the image of his numerous followers and detractors of the “amorosian” gymnastic conception that achieved to build in a convincing way, in the most part of his aspects, at the moment it stands still and keeps being spread out –taking it as valid- in some recent documents. Therefore, it outlines some of the main ways of spreading gymnastics and Amorós ideas in both countries which he developed and put into practice his peculiar educative system: Spain and France.

  6. Vivacidade dos elementos visuais da flona de São Francisco de Paula (RS / Vivacity of the visual elements of the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Fillipi Teixeira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO estudo dos elementos estéticos de uma paisagem ainda é insipiente dentro do âmbito da ecologia de Paisagens. Tendo como área de pesquisa a FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, localizada no município de São Francisco de Paula (RS foi desenvolvido um estudo da vivacidade dos elementos visuais de cada hexágono, com objetivos de determinar as classes de vivacidade e a influência de cada variável estética sobre as paisagens desta unidade de conservação. Através da carta de uso da terra da FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, foi desenvolvida uma rede de hexágonos, a partir do programa CAMPEIRO 1.0. Utilizaram-se 22 variáveis para avaliar cada hexágono, com valoração de 1 a 5 nas categorias: muito baixa, baixa, média, alta e muito alta, respectivamente, sendo feito em laboratório e em campo. Como resultado obtiveram-se 158 hexágonos que geraram uma matriz de dados a qual foi submetida ao agrupamento através da análise de Cluster e Discriminante. O agrupamento dos hexágonos foi distribuído em cinco paisagens denominadas de Nativa, Araucária, de Encosta, de Transição e Exótica. Os valores finais dos hexágonos foram distribuídos em cinco classes de vivacidade: muito alta, alta, média, baixa e muito baixa. A Paisagem Nativa foi a que se destacou por apresentar 56,52% dos seus hexágonos na classe muito alta, sendo a única, e a Exótica por apresentar hexágonos na classe baixa e muito baixa, quatorze e sete, respectivamente. Também destaca-se a Paisagem Nativa e de Encosta pelo ranqueamento em primeiro e segundo lugar, sucessivamente, quanto a ocorrência de variáveis clássicas da estética. AbstratcThe study of the aesthetic elements of a landscape is still incipient in the ambit of the ecology of Landscapes. Considering as a research area the São Francisco de Paula National Forest (FLONA, which is located in the municipal district of San Francisco of Paula, RS, a study about the vivacity of the visual elements of

  7. The sculptor Francisco Elías Vallejo (1782-1858. State of the art and new contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ferreira Fernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Elías Vallejo was a prominent sculptor who worked in the first half of the XIXth century. He studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando and developed a long career as a Court Sculptor and as a teacher at the Royal Academy, where he was Director of Sculpture and, twice, General Director. In this paper, information from publications about him is recollected and completed with data extracted from archives and historic press. The objective is to complete the lack of information about his life, for instance, his education in his village before his trip to Madrid. Furthermore, information about his artist activity is ranked and summarized to make a list of their works as complete as possible, so that subsequent studies can base on it.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of banana cultivated in the Submédio São Francisco Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Adriana Mayumi Yano de; Maia, Leonor Costa; Morgado, Luiz Balbino

    1997-01-01

    Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora lo...

  9. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Submédio São Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Adriana Mayumi Yano de; Maia,Leonor Costa; Morgado,Luiz Balbino

    1997-01-01

    Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora lo...

  10. Transformaciones del modelo Neogranadino de parroquialización. El caso de la Parroquia San Francisco Xavier de Piedecuesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rubén Pérez Pinzón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los fundamentos canónigos, las razones virreinales y los rituales eclesiásticos que justificaron las fundaciones parroquiales del siglo XVIII. Para ello se enfatiza en el modelo de urbanismo de las autoridades borbónicas que sustituyó la práctica de fundaciones de ciudades y villas de los siglos XVI y XVII a partir de capitulaciones. Modelo de necesidades demostradas, visitas a las instituciones virreinales y verificación de méritos que se puede comprobar desde el caso de la parroquia moderna de San Francisco Xavier del Pie de la Cuesta (Santander, Colombia, la cual pasó de ser un sitio irregular a la próspera Villa de San Carlos del siglo XIX.

  11. Reflexiones antropológicas sobre la novela de Francisco Umbral, Los metales nocturnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaza Pérez, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking Umbral's novel Los Metales Nocturnos as a starting point for the discussion, the author reflects upon the anthropological features of a marginal sector of society in today's big cities, where the main character —a disaffected leftist writer— leads readers through the hopeless existence of beings who —deftly portrayed by a writer skillful at language and irony— do not even complain about their condition.

    A partir de esta novela de Francisco Umbral, se reflexiona acerca de los rasgos antropológicos de un sector marginal de la gran ciudad contemporánea, donde, guiados por el personaje principal —un literato de izquierdas desengañado—, observamos la existencia desesperanzada de unos seres que ni siquiera lamentan su situación y cuyo retrato realiza un autor que maneja con inteligencia el lenguaje y la ironía.

  12. Recent scientific advances and their implications for sand management near San Francisco, California: the influences of the ebb tidal delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Dallas, Kate; Elias, Edwin; Erikson, Li H.; Eshleman, Jodi; Hansen, Jeff; Hsu, Tian Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the San Francisco, California, U.S.A., coastal region has identified the importance of the ebb tidal delta to coastal processes. A process-based numerical model is found to qualitatively reproduce the equilibrium size and shape of the delta. The ebb tidal delta itself has been contracting over the past century, and the numerical model is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the delta to changes in forcing conditions. The large ebb tidal delta has a strong influence upon regional coastal processes. The prominent bathymetry of the ebb tidal delta protects some of the coast from extreme storm waves, but the delta also focuses wave energy toward the central and southern portions of Ocean Beach. Wave focusing likely contributes to a chronic erosion problem at the southern end of Ocean Beach. The ebb tidal delta in combination with non-linear waves provides a potential cross-shore sediment transport pathway that probably supplies sediment to Ocean Beach.

  13. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J [UTC Power

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  14. Use of geochemical biomarkers in bottom sediment to track oil from a spill, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    In April 1988, approximately 1500 m3 of a San Joaquin Valley crude oil were accidentally released from a Shell Oil Co. refinery near Martinez, Californa. The oil flowed into Carquinez Strait and Suisun Bay in northern San Francisco Bay Sediment and oil samples were collected within a week and analysed for geochemical marker compounds in order to track the molecular signature of the oil spill in the bottom sediment. Identification of the spilled oil in the sediment was complicated by the degraded nature of the oil and the similarity of the remaining, chromatographically resolvable constituents to those already present in the sediments from anthropogenic petroleum contamination, pyrogenic sources, and urban drainage. Ratios of hopane and sterane biomarkers, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives best identified the oil impingement. They showed the oil impact at this early stage to be surficial only, and to be patchy even within an area of heavy oil exposure.

  15. Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons derived from terrestrial and anthropogenic sources in the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment was made in Suisun Bay, California, of the distributions of hydrocarbons in estuarine bed and suspended sediments and in the recently introduced asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Sediments and clams were contaminated with hydrocarbons derived from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Distributions of alkanes and of hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments and clams were similar, indicating that petroleum hydrocarbons associated with sediments are bioavailable to Potamocorbula amurensis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and clams were derived mainly from combustion sources. Potamocorbula amurensis is therefore a useful bioindicator of hydrocarbon contamination, and may be used as a biomonitor of hydrocarbon pollution in San Francisco Bay.

  16. The impact of Hurricane Hugo and the San Francisco earthquake on a sample of people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, K E; Reisine, S T; Fifield, J; Lee, N R; McVay, J; Kelsey, M E

    1991-06-01

    The health effects of two natural disasters on 32 people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed during the second-year wave of interviews in an ongoing 3-year study. Although the severity of Hurricane Hugo exceeded that of the San Francisco earthquake, no significant differences in health impacts were found. Both groups reported significantly increased ratings of RA activity, pain, and depression compared with ratings during the first year. However, comparison with the rest of the sample (n = 767) showed that increases in disease activity and pain were a general phenomenon but that the increase in depression was unique to the disaster subsample. Physician health status assessments also indicated that those who experienced the disaster were more likely to be classified in later stages of the disease subsequent to the disaster and were more likely to experience flares. These results suggest that people with RA may constitute a special high-risk population for adverse health effects after natural disasters.

  17. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  18. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  19. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisión y estudio de la obra poética de Micer Francisco Imperial

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigós Llorens, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Se reconoce unánimemente que la obra poética de Francisco Imperial (c. 1372-c. 1409), fue fundamental para el inicio y desarrollo de la poesía alegórica en España, teniendo en cuenta su esfuerzo ímprobo por asimilar y dar a conocer en verso castellano la riqueza de sabiduría y estilo de la Divina Comedia de Dante. Después de casi cuarenta años de publicación de la única edición conjunta de la obra del poeta genovés, a cargo de Colbert I. Nepaulsingh (1976), y habiéndose realizado grandes avan...

  1. Change in Urban Land Use and Associated Attributes in the Upper San Francisco Estuary, 1990-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Stoms

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use is an ultimate driver of many of the stressors on the Upper San Francisco Estuary, but the magnitude and pattern of land use change has not been analyzed. This paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap through a screening-level risk assessment. Urban land use was compared within hydrodynamic subregions in 1990, 2000, and 2006. Ancillary data were then used to quantify secondary measures such as impervious cover, housing density, road density and road crossings. Despite the rapid growth of the Bay Area, Sacramento, and Stockton metropolitan areas, the percentage of urban area and rates of change in the subregions are generally low to moderate when compared to other estuaries in the United States. The spatial data sets used in this analysis have been posted online to a public repository to be used by other researchers.

  2. Building leadership among laboratory-based and clinical and translational researchers: the University of California, San Francisco experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wides, Cynthia; Mertz, Elizabeth; Lindstaedt, Bill; Brown, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    In 2005 the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) implemented the Scientific Leadership and Management (SLM) course, a 2-day leadership training program to assist laboratory-based postdoctoral scholars in their transition to independent researchers managing their own research programs. In 2011, the course was expanded to clinical and translational junior faculty and fellows. The course enrollment was increased from approximate 100 to 123 participants at the same time. Based on course evaluations, the number and percent of women participants appears to have increased over time from 40% (n = 33) in 2007 to 53% (n = 58) in 2011. Course evaluations also indicated that participants found the course to be relevant and valuable in their transition to academic leadership. This paper describes the background, structure, and content of the SLM and reports on participant evaluations of the course offerings from 2007 through 2011. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Translators and teachers of languages: grammars and vocabularies, Francisco de la Torre y Ocón (1728-1731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª del Carmen CAZORLA VIVAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The 18th Century has not been studied in depth by experts on Historical Linguistics. However, this is a fruitful and important period in the history of dictionaries as far as lexicography is concerned. The present paper focuses on the lexicographer and translator Francisco de la Torre y Ocón (1660-1725 and his work El maestro de las dos lenguas. Diccionario español y francés en dos tomos. (1726-1728. The work by this renowned author will be analyzed within the framework of its historical and linguistic period (first half of the 18th Century. His approach to lexicography will be similarly analyzed with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of bilingual (French-Spanish lexicography.

  4. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara S; Cloern, James E

    2017-08-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  5. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  6. Francisco Martínez de la Rosa and church-state controversial relation in Spain (1834-1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Vilar García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide and analyze Francisco Martínez de la Rosa’s unpublished correspondence during his term as President of the Spanish Government in the 1834-1835 biennium, maintained with Amat di San Filippo Luigi, nuncio in Spain, and kept in the Vatican Secret Archives. Such correspondence consists of three letters with official mail format, although they could be considered rather confidential for their content. In these documents, the Spanish government strives, albeit unsuccessfully, to achieve recognition by Rome of Elizabeth II of Spain and his liberal regime. And last but not least, in this paper, it is also noteworthy to highlight the urgent need to fill the many vacant Dioceses in Spain.

  7. The Aquatic Trophic Ecology of Suisun Marsh, San Francisco Estuary, California, During Autumn in a Wet Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Schroeter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.v13iss3art6Using stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N and mixing models, we investigated the trophic levels and carbon sources of invertebrates and fishes of a large tidal marsh in the San Francisco Estuary. Our goal was to better understand an estuarine food web comprised of native and alien species. We found the following: (1 the food web was based largely on carbon from phytoplankton and emergent-aquatic and terrestrial vegetation, but carbon from submerged aquatic vegetation and phytobenthos was also used; (2 alien species increased the complexity of the food web by altering carbon-flow pathways and by occupying trophic positions different from native species; and (3 most consumers were dietary generalists.

  8. Praxis política en y en torno a Retrato de la Lozana andaluza de Francisco Delicado

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    María Cecilia Pavón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrato de la Lozana andaluza written by Francisco Delicado presents a peculiar relation between word and image. To begin with, this is done through the introduction of engravings which accompany each Mamotreto (Chapter, and then through the use of a narrative procedure that we may call “audiovisual technique”. Moreover, the transposition of History to films and to television during the 20th Century is added to this complex relation. The purpose of this work is to lay the theoretical foundations to analyse the relations between textual and iconic discourse within the framework of key concepts from Georges Didi-Huberman´s theory, such as “writing in exile”, “montage”, “deconstruction” and “re-montage” and to specify the implications of the political praxis in and around Retrato de la Lozana andaluza

  9. Un proyecto de Francisco Prieto-Moreno de cuatro casas en la Huerta de los Ángeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sorroche Cuerva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La realización de promociones de viviendas en algunos sectores de Granada, adquirió unas especiales características en el barrio del Realejo. En torno a la calle Molinos se consolidó en los años cuarenta del siglo XX, un modelo de urbanización con viviendas unifamiliares que adquirió tintes de lujo, curiosamente a partir de iniciativas sociales. La presencia de arquitectos como Francisco Prieto-Moreno, habla de las pretensiones de algunos de estos proyectos que ayudaron a conformar la imagen residencial de esta zona de Granada, y que a lo largo del siglo XIX comenzaría a configurar el aspecto que hoy la caracteriza.

  10. Ius est idem quod dominium: Conrado Summenhart, Francisco de Vitoria y la conquista de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellkamp, Jörg Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se argumenta que la concepción que Francisco de Vitoria formula acerca de la Conquista de América se basa en nociones que provienen de varias fuentes de los siglos XIV y XV. Una de las más importantes es el Opus septipertitum de contractibus del teólogo alemán Conrado Summenhart a quien Vitoria cita con frecuencia. Al contrastar ambos autores se pone en evidencia que la bases terminológicas para asir los problemas relacionados con el derecho a la propiedad, el dominio, surge en buena parte del debate del maestro salmantino con Summenhart

  11. Otras voces de la Edad de Plata: Francisco Valdés, escritor y crítico literario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Nieto Caballero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia la prosa ensayística y aforística de Francisco Valdés, autor extremeño protagonista de la Edad de Plata. En sus textos, Valdés desarrolla una crítica que parte de la perspectiva de un lector atento, llegando a proponer, incluso, reinterpretaciones de las obras que glosa. De sus artículos en prensa se analizan su estilo y los autores que comenta, fuente indiscutible para conocer sus referentes y los caminos de su prosa. Se analizarán también algunos aspectos de su producción aforística a partir de un cuaderno inédito que enlaza perfectamente con la línea de la literatura de la época. 

  12. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo; Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P.; Carvalho, Raimundo S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  13. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California, 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Forrest S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Caskey, S. John

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose is to annually update our creep-data archive on San Francisco Bay region active faults for use by the scientific research community. Earlier data (1979-2001) were reported in Galehouse (2002) and were analyzed and described in detail in a summary report (Galehouse and Lienkaemper, 2003). A complete analysis of our earlier results obtained on the Hayward Fault was presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse and Simpson (2001) and updated in Lienkaemper and others (2012). Lienkaemper and others (2014a) provide a new overview and analysis of fault creep along all sections of the northern San Andreas Fault system, from which they estimate by how much fault creep reduces the seismic hazard for each fault section.

  14. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  15. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Oddo, Perry C; Keller, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90%) estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability) coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR) in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence) by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur) and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability). Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height) in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  16. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  17. Early detection of tuberculosis outbreaks among the San Francisco homeless: trade-offs between spatial resolution and temporal scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Higgs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: San Francisco has the highest rate of tuberculosis (TB in the U.S. with recurrent outbreaks among the homeless and marginally housed. It has been shown for syndromic data that when exact geographic coordinates of individual patients are used as the spatial base for outbreak detection, higher detection rates and accuracy are achieved compared to when data are aggregated into administrative regions such as zip codes and census tracts. We examine the effect of varying the spatial resolution in the TB data within the San Francisco homeless population on detection sensitivity, timeliness, and the amount of historical data needed to achieve better performance measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We apply a variation of space-time permutation scan statistic to the TB data in which a patient's location is either represented by its exact coordinates or by the centroid of its census tract. We show that the detection sensitivity and timeliness of the method generally improve when exact locations are used to identify real TB outbreaks. When outbreaks are simulated, while the detection timeliness is consistently improved when exact coordinates are used, the detection sensitivity varies depending on the size of the spatial scanning window and the number of tracts in which cases are simulated. Finally, we show that when exact locations are used, smaller amount of historical data is required for training the model. CONCLUSION: Systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal distribution of TB cases can widely benefit real time surveillance and guide public health investigations of TB outbreaks as to what level of spatial resolution results in improved detection sensitivity and timeliness. Trading higher spatial resolution for better performance is ultimately a tradeoff between maintaining patient confidentiality and improving public health when sharing data. Understanding such tradeoffs is critical to managing the complex interplay between public

  18. Understanding processes controlling sediment transports at the mouth of a highly energetic inlet system (San Francisco Bay, CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Edwin P.L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is one of the largest estuaries along the U.S. West Coast and is linked to the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate, a 100 m deep bedrock inlet. A coupled wave, flow and sediment transport model is used to quantify the sediment linkages between San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate, and the adjacent open coast. Flow and sediment transport processes are investigated using an ensemble average of 24 climatologically derived wave cases and a 24.8 h representative tidal cycle. The model simulations show that within the inlet, flow and sediment transport is tidally dominated and driven by asymmetry of the ebb and flood tides. Peak ebb velocities exceed the peak flood velocities in the narrow Golden Gate channel as a result of flow convergence and acceleration. Persistent flow and sediment gyres at the headland tips are formed that limit sediment transfer from the ebb-tidal delta to the inlet and into the bay. The residual transport pattern in the inlet is dominated by a lateral segregation with a large ebb-dominant sediment transport (and flow) prevailing along the deeper north side of the Golden Gate channel, and smaller flood dominant transports along the shallow southern margin. The seaward edge of the ebb-tidal delta largely corresponds to the seaward extent of strong tidal flows. On the ebb-tidal delta, both waves and tidal forcing govern flow and sediment transport. Wave focusing by the ebb-tidal delta leads to strong patterns of sediment convergence and divergence along the adjacent Ocean Beach.

  19. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Impacts of representing sea-level rise uncertainty on future flood risks: An example from San Francisco Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey L Ruckert

    Full Text Available Rising sea levels increase the probability of future coastal flooding. Many decision-makers use risk analyses to inform the design of sea-level rise (SLR adaptation strategies. These analyses are often silent on potentially relevant uncertainties. For example, some previous risk analyses use the expected, best, or large quantile (i.e., 90% estimate of future SLR. Here, we use a case study to quantify and illustrate how neglecting SLR uncertainties can bias risk projections. Specifically, we focus on the future 100-yr (1% annual exceedance probability coastal flood height (storm surge including SLR in the year 2100 in the San Francisco Bay area. We find that accounting for uncertainty in future SLR increases the return level (the height associated with a probability of occurrence by half a meter from roughly 2.2 to 2.7 m, compared to using the mean sea-level projection. Accounting for this uncertainty also changes the shape of the relationship between the return period (the inverse probability that an event of interest will occur and the return level. For instance, incorporating uncertainties shortens the return period associated with the 2.2 m return level from a 100-yr to roughly a 7-yr return period (∼15% probability. Additionally, accounting for this uncertainty doubles the area at risk of flooding (the area to be flooded under a certain height; e.g., the 100-yr flood height in San Francisco. These results indicate that the method of accounting for future SLR can have considerable impacts on the design of flood risk management strategies.

  1. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. -- Highlights: • PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls. • Study sites in Greater Cincinnati (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 351). • The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA. • Lower PFOA in girls living in areas with granular activated carbon water treatment. -- Serum concentrations of PFCs in young girls were higher in girls who had been breast fed longer, and lower in girls in areas with granular activated carbon municipal water treatment

  2. Entre Agostino Carracci y Veronese: apuntes sobre el aprendizaje italiano de Francisco de Herrera «el Mozo»

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    Fernández-Santos Ortiz-Iribas, Jorge

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence in Rome of Francisco de Herrera «the Younger» (1627-1685 was based until now solely on Palomino's biographical account and on stylistic evidence. Ten engraved decorative cartouches attributed to the artist (only two of which were already known, establish Herrera's sojourn in Rome to around 1649. They also shed light on his activities as an engraver, a previously unknown facet of his artistic production. Likewise, they attest to Herrera's stylistic evolution from virtual imitation of his father's (Herrera «the Elder » manner to one that becomes clearly personal under the influence of the Roman milieu. Mid-seventeenth century Rome may be also responsible for Herrera's nuanced and complex neo-Venetianism, a trait that sets him apart from his contemporaries in Spain.

    La presencia de Francisco de Herrera «el Mozo» (1627-1685 en Roma se apoyaba, hasta ahora, sobre la sola base del relato de Palomino y por el propio estilo del pintor. La atribución de diez orlas ornamentales (ocho de ellas inéditas a este artista nos permite establecer su estancia romana en torno a 1649, a la vez que testimonian sobre una faceta —el grabado calcográfico— hasta ahora desconocida de la actividad de Herrera. También dan fe de la evolución del propio Herrera desde una casi total mimesis del estilo paterno hasta unas maneras ya claramente personales, influidas por el medio romano. De la Roma de mediados del siglo XVII debió de datar también el peculiar neo-venecianismo de Herrera que, por su riqueza de matices, lo singulariza con respecto a sus contemporáneos españoles.

  3. Religious celebration and artistic virtuosity in Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado, by Francisco Bramón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisco Hopkins Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This article tries to deepen into the rhetoric, theological and autobiographic mechanisms that lie under Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado by Francisco Bramón (1620. A divine pastoral romance conceived to celebrate the Immaculate Conception of Mary, dogma still under debate during the XVIIth Century, but with a strong support among the Spaniards, both in Spain and its American colonies. An opportunity that Bramón grabbed not only to honor the Immaculate, but also to denounce the poor conditions that suffer authors in the New Spain through a complex erudition structure. Resumen:Este artículo intenta profundizar en los mecanismos retóricos, teológicos y autobiográfico que están detrás de Los Sirgueros de la Virgen sin original pecado de Francisco Bramón (1620. Una novela pastoril a lo divino concebida para celebrar la Inmaculada Concepción de María, dogma aún en debate en el siglo XVII, pero con una fuerte devoción entre los españoles, tanto en España como en sus colonias americanas. Una oportunidad que Bramón aprovechó no solo para honrar a la Inmaculada, sino también para denunciar las condiciones precarias de los autores en la Nueva España a través de un complejo edificio de erudición.

  4. Think globally, act locally, and collaborate internationally: global health sciences at the University of California, San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Sarah B; Agabian, Nina; Novotny, Thomas E; Rutherford, George W; Stewart, Christopher C; Debas, Haile T

    2008-02-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established Global Health Sciences (GHS) as a campus-wide initiative in 2003. The mission of GHS is to facilitate UCSF's engagement in global health across its four schools by (1) creating a supportive environment that promotes UCSF's leadership role in global health, (2) providing education and training in global health, (3) convening and coordinating global health research activities, (4) establishing global health outreach programs locally in San Francisco and California, (5) partnering with academic centers, especially less-well-resourced institutions in low- and middle-income countries, and (6) developing and collaborating in international initiatives that address neglected global health issues.GHS education programs include a master of science (MS) program expected to start in September 2008, an introduction to global health for UCSF residents, and a year of training at UCSF for MS and PhD students from low- and middle-income countries that is "sandwiched" between years in their own education program and results in a UCSF Sandwich Certificate. GHS's work with partner institutions in California has a preliminary focus on migration and health, and its work with academic centers in low- and middle-income countries focuses primarily on academic partnerships to train human resources for health. Recognizing that the existing academic structure at UCSF may be inadequate to address the complexity of global health threats in the 21st century, GHS is working with the nine other campuses of the University of California to develop a university-wide transdisciplinary initiative in global health.

  5. Hydroelectric production from Brazil's São Francisco River could cease due to climate change and inter-annual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Pieter; Tanajura, Clemente Augusto Souza; Sánchez, Antonio Santos; Dargaville, Roger; Kiperstok, Asher; Torres, Ednildo Andrade

    2018-09-01

    By the end of this century higher temperatures and significantly reduced rainfall are projected for the Brazilian North and Northeast (NE) regions due to Global Warming. This study examines the impact of these long-term rainfall changes on the Brazilian Northeast's hydroelectric production. Various studies that use different IPCC models are examined in order to determine the average rainfall reduction by the year 2100 in comparison to baseline data from the end of the 20th century. It was found that average annual rainfall in the NE region could decrease by approximately 25-50% depending on the emissions scenario. Analysis of historical rainfall data in the São Francisco basin during the last 57years already shows a decline of more than 25% from the 1961-90 long-term average. Moreover, average annual rainfall in the basin has been below its long-term average every year bar one since 1992. If this declining trend continues, rainfall reduction in the basin could be even more severe than the most pessimistic model projections. That is, the marked drop in average rainfall projected for 2100, based on the IPCC high emissions scenario, could actually eventuate before 2050. Due to the elasticity factor between rainfall and streamflow and because of increased amounts of irrigation in the São Francisco basin, the reduction in the NE's average hydroelectric production in the coming decades could be double the predicted decline in rainfall. Conversely, it is estimated that wind power potential in the Brazilian NE will increase substantially by 2100. Therefore both wind and solar power will need to be significantly exploited in order for the NE region to sustainably replace lost hydroelectric production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Targeted Sampling Methods of Recruiting Injection Drug Users in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Mohsen; Vaudrey, Jason; Martinez, Alexis N.; Lorvick, Jennifer; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H. Fisher

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and service utilization among injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from two separate studies in San Francisco in 2005, one which used targeted sampling (TS) and the other which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS). IDUs were recruited using TS (n = 651) and RDS (n = 534) and participated in quantitative interviews that included demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and service utilization. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess whether there were differences in these variables by sampling method. There was overlap in 95% CIs for all demographic variables except African American race (TS: 45%, 53%; RDS: 29%, 44%). Maps showed that the proportion of IDUs distributed across zip codes were similar for the TS and RDS sample, with the exception of a single zip code that was more represented in the TS sample. This zip code includes an isolated, predominantly African American neighborhood where only the TS study had a field site. Risk behavior estimates were similar for both TS and RDS samples, although self-reported hepatitis C infection was lower in the RDS sample. In terms of service utilization, more IDUs in the RDS sample reported no recent use of drug treatment and syringe exchange program services. Our study suggests that perhaps a hybrid sampling plan is best suited for recruiting IDUs in San Francisco, whereby the more intensive ethnographic and secondary analysis components of TS would aid in the planning of seed placement and field locations for RDS. PMID:20582573

  7. Interview with Jaime Córtez, Program Manager at the Galería de la Raza, San Francisco, CA, USA, August 14, 2001 Entretien avec Jaime Córtez, directeur de la programmation, Galería de la Raza, San Francisco, CA, États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Selbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ForewordLocated at 2857 24th Street, just off Mission Street, at the heart of the Hispanic district in San Francisco, is theGalería de la Raza Co-founded by René Yáñez (cf. interview infra and Ralph Maradiaga in 1970, the Galería was initially funded by the San Francisco Neighborhood Arts Program (NAP which provided the salaries of the directors, equipment and a small budget for exhibitions for a dozen years. The opening showed awareness and compromise on the part of the SF City and of art ...

  8. Critical Assessment of the Delta Smelt Population in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Bennett

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus is a small and relatively obscure fish that has recently risen to become a major focus of environmental concern in California. It was formally abundant in the low-salinity and freshwater habitats of the northeastern San Francisco Estuary, but is now listed as threatened under the Federal and California State Endangered Species Acts. In the decade following the listings scientific understanding has increased substantially, yet several key aspects of its biology and ecological relationships within the highly urbanized estuary remain uncertain. A key area of controversy centers on impacts to delta smelt associated with exporting large volumes of freshwater from the estuary to supply California’s significant agricultural and urban water demands. The lack of appropriate data, however, impedes efforts to resolve these issues and develop sound management and restoration alternatives. Delta smelt has an unusual life history strategy relative to many fishes. Some aspects of its biology are similar to other coastal fishes, particularly salmonids. Smelts in the genus, Hypomesus, occur throughout the Pacific Rim, have variable life history strategies, and are able to adapt rapidly to local environments. By comparison, delta smelt has a tiny geographic range being confined to a thin margin of low salinity habitat in the estuary. It primarily lives only a year, has relatively low fecundity, and pelagic larvae; life history attributes that are unusual when compared with many fishes worldwide. A small proportion of delta smelt lives two years. These individuals are relatively highly fecund but are so few in number that their reproductive contribution only may be of benefit to the population after years of extremely poor spawning success and survival. Provisioning of reproductive effort by these older fish may reflect a bet-hedging tactic to insure population persistence. Overall, the population persists by maximizing

  9. Simulation of ridesourcing using agent-based demand and supply regional models : potential market demand for first-mile transit travel and reduction in vehicle miles traveled in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use existing modeling tools and data from the San Francisco Bay Area : (California) to understand the potential market demand for a first mile transit access service : and possible reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (a...

  10. Diseño e implementación de una tarjeta entrenadora para fpga con aplicaciones prácticas para el laboratorio de microelectrónica de la universidad francisco de paula santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Becerra-Vargas

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the conception, design and implementation of a card trainer for fpga with practical applications for the laboratory of microelectronics of the university Francisco de Paula Santander is presented. The FPGA programming interface is JTAG.

  11. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is

  12. Características produtivas de genótipos de cebola no Vale do São Francisco Yield characteristics of onion genotypes in the São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo D Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de genótipos de cebola no Vale do São Francisco, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, de abril a agosto de 2003 e 2004, na Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quinze genótipos e quatro repetições e quatorze genótipos e três repetições, respectivamente em 2003 e 2004. Em 2003, a produtividade total de bulbos variou de 29,5 a 59,6 t ha-1 e a comercial oscilou de 18,6 a 51,7 t ha-1. A massa fresca do bulbo variou de 104 a 186 g e os genótipos IPA-1 e Brisa apresentaram maior número de bulbos comerciais por parcela (113 bulbos. Em 2004, a produtividade total de bulbos variou de 30,4 a 58,4 t ha-1 e a comercial oscilou de 24,0 a 56,0 t ha-1. A massa fresca do bulbo variou de 86 a 160 g e os genótipos EX-07593000, Granex 429 apresentaram maior número de bulbos comerciais por parcela (126 e 124 bulbos, respectivamente. Pelos resultados, em função das características avaliadas, os genótipos EX-19013, EX-07595002, Encino, IPA-11, Brisa, TPC 91923, TPR 91970 e Ex-075593000, em 2003, e os genótipos EX-0759300, Granex-429, IPA-11, IPA-04 e Texas Grano 502, em 2004, foram os mais adaptados e com maior potencial para cultivo no Vale do São Francisco.Two field trials were carried out at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from April to August of 2003 and 2004, in a randomized complete block design. In 2003, fifteen genotypes and four replications were used and in 2004, fourteen genotypes and three repetitions were used. In 2003, the total yield of bulbs varied from 29.5 to 59.6 t ha-1 and the commercial yield varied from 18.6 to 51.7 t ha-1. The fresh mass of bulbs varied from 104 to 186 g and the genotypes IPA-11and Brisa showed the highest number of commercial bulbs per plot (113 bulbs. In 2004, the total yield of bulbs varied from 30.4 to 58.4 t ha-1 and the commercial yield varied from 24.0 to 56.0 t ha-1

  13. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Submédio São Francisco Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of banana cultivated in the Submédio São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mayumi Yano de Melo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, A. morrowiae Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, A. tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton & Walker, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, G. macrocarpum Tui. & Tui., G. mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, G. occultum Walker e Scutellospora sp. A percentagem de colonização das raízes de bananeiras nas diferentes áreas foi em média 55%.In the region of the São Francisco Valley, where irrigated agriculture is responsable for high production of fruits for exportation, banana is one of the most expanded crops in cultivated areas. In order to know the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with this crop, samples from the rhizosphere of banana plants were collected in four areas with different soil characteristics, being identified the species: Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, A. morrowiae Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, A. tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton & Walker, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, G. macrocarpum Tui. & Tui., G. mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, G. occultum Walker and

  14. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  15. Tagasi puu otsa! / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Puu otsa ehitatud ja puudel rippuvatest majadest. Üle 60 San Francisco kunstniku koostöös sündinud Steampunk Tree House, Takashi Kobayashi loodud puumaja, Toronto arhitektuuri- ja disainiülikooli tudengi Lukasz Kosi disainitud 4TreeHouse, Tom Chudleighi disainitus "Vaba hinge sfäärid", 02 Sustainability Tree House, Romero Studiosi ja Baumraumi puumajad

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna on surf-zone of São Francisco do Itabapoana beaches, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marcelo Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna and the environmental variables influences on its distribution were studied at the surf-zone of three beaches of São Francisco do Itabapoana, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From August/1999 to August/2000, three beach seine hauls were made monthly, and environmental variables were recorded. A total number of 4,562 fishes (74,155g were sampled at the three beaches, where estuarine-dependent species prevailed (44%, followed by marine (31%, estuarine (19% and freshwater species (3%. Species richness, number of individuals and wet weight were significantly higher at Gargaú, followed by Manguinhos and Barra do Itabapoana, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted influences of the rivers flushing, salinity and plant abundance on the diurnal ichthyofauna distribution and dynamics of São Francisco do Itabapoana surf-zone.

  17. Memory and Nostalgia in Youth Music Cultures: Finding the Vibe in the San Francisco Bay Area Rave Scene, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Wu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the major commercial success of rave scenes in the San Francisco Bay Area, accompanied by an increasing crackdown on venues and promoters in the electronic dance music scene, this article follows the “death” of a rave scene and looks at some of the ways young people imagined and engaged with rave culture during that time. Looking specifically at how young people utilized remembrances and nostalgia to imbue their experiences with social meaning, the author provides a tentative case study on youth cultural formation in the late modern era. The article draws upon fieldwork and interviews conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2002-2004.

  18. A new species of Pimelodus LaCépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from the rio São Francisco drainage, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Raynner V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Pimelodus pohli, new species, is described from the rio São Francisco drainage. It differs from congeners by the following characters in combination: adults with dark spots on anterodorsal region of body and young specimens (up to 100 mm SL with three rows of dark spots laterally on body; comparatively long adipose fin, more than one third of the distance between posterior end of dorsal fin base and the vertical through posterior end of anal-fin base (21.8-26.2% SL; lips poorly developed; 20-25 gill rakers; and maxillary barbels slightly surpassing the caudal-fin base. A key to the species of Pimelodus of the rio São Francisco drainage is presented.

  19. Facing the great disaster : How the men and women of the U.S. Geological Survey responded to the 1906 "San Francisco Earthquake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, James

    2006-01-01

    It was the most devastating earthquake in California’s history. At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the ground under the San Francisco Bay Area shook violently for more than 40 seconds. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake created a rupture along nearly 300 miles of the San Andreas Fault and was felt from southern Oregon to Los Angeles. Because the earthquake’s epicenter was just offshore from San Francisco, the impact on that city was catastrophic. Fragments of broken houses and buildings tumbled into the streets. The pipeline carrying water into the city was severed; fires triggered by broken gas mains raged out of control for 3 days. An area of almost 5 square miles in the heart of the city was destroyed by shaking and fire, and earthquake damage was widespread elsewhere. At least 3,000 people were killed, and 225,000 were left homeless. Drinking water, food, and supplies quickly became scarce.In 1906, the only permanent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) office in California was the Pacific Division topographic mapping office in Sacramento, 70 miles up the Sacramento River from San Francisco Bay. The office had been established just 3 years earlier and was the only USGS office ever created for the sole function of topographic mapping. At the time of the earthquake, many USGS topographers were in Sacramento preparing for a summer of field work.Although moderate shaking was felt in Sacramento, then a town of about 30,000 people, detailed information about the earthquake was slow to reach the residents there. USGS topographic engineer George R. Davis, not knowing the full extent of the damage, was fearful that his 62-year-old father Edward Davis in San Francisco was caught up in the devastation. George therefore left Sacramento on the first train bound for the San Francisco Bay area. “He was very worried. The phones were down and he wasn’t sure whether or not the hotel his father was living in was damaged,” said George Davis’s daughter Anna (Davis) Rogers, then an

  20. Conflitos socioambientais no extrativismo da aroeira (Schinus terebebinthifolius Raddi, Baixo São Francisco - Sergipe/Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Batista de Jesus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa analisou os conflitos socioambientais envolvidos no extrativismo da aroeira no Baixo São Francisco, Sergipe e Alagoas. A pesquisa aconteceu entre os anos de 2001 e 2011, por meio da realização de entrevistas com os atores envolvidos e pesquisa documental. As informações foram analisadas quanto à conduta diante do extrativismo e tipificação dos conflitos. A ausência de normatização para o manejo da espécie é o fator central gerador do conflito que se dá pela apropriação e acesso à aroeira. Os pescadores que são também extrativistas coletam a espécie como um recurso econômico e as empresas processadoras - exportadoras como mercadoria. Existem conflitos entre esferas de governo quanto às competências para normatização do licenciamento e fiscalização da atividade. Constatou-se a necessidade de formulação de uma gestão florestal sustentável para a espécie na qual se garanta o diálogo e cooperação entre os atores envolvidos.Esta investigación ha analizado los conflictos socio ambientales involucrados en el extracción de la aroeira en el Baixo São Francisco, Sergipe y Alagoas. La investigación llevó al cabo entre los años de 2001 y 2011, por medio de la realización de encuestas con los actores involucrados e investigación documental. Las informaciones han sido analizadas cuanto a la conducta delante de la extracción y tipificación de los conflictos. La ausencia de reglamentación para el manejo de la especie es el eje generador del conflicto que se da por la apropiación y acceso a la aroeira. Los pescadores que también son extractivitas colectan la especie como un recurso económico y las empresas procesadoras - exportadoras como mercadería. Hay conflictos entre esferas de gobierno cuanto a las atribuciones para reglamentación del licenciamiento y fiscalización de la actividad. Se ha constatado la necesidad de formulación de una gestión forestal sostenible para la especie en la cual se

  1. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, part II: Ground-motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; McCandless, K.; Nilsson, S.; Petersson, N.A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the ground motions produce by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  2. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R. Howe; Charles A. Simenstad; Jason D. Toft; Jeffrey R. Cordell; Stephen M. Bollens

    2014-01-01

    Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). We describe seasonal, regional, and site variation in the composition and abundance of neuston and benthic–epibenthic macroinvertebrates that inhabit tidal marsh ch...

  3. Pb/Pb isochron ages and Pb isotope geochemistry of Bambui Group carbonate rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the establishment of chemical and analytical procedure for Pb/Pb dating of Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks and their application to obtaining isochron ages of Bambui Group rocks from the southern portion of the Sao Francisco Basin, Minas Gerais State. The Pb isotopic compositions and U and Pb concentrations determined on more than 90 samples (≅ 600 analyses) from Sete Lagoas do Jacare formations, Bambui Group, from different parts of the basin, showed four distinct types of Pb, here called types I, II, III and IV. Type I Pb was found in samples with low Pb concentrations and relatively high U concentrations. Type II Pb is present in samples with relatively high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations it is non-radiogenic crustal Pb. Type III Pb is also found in samples with high Pb concentrations and low U concentrations but it is radiogenic crustal Pb. Type IV Pb occurs in samples with U/Pb ratios lower than 1 and is intermediate in composition between Type III and Type I Pb. According to the data presented in this paper it is suggested that carbonate rocks from Sete Lagoas Formations were deposited before 686±69 Ma. Rocks from the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, contained only Type II Pb, which does not permit determination of a Pb/Pb age. During the interval from 690 to 500 Ma, the Pb isotope system of the carbonate rocks from the Sao Francisco Basin was disturbed, and in some areas it was totally reset. The imprecise U/Pb ages of 550-600 Ma obtained from some of the carbonate rocks reflect this disturbance. The ages determined in this study are in agreement with most of the published ages of the tectonism from the Brasiliano fold belts marginal to Sao Francisco Craton, showing that the isotopic systems of Sao Francisco Basin rocks were largely affected by brasiliano tectonism. (author)

  4. Modelos estimados de análisis de supervivencia para el tiempo de permanencia de los estudiantes de la Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander

    OpenAIRE

    Mawency Vergel Ortega; José Joaquín Martínez Lozano; Eduardo Ibargüen Mondragón

    2016-01-01

    The article shows factors associated with college desertion. The survival analysis technique allowed to perform a study with students from different programs at the Francisco de Paula Santander University, considering the events: semester, abandonment, punishment, punishment - abandonment. Using the Kaplan-Meier estimator [1], the survival function for each event of interest was estimated and desertion models whose variables were significant at 10% using the semi-parametric met...

  5. Mountain Lake, Presidio National Park, San Francisco: Paleoenvironment, heavy metal contamination, sedimentary record rescue, remediation, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Rodysill, J. R.; Jones, K.; Reidy, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment cores from Mountain Lake, a small natural lake in Presidio National Park, San Francisco, CA, provide a record of Bay Area environmental change spanning the past 2000 years, and of unusually high heavy metal contamination in the last century (Reidy 2001). In 2013, partial dredging of the lake removed the upper two meters of lake sediment as part of a remediation effort. Prior to dredging, long and short cores spatially covering the lake and representing deep and shallow environments were recovered from the lake to preserve the paleoenvironmental record of one of the only natural lakes on the San Francisco Peninsula. The cores are curated at LacCore and are available for research by the scientific community. Mountain Lake formed in an interdunal depression and was shallow and fluctuating in its first few hundred years. Lake level rise and inundation of a larger area was followed by lowstands under drier conditions around 550-700 and 1300 CE. Nonnative taxa and cultivars appeared at the time of Spanish settlement in the late 18th century, and the lake underwent eutrophication due to livestock pasturing. U.S. Army landscaping introduced trees to the watershed in the late 19th century. The upper ~1m of sediments document unusually high heavy metal contamination, especially for lead and zinc, caused by the construction and heavy use of Highway 1 on the lake shore. Lead levels peak in 1975 and decline towards the surface, reflecting the history of leaded gasoline use in California. Zinc is derived mainly from automobile tires, and follows a pattern similar to that of lead, but continues to increase towards the surface. Ongoing research includes additional radiocarbon dating and detailed lithological analysis to form the basis of lake-level reconstruction and archeological investigations. Because the Presidio archaeological record does not record human habitation in the area until approximately 1300 years before present, the core analysis also has the potential to

  6. Wastewater and Saltwater: Studying the Biogeochemistry and Microbial Activity Associated with Wastewater Inputs to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenor, T.; Menendez, A. D.; Damashek, J.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrification is the process of converting ammonium (NH­­4+) into nitrate (NO3-), and is a crucial step in removing nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. This process is governed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) that utilize the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Studying the rates of nitrification and the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in south San Francisco Bay's Artesian Slough, which receives treated effluent from the massive San Jose-Santa Clara Regional Wastewater Facility, are important for understanding the cycling of nutrients in this small but complex estuary. Wastewater inputs can have negative environmental impacts, such as the release of nitrous oxide, a byproduct of nitrification and a powerful greenhouse gas. Nutrient inputs can also increase productivity and sometimes lead to oxygen depletion. Assessing the relative abundance and diversity of AOA and AOB, along with measuring nitrification rates gives vital information about the biology and biogeochemistry of this important N-cycling process. To calculate nitrification rates, water samples were spiked with 15N-labeled ammonium and incubated in triplicate for 24 hours. Four time-points were extracted across the incubation and the "denitrifier" method was used to measure the isotopic ratio of nitrate in the samples over time. In order to determine relative ratios of AOB to AOA, DNA was extracted from water samples and used in clade-specific amoA PCR assays. Nitrification rates were detectable in all locations sampled and were higher than in other regions of the bay, as were concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Rates were highest in the regions of Artesian Slough most directly affected by wastewater effluent. AOB vastly outnumbered AOA, which is consistent with other studies showing that AOB prefer high nutrient environments. AOB diversity includes clades of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas prevalent in estuarine settings. Many of the sequenced genes are related

  7. Physicians' communication with patients about adherence to HIV medication in San Francisco and Copenhagen: a qualitative study using Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubow Cecilie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence is the main barrier to the effectiveness of HIV medication. The objective of this study was to explore and conceptualize patterns and difficulties in physicians' work with patients' adherence to HIV medication. No previous studies on this subject have directly observed physicians' behavior. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. We used a Grounded Theory approach to let the main issues in physicians' work with patients' adherence emerge without preconceiving the focus of the study. We included physicians from HIV clinics in San Francisco, U.S.A. as well as from Copenhagen, Denmark. Physicians were observed during their clinical work and subsequently interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. Notes on observations and transcribed interviews were analyzed with NVivo software. Results We enrolled 16 physicians from San Francisco and 18 from Copenhagen. When we discovered that physicians and patients seldom discussed adherence issues in depth, we made adherence communication and its barriers the focus of the study. The main patterns in physicians' communication with patients about adherence were similar in both settings. An important barrier to in-depth adherence communication was that some physicians felt it was awkward to explore the possibility of non-adherence if there were no objective signs of treatment failure, because patients could feel "accused." To overcome this awkwardness, some physicians consciously tried to "de-shame" patients regarding non-adherence. However, a recurring theme was that physicians often suspected non-adherence even when patients did not admit to have missed any doses, and physicians had difficulties handling this low believability of patient statements. We here develop a simple four-step, three-factor model of physicians' adherence communication. The four steps are: deciding whether to ask about adherence or not, pre-questioning preparations, phrasing the

  8. Physicians' communication with patients about adherence to HIV medication in San Francisco and Copenhagen: a qualitative study using Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Toke S; Hecht, Frederick M; Rubow, Cecilie; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-12-04

    Poor adherence is the main barrier to the effectiveness of HIV medication. The objective of this study was to explore and conceptualize patterns and difficulties in physicians' work with patients' adherence to HIV medication. No previous studies on this subject have directly observed physicians' behavior. This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. We used a Grounded Theory approach to let the main issues in physicians' work with patients' adherence emerge without preconceiving the focus of the study. We included physicians from HIV clinics in San Francisco, U.S.A. as well as from Copenhagen, Denmark. Physicians were observed during their clinical work and subsequently interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. Notes on observations and transcribed interviews were analyzed with NVivo software. We enrolled 16 physicians from San Francisco and 18 from Copenhagen. When we discovered that physicians and patients seldom discussed adherence issues in depth, we made adherence communication and its barriers the focus of the study. The main patterns in physicians' communication with patients about adherence were similar in both settings. An important barrier to in-depth adherence communication was that some physicians felt it was awkward to explore the possibility of non-adherence if there were no objective signs of treatment failure, because patients could feel "accused." To overcome this awkwardness, some physicians consciously tried to "de-shame" patients regarding non-adherence. However, a recurring theme was that physicians often suspected non-adherence even when patients did not admit to have missed any doses, and physicians had difficulties handling this low believability of patient statements. We here develop a simple four-step, three-factor model of physicians' adherence communication. The four steps are: deciding whether to ask about adherence or not, pre-questioning preparations, phrasing the question, and responding to the patient's answer. The three

  9. Long-term impacts due to sediment supply changes towards the San Francisco Bay-Delta system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F.; Van der Wegen, M. V.; Jaffe, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Watershed is the main source of fresh water and sediment to San Francisco Bay. Mid 19th century hydraulic mining in the catchment caused an excessive supply of sediment. After mining activities stopped, in the first part of the 20th century several hydraulic structures were built deviating fresh water and trapping sediment upstream. The main purpose of most of these structures is water storage for irrigation and/or water supply Wright and Schoellhamer (2004) show that from 1957 to 2001 the sediment load carried to San Francisco Bay has decreased by about one half. The lack of sediments may lead to a different erosion/deposition pattern in the Bay-Delta system causing problems like mud flat erosion, shift in navigation channel, land subsidence and changing habitat for endemic species. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify morphological shifts in the Bay-Delta system due to variation in fresh water and sediment supply. In this study, we couple the Delta and Bay in a unique model network (the Delta-Bay model). This coupling allows tracking of sediment from Sacramento via the Delta and Bay and through the Golden Gate, making it possible to identify erosion and deposition areas. The numerical model applied is an unstructured, process-based model (D-Flow Flexible Mesh developed by Deltares). It simulates the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the area on a detailed, 64000-node mesh (10-200m mesh length scale) on a timescale of minutes. The morphological impact is assessed for multiple scenarios with different input of sediment and fresh water. A statistical analysis is performed to account for uncertainty of model parameters and climate change impacts. The fresh water discharge already has a strong natural seasonal and inter-annual variation. The human impact by foreseen different water pumping strategies due to the peripheral canal will be considered. Jaffe et al. (2007) has shown that substantial morphological

  10. Deep nirS amplicon sequencing of San Francisco Bay sediments enables prediction of geography and environmental conditions from denitrifying community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica A; Francis, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    Denitrification is a dominant nitrogen loss process in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. In this study, we sought to understand the ecology of denitrifying bacteria by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to survey the diversity of a denitrification functional gene, nirS (encoding cytchrome-cd 1 nitrite reductase), along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay over the course of a year. We compared our dataset to a library of nirS sequences obtained previously from the same samples by standard PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing, and showed that both methods similarly demonstrated geography, salinity and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen, to be strong determinants of community composition. Furthermore, the depth afforded by NGS enabled novel techniques for measuring the association between environment and community composition. We used Random Forests modelling to demonstrate that the site and salinity of a sample could be predicted from its nirS sequences, and to identify indicator taxa associated with those environmental characteristics. This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the distribution and dynamics of denitrifying communities in San Francisco Bay, and provides valuable tools for the further study of this key N-cycling guild in all estuarine systems. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recent foraminifera of the Sao Francisco river delta, Sergipe, Brazil: a proposal for the ecological and environmental diagnostic model; Foraminiferos recentes do delta do Rio Sao Francisco, Sergipe (Brasil): uma proposta de modelo ecologico e de diagnostico ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Recent foraminifera assemblages were studied to determine an ecological model of species distribution, diversity, equability and confining degree, with implications to environmental diagnosis and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The study area is inserted in a sector from Sao Francisco River delta, with interconnected channels and a lagoon connected to the ocean. Besides the biotic variables, sediment salinity and granulometry was considered. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) was performed and it was recognized three bio facies distributed along the sector: Miliammina/Arenoparrella in the channels, and Ammonia/Elphidium and Quinqueloculina at the lagoon. The diversity and equability values increase from the Miliammina/Arenoparrella biofacies to the Ammonia/Elphidium and Quinqueloculina biofacies. The confining indices show environments ranging from confined (channels) to different degrees of low restricted to marine influence. From the results obtained, it is possible to recognize that environments dominated by textulariines are characterized by low diversity, equability and high confining degree. Environments dominated by rotaliines and miliolines tend to be more diversified, equitable and low restricted to marine influence. The results are similar to other obtained in other Brazilian estuarine environments, differing only on dominance by some species (author)

  12. Estimativa da evapotranspiração da cultura da mangueira no Vale do São Francisco | Estimation of the mango crop evapotranspiration in the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucicléia Soares da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Although irrigation is a primary factor of production, a large part of the producers still wields no technical inputs consistent with soil and climatic conditions in the São Francisco Valley. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the relationship between climate variables and the hose from the crop evapotranspiration in all phenological phases. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology Pernambucano Backwoods, Campus Rural Zone situated in the Irrigated Perimeter Senator Nilo Coelho in Petrolina - PE, were found 1.3 hectares of mango orchard production area, the system irrigation was used for the sprinkler. For irrigation scheduling a weather station was used, with solar radiation sensors, temperature and relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction and precipitation. To estimate the reference evapotranspiration, we used the Penman-Monteith. The evapotranspiration values of culture, were determined by reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for each phenological stage. The crop evapotranspiration was lower than the reference evapotranspiration in all growth stages of the mango, with the average of 3.8 and 5.3 mm/day respectively.

  13. Dosimetry in occupational exposure workers of the medical institutes of the University San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca; Dosimetria en TOEs de los institutos medicos de la Universidad San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana Z, A. J.; Castro S, O.; Huanca S, E.; Torrez C, M. [Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Instituto de Medicina Nuclear de Sucre, Plaza Libertad No. 1, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Villca Q, I., E-mail: nuclear_sre@entelnet.bo [Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Dr. Jose Cupertino Arteaga, Plaza Libertad No. 1, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2014-08-15

    In this work is made a retrospective analysis of the record, of the dosimetric control readings processed by the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear, as regulator entity at national level for Occupational Exposed Workers (OEWs) to ionizing radiations, of the Medical Institutes of the Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, by a period of 10 and 15 years. The results showed that in the Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, the Accumulated Occupational Exposure of a total of 393 readings of 15 OEWs was of 20.4 mSv, identifying as maximum value 10.2 mSv, in the official that develops the Radio-pharmacy activities (elution, fractionation, preparation and management). In the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Dr. Jose Cupertino Arteaga the dosimetric background registered an Accumulated Occupational Exposure of a total of 1319 readings of 50 OEWs of 309.69 mSv, with a maximum value of 62.30 mSv, corresponding to the worker of the technical area (maintenance, adjustment and calibration). Comparison that allows to infer that the difference is due mainly to the radio-active source type {sup 99m}Tc Vs {sup 60}Co utilized in these health centers. (Author)

  14. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  15. Guidelines for sustainable tourism planning in the township of San Francisco de Asis (Acandi Municipality, Choco, Colombia); Lineamientos para la planeacion del turismo sostenible en el corregimiento de San Francisco de Asis (Municipio de Acandi, Choco, Colombia).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan Carvajal, Carlos Daniel

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents important management guidelines for conducting a tourism planning process in the township of San Francisco de Asis, which were developed from the conceptual notion of sustainable tourism and participation of local people. This case considered the participatory research method, used ethnography techniques and implemented shops with the community. As a main result proposed the consolidation of four components, socio- political, socio- cultural, social- ecological and socio- economic; that must be managed in an integrated fashion to achieve real sustainable tourism in this territory. In the first component outlines an participatory process that must take place between the various stake holders; in the second considered strengthen the social tissue and valuing cultural traditions to adequately integrate tourism activities; the third proposes an integrated environmental conservation in the whole territory and as an obligation of all stake holders, including to tourists; finally, in the fourth component, recommend the creation of more opportunities and general welfare for the entire local population in order to prevent the growth of tourism segregated. As a general conclusion will projected that the implementation of these guidelines permitted advance, from the practical, in the development of a truly sustainable tourism that help improve the living conditions of local people and conserve valuable natural and cultural resources that exist in this territory.

  16. Rayleigh wave group velocity and shear wave velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay region from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Thurber, Clifford

    2018-06-01

    We derive new Rayleigh wave group velocity models and a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the upper crust in the San Francisco Bay region using an adaptive grid ambient noise tomography algorithm and 6 months of continuous seismic data from 174 seismic stations from multiple networks. The resolution of the group velocity models is 0.1°-0.2° for short periods (˜3 s) and 0.3°-0.4° for long periods (˜10 s). The new shear wave velocity model of the upper crust reveals a number of important structures. We find distinct velocity contrasts at the Golden Gate segment of the San Andreas Fault, the West Napa Fault, central part of the Hayward Fault and southern part of the Calaveras Fault. Low shear wave velocities are mainly located in Tertiary and Quaternary basins, for instance, La Honda Basin, Livermore Valley and the western and eastern edges of Santa Clara Valley. Low shear wave velocities are also observed at the Sonoma volcanic field. Areas of high shear wave velocity include the Santa Lucia Range, the Gabilan Range and Ben Lomond Plutons, and the Diablo Range, where Franciscan Complex or Silinian rocks are exposed.

  17. Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; Strong, Cheryl; Krause, John; Wang, Yiwei; Takekawa, John Y.

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

  18. Integrating terrestrial LiDAR and stereo photogrammetry to map the Tolay lakebed in northern San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Storesund,; Takekawa, John Y.; Gardiner, Rachel J.; Ehret,

    2009-01-01

    The Tolay Creek Watershed drains approximately 3,520 ha along the northern edge of San Francisco Bay. Surrounded by a mosaic of open space conservation easements and public wildlife areas, it is one of the only watersheds in this urbanized estuary that is protected from its headwaters to the bay. Tolay Lake is a seasonal, spring-fed lake found in the upper watershed that historically extended over 120 ha. Although the lakebed was farmed since the early 1860s, the majority of the lakebed was recently acquired by the Sonoma County Regional Parks Department to restore its natural habitat values. As part of the restoration planning process, we produced a digital elevation model (DEM) of the historic extent of Tolay Lake by integrating terrestrial LiDAR (light detection and ranging) and stereo photogrammetry datasets, and real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS) surveys. We integrated the data, generated a DEM of the lakebed and upland areas, and analyzed errors. The accuracy of the composite DEM was verified using spot elevations obtained from the RTK GPS. Thus, we found that by combining photogrammetry, terrestrial LiDAR, and RTK GPS, we created an accurate baseline elevation map to use in watershed restoration planning and design.

  19. Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengke Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has recently experienced one of its worst droughts in the last 80 years, with wide-ranging consequences for water supply restrictions, energy rationing, and agricultural losses. Northeast and Southeast Brazil, which share the São Francisco River basin (SFRB, have experienced serious precipitation reduction since 2011. We used terrestrial water-storage (TWS fields, inverted from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission measurements, to assess and quantify the ongoing drought over the SFRB. We found a water loss rate of 3.30 km3/year over the time-span of April 2002 to March 2015. In addition, the TWS drought index (TWSDI showed the extension of the recent drought that has jeopardized the SFRB since January 2012, and which reached its maximum in July 2015 (the end of TWS time series. In this sense there seems to be a linkage between the TWSDI (wetness/dryness and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, in terms of the wavelet coherence, at the semi-annual and biennial bands, suggesting a relationship between the two. While acknowledging that further investigation is needed, we believe that our findings should contribute to the water management policies by quantifying the impact of this drought event over the SFRB.

  20. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil, a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997 and rainy (March, 1998 periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata, Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05; 31 = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31 = -3.0600; p < 0.01 between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxaand macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales, followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xingó. Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system.

  1. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary; Erikson, Li H.; Wan, Elmira; Powell, Charles; Maddocks, Rosalie F.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although conventional sediment parameters (mean grain size, sorting, and skewness) and provenance have typically been used to infer sediment transport pathways, most freshwater, brackish, and marine environments are also characterized by abundant sediment constituents of biological, and possibly anthropogenic and volcanic, origin that can provide additional insight into local sedimentary processes. The biota will be spatially distributed according to its response to environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon content, grain size, and intensity of currents and tidal flow, whereas the presence of anthropogenic and volcanic constituents will reflect proximity to source areas and whether they are fluvially- or aerially-transported. Because each of these constituents have a unique environmental signature, they are a more precise proxy for that source area than the conventional sedimentary process indicators. This San Francisco Bay Coastal System study demonstrates that by applying a multi-proxy approach, the primary sites of sediment transport can be identified. Many of these sites are far from where the constituents originated, showing that sediment transport is widespread in the region. Although not often used, identifying and interpreting the distribution of naturally-occurring and allochthonous biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic sediment constituents is a powerful tool to aid in the investigation of sediment transport pathways in other coastal systems.

  2. Guidelines for sustainable tourism planning in the township of San Francisco de Asis (Acandi Municipality, Choco, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Carvajal, Carlos Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents important management guidelines for conducting a tourism planning process in the township of San Francisco de Asis, which were developed from the conceptual notion of sustainable tourism and participation of local people. This case considered the participatory research method, used ethnography techniques and implemented shops with the community. As a main result proposed the consolidation of four components, socio- political, socio- cultural, social- ecological and socio- economic; that must be managed in an integrated fashion to achieve real sustainable tourism in this territory. In the first component outlines an participatory process that must take place between the various stake holders; in the second considered strengthen the social tissue and valuing cultural traditions to adequately integrate tourism activities; the third proposes an integrated environmental conservation in the whole territory and as an obligation of all stake holders, including to tourists; finally, in the fourth component, recommend the creation of more opportunities and general welfare for the entire local population in order to prevent the growth of tourism segregated. As a general conclusion will projected that the implementation of these guidelines permitted advance, from the practical, in the development of a truly sustainable tourism that help improve the living conditions of local people and conserve valuable natural and cultural resources that exist in this territory.

  3. Desempeño laboral de los enfermeros (a egresados de la Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Bautista-Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el desempeño profesional de los egresados del programa de enfermería que laboran en instituciones hospitalarias. Materiales y métodos: Se realizo estudio cuantitativo descriptivo de corte transversal. Con una muestra de 120 profesionales de enfermería pertenecientes a cuatro (4 Instituciones Hospitalarias del municipio de Cúcuta que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Para la recolección de la información se aplico instrumento compuesto por datos de identificación, perfil profesional, condiciones generales de trabajo y desempeño laboral. Resultados: el 85% de los egresados de manera satisfactoria realizan acciones gerenciales, administrativas y del cuidado, y solo el 50% de estos desarrolla actividades de educación e investigación. Conclusión: Los egresados del programa de enfermería de la Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander consideran que los contenidos aprendidos durante su carrera son excelentes y buenos, y les ha permitido en la práctica profesional desempeñar diversidad de cargos y acciones.

  4. Francisco Suárez en la vida de su tiempo y en la del nuestro. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana María Gil Ruiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Con la aparición de este número dedicado —como no puede ser de otro modo— a Francisco Suárez, en la vida de su tiempo y en la del nuestro, con motivo del cuarto centenario de su fallecimiento, ACFS inaugura una nueva etapa —la tercera— que pretende, además de aprovechar este homenaje, afrontar los nuevos retos planteados por la sociedad-economía del conocimiento y sus variados indicadores —formales— de medición de calidad. Es cierto que lo que marca la calidad, al menos la científica, debería sobrepasar cualquier requisito formal, pero más allá de lo que siempre debió y debe ser lo importante, el fondo, las revistas jurídicas han tenido que reinventarse para cumplir con los requerimientos de indexación exigidos por las reconocidas Bases de Datos.

  5. Impact of a Structural Intervention to Address Alcohol Use Among Gay Bar Patrons in San Francisco: The PACE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Edwin D; Plenty, Albert H; Lin, Jessica; Ayala, Alicia; Hecht, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the impact on alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of a multi-level structural intervention to increase the availability of free water, coupled with messaging on pacing alcohol intake and normative feedback of blood alcohol concentration in a convenience sample of gay bars in San Francisco. Participants (n = 1,293) were recruited among exiting patrons of four gay bars (two intervention bars and two control bars). Participants were surveyed on alcohol intake and BAC was measured by breathalyzer. Prior to the intervention there were no significant differences in baseline alcohol measures between intervention and control bars. Post-intervention there were significant differences on objective and subjective measures of alcohol consumption: 30% of intervention bar participants had BAC% levels over the legal driving limit (0.08%) compared to 43% of control bar participants, p < 0.0001 and 78% of intervention bar participants were above the AUDIT-C cut-off for hazardous drinking compared to 87% in control bars, p < 0.001.

  6. Hepatitis B and liver cancer knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Charlotte A; Lin, Steven Y; So, Samuel K; Chang, Ellen T

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes liver cancer and disproportionately affects the Asian community in the U.S. In order to advance HBV and liver cancer awareness and prevention, it is important to identify existing gaps in knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans. Therefore, the authors administered a written questionnaire to 199 adults in the Asian-American community of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Although the majority of adults had at least a college education, knowledge regarding HBV transmission, prevention, symptoms, risks, and occurrence was low. Fewer than 60% reported having been tested for HBV, only 31% reported having been vaccinated against HBV, and only 44% reported having had their children vaccinated. Asians, especially those born in China or Southeast Asia, had significantly poorer knowledge regarding HBV and liver cancer than non-Asians. Those with higher knowledge levels were significantly more likely to have been tested for HBV and to have had their children vaccinated. Younger adults, women, Caucasians, more highly educated individuals, those not born in China or Hong Kong, and those with a personal or family history of liver disease were more likely to have taken preventive action against HBV. Our results suggest that HBV and liver cancer knowledge among Asian Americans, especially Chinese Americans, is poor, and that better knowledge is associated with increased preventive practices. Thus, there is a need for increased HBV education and improved community-based interventions to prevent HBV-related liver disease in the high-risk Asian-American community.

  7. PERDA UNIVERSAL DE SOLOS PARA A REGIÃO DO ALTO MÉDIO SÃO FRANCISCO - MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Baltazar Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi buscar estimar a perda universal de solos em uma localidade situada na região do alto médio São Francisco, no Estado de Minas Gerais, combinando-se o uso dos Sistemas Informações Geográficas (SIG com modelo quantitativo da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solos (USLE. Neste caso esta localidade foi dividida em duas partes, e através da avaliação da degradação ambiental, estudou-se a parcela mais degradada, considerando, neste caso, a perda de vegetação nativa (cerrado como fator de distinção entre ambas as partes territoriais. Usando a ferramenta do software SPRING/INPE e o ArcGIS, estimou-se a perda de vegetação nativa ao longo dos anos de 1973/1975, 1984, 1993, 2003, 2007 e 2011 para logo em seguida determinar a localidade mais degradada (ou com menor quantidade de vegetação nativa. Após isto, estimou-se a perda universal dos solos para localidade estudada.

  8. Dosimetry in occupational exposure workers of the medical institutes of the University San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrana Z, A. J.; Castro S, O.; Huanca S, E.; Torrez C, M.; Villca Q, I.

    2014-08-01

    In this work is made a retrospective analysis of the record, of the dosimetric control readings processed by the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear, as regulator entity at national level for Occupational Exposed Workers (OEWs) to ionizing radiations, of the Medical Institutes of the Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, by a period of 10 and 15 years. The results showed that in the Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, the Accumulated Occupational Exposure of a total of 393 readings of 15 OEWs was of 20.4 mSv, identifying as maximum value 10.2 mSv, in the official that develops the Radio-pharmacy activities (elution, fractionation, preparation and management). In the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Dr. Jose Cupertino Arteaga the dosimetric background registered an Accumulated Occupational Exposure of a total of 1319 readings of 50 OEWs of 309.69 mSv, with a maximum value of 62.30 mSv, corresponding to the worker of the technical area (maintenance, adjustment and calibration). Comparison that allows to infer that the difference is due mainly to the radio-active source type 99m Tc Vs 60 Co utilized in these health centers. (Author)

  9. Associations between depressive syndromes and HIV risk behaviors among San Francisco men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, Henry Fisher

    2017-12-01

    HIV prevention plans for men who have sex with men (MSM) are often multifaceted. They involve reduction of sexual risk behaviors, such as condomless intercourse, but also often include pharmaceutical approaches, such as early treatment of HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Effectiveness is possibly threatened by individual-level factors, such as depression. In this study of 322 San Francisco MSM (240 HIV-uninfected individuals and 82 HIV-infected individuals, according to self-report), we examine associations between depressive syndromes and HIV risk behaviors (sexual risk behaviors and ART non-adherence). Our study failed to find evidence that depressive syndromes lead to increases in ART non-adherence (risk difference, RD: 27.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: -3.5, 59.3). However, the study does suggest an association between depressive syndromes and concurrence of non-adherence and potentially HIV-discordant condomless receptive anal intercourse (RD: 36.0; 95% CI: 5.2, 66.8). Among HIV-uninfected MSM, our study suggests negative associations between depressive syndromes and sexual risk behaviors. We recommend screening and treatment of depression among HIV-infected MSM.

  10. Xylem anatomy of the Caesalpiniaceae registered in wood collection of the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Rodriguez, Esperanza N; Mateus, Durley; Lozano D, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical study of the xylem of 21 species of Caesalpiniaceae registered in the wood collection Jos Anatolio Lastra Rivera (JALR), of the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas, included the macroscopic, microscopic and biometric characterization of the cellular elements that constitute the xylematic tissue. These analyses were developed following parameters defined by the International Association Wood Anatomist Committee (IAWA Committee 1989) and methods established by the Wood Technology Laboratory of Universidad Distrital. Measurements and descriptions were used to prepare identification keys and similarity analysis. The wood of Caesalpiniaceae family illustrated common characteristics in growth rings differentiation, porosity, vessel arrangement, deposits, diameter and length, plates perforation type, alternate and vestured intervessel pits; fibers wall thickness and length; paratracheal axial vasicentric parenchyma, aliform and banded parenchyma and presence of prismatic crystals. Also, variations in anatomical features such us longitudinal channels were found as diagnostic for some genera like Copaifera. The variation and analysis of anatomical characteristics of the xylem tissue allowed to verify some taxonomic relations of the family Caesalpiniaceae, like the observed with the species Mora megistosperma, Mora oleofera, Peltogyne pubescens, Peltogyne paniculata, Sclerolobium odoratissimum and Tachigali polyphylla .

  11. Sampling uncharted waters: Examining rearing habitat of larval Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys) in the upper San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, Lenny; Feyrer, Frederick; Burns, Jillian; Maniscalco, Donna

    2017-01-01

    The southern-most reproducing Longfin Smelt population occurs in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. Long-term monitoring of estuarine habitat for this species has generally only considered deep channels, with little known of the role shallow waters play in supporting their early life stage. To address the need for focused research on shallow-water habitat, a targeted study of Longfin Smelt larvae in littoral habitat was conducted to identify potential rearing habitats during 2013 and 2014. Our study objectives were to (1) determine if larval densities vary between littoral habitats (tidal slough vs. open-water shoal), (2) determine how larval densities in littoral habitats vary with physicochemical and biological attributes, (3) determine if larval densities vary between littoral habitats and long-term monitoring channel collections, and (4) determine what factors predict larval rearing distributions from the long-term monitoring channel collections. Larval densities did not vary between littoral habitats but they did vary between years. Water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a were found important in predicting larval densities in littoral habitats. Larval densities do not vary between littoral and channel surveys; however, the analysis based on channel data suggests that Longfin Smelt are hatching and rearing in a much broader region and under higher salinities (∼2–12 psu) than previously recognized. Results of this study indicate that conservation efforts should consider how freshwater flow, habitat, climate, and food webs interact as mechanisms that influence Longfin Smelt recruitment in estuarine environments.

  12. El maestro José Francisco Socarrás. Biografía, recuerdos y recuentos!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available

    “Siempre que se escribe de la historia
    de un hombre, quedan hechos incógnitos”

    “Quien escribe historia y participa en ella no está
    exento de subjetividades y parcializaciones”

    Palabras introductorias
    Para mí es un honor y una gratificación íntima el ser yo quien hoy se dirige a ustedes como coordinador de este homenaje. A todos los presentes les agradezco su presencia. En nombre de la familia Socarrás hago entrega oficial del bello óleo, del maestro Leonel Torres residente en USA. Lamento que por motivos ajenos a mi voluntad no se pueda entregar el libro de la Bio-grafía del Maestro Socarrás. En el mes de febrero próximo saldrá editado por la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia en Tunja, gracias también a la Academia Boyacense de Historia y a su cabeza el Doctor Javier Ocampo Lópcz. Espero poder ofrecer la obra en un futuro próximo, quien le interese puede comunicarse con la Secretaría de la Academia Nacional de Medicina.

    José Francisco Socarrás nació en Valledupar (Cesar el martes 5 de noviembre de 1907 y murió en Bogotá el jueves 23 de marzo de 1995. (2

    Etimología del apellido Socarrás.
    Genealogía e historiografía

    Etimológicamente el apellido Socarrás proviene del árabe: “soco” y “ras”; soco: plaza de mercado o plaza principal; y ras: cabeza. Lo que significa cabeza de la plaza principal o mercado.

    El apellido, relata el profesor José Francisco Socarrás, viene por Evaristo Socarrás, proveniente de una población importante de Coro, Venezuela, quien se casó con Josefa Meriño en Riohacha y por segunda vez en La Paz, una población cercana a Valledupar.

    Su padre fue el General Sabas Socarrás, quien peleó en los tres años de guerra civil a principios de

  13. Monitoring Water Quality at Lake Merritt, Oakland, CA Following Improvements to the Tidal Channel to the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, H.; Martinez, J.; Johnson, M.; Turrey, A.; Avila, M.; Medina, S.; Rubio, E.; Ahumada, E.; Nguyen, S.; Guzman, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Elliot Ahumada, Esosa Oghogho, Samantha Nguyen, Humberto Bracho, Diego Quintero, Ashanti Johnson and Kevin Cuff Lake Merritt is a tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown. Water quality at Lake Merritt has been a major concern for community members and researchers for many years (Pham 200X). Results of past research lead to recommendations to lengthen a channel that connects Lake Merritt with the San Francisco Bay to improve water flow and quality. In 2012 the City of Oakland responded to these recommendations by initiating the creation of a 230-meter long channel. In conducting our research we use a water quality index that takes into account measurements of pH, temperature, water hardness (dissolved solids), ammonia, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate. Newly collected data is then compared with that collected by Pham using comparable parameters to assess the impact of recent changes at the Lake on its overall water quality. In addition, we measured the abundance of aquatic species at four different sites within the Lake. Preliminary results suggest that an increase in the abundance of fish and improved overall water quality have resulted from channel extension at Lake Merritt.

  14. Creating Justice in an emerging world the natural Law basis of francisco de vitoria's political and international thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valenzuela-Vermehren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se esboza la concepción de ley natural y derecho natural de Francisco de Vitoria con el fin de corregir varias de las interpretaciones de su pensamiento político e internacional que se encuentran en la literatura académica y que malentienden el iusnaturalismo de Vitoria. Se argumenta que la utilización que hace Vitoria de la doctrina tomista de ley y derecho natural constituye el fundamento de sus obras sobre política, sociedad y relaciones internacionales ya que dicha doctrina propugna la igualdad y la justicia tanto en el ámbito interno como entre comunidades distintas. Su doctrina sobre la ley natural apela implícitamente al vínculo entre ética y política y desempeña un papel crítico y constitucional al concebir la justicia y el bien común como un patrón de orden al que se deben conformar el poder y la autoridad para obtener legitimidad.

  15. Ludopedagogia: recreational-educational care for pediatrics University Hospital São Francisco de Paula-Pelotas / RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Celoi Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The respective project seeks to present the university extension project of the Faculty of Pedagogy of the Catholic University of Pelotas, named "Ludopedagogia: recreational-educational care for pediatrics University Hospital São Francisco de Paula - Pelotas RS". The proposal relies on the view that the play, in the context of the infant playfulness, is a relevant factor to stimulate the processes of human development, to insert the child in moments of relaxation and promote cognitive abilities, as well as, soften the tensions caused by the hospital environment. The presence of the play and everything related to it is one of the factors that facilitate and provide the adaptation of the sick to the hospital environment. Therefore, it requires the presence of a responsible (teacher to mediate ludic experiences and create a link between the magic of play and familiar environment. Besides the presence of  this professional, the proposal aims at the participation of the family to create a welfare situation and proportionate the realization of exchanges, in this way, it’s possible to soften the emotional tension in hospital environment e promote strategies to the infant development.

  16. A new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa A.; Wang, Rueen-Fang; Ateljevich, Eli; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-14

    Climate change, sea-level rise, and human development have contributed to the changing geomorphology of the San Francisco Bay - Delta (Bay-Delta) Estuary system. The need to predict scenarios of change led to the development of a new seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Bay – Delta that can be used by modelers attempting to understand potential future changes to the estuary system. This report details the three phases of the creation of this DEM. The first phase took a bathymetric-only DEM created in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), refined it with additional data, and identified areas that would benefit from new surveys. The second phase began a USGS collaboration with the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) that updated a 2012 DWR seamless bathymetric/topographic DEM of the Bay-Delta with input from the USGS and modifications to fit the specific needs of USGS modelers. The third phase took the work from phase 2 and expanded the coverage area in the north to include the Yolo Bypass up to the Fremont Weir, the Sacramento River up to Knights Landing, and the American River up to the Nimbus Dam, and added back in the elevations for interior islands. The constant evolution of the Bay-Delta will require continuous updates to the DEM of the Delta, and there still are areas with older data that would benefit from modern surveys. As a result, DWR plans to continue updating the DEM.

  17. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths.

  18. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Iverson, Samuel A

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 microg g(-1) fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild.

  19. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems, which are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate if regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of the tidal marshes and how that will impact the hydro-geomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities.

  20. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Trans*female Youth's Access to Health Care in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Elizabeth A; Jin, Harry; Auerswald, Colette L; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Trans*female youth (TFY) are an underserved population at risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, in part related to barriers to accessing health and mental health care. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected with 250 TFY aged 16-24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area from 2012 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and barriers to gender identity-based medical and mental health care. Having a history of unstable housing was associated with significantly higher odds of problems accessing both medical care (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.13) and mental health care due to gender identity (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.45). Conversely, identifying as genderqueer/genderfluid, Latina, or living in dependent housing was associated with access to either medical or mental health care. Interventions are needed to address housing and discrimination barring access to health care among TFY. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.