WorldWideScience

Sample records for francis vulnerable children

  1. Using Art with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John

    2009-01-01

    Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…

  2. Using Art with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John

    2009-01-01

    Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…

  3. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  4. Francis Tchiegue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Francis Tchiegue,a Cameroonian,is something of a legend in China.He came to the country in 2003 for doctoral studies,but is now known to Chinese television audiences as Jie Gai,a crosstalk performer. The art of crosstalk[A stand-up comedy routine],or xiangsheng,is difficult even for native Chinese speakers to do,let alone foreigners. Tchiegue’s success has kept him performing across China.He recently spoke with ChinAfrica about his story.

  5. Psychosocial support for orphans and vulnerable children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Keywords: challenges; interventions; life orientation skills; orphans and vulnerable children; training. Introduction ... poverty, limited access to services, physical, sexual and emotional abuse ... the psychological problems of children that lead to.

  6. Children without parental care as a vulnerable category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health protection and health promotion are the primary goals of modern medicine. Since children's health is the cornerstone of adult's health, it must be in the center of all social and health care strategies. Vulnerability concept Vulnerability means exposure to harmful influences, risks or stress, which increases disease probability. The most vulnerable are categories that are exposed to influence of many harmful factors, which have minimal chances for survival and lowest quality of life. Vulnerability of children without parental care Vulnerability of children without parental care is caused by lack and/or inadequate family environment. These children are usually emotionally unstable; they frequently develop conduct disorders and have low self-esteem. As adolescents, these children have tendency to risky behavior, which greatly decreases their health potentials. Health status and quality of life All three components of health are endangered with children without parental care. These children present with physical, psycho-motoric and intellectual impairments. There are no studies about quality of life regarding these children, but we can assume that their quality of life is lower than in children who experience protective family environment, since quality of psychosocial factors and family environment are very important predictors of quality of life. Conclusion Children without parental care are an extremely vulnerable category, because they are subjected to various risk factors. Therefore, in order to improve health potentials and quality of life, special measures are required in health care, psychological care and social welfare.

  7. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities...... and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2–9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow...... single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children’s dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1·31; 99 % CI...

  8. the case of orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-02

    Aug 2, 2006 ... of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children project in South Africa. It further ... and head of the Health Systems, Management and Policy at the National School of Public Health at MEDUNSA. .... identify key issues of importance to policy makers and ... what the factors responsible for success as well as what.

  9. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    -up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from...... single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children’s dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1·31; 99 % CI...... 1·01, 1·70) and migrants (OR 1·45; 99 % CI 1·15, 1·83) were more likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents were homemakers (OR 0·74; 99 % CI 0·60, 0·92) were less likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline. A higher number of vulnerabilities...

  10. Social vulnerability and bullying in children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Dark, Elizabeth; Stone, Valerie

    2011-05-01

    Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict bullying for such children and also to examine a new measure, the Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). One hundred and thirty three parents of children with AS completed the SVS and of these 92 parents completed both the SVS and questionnaires measuring anxiety, anger, behaviour problems, social skills and bullying. Regression analyses revealed that these variables together strongly predicted bullying, but that social vulnerability was the strongest predictor. Test-re-test and internal consistency analyses of the SVS demonstrated sound psychometric properties and factor analyses revealed two sub-scales: gullibility and credulity. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions for future research discussed.

  11. Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

  12. Academic performance in children of divorce: psychological resilience and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, D J; Watt, N F; Philpott, A; Sarlin, N

    1991-08-01

    Parental divorce can be conceptualized as a stressful event for all children, but one must recognize that reactions to divorce can vary widely among children. This investigation was based on two basic ideas: 1) children of divorce as a group would show deficits in academic performance compared to children from intact families, even several years after their parents' separation, and 2) because factors that promote psychological resilience and vulnerability, we expected to find normal heterogeneity within the divorce sample. Among 96 middle-school adolescents from a suburban school district near Denver, children of divorce showed significant performance deficits in academic achievement, as reflected in grade-point average and scholastic motivation in middle school, but not in nationally normed tests of scholastic aptitude and other less direct measures of behavioral conformity. An analysis of GPA over time revealed strikingly disparate patterns of achievement between divorce and control groups. Corresponding patterns of scholastic aptitude scores, absence from school and comportment revealed no systematic differences over time. These results suggest strongly that parental divorce can be a critical event in the academic development of children. Large differences in academic achievement between our divorce group as a whole and the controls cannot be attributed, at least at the time of sampling, to differences in social class or intellectual ability. Despite a similar family background, i.e., marital dissolution, a minority of the children of divorce showed vulnerability in the pattern of academic achievement over time while the majority demonstrated academic careers not unlike that of the controls.

  13. Vulnerability of families with children with intestinal stomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ferraz Lazarini Zacarin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal stomas cause transformations in the body and create specific and continuous needs for care that imply in hospitalization and surgeries. In this context, we applied the concept of family vulnerability in order to identify the vulnerability of the family living with a child who has intestinal stoma. It is a qualitative study which interviewed the mothers of children with this chronic condition. We used narrative analysis based on the concept of family vulnerability. The results display that the family has gone through previous noteworthy experiences associated with the child’s condition. The family cares for the child on their own and seeks ways to control the situation and regain autonomy, hoping for stoma reversal. Based on the concept of vulnerability, we observed that these families can be considered vulnerable, for they experience threats to their autonomy, but are moved by the hope of reversal and intestinal tract reconstruction. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.26639.

  14. Providing Psychosocial Support to Special Needs Children: A Case of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Changara, Darlington M.; Chitiyo, George

    2008-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has orphaned hundreds of thousands of children worldwide and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa. Being orphaned by AIDS creates peculiar circumstances which may affect the children's ability to benefit from regular education. The impact of vulnerability on children's well-being has been documented by UNAIDS, UNICEF and by…

  15. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents is associated with poor psychosocial functioning, high psychiatric comorbidity, risk of recurrent episodes or onset of bipolar disorder. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children and adolescents having elevated risk for future depression and further development, evaluation and greater availability of prevention strategies. Our review aims an update about depressive vulnerability in children and adolescents in the perspective of better identification of at-risk populations and targeting of prevention programs. Psychopathology, in particular anxiety and disruptive disorders are well identified risk-factors for later depression. Subclinical depressive symptomatology, also termed "demoralization", also identifies high-risk populations, likely to become incident cases of depression. It is still unclear whether this condition is prodromal depression, a specific clinical entity or the expression of biological and/or cognitive vulnerability. Familial risk for depressive disorders involves both genetic and psychosocial factors. Marital discord, poor communication and dysfunctional parenting practices are often present in families with affective disorders and can be implicated in increased depressive vulnerability in the offspring. Research on individual vulnerability in children and adolescents has focused on temperamental and cognitive characteristics. Temperament traits describe individual differences in reactivity and behavior. High emotionality, defined as the tendency to become upset easily and intensely has been associated with an increased risk for subsequent major depression. However, as the majority of high scorers will not become depressive cases, emotionality should not be the only criterion for selection of at-risk populations. Cognitive style including poor self esteem, low social competence and negative attributions are also associated with increased likelihood of depressive symptoms, but

  16. The Francis Crick Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Keith; Smith, Jim

    2017-04-01

    The Francis Crick Institute Laboratory, opened in 2016, is supported by the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust, and University College London, King's College London and Imperial College London. The emphasis on research training and early independence of gifted scientists in a multidisciplinary environment provides unique opportunities for UK medical science, including clinical and translational research.

  17. Vulnerable Children's Access to Examinations at Key Stage 4. Research Report RR639

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Sally; Johnson, Annie; Martin, Kerry; Kinder; Kay

    2005-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in 2004 to examine barriers to vulnerable children accessing examinations at the end of key stage 4 and to identify strategies employed to overcome these barriers. Key groups of vulnerable children identified by the DfES included: (1) Looked-after children;…

  18. AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in India: problems, prospects, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses the problems, responses, and concerns of orphans and vulnerable children in India. The article shows that HIV/AIDS programs and interventions are vital for survival and welfare of orphan and vulnerable children, but they have reached only to a small fraction of the most vulnerable children. The article suggests a number of measures that government and civil society could take to address the problems and emphasizes the need to learn from other countries' experience and initiatives in developing appropriate policy and programmes for orphan and vulnerable children.

  19. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; Wassenaar-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems. H

  20. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade.

  1. Underperforming Schools and the Education of Vulnerable Children and Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lisa; Smithgall, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This brief presents findings from several Chapin Hall studies on vulnerable children and youth to raise the issue of what it would mean to improve academic achievement in underperforming schools. Vulnerable children and youth are those who experience crises or disruptions in their lives, often accompanied by parental absence or inability to meet…

  2. PREFACE: Francis-99 Workshop 1: steady operation of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Michel; Hasmukhlal Trivedi, Chiragkumar; Dahlhaug, Ole-Gunnar; Nielsen, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Francis-99 is a set of upcoming workshops jointly organized by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway and Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Sweden in the same spirit as the previous Turbine-99 workshops. The Francis-99 workshops aim during the coming years to determine the state of the art of high head Francis turbine simulations (flow and structure) under steady and transient operating conditions as well as promote their development and knowledge dissemination openly. Three workshops are initially planned: - Workshop 1: steady operation of Francis turbines (December 2014) - Workshop 2: transient operation of Francis turbines (December 2016) - Workshop 3: FSI of Francis turbines (December 2018) A high head Francis turbine model, named the Tokke model, has been designed and experimentally investigated at the Water Power Laboratory, NTNU. The complete geometry of the model and mesh are now freely available on the site www.francis-99.org together with a large set of experimental pressure and velocity measurements. The organisers expect this geometry to become with time a reference test case to the hydraulic community for research and development on high head Francis turbines and the workshops a meeting place to discuss developments, potentials, issues... on a common and open test case. The present proceeding contains the papers presented at the first workshop at NTNU the 15th and 16th of December 2014. 50 participants were present at the workshop and a total of 14 papers were presented. A large variety of codes and models were used highlighting different issues in the simulation of high Francis turbines. The editors: Prof. Michel J. Cervantes (LTU, NTNU) Dr. Chirag Trivedi (NTNU) Prof O.G. Dahlhaug (NTNU) Prof. T. Nielsen (NTNU)

  3. Educating Orphaned and Vulnerable Children in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepkemboi, Grace; Jolly, Pauline; Gillyard, KaNesha; Lissanu, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    According to UNICEF, 13.3 million children (0-17 years) worldwide have lost one or both parents to AIDS. Nearly 12 million of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, with other children who have been severely impacted by the AIDS pandemic, these orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) are at higher risk of missing out on schooling,…

  4. Genetic and Environmental Processes in Young Children's Resilience and Vulnerability to Socioeconomic Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Cohen, Julia; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Some children exposed to socioeconomic (SES) deprivation are resilient and function better than expected, given the level of deprivation they have experienced. The present study tested genetic and environmental contributions to young children's resilience and vulnerability to SES deprivation. Children's resilience was assessed by the difference…

  5. Media Use and Children's Perceptions of Societal Threat and Personal Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Babyar, Heather M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined children's media use (i.e., amount of television and Internet usage) and relationships to children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. The sample consisted of 90 community youth aged 7 to 13 years (M = 10.8; 52.2% male) from diverse economic backgrounds. Analyses found children's television use to be…

  6. A Peer-to-Peer Health Education Program for Vulnerable Children in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…

  7. The Influence of Family Environment on Mental Health Need and Service Use among Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Lindsey, Michael A.; English, Diana J.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Lambert, Sharon; Browne, Dorothy C.

    2007-01-01

    Children in child welfare are especially likely to have unmet mental health needs. The role of family factors in children's use of mental health services was examined in a longitudinal sample of 1,075 maltreated or at-risk children. Vulnerable family environment (poor family functioning, low social support, and caregiver psychological distress) is…

  8. Educational Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Primary Schools: Challenges and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa; Pillay, Jace

    2016-01-01

    Educational status is an important indicator of children's wellbeing and future life opportunities. It can predict growth potential and economic viability of a state. While this is an ideal situation for all children, the case may be different for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) due to the challenges they go through on a daily basis. This…

  9. Asset ownership among households caring for orphans and vulnerable children in rural Zimbabwe: the influence of ownership on children's health and social vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M; Lombe, Margaret; Robertson, Laura A; Dumba, Lovemore; Mushati, Phyllis; Makoni, J C; Mavise, Gideon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Munatsi, Brighton; Nyamukapa, Constance A; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in a dramatic increase in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) over the past decade. These children typically rely on extended family networks for support, but the magnitude of the crisis has resulted in traditional familial networks becoming overwhelmed and more economically and socially vulnerable. Previous research consistently demonstrates the positive influence of household asset ownership on children's well-being. Using data from impoverished households caring for OVC in rural Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe, this study explores the influence of household asset ownership on OVC health vulnerability (HV) and social vulnerability (SV). Findings indicate that asset ownership is associated with significantly lower SV, in terms of school attendance and birth registration. Yet, assets do not emerge as a direct influence of OVC HV as measured by disease and chronic illness, although having a chronically ill adult in the household increases HV. These findings suggest that asset ownership, specifically a combination of fixed and movable assets, may offset the influence of other risk factors for children's SV.

  10. An evaluation of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large numbers of children are growing up without adult protection, nutritional ... Most of the children are forced to act as caregivers and providers in their families. ... whereas focus group interviews were used to collect data from the children.

  11. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  12. Association between family composition and the well-being of vulnerable children in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Elizabeth; Racine, Elizabeth F; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Whitaker, Beth Elise

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between a vulnerable child's family composition (family size and primary caregiver) and three child well-being indicators (immunization status, access to food, educational security). Using 2006-2009 intake data from a Kenyan non-governmental aid agency, this cross-sectional study evaluated a population of 1,424 children in two urban slum settlements in Nairobi. Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to examine the relationship between family composition measures and child well-being. Multivariate results were also stratified by orphan status. Vulnerable children who live in household sizes of 4-6 members and vulnerable children who live with non-relatives had greater odds of inadequate immunization (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13-2.01, OR = 9.02, 95% CI: 4.62-17.62). Paradoxically, vulnerable children living with non-relative caregivers were at lower risk for inadequate food (OR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.07-0.33). Single orphans with an HIV positive parent were less likely to be fully immunized than single orphans with an HIV negative parent. The results provide information on specific groups which could benefit from increased attention related to childhood immunization education and intervention programs. The findings also underscore the need for policies which support families as a means of supporting vulnerable children. Finally, findings reinforce the wisdom of programs which target vulnerable children based on needs, rather than orphan status. These findings can be useful for informing future program and policy development designed to meet needs of vulnerable children.

  13. Community perspectives on research consent involving vulnerable children in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

    2012-10-01

    Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent.

  14. Vulnerability to Violence of "Talibe" Children in Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bhukuth, Augendra; Hamzetta, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    "Talibe" children are children sent to Quranic schools (daaras), where they are completely dependent on a master, known as a marabout. This is a very common system of education in formerly French-speaking countries in West Africa. In the last 10 years or so, numerous cases of violence towards "talibe" children have been…

  15. Contributions to the study and promotion of resilience in socially vulnerable children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, María Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Young children are particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of social vulnerability. Resilient children are those who resist adversity, manage to cope with uncertainty, and are able to recover successfully from trauma. Becoming familiar with the characteristics of naturally resilient children allows preventive intervention policies to be designed. Given that resilience interventions are an integrative process, it is necessary to work in different environments: family, school, and neighborhood. Interventions addressing the resources of socially vulnerable children appear to have quite an important role when children are faced with threats. But for the intervention's effects on the child's resources to be maintained or improved, the intervention needs to be intensive and continued over time. The child's age when the intervention begins is also an important factor. It has been determined that the earlier the intervention begins, the better the obtained results will be. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Household-based cash transfer targeting strategies in Zimbabwe: are we reaching the most vulnerable children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Sherr, Lorraine; Makoni, Jeremiah C; Skovdal, Morten; Crea, Tom; Mavise, Gideon; Dumba, Lovemore; Schumacher, Christina; Munyati, Shungu; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Census data, collected in July 2009, from 27,672 children were used to compare the effectiveness, coverage and efficacy of three household-based methods for targeting cash transfers to vulnerable children in eastern Zimbabwe: targeting the poorest households using a wealth index; targeting HIV-affected households using socio-demographic information (households caring for orphans, chronically-ill or disabled members; child-headed households); and targeting labour-constrained households using dependency ratios. All three methods failed to identify large numbers of children with poor social and educational outcomes. The wealth index approach was the most efficient at reaching children with poor outcomes whilst socio-demographic targeting reached more vulnerable children but was less efficient.

  17. Social vulnerability of unaccompanied migrant children: a view from the urban area of Altar, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alexander Cabrera Duarte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research carried out by the authors on the social vulnerability of unaccompanied migrant children in the urban area of Altar, Sonora, during the years 2010-2011. The main techniques used for data collection were participant observation and semi-structured interview. The results offered are limited to evidence the social vulnerability suffered by unaccompanied migrant children, by making use of the services of food, accommodation and health. Which exposes them to a number of risks, such as food shortages, the loss of their few belongings, the drug, the physical, the suffering of diseases and limited access to medical care aggressions.

  18. [Vulnerable children detected by the school health service: the forgotten?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirhomme-Renard, F; Bullens, Q; Malchair, A; Gosset, C

    2014-12-01

    The current health needs of children largely exceeds the biomedical model. The school doctor occupies a special position where he can take into account the social determinants of health and identify vulneirable children. After the detection by the school health service, the harmonious development of, the child requires that health professionals cooperate in a "preventive network".

  19. Effectiveness of the Comprehensive Childhood Protection System for vulnerable mothers and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Arcos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to establish the effectiveness of the public benefits and services of the "Chile Grows with You" and "Protect Network" programs for socially vulnerable women and children in an urban community in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. METHOD: Descriptive study employing a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 132 mothers and their 133 infants, all grouped according to social vulnerability. Primary data were collected via a structured interview of the mothers and were complemented with institutional (secondary data. Descriptive and associative analyses were performed. RESULTS: the perception of social vulnerability by the professionals was low at the time of admission into the program. The effectiveness of the universal and specific benefits was low, with better results for the children than for the mothers. However, no significant differences were observed according to vulnerability. Another finding was the low access to specific benefits for children with psychosocial risk and psychomotor delay, especially in the most vulnerable group. CONCLUSION: the results revealed a gap in the access to the benefits guaranteed by law. To overcome this situation, nurses must strengthen their skills in contextualized health practices and the comprehensive administration of interdisciplinary and intersectoral networks.

  20. Subjective well-being in socially vulnerable children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Poletto; Silvia Helena Koller

    2011-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the subjective well-being of children and adolescents attending school and living with their families as compared to those living in youth offenders institutions...

  1. Vulnerable Mothers, Vulnerable Children: A Follow-Up Study of Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their Children. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonnell, Susan

    This study compared 346 unmarried primiparous women who kept their children and 326 married primiparous women, with respect to birth control knowledge and use, socioeconomic circumstances over 18 months, health and development of the children, and quality of child care. The preparation and planning that led to the decision to keep the…

  2. Connecting Vulnerable Children and Families to Community-Based Programs Strengthens Parents' Perceptions of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marcia; Joslyn, Allison; Wojton, Morella; O'Reilly, Mairead; Dworkin, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We employed principles from a nationally recognized prevention model on family support to investigate whether connecting vulnerable children to community-based programs and services through a statewide intervention system, the "Help Me Grow" program, strengthens parents' perceptions of protective factors. We used a parent survey modeled…

  3. Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts: Bystanders' Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based questionnaires in their schools' computer labs. The results…

  4. It Feels Like Home: The Role of the Aesthetic Space in Participatory Work with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The author's entry into the Applied Theatre field coincided with "Research in Drama Education" ("RiDE's") inaugural issue in 1996 and, for the ensuing two decades, her practice has been primarily with "vulnerable" children. The purpose of this article is to interrogate a growing concern: that applied theatre's…

  5. Childhood Experiences: A Commitment to Caring and Care Work with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Julia; Mooney, Ann; Statham, June

    2009-01-01

    This article draws upon biographical interview material from a mixed-method British study of workers caring for vulnerable children: residential social workers, family support workers, foster carers and community childminders. It has two aims: (1) to identify the contexts--the particular events, circumstances and life course phases--that…

  6. Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts Bystanders' Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärnä, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Salmivalli, C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based questionnai

  7. Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts: Bystanders' Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based questionnaires in their schools' computer labs. The results…

  8. Expanding Partnerships for Vulnerable Children, Youth, and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper-Briar, Katharine, Ed.; Lawson, Hal A. , Ed.

    Drawing on testimonials and case studies, this collection of conference papers describes a variety of professional associations, organizations, and individuals working together for the benefit of our most fragile families and children. The 48 papers are divided into sections that: (1) express the vision at the core of partnerships phenomenon; (2)…

  9. Social Vulnerability and Bullying in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Dark, Elizabeth; Stone, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict…

  10. Improving the lives of vulnerable children: implications of Horizons research among orphans and other children affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Katie D; Michaelis, Annie; Sapiano, Tobey Nelson; Brown, Lisanne; Weiss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, the Horizons program conducted research to inform the care and support of children who had been orphaned and rendered vulnerable by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa. Horizons conducted studies in Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Research included both diagnostic studies exploring the circumstances of families and communities affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and evaluations of pioneering intervention strategies. Interventions found to be supportive of families included succession planning for families with an HIV-positive parent, training and supporting youth as caregivers, and youth mentorship for child-headed households. Horizons researchers developed tools to assess the psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV and outlined key ethical guidelines for conducting research among children. The design, implementation, and evaluation of community-based interventions for orphans and vulnerable children continue to be a key gap in the evidence base.

  11. Intervention strategies for children vulnerable for school failure due to exposure to drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G H

    1993-11-01

    Children and youth exposed in utero to drugs and alcohol and/or who are growing up in a family in which these substances are misused are vulnerable for failure at all age levels, prenatally through adulthood. This article reviews developmental issues presented by children and youth vulnerable for school failure either due to the biological effects of prenatal exposure to drugs and/or environmental issues resulting from growing up in a family in which misuse of drugs and alcohol occurs. Characteristics and needs of these students with recommendations for educational and community-based system of services to them and their families are discussed. Model programs serving children and youth prenatally through school age are identified.

  12. Caring for vulnerable children: challenges of mothering in the Australian foster care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Stacy L; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2013-04-01

    Foster carers have a significant responsibility in caring for vulnerable children. In order to support and facilitate foster carers it is important to understand how they perceive and fulfil this responsibility. A qualitative story-telling study, informed by feminist perspectives, was used to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 women providing long-term foster care in Australia. Thematic analysis revealed these women characterised themselves as mothers, rather than paid carers, to the long-term foster children in their care. Using this maternal self-perception as the starting point, this paper reveals some of the challenges and difficulties participants encountered when mothering within the confines of the child protection system. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. These implications focus on ways that nurses can effectively support foster carers, thus optimising the health and well-being of the vulnerable children in their care.

  13. Neighborhood Environments: Links to Health Behaviors and Obesity Status in Vulnerable Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Sooyeon

    2016-10-16

    This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity. Reduced availability of physical activity outlets was significantly and positively associated with sedentary behaviors. Mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods fell into three content categories: (a) changed to be unfriendly for children, (b) adapted to fast food and convenience eating, and (c) confined to physically inactive living. Based on these findings, community-level environmental strategies for reducing unhealthy behaviors linked to neighborhood environments should be prioritized to prevent childhood obesity in vulnerable populations.

  14. Oximetry Signal Processing Identifies REM Sleep-Related Vulnerability Trait in Asthmatic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Geovanny F.; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Pancham, Khrisna; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Nino, Cesar L.; Nino, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale. The sleep-related factors that modulate the nocturnal worsening of asthma in children are poorly understood. This study addressed the hypothesis that asthmatic children have a REM sleep-related vulnerability trait that is independent of OSA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pulse-oximetry signals obtained during REM and NREM sleep in control and asthmatic children (n = 134). Asthma classification was based on preestablished clinical criteria. Multivariate linear regression model was built to control for potential confounders (significance level P ≤ 0.05). Results. Our data demonstrated that (1) baseline nocturnal respiratory parameters were not significantly different in asthmatic versus control children, (2) the maximal % of SaO2 desaturation during REM, but not during NREM, was significantly higher in asthmatic children, and (3) multivariate analysis revealed that the association between asthma and REM-related maximal % SaO2 desaturation was independent of demographic variables. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that children with asthma have a REM-related vulnerability trait that impacts oxygenation independently of OSA. Further research is needed to delineate the REM sleep neurobiological mechanisms that modulate the phenotypical expression of nocturnal asthma in children. PMID:24288619

  15. Oximetry Signal Processing Identifies REM Sleep-Related Vulnerability Trait in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanny F. Perez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. The sleep-related factors that modulate the nocturnal worsening of asthma in children are poorly understood. This study addressed the hypothesis that asthmatic children have a REM sleep-related vulnerability trait that is independent of OSA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pulse-oximetry signals obtained during REM and NREM sleep in control and asthmatic children (n=134. Asthma classification was based on preestablished clinical criteria. Multivariate linear regression model was built to control for potential confounders (significance level P≤0.05. Results. Our data demonstrated that (1 baseline nocturnal respiratory parameters were not significantly different in asthmatic versus control children, (2 the maximal % of SaO2 desaturation during REM, but not during NREM, was significantly higher in asthmatic children, and (3 multivariate analysis revealed that the association between asthma and REM-related maximal % SaO2 desaturation was independent of demographic variables. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that children with asthma have a REM-related vulnerability trait that impacts oxygenation independently of OSA. Further research is needed to delineate the REM sleep neurobiological mechanisms that modulate the phenotypical expression of nocturnal asthma in children.

  16. Applying the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to the analysis of cognitive and family influences on children's dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Negative experiences, cognitions, and family variables are involved in the etiology of child dental fear, but previous research has frequently considered them separately. This study uses the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to explore the influence of negative dental experiences and family members on children's dental anxiety. The participants were 185 children who completed a questionnaire comprising measures of dental fear and cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions. Measures were obtained for 88 of the participants' fathers and for 97 of the participants' mothers. Cognitive vulnerability perceptions had the strongest association with children's dental fear (β = 0.40), explaining 14-21% of the variance in dental fear scores beyond that explained by other variables. Furthermore, vulnerability perceptions mediated the relationship between negative dental experiences and dental fear. Children's dental fear and cognitive vulnerability perceptions were significantly associated with those of their fathers (r = 0.23 and r = 0.40, respectively) and mothers (r = 0.28 and r = 0.35, respectively). Moreover, fathers' (β = 0.24) and mothers' (β = 0.31) levels of cognitive vulnerability significantly predicted the children's levels of dental fear. The Cognitive Vulnerability Model offers a framework to understand child dental fear. Furthermore, this cognitive approach may help explain why some children develop dental fear problems after suffering a negative dental experience and how dental anxiety is passed on from parents to children.

  17. Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Lindy

    Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

  18. Vulnerability of children and the developing brain to neurotoxic hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B

    2000-06-01

    For much of the history of toxicology, the sensitivity of the developing organism to chemical perturbation attracted limited attention. Several tragic episodes and new insights finally taught us that the course of early brain development incurs unique risks. Although the process is exquisitely controlled, its lability renders it highly susceptible to damage from environmental chemicals. Such disturbances, as recognized by current testing protocols and legislation such as the Food Quality Protection Act, can result in outcomes ranging from death to malformations to functional impairment. The latter are the most difficult to determine. First, they require a variety of measures to assay their extent. Second, adult responses may prove an inadequate guide to the response of the developing brain, which is part of the reason for proposing additional safety factors for children. Third, neuropsychological tests are deployed in complex circumstances in which many factors, including economic status, combine to produce a particular effect such as lowered intelligence quotient score. Fourth, the magnitude of the effect, for most environmental exposure levels, may be relatively small but extremely significant for public health. Fifth, changes in brain function occur throughout life, and some consequences of early damage may not even emerge until advanced age. Such factors need to be addressed in estimating the influence of a particular agent or group of agents on brain development and its functional expression. It is especially important to consider ways of dealing with multiple risks and their combinations in addition to the prevailing practice of estimating risks in isolation.

  19. Community-based organisations for vulnerable children in South Africa: Reach, psychosocial correlates, and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, A R; Sherr, L; Cluver, L D; Skeen, S; Hensels, I S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M

    2016-03-01

    Community-based organisations (CBOs) have the potential to provide high quality services for orphaned and vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, evidence is lacking as to whether CBOs are reaching those who are most vulnerable, whether attending these organisations is associated with greater psychosocial wellbeing, and how they might work. This study addressed these three questions using cross-sectional data from 1848 South African children aged 9-13. Data were obtained from the Young Carers and Child Community Care studies, which both investigated child wellbeing in South Africa using standardised self-report measures. Children from the Child Community Care study were all CBO attenders, whereas children from Young Carers were not receiving any CBO services, thereby serving as a comparison group. Multivariable regression analyses were used to test whether children attending CBOs were more deprived on socio-demographic variables (e.g., housing), and whether CBO attendance was in turn associated with better psychosocial outcomes (e.g., child depression). Mediation analysis was conducted to test whether more positive home environments mediated the association between CBO attendance and significantly higher psychological wellbeing. Overall, children attending CBOs did show greater vulnerability on most socio-demographic variables. For example, compared to children not attending any CBO, CBO-attending children tended to live in more crowded households (OR 1.22) and have been exposed to more community violence (OR 2.06). Despite their heightened vulnerability, however, children attending CBOs tended to perform better on psychosocial measures: for instance, showing fewer depressive symptoms (B=-0.33) and lower odds of experiencing physical (OR 0.07) or emotional abuse (OR 0.22). Indirect effects of CBO attendance on significantly higher child psychological wellbeing (lower depressive symptoms) was observed via lower rates of child abuse (B=-0.07) and

  20. Psychological vulnerability of singleton children after the 'vanishing' of a co-twin following assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Leonardo; Monti, Fiorella; Agostini, Francesca; Fagandini, Piergiuseppina; La Sala, Giovanni B; Blickstein, Isaac

    2008-02-01

    We test the hypothesis that parents who conceived twins by assisted reproduction technology (ART), but experienced loss of one twin, have a different parental-child relationship compared with ART parents following a singleton pregnancy. We used the 1994-2005 ART database of the Centre for Infertility of the Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova in Reggio Emilia, Italy to identify families of 53 singleton births after the 'vanishing' twin syndrome. The controls comprised 106 families who conceived and delivered singletons, matched for gestational age (>or= 28 or= 32 or= 37 weeks), maternal age (or= 35 40 years), child's age (1-3, 4-6, and 7-11 years) and child's gender. We completed 3 tests: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the QUIT - Italian Questionnaires of Temperament - motor scale, and the Child Vulnerability Scale. We found that children in the study had significantly more difficulties at the beginning of nursery school (p = .002) and kindergarten (p = .0005), with more frequent anxiety of separation from the parents (nursery school, p = .009; kindergarten, p = .001). We found a lower mean QUIT motor score for the 7- to 11-year-old children when compared to the general Italian normative values, suggesting that parents perceived their children as having more motor difficulties. In contrast, analysis of the Child Vulnerability Scale showed that significantly more parents (15.1%) from the controls perceived their child as vulnerable compared to those from the study group (3.8%), p = .034. We conclude that despite the perceived motor difficulties and the difficulties in the process of individuation-separation that appear at the beginning of the different educational circumstances, parents of singletons following the 'vanishing' twin syndrome perceive their children as 'invincible', and thus less vulnerable compared to controls.

  1. Vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Wahed, Tasnuva; Ali, Md Wazed; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Nahar, Quamrun; Azim, Tasnim

    2014-11-06

    Children living on the streets are an underprivileged population of Bangladesh and are likely to be more vulnerable to STIs/HIV for their day-to-day risky behaviours and lifestyles. This study assessed the vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS using qualitative participatory methods. This ethnographic participatory, qualitative study was conducted during February 2010- December 2011 among children aged 5-12 years, who live and/or work on the streets in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Data were collected in three phases: (a) social mapping (n = 493), (b) participatory group discussions (n = 119), and (c) individual interviews (n = 36). Results showed that street-children were engaged in behaviour that entails risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS. They possessed poor knowledge of the transmission of disease and of the benefits of using condoms; most of them reported never using a condom. The experience of selling sex for money and a variety of sexual activities, like anal, vaginal and oral sex, were commonly reported. The children also reported that they were regular users of one or more types of drugs, including those taken by injection. The deplorable living conditions of street children, with no obvious rights or way out, make them highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Urgent attention of the policy- makers to implement services addressing issues relating to social conditions, sexual health, and drug-use is warranted to prevent the possible epidemic of HIV/AIDS among this group of population.

  2. Children with disabilities in Russian institutions: can the West help protect the most vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberiene, Liepa V; Yazykova, Ekaterina

    2014-05-01

    Despite Russia’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and a sizable body of related legislation, stigma surrounding disability persists and Russia has fallen short on protecting the rights of children with disabilities. Family-based care programs are slow to be implemented and institutional placements continue to be favored and often pressured upon parents of children born with impairments. International support has played a key role in developing child welfare services, and intercountry adoption has saved many Russian children with disabilities from a life of institutional care. However, recent political developments have limited foreign adoptions as well as the ability of Western organizations to assist in advancing child protection in Russia. Even with these constraints, activists must continue to collaborate to work toward reforming the system of care for the country’s most vulnerable children.

  3. Community interventions providing care and support to orphans and vulnerable children: a review of evaluation evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Katie D

    2009-07-01

    Children affected by HIV in their families and communities face multiple risks to their health, education and psychosocial wellbeing. Community interventions for children who have been orphaned or rendered vulnerable take many forms, including educational assistance, home-based care, legal protection and psychosocial support. Despite a recent influx of funding for programme implementation, there exists little evidence to inform policymakers about whether their investments are improving the lives of vulnerable children and meeting key benchmarks including the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the current evidence base on evaluations of community interventions for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in high HIV-prevalence African settings, focusing on studies' methodologies. Sources reviewed include published research studies and evidence from the unpublished programmatic "grey literature" located through database and internet searches. A total of 21 studies, varying in scope and generalisability, were identified. Interventions reviewed address children's wellbeing through various strategies within their communities. Evaluation methodologies reflect quantitative and qualitative approaches, including surveys (with and without baseline or comparison data), costing studies, focus groups, interviews, case studies, and participatory review techniques. Varied study methodologies reflect diverse research questions, various intervention types, and the challenges associated with evaluating complex interventions; highlighting the need to broaden the research paradigm in order to build the evidence base by including quasi-experimental and process evaluation approaches, and seeking further insights through participatory qualitative methodologies and costing studies. Although findings overall indicate the value of community interventions in effecting measurable improvements in child and family wellbeing, the quality and rigour of evidence is varied. A strategic

  4. School Functioning of a Particularly Vulnerable Group: Children and Young People in Residential Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla González-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16, this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.

  5. The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile ZK; Nsagha, Sarah M; Assob, Jules-Clement N; Kamga, Henri-Lucien F; Njamnshi, Dora M; Njunda, Anna L; Obama, Marie-Thérèse O; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Cameroon and Africa, and the challenges of orphans and vulnerable children are a threat to child survival, growth and development. The HIV prevalence in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% in 2010. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach working experience with traditional rulers, administrative authorities and health stakeholders in Yaounde I and Yaounde VI Councils, Nanga Eboko Health District, Isangelle and Ekondo Titi Health Areas, Bafaka-Balue, PLAN Cameroon, the Pan African Institute for Development-West Africa, Save the orphans Foundation, Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Health. Results show that only 9% of all OVC in Cameroon are given any form of support. AIDS death continue to rise in Cameroon. In 1995, 7,900 people died from AIDS in the country; and the annual number rose to 25,000 in 2000. Out of 1,200,000 orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon in 2010, 300,000(25%) were AIDS orphans. Orphans and the number of children orphaned by AIDS has increased dramatically from 13,000 in 1995 to 304,000 in 2010. By 2020, this number is projected to rise to 350,000. These deaths profoundly affect families, which often are split up and left without any

  6. The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zk; Nsagha, Sarah M; Assob, Jules-Clement N; Kamga, Henri-Lucien F; Njamnshi, Dora M; Njunda, Anna L; Obama, Marie-Thérèse O; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Cameroon and Africa, and the challenges of orphans and vulnerable children are a threat to child survival, growth and development. The HIV prevalence in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% in 2010. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach working experience with traditional rulers, administrative authorities and health stakeholders in Yaounde I and Yaounde VI Councils, Nanga Eboko Health District, Isangelle and Ekondo Titi Health Areas, Bafaka-Balue, PLAN Cameroon, the Pan African Institute for Development-West Africa, Save the orphans Foundation, Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Health. Results show that only 9% of all OVC in Cameroon are given any form of support. AIDS death continue to rise in Cameroon. In 1995, 7,900 people died from AIDS in the country; and the annual number rose to 25,000 in 2000. Out of 1,200,000 orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon in 2010, 300,000(25%) were AIDS orphans. Orphans and the number of children orphaned by AIDS has increased dramatically from 13,000 in 1995 to 304,000 in 2010. By 2020, this number is projected to rise to 350,000. These deaths profoundly affect families, which often are split up and left without any

  7. Government-NGO collaboration and sustainability of orphans and vulnerable children projects in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alana; Hartwig, Kari; Merson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Given current donor attention to orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS, and the need for a new framework that recognizes the complementary roles of nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), this analysis reviews NGO-operated community-based orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) projects in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. There has been a lack of attention within the field of evaluation to inter-organizational relationships, specifically those with government agencies, as a factor in sustainability. We analyzed evaluations of nine OVC projects funded by the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation for the influence of government-NGO collaboration on project sustainability. For eight of the nine projects, evaluations provided evidence of the importance of the government partnership for sustainability. Government collaboration was important in projects designed to help families access government grants, initiate community-based solutions, and advocate for OVC rights through legislation. Government partnerships were also critical to the sustainability of two projects involved in placing children in foster care, but these showed signs of tension with government partners. In addition to the more common factors associated with sustainability, such as organizational characteristics, donors and NGOs should concentrate on developing strong partnerships with local and national government agencies for the sustainability of their projects.

  8. Practices of Early Childhood Development Practitioners for Poor and Vulnerable Children from Birth to Four Years in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu; Killian, Bev; Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the practices undertaken by early childhood development practitioners (ECDPs) to support poor and vulnerable children from birth to four years outside centre-based provision. The article draws on part of a UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Fund) commissioned evaluation on family and community-based ECD (Early…

  9. Practices of Early Childhood Development Practitioners for Poor and Vulnerable Children from Birth to Four Years in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu; Killian, Bev; Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the practices undertaken by early childhood development practitioners (ECDPs) to support poor and vulnerable children from birth to four years outside centre-based provision. The article draws on part of a UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Fund) commissioned evaluation on family and community-based ECD (Early…

  10. Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and critical…

  11. Resilience and vulnerability among refugee children of traumatized and non-traumatized parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Atia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore resilience among refugee children whose parents had been traumatized and were suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Methods The study comprised 80 refugee children (40 boys and 40 girls, age range 6–17 yrs, divided into two groups. The test group consisted of 40 refugee children whose parents had been tortured in Iraq before coming to Sweden. In accordance with DSM-IV criteria, these children were further divided in two sub-groups, those who were assessed as having PTSD-related symptoms (n = 31 and those who did not have PTSD-related symptoms (n = 9. The comparison group consisted of 40 children from Egypt, Syria and Morocco whose parents had not been tortured. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. (WISC-III, Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents- Revised (DICA-R, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms checklist (PTSS, "I Think I am" (ITIA and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ were used to assess IQ; PTSD-related symptoms; self-esteem; possible resilience and vulnerability. Results Children without PTSD/PTSS in the traumatized parents group had more favorable values (ITIA and SDQ with respect to total scores, emotionality, relation to family, peer relations and prosocial behavior than the children in the same group with PTSD/PTSS and these values were similar to those the children in the comparison group (the non-traumatized parents group. The children in the non-traumatized parents group scored significantly higher on the IQ test than the children with traumatized parents, both the children with PTSD-related symptoms and those without PTSD-related symptoms. Conclusion Adequate emotional expression, supportive family relations, good peer relations, and prosociality constituted the main indicators of resilience. Further investigation is needed to explore the possible effects of these factors and the effects of IQ. The findings of this study are

  12. Experiences from families of children with cerebral paralysis in context of social vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Rany Rigotti Baltor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe and to analyze the experience from families of children with cerebral paralysis living under circumstances of social vulnerability. METHOD: six resident families in area with this characteristic were interviewed. It was opted to use the Symbolic Interactionism as theoretic reference and the Thematic Content Analysis of Bardin as analysis method for the data. RESULT: the experience of such families is represented in the subjects: Reorganizing the Life, with the categories "Discovering the way" and "Accommodating the routine", and Stopping a Constant Fight with the categories: "Primary Carer being overcharged", "Coexisting with the preconception", "Having locomotion difficulty" and "Living with financial difficulties". CONCLUSION: the social vulnerability influences how the family bears the chronic condition. Professionals and strategies of public health are a power to minimize impacts including those related to the family budget, but they have not been effective. They need to be sensitized to become supporting resources, to offer and to guide the access to the support networks and to spur the social service in action when necessary. This study adds knowledge to the already existing by pointing out peculiarities of the family experience in situations regarding two variables of difficult handling: chronicity and social vulnerability, evidencing the role of the professional in search of the solution for the confrontation of demands and sufferings together with the family.

  13. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  14. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  15. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models to identify perinatal windows of vulnerability in children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J; Coull, Brent A

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological research supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse children's health outcomes. Advances in exposure assessment and statistics allow for estimation of both critical windows of vulnerability and exposure effect heterogeneity. Simultaneous estimation of windows of vulnerability and effect heterogeneity can be accomplished by fitting a distributed lag model (DLM) stratified by subgroup. However, this can provide an incomplete picture of how effects vary across subgroups because it does not allow for subgroups to have the same window but different within-window effects or to have different windows but the same within-window effect. Because the timing of some developmental processes are common across subpopulations of infants while for others the timing differs across subgroups, both scenarios are important to consider when evaluating health risks of prenatal exposures. We propose a new approach that partitions the DLM into a constrained functional predictor that estimates windows of vulnerability and a scalar effect representing the within-window effect directly. The proposed method allows for heterogeneity in only the window, only the within-window effect, or both. In a simulation study we show that a model assuming a shared component across groups results in lower bias and mean squared error for the estimated windows and effects when that component is in fact constant across groups. We apply the proposed method to estimate windows of vulnerability in the association between prenatal exposures to fine particulate matter and each of birth weight and asthma incidence, and estimate how these associations vary by sex and maternal obesity status in a Boston-area prospective pre-birth cohort study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Group-Based Intervention to Improve Socio-Emotional Health in Vulnerable Children

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    Tony Cassidy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internalizing and externalizing problems present as difficulties in socio-emotional competence and predispose to a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes. This study examines the efficacy of an intervention (Pyramid Plus in strengthening children’s socio-emotional competencies. Participants (294 11 year old children attending schools in Northern Ireland were screened for socio-emotional difficulties using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and before being allocated to attend a Pyramid Club intervention (n = 162, and a waiting list control (n = 122. A 3 × 2 mixed-model design was used: group (intervention group vs. waiting list control × 3 time points (pre- vs. post-intervention vs. 12 weeks follow up to investigate the impact of the Pyramid Plus intervention. Teachers and children completed the SDQ-11-16 years, and children completed the TEIQue-CSF ant all 3 times. SDQ total difficult, internalizing and externalizing scores were reduced significantly, and prosocial and emotional intelligence scores were increased significantly compared to waiting list controls post intervention and at follow up. The Pyramid Plus intervention improves the socio-emotional health of vulnerable children through promoting positive outcomes as well as reducing socio- emotional deficits.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

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    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  18. The potential impact of a cataract surgery programme on the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Swaziland.

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    Pons, J; Mapham, W E; Newsome, B; Myer, L; Anderson, R; Courtright, P; Cook, C

    2012-02-23

    We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of a cataract surgery programme at the Good Shepherd Hospital, Siteki, Swaziland, on the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Swaziland. We studied consecutive patients aged 50 years and older undergoing surgery for age-related cataract who reported having children living in their household. Of 131 subjects recruited, 65 (49.6%) were the primary caregivers for the child(ren) in their household. Visual acuities measured 2 weeks after surgery significantly improved. Four weeks after surgery, there was a sizable increase in the proportions of subjects who were able to undertake self-care activities, attend to activities of daily living, undertake income-generating activities and care for children. Cataract surgery on elderly visually impaired patients has the potential to impact positively on the care of orphans and vulnerable children.

  19. Saving lives for a lifetime: supporting orphans and vulnerable children impacted by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Beverly J; Yates, Dee Dee; Lovich, Ronnie; Coulibaly-Traore, Djeneba; Sherr, Lorraine; Thurman, Tonya Renee; Sampson, Anita; Howard, Brian

    2012-08-15

    President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR's) response to the millions of children impacted by HIV/AIDS was to designate 10% of its budget to securing their futures, making it the leading supporter of programs reaching orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) programs globally. This article describes the evolution of PEPFAR's OVC response based on programmatic lessons learned and an evergrowing understanding of the impacts of HIV/AIDS. In launching this international emergency effort and transitioning it toward sustainable local systems, PEPFAR helped establish both the technical content and the central importance of care and support for OVC as a necessary complement to biomedical efforts to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Critical services are reaching millions of HIV-affected children and families through vast networks of community-based responders and strengthened national systems of care. But rapid program scale-up has at times resulted in inconsistent responses, failure to match resources to properly assessed needs, and a dearth of rigorous program evaluations. Key investments should continue to be directed toward more sustainable and effective responses. These include greater attention to children's most significant developmental stages, a focus on building the resilience of families and communities, a proper balance of government and civil society investments, and more rigorous evaluation and research to ensure evidence-based programming. Even as HIV prevalence declines and medical treatment improves and expands, the impacts of HIV/AIDS on children, families, communities, economies, and societies will continue to accumulate for generations. Protecting the full potential of children-and thus of societies-requires sustained and strategic global investments aligned with experience and science.

  20. Tick box for child? The ethical positioning of children as vulnerable, researchers as Barbarians and reviewers as overly cautious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bernie

    2009-06-01

    Children have historically been marginalized in research with proxies used as appropriate sources of information about children's experiences, perceptions and understandings. In the context of research governance and ethical review, the default setting in many countries reflects a long history of framing children within a discourse of vulnerability and seeing research with (or on) children as inherently risky. This perspective inevitably positions researchers as '(potentially) dangerous' and requires reviewers to adopt a (super-) cautious approach to any research proposal involving children's participation. Halse and Honey [Halse, C., Honey, A., 2007. Rethinking ethics review as institutional discourse. Qualitative Inquiry 13 (3), 336-352] suggest that this forces the researcher into the position of barbarian and the reviewers into the role of the research subject's champion. However, the discourse of child vulnerability competes with the discourse of child participation and involvement. Research with children is further complicated since children also have tended to be viewed as a homogenous group although this clearly misrepresents the diversity, individuality and multiplicity of their geographies. The tensions that arise from children being protected from the predations of the 'barbarian researchers' have meant that researchers have tended to undertake research on the least vulnerable/most adult-like children. This has resulted in some interesting and important research although the findings are likely to have much less utility than if researchers made greater efforts to engage or been given the opportunities to engage with the more marginalized children. Researchers and reviewers are a heterogeneous group each sharing some barbarian and champion tendencies. Both groups need to acknowledge their own 'adultist' assumptions and discursive practices in relation to involving children within research and consider the benefits (as well as the risks) that can accrue

  1. Factors Influencing Teachers' Competence in Developing Resilience in Vulnerable Children in Primary Schools in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silyvier, Tsindoli; Nyandusi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of teacher characteristics on their competence in developing resilience in vulnerable primary school children. A descriptive survey research design was used. This study was based on resiliency theory as proposed by Krovetz (1998). Simple random sampling was used to select a sample size of 108…

  2. Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

  3. Strategies for Supporting Orphans and Vulnerable Children: An Exploratory Study of an Exemplary Model of Care in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Melynda; Singletary, Jon; Rogers, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the extent to which programs in a religiously affiliated agency in Kenya incorporate 12 internationally sanctioned strategies for supporting orphans and vulnerable children in Sub-Saharan Africa (Olson, Knight, & Foster, 2006). The results indicated that all 12 strategies were being employed, though to varying…

  4. PEPFAR's support for orphans and vulnerable children: some beneficial effects, but too little data, and programs spread thin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer; Sabin, Lora; Brooks, Mohamad I; Scott, Nancy; Larson, Bruce A; Biemba, Godfrey; Miller, Candace; Simon, Jonathon

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen million children in developing and middle-income countries have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS, and at least another million children per year are rendered vulnerable by parental HIV/AIDS-related illness. Since 2003 the US government has provided approximately $1.6 billion to give four million of these children care and support through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). We conducted five studies to evaluate the effectiveness of PEPFAR's interventions for such children in East Africa and southern Africa. We found evidence of beneficial changes in school enrollment rates and on the psychosocial well-being of children. However, we could not demonstrate empirically the impact of most of the PEPFAR initiatives that we examined, primarily because of a lack of baseline data and clear outcome and impact indicators. We also found that many programs were spread so thin across a vulnerable population that little in the way of services actually reached beneficiaries, which raises questions about whether PEPFAR funds are sufficient, or if the program is attempting to do much with too few resources. We offer several recommendations, including better measuring the effect of programs for orphans and vulnerable children by collecting baseline data and conducting well-designed, rigorous outcome and impact evaluations.

  5. Who is the vulnerable child? Using survey data to identify children at risk in the era of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwara, Priscilla Atwani; Noubary, Behzad; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Johnson, Kiersten; Yates, Rachel; Winfrey, William; Chandan, Upjeet Kaur; Mulenga, Doreen; Kolker, Jimmy; Luo, Chewe

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing global attention to mitigating the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on children's lives. Within this context, developing and tracking global child vulnerability indicators in relation to HIV and AIDS has been critical in terms of assessing need and monitoring progress. Although orphanhood and adult household illness (co-residence with a chronically ill or HIV-positive adult) are frequently used as markers, or definitions, of vulnerability for children affected by HIV and AIDS, evidence supporting their effectiveness has been equivocal. Data from 60 nationally representative household surveys (36 countries) were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods to establish if these markers consistently identified children with worse outcomes and also to identify other factors associated with adverse outcomes for children. Outcome measures utilized were wasting among children aged 0-4 years, school attendance among children aged 10-14 years, and early sexual debut among adolescent boys and girls aged 15-17 years. Results indicate that orphanhood and co-residence with a chronically ill or HIV-positive adult are not universally robust measures of child vulnerability across national and epidemic contexts. For wasting, early sexual debut, and to a lesser extent, school attendance, in the majority of surveys analyzed, there were few significant differences between orphans and non-orphans or children living with chronically ill or HIV-positive adults and children not living with chronically ill or HIV-positive adults. Of other factors analyzed, children living in households where the household head or eldest female had a primary education or higher were significantly more likely to be attending school, better household health and sanitation was significantly associated with less wasting, and greater household wealth was significantly associated both with less wasting and better school attendance. Of all marker of child

  6. Care for the most vulnerable children in Tanzania: a faith-based model of care and support for children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmbando, Paul; Hartwig, Kari A; Hofgren, Berit; Disorbo, Phil; Smith, Shelley; Hartwig, Kristopher N

    2009-01-01

    In the fight against HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, the plight of orphaned and vulnerable children was long overlooked. The first United Nations report on orphans and vulnerable children did not emerge until 2002 after more than two generations of children and youth had struggled to survive with limited family, institutional, or government support. The major social determinants of health for infants and children with one or more parents dying or dead from HIV include pervasive poverty, weak community social support systems, lack of policy commitment by governments or foreign donors, lack of access to anti-retroviral drugs, limited access to schools, and gender. In this paper, we present a model of care and support to the most vulnerable children (MVC) affected by HIV that brings together faith-based institutions in partnership with the government and community volunteers in 13 rural districts of Tanzania. Although still being implemented, the project has a number of valuable lessons learned for program managers, donors, and researchers working with faith-based organizations in the development and delivery of services to the most vulnerable children in a resource-limited setting.

  7. Supporting Identity Development in Cross-Cultural Children and Young People: Resources, Vulnerability, Creativity

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    Hildegunn Schuff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Children and young people with cross-cultural backgrounds are significantly influenced by multiple cultures during their upbringing. They face the ambivalence and challenges of regularly dealing with multiple cultural frames of reference, norms and expectations, and often experience particular identity challenges. One might say that much of the ambivalence of modern intercultural societies may show up as internalized ambivalence in these “children of migration”. This article explores cross-cultural identity development. The aim is to further our understanding of how the identities of cross-cultural children and young people can be supported and their resources activated. This can both strengthen their resilience and well- being, and be of great value to society at large. Psychosocial/cultural interventions and creative projects in cross-cultural settings are potential arenas for this type of cultural health promotion. One example is the multicultural music project Fargespill (‘Kaleidoscope’. In a case study of Kaleidoscope, I describe and discuss how these participatory creative activities work, and ask how they may foster the development of constructive cross-cultural identities. Participant observation was conducted in Kaleidoscope throughout a year. In the light of theoretical perspectives from social and cultural psychology, the article analyzes identity issues and possibilities within this empirical context. Supporting cross-cultural identity development in a constructive manner is here operationalized as allowing, increasing and acknowledging identity complexity. The findings are categorized under the headings of resources, vulnerability and creativity. The project leaders make an effort to establish trust and a safe, supportive space. They apply a participatory method, in which the participants are seen as resources and their strengths and contributions are emphasized. In some situations, the vulnerability that may be caused by

  8. Poetic and Francis Bacon's Ambivalence toward Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribble, Paula Tompkins

    Just as rhetoric is a way of knowing, so is poetic, both of which, for Francis Bacon, produce false knowledge. But Bacon is not entirely negative. When the poetic elements of language are used in strategic and public communication, like the scholarly communication Bacon attempts to reform, poetic and rhetoric work together to create a plurality of…

  9. Association between socioeconomic vulnerability and height with obesity in low-income Chilean children in the transition from preschool to first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Juliana; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara; Taibo, Marcela; Vio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the percentage of obesity among lower-income Chilean children 4-6 years of age, by socioeconomic vulnerability (family score assessing the children's risk of becoming poor) and height. The sample included 17,080 children with anthropometry at 4, 5, and 6 years of age, and three categories of socioeconomic vulnerability. Body mass index Z-score (BMI Z), % obesity, height/age Z-score (HAZ) by socioeconomic vulnerability/sex, the effect of socioeconomic vulnerability on BMI Z and HAZ by age/sex, and BMI Z and % obesity at 4-6 years, according to initial height, were determined. Between 4-6 years, % obesity is very high, especially among the less-vulnerable and taller children. Preventive measures should prioritize this group.

  10. Assessing Vulnerability to Chronic Undernutrition among Under-Five Children in Egypt: Contextual Determinants of an Individual Consequence

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    Sumit Mazumdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional outcomes remain an important development indicator and reflect a household's vulnerability to improved quality of life. Drawing upon recent household survey data from Egypt, this paper applies hierarchical models to test the effect of contextual factors on chronic undernutrition among under-five children and identifies the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics that underscore such vulnerability. Results indicate considerable neighborhood effects influencing a household’s nutritional choices. However, no significant effect could be identified for mother’s education and women’s decision-making power, but a clear positive association is evident between nutritional status and better health service utilization as well as child care and feeding practices. Focused intervention strategies need to augment household level behavioral change for these identified factors and supplement such individual efforts with targeted strategies aimed at vulnerable Egyptian communities to reduce child undernutrition.

  11. Community-based mental health support for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa: A triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michelle; Rani, Kholisa; Skinner, Donald; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Serekoane, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Community-based care is receiving increasing global attention as a way to support children who are orphaned or vulnerable due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodology, this study assesses community-based responses to the well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and compares these responses with the actual mental health of OVC in order to evaluate the South African government's approach of funding community-based organisations (CBOs) that support and care for OVC. The study results show that the activities of CBOs mainly extend government services and address poverty. Although this should not be seen as insignificant, the paper argues that CBOs give very little attention to the mental health of OVC.

  12. The Francis Report--dento-legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    This article explores the potential implications of the Francis Report for members of the dental team from a dento-legal perspective. It looks at the broad recommendations in light of the existing ethical environment in which dental registrants work and asks what is new and what the recommendations will actually mean for dental professionals in practical terms. Clinical Relevance: The fundamental recommendations of the Francis Report, namely, that those who provide care should put patients' interests first and be open about outcomes and performance, are not new concepts. A breach of these ethically based expectations may, however, create grounds for legal proceedings, which is clearly a significant point for all members of the dental team. It is therefore important to be aware of what is expected of those providing clinical care.

  13. U.S. Government and Partners: Working Together on a Comprehensive, Coordinated and Effective Response to Highly Vulnerable Children. Third Annual Report to Congress on Public Law 109-95, the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Public Law 109-95, the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005 (hereinafter, referred to as PL 109-95), was signed into law four years ago to respond to the global orphans and vulnerable children crisis. It calls for the U.S. Government (USG) response to the crisis to be comprehensive, coordinated…

  14. Caring for the caregiver: evaluation of support groups for guardians of orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya R; Jarabi, Ben; Rice, Janet

    2012-01-01

    HIV and AIDS have altered the context in which millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa are raised. Many are under the care of a widowed or ill parent, and others are residing with their extended family. Caregivers of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) face a variety of stressors that may adversely affect children. This study explores potential benefits of caregivers' membership in support groups on their own psychosocial wellbeing, and on the treatment and psychosocial well-being of OVC aged 8-14 under their care. A post-test study design comparing members and non-members was applied, drawing upon random samples of current and prospective beneficiaries from a rural community in Kenya. With up to two children per caregiver eligible for study inclusion, the sample comprised 766 caregivers and 1028 children. Three-quarters of children had lost at least one parent. Nearly 90% were cared for by a female, often their natural mother or grandmother. Half of the caregivers were widowed and one-fifth had a chronic illness. Over one-third of caregivers were members of support groups, more commonly female caregivers. Regression analyses assessed the effect of support group membership after controlling for household, caregiver and child characteristics. Members reported less social marginalization, better family functioning and more positive feelings towards the children in their care than nonmembers. Children with caregivers in support groups exhibited fewer behavioral problems, higher rates of prosocial behavior and reported lower incidence of abuse from adults in their household. The psychological state of caregivers, however, was not associated with support group membership. Results underscore that quality care of vulnerable children hinges on interventions that address the psychosocial challenges facing their caregivers.

  15. CFD Numerical simulations of Francis turbines

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    Santiago Laín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la simulación numérica del flujo en el interior de una turbina Francis. La metodología a seguir para la simulación del flujo en una turbina Francis depende de los objetivos perseguidos: mientras que para determinar la curva característica y las pérdidas de energía en los diferentes componentes basta una aproximación estacionaria, para investigar las interacciones rotor - estator o las fluctuaciones de presión en el rodete se requiere realizar un cálculo transitorio. Ambas estrategias se presentan en este artículo aplicadas a una turbina Francis en explotación en Colombia. La simulación se realiza por medio del paquete computacional Ansys CFX v. 11. Los resultados de la simulación comparan satisfactoriamente con las medidas experimentales realizadas sobre la máquina, especialmente en el caso de la curva característica.

  16. Practitioner Review: Children in foster care – vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes

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    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of children are placed in foster care g(i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral, neurobiological, and social realms. Methods Areas of risk and vulnerability among foster children are described, including emotional and behavioral deficits, impaired neurobiological development, and social relationship deficits. Evidence suggesting the significance of family placement changes and prenatal exposure to substances as contributing mechanisms is presented. Based on a systematic search of the PsycINFO database (to March 2012), eight efficacious evidence-based interventions for foster families are summarized. Findings Although the development of evidence-based interventions that improve outcomes for foster children has lagged behind the delivery of interventions in other service sectors (e.g., mental health and educational sectors), several interventions across childhood and adolescence offer promise. Service system constraints offer both challenges and opportunities for more routine implementation of evidence-based interventions. Conclusions Given the increased likelihood of poor outcomes for foster children, increased efforts to understand the pathways to vulnerability and to implement interventions shown to be effective in remediating risks and improving outcomes for this population are indicated. Evaluation of efficacious interventions in countries outside of the USA is also needed. PMID:22882015

  17. Francis Bacon: teory, method and contributions to the education

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    Roberto Carlos Simões Galvão

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we propose a brief analysis of Francis Bacon’s thought (1561-1626 and his contributions to the Education. With Bacon, the old religious or metaphysical character of knowledge was substituted by the objectivity of the experimental science, something unknown until then. The science started to represent a means in search of an end, i.e., man’s control over nature. The desire of Bacon to promote a reorganization of the power of the human knowledge, not based on the old scholastic knowledge, but in the new scientific knowledge, was shared by educators, philosophers and statesmen of his time. The role of the school would be to assure the dissemination of this new knowledge which, properly unified, would be within reach of all the children

  18. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2016-07-24

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, articles on children's exposure to second-hand smoke published between 1 January 2004 and 16 February 2014 in three Scottish newspapers were identified using Nexis UK. In all, 131 articles were thematically coded and analysed. Children were portrayed as vulnerable and requiring protection, with few articles highlighting children's ability to voice concerns about the dangers of smoking. Smokers and smoking parents were mainly portrayed in a factual manner, but also frequently as irresponsible and, in some cases, intentionally imposing harm. Individual smokers were blamed for their recklessness, with only a small number of articles mentioning the need to assist smokers in quitting. Supporters of legislation focused on corresponding discourse, whereas critics directed debates towards established arguments against policy, including individual freedom, privacy and problems of enforcement. Focusing on children's vulnerability to second-hand smoke might have increased support for legislation but risked a side effect of smokers being stigmatised. The media and supporters of public health policy are encouraged to consider appropriate approaches to raise awareness of the health harms of second-hand smoke to children while avoiding unintended stigmatisation of those in which they want to encourage behaviour change.

  19. Structural Vulnerability among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico:The Public Health Impact of Humanitarian Parole

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    Elizabeth Salerno Valdez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol (USCBP has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the United States. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project Helping Hands (PHH utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency.These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before, and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing

  20. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population.

  1. Diagnosing Guerilla Warfare: Was William Clarke Quantrill Missouri’s Francis Marion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    frightful epoch when priests, women, and children throughout Spain plotted the murder of isolated soldiers." -Antoine-Henri J omini Jomini2...there are setbacks at any stage there sequences can be reversed to a previous phase.29 FRANCIS MARION AND GUERILLA WARFARE One of the most famous...Militia under General 28 D.M. Frost to stage his forces near the St. Louis Arsenal, as a "training camp," at what became known as Camp Jackson. 148

  2. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  3. Design optimization method for Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, H.; Enomoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a design optimization system coupled CFD. Optimization algorithm of the system employs particle swarm optimization (PSO). Blade shape design is carried out in one kind of NURBS curve defined by a series of control points. The system was applied for designing the stationary vanes and the runner of higher specific speed francis turbine. As the first step, single objective optimization was performed on stay vane profile, and second step was multi-objective optimization for runner in wide operating range. As a result, it was confirmed that the design system is useful for developing of hydro turbine.

  4. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-03-01

    Decreased executive function (EF) has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. One possible reason for this association is that individuals with degraded EF are more vulnerable to emotional-based overeating. Emotional eating may thus be more likely to occur in persons with lower self-control or ability to regulate emotions. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function, emotional arousal and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in 3-6year-old children. Executive function was measured through child-completed tasks, parent questionnaires, and standardized teacher reports. Emotional arousal was measured via skin conductance. Children who had lower cognitive development scores as indicated by teacher reports had higher EAH. Increased emotional arousal was associated with increased EAH, but only in a subgroup of children who had a lower capacity for emotional regulation as suggested by lower delay of gratification scores, lower effortful control (parent questionnaire), and overall lower teacher-reported cognitive development. Further studies are necessary to determine whether interventions to improve executive function and emotional regulation in young children may also have the benefit of improving eating behaviors and decreasing risk of obesity in the long run.

  5. Saint Francis adapts women's cardiac risk campaign for Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    Saint Francis Medical Center, Cape Girardeau, Mo., became the first hospital in Missouri to promote the VHA national initiative, Women's HeartAdvantage. Marketers incorporated Women's HeartAdvantage materials into the broader marketing plan for the Saint Francis Heart Institute. Using both traditional and innovative media, they're spreading the word that heart disease is woman's greatest health risk.

  6. Psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Wim; Vercoutere, An; Loua, Catherine; Lamah, Jonas; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Koker, Petra; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen; Annemans, Lieven

    2009-12-01

    Over the past decade, the effects of AIDS-related parental death on children's socio-economic, educational and psychological well-being have become apparent. Most studies, however, have compared the plight of so-called AIDS orphans with non-orphaned children only. Consequently, such study designs are unable to establish if the AIDS-related cause of death of the parents confers effects additional to those of parent-bereavement. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among 140 non-orphaned children, 133 children orphaned by causes other than AIDS (O) and 124 children orphaned by AIDS (O-A) in Conakry, N'Zerekore and the villages around N'Zerekore, Guinea. Multi-way analysis of variance and multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between the orphan status and psychological well-being, school attendance, economic activities, frequency of going to bed hungry and sleeping commodity. After adjustment for confounding factors, the psychological well-being score (PWS) was significantly lower among AIDS-orphaned children than among O (Pchildren were more likely to be engaged in economic activities (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.45-6.36) and to go to bed hungry on a daily basis (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.24-6.02) than other orphans. The differences in school attendance and the proportion of children with a bed or couch to sleep between AIDS-orphaned children and O were not statistically significant. This situation calls for sustainable and holistic approaches to ensure the psychological and socio-economic stability of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children.

  7. Tolerance Stack Analysis in Francis Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Djodikusumo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance stacking problem arises in the context of assemblies from interchangeable parts because of the inability to produce or to join parts exactly according to nominal dimensions. Either the relevant part’s dimension varies around some nominal values from part to part or the act of assembly that leads to variation. For example, as runner of Francis turbine is joined with turbine shaft via mechanical lock, there is not only variation in the diameter of runner and the concentricity between the runner hole and turbine shaft, but also the variation in concentricity between the outer parts of runner to runner hole. Thus, there is the possibility that the assembly of such interacting parts won’t function or won’t come together as planned. Research in this area has been conducted and 2 mini hydro Francis turbines (800 kW and 910 kW have been designed and manufactured for San Sarino and Sawi Dago 2 in Central Sulawesi. Experiences in analyzing the tolerance stacks have been documented. In this paper it will be demonstrated how the requirements of assembling performance are derived to be the designed tolerances of each interacting component, such a way that the assembling would be functioning and come together as planned.

  8. Failure analysis of a Francis turbine runner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunzaverde, D; Campian, V [Research Center in Hydraulics, Automation and Heat Transfer, ' Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita P-ta Traian Vuia 1-4, RO-320085, Resita (Romania); Muntean, S [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences, Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Bv. Mihai Viteazu 24, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Marginean, G [University of Applied Sciences Gelsenkirchen, Neidenburger Str. 10, 45877 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Marsavina, L [Department of Strength, ' Politehnica' University of Timisoara, Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Terzi, R; Serban, V, E-mail: gabriela.marginean@fh-gelsenkirchen.d, E-mail: d.frunzaverde@uem.r [Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary, S.C. Hidroelectrica S.A., Str. Decebal 11, RO-240255, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The variable demand on the energy market requires great flexibility in operating hydraulic turbines. Therefore, turbines are frequently operated over an extended range of regimes. Francis turbines operating at partial load present pressure fluctuations due to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone. This phenomenon generates strong vibrations and noise that may produce failures on the mechanical elements of the machine. This paper presents the failure analysis of a broken Francis turbine runner blade. The failure appeared some months after the welding repair work realized in situ on fatigue cracks initiated near to the trailing edge at the junction with the crown, where stress concentration occurs. In order to determine the causes that led to the fracture of the runner blade, the metallographic investigations on a sample obtained from the blade is carried out. The metallographic investigations included macroscopic and microscopic examinations, both performed with light and scanning electron microscopy, as well as EDX - analyses. These investigations led to the conclusion, that the cracking of the blade was caused by fatigue, initiated by the surface unevenness of the welding seam. The failure was accelerated by the hydrogen embrittlement of the filling material, which appeared as a consequence of improper welding conditions. In addition to the metallographic investigations, numerical computations with finite element analysis are performed in order to evaluate the deformation and stress distribution on blade.

  9. Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and…

  10. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  11. Saving Children, Saving Haiti? Child Vulnerability and Narratives of the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    Long before the earthquake in Haiti on 12 January 2010, but particularly since, international media and humanitarian groups have drawn attention to the "vulnerable child" in Haiti, a child often portrayed as needing "saving". Focusing in particular on the "restavek" (child domestic laborer), this article first…

  12. Saving Children, Saving Haiti? Child Vulnerability and Narratives of the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    Long before the earthquake in Haiti on 12 January 2010, but particularly since, international media and humanitarian groups have drawn attention to the "vulnerable child" in Haiti, a child often portrayed as needing "saving". Focusing in particular on the "restavek" (child domestic laborer), this article first explores the ways in which such…

  13. At the edge of vulnerability--lived experience of parents of children with cerebral palsy going through surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Anne Solveig; Graue, Marit; Råheim, Målfrid

    2013-02-06

    This study explored the experiences of parents of children with cerebral palsy undergoing surgery as they describe them from a lived experience perspective. When children undergo surgical procedures, they have to stay at hospital for a long time, which represents a great challenge for the children as well as their parents. We collected data by using open-ended interviews with 12 parents of 9 children and analyzed these data in accordance with Max van Manen's methodological themes. Based on the parents' stories, the essential theme is: At the edge of vulnerability-being parents at hospital to a child with CP undergoing surgery, which consisted of three subthemes: establishing trust, awareness of a child who cannot speak, and sensing bodily reactions. Parents experienced demanding challenges as they entered the hospital, in a situation that meant both familiarity and unfamiliarity. Judgments about how to care for the child relied on what they normally did. Sitting bedside for hours and days, thoughts about the legitimacy of letting their child go through the suffering surgery were tormenting the parents. They felt vulnerable and very much dependent on health care workers' competence and at the same time doubting them in seeing and taking care of their child's specific needs. It was experienced as an ambivalent situation, and even more so for the parents of a child without speech. The findings indicate that establishing trust implies being met at an existential level and a deeply felt need for health care workers that are really engaged in taking care of their child and their parents.

  14. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. "Vulnerability" is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the "vulnerability" of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households - both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses ("external" vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope ("internal" vulnerability) - are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle that threatens the

  15. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  16. Investigation of seal technology for Francis turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Leakage loss and disk friction loss caused by the clearance gap flow at the back of a runner have a major impact on the efficiency of hydraulic turbines. Accordingly, it is extremely important to develop and improve the seal technology by investigating the gap flow. Generally, there are two types of the gap flow: axial gap flow between a rotating disk and a stator (e.g. the flow at the back of a runner) and the annular gap flow (e.g. the flow at an annular seal). Firstly, the overview of previous researches on labyrinth seal, rotating disk flow and Taylor-Couette flow are summarized. Labyrinth seals are the primary type of seals for turbo machinery. However, most researchers studied it for compressible flow only. It is also found that the enclosed rotating disk flow with through-flow can be studied instead of the gap flow in a hydraulic machine. Furthermore, the above mentioned annular gap flow is similar to the Taylor-Couette flow. The Taylor-vortices are formed in the annular gap due to the rotation of disk, which could be used as a resistance of flow. Therefore, in the present work, three parts are investigated. The first part is the investigation of the labyrinth seal for Francis turbines. The second part is the investigation of the gap flow between two stationary walls. The third part is investigation of the annular gap flow between one stationary and one rotating wall, based on the theory of Taylor-Couette flow. Afterwards, the theoretical formulas for leakage flow of a traditional labyrinth seal used in high head Francis turbine is derived and is verified to give acceptable results. The theoretical model is useful to predict the leakage flow by the measurements of Francis turbine at the Aabjoera Power plant. For straight-through labyrinth seal, the effects of cavity dimensions, numbers and locations on the leakage flow are investigated numerically. Smaller cavity depth, longer cavity length and fewer cavity numbers are required in order to reduce leakage

  17. Francis Galton: his approach to polygenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D J; Galton, C J

    1997-01-01

    Gregor Mendel is considered to be the founding father of modern genetics, and his laws of inheritance have led to the successful analysis of rare monogenic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolaemia, and many others. Francis Galton chose multifactorial inheritance as his starting point, and his methods of analysis have withstood the test of time. He used detailed family records to study the inherited tendency of complex traits between parents and offspring, and between identical and non-identical twins to refine the analysis, and devised new statistics to attempt to measure the extent of inheritance. For all these reasons, he can be considered the founding father of quantitative genetics.

  18. Research-based Reflections on How the Educational, Economic and Social Circumstances Faced by Some Children and Young People Can Lead to Significant Disadvantage and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.

  19. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  20. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  1. Mapping Challenges for Vulnerable Children, Youth, and Families: Implications for University-Assisted Community Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Lawson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Challenges confronting children, youth, and families in the current socioeconomic environment are examined, and the role of the university-assisted community school in addressing them is explored. Comprehensive, collaborative change strategies that support and strengthen families and nurture children and youth in addition to providing education…

  2. Vulnerability to Bullying in Children with a History of Specific Speech and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to problems with peer relationships and being bullied in a UK sample of 12-year-old children with a history of specific speech and language difficulties. Data were derived from the children's self-reports and the reports of parents and teachers using measures of victimization, emotional and behavioral…

  3. Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Poor and Vulnerable Children in Early Care and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi-Lessing, Lenette

    2010-01-01

    Across the United States, policy makers and early childhood experts are focusing on implementing and evaluating a range of interventions designed to improve school readiness for young children living in poverty. This article provides an overview of the various factors that threaten optimal development of young children living in poverty and that…

  4. Children's risk and resilience following a natural disaster: genetic vulnerability, posttraumatic stress, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Joormann, Jutta; Auslander, Beth B; Short, Mary A

    2013-12-01

    We examined children's risk and resilience following a natural disaster, evaluating the role of stress, social support, and two genetic markers: the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), and the met allele of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).Under high levels of hurricane exposure or hurricane-related stressors, we expected children displaying the markers would report greater symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression than children without these markers. Social support was explored as an additional moderating variable. Eight months after Hurricane Ike, 116 children (M age=8.85 years, SD=.89; 54% girls) residing in Galveston, Texas, provided saliva samples and completed measures of hurricane exposure and stress, and symptoms of PTSD and depression; 80 also completed a social support measure. For BDNF, analyses revealed several Gene by Environment interactions; greater stress was related to more symptoms of PTSD and depression, and this effect was stronger for children with the met allele. No findings emerged for 5-HTTLPR. Stressors and social support also were associated with children's PTSD and depressive symptoms. Findings should be tempered by the relatively small sample, especially for analysis that included social support. The met allele (BDNF) may play a role in children's disaster reactions. Further research should consider the complex interplay between genes, stressors, support, and psychological outcomes over time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological Paradox or Immigrant Vulnerability? Obesity Among Young Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H.; Rendall, Michael S.; Weden, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the “immigrant epidemiological paradox,” immigrants and their children enjoy health advantages over their U.S.-born peers—advantages that diminish with greater acculturation. We investigated child obesity as a potentially significant deviation from this paradox for second-generation immigrant children. We evaluated two alternate measures of mother's acculturation: age at arrival in the United States and English language proficiency. To obtain sufficient numbers of second-generation immigrant children, we pooled samples across two related, nationally representative surveys. Each included measured (not parent-reported) height and weight of kindergartners. We also estimated models that alternately included and excluded mother's pre-pregnancy weight status as a predictor. Our findings are opposite to those predicted by the immigrant epidemiological paradox: children of U.S.-born mothers were less likely to be obese than otherwise similar children of foreign-born mothers; and the children of the least-acculturated immigrant mothers, as measured by low English language proficiency, were the most likely to be obese. Foreign-born mothers had lower (healthier) pre-pregnancy weight than U.S.-born mothers, and this was protective against their second-generation children's obesity. This protection, however, was not sufficiently strong to outweigh factors associated or correlated with the mothers' linguistic isolation and marginal status as immigrants. PMID:26111970

  6. ISIBINDI, creating circles of care for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa: post-programme outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Ndala-Magoro, Nkateko

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of post-programme outcomes of the ISIBINDI model, a community-based intervention to promote physical and psychosocial well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. A mixed methods quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the differences between former ISIBINDI participants (18 years and older) and a control group of similar background. ISIBINDI ex-participants at 12 sites (n=427) and a control group of non-participants (n=177) completed a questionnaire which explored level of education and employment, psychosocial well-being and HIV risk behaviour. Focus group discussions were conducted with various stakeholders. Ex-participants reported higher self-esteem and problem-solving abilities, family support and lower HIV risk behaviour than the control group. High levels of unemployment especially in rural areas resulted in unemployment of out-of-school OVC which creates new forms of vulnerability. The benefits of the programme may be compromised by the lack of community resources. An effective exit strategy is needed to contribute to financial independence of OVC after exiting the programme.

  7. Francis Goyat kuuleb pühapäeval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Belgia kitarristist Francis Goyast, kontsertidest Pärnu kontserdimajas 19. nov., Tartus Vanemuise kontserdimajas 21.nov ja Tallinnas Estonia kontserdisaalis 23. nov., heliplaadist "Pleased to meet You, Mr. Valgre"

  8. Development of a 5kw Francis Turbine Runner Using Computation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    and 3-D steady state, single-phase CFD analysis is conducted for the runner, stay vanes, guide ..... To numerically determine the hill chart of the Francis Turbine the ... Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University,. Turkey.

  9. Natural and man-made disasters: the vulnerability of women-headed households and children without families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, D G

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, over 2 million people have died as an immediate result of natural and man-made disasters and by 1992, the refugee population registered nearly 16 million people. This article reviews the human impact of disasters as a composite of two elements: the catastrophic event itself and the vulnerability of people. It also examines the specific case of women and children in the current world emergency context. It identifies four broad policy areas that affect women and children in disaster situations and discusses them with examples and field evidence. The first policy area addresses humanitarian assistance and armed conflicts, and armed conflict and international humanitarian law, the use of food as instrument of war, mines and civilian disability, and rape and sexual violence are discussed within this context. The second problem discussed is the issue of unaccompanied and abandoned children in terms of its magnitude and implications for relief response. Thirdly, the article examines the differential risks in emergencies for mortality and morbidity, specifically for women and children. Finally, it addresses certain policies and approaches to disaster rehabilitation which effectively mirror and reinforce inherent inequities in the affected society. The article notes that: (i) the largest proportion of disaster victims today arise from civil strife and food crises and that the majority of those killed, wounded and permanently disabled are women and children; and (ii) the ability of any country to respond effectively to disasters depends on the strength of its health and social infrastructure, and its overall developmental status. It concludes by identifying seven areas where concrete measures could be taken to improve the current situation.

  10. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: The case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this.

  11. Early verb-related vulnerability among children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, P A

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of early grammatical development among very young children with specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical development was examined for two subtypes: (a) children with expressive language impairments only (SLI-E) and (b) children with both receptive and expressive language impairments (SLI-RE). In particular, characteristics of noun-phrase (NP) and verb-phrase (VP) elaboration were examined longitudinally to determine whether structures associated with NP and VP emerged together following a typical developmental progression. Group analyses did not reveal any differences between the subtypes on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough, 1990). However, specific weakness in VP elaboration was revealed on the IPSyn as well as in more extensive productivity analyses. The contribution of these findings to a developmentally sensitive grammatical description of SLI for very young children is discussed.

  12. An intelligent ecosystem to support the psychological diagnosis and intervention of children under social vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana

    2015-12-01

    When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).

  13. RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF THE STRAFLO-FRANCIS TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of hydraulic turbine and its design theory is presentedThis turbine has the advantages of the most widely used Francis turbine and Straflo tubine,has its own specific theoretical basis,compact structure,small volume,low cost and steady operationAnd it is convenient to be transported,installed and maintained,and has good hydraulic and cavitation performanceIt is named StrafloFrancis turbine

  14. Migration as a risk factor for school dropout amongst children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS: a prospective study in eastern Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufall, Erica L; Nyamukapa, Constance; Robertson, Laura; Mushore, Paradzai George; Takaruza, Albert; Gregson, Simon

    2015-07-03

    Orphans and other children made vulnerable by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of moving household and of dropping out of school. However, the relationship between child migration and school enrolment has not been established. Multivariable regression models and prospective data from a cohort of children in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, were used to investigate the effect of migration on school enrolment. Children who had moved household were at increased risk of dropping out of school after adjusting for orphan status, relationship to primary caregiver, and household wealth. Interventions are needed to ensure that children who migrate are re-enrolled in school.

  15. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  16. Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Betancourt

    Full Text Available A "risk of harm" protocol to identify youth in need of immediate emergency assistance in a study on mental health and HIV in Rwanda among 680 youth ages 10-17 is described. Cases are presented that describe the experience in using this protocol to ensure safety of participants, with ethical and logistical challenges considered. Among the population of the study, 3.2% were deemed "risk of harm." The most prevalent presenting problem was non-fatal suicidal behavior (91% of risk of harm cases, with 36% having a history of a reported previous attempt. Challenges included: acute food insecurity/significant poverty; lack of support/adequate supervision from family members; family violence; alcohol abuse; and HIV-related stigma. Development of a "risk of harm" protocol and collaboration between study staff, community leadership, health authorities, and health workers are critical to ensuring participants' safety in research among vulnerable populations.

  17. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  18. Closing the Summer Learning Gap for Vulnerable Learners: An Exploratory Study of a Summer Literacy Programme for Kindergarten Children At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ashley; McNamara, John K.; Van Lankveld, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    School summer vacation may create a significant gap in the learning cycle. Such a gap may be particularly detrimental for vulnerable children such as those with lower academic achievement due to learning and language disabilities, lower socio-economic environments or learning in a language other than their native language. The current exploratory…

  19. Children's vulnerability to toxic chemicals: a challenge and opportunity to strengthen health and environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Goldman, Lynn R

    2011-05-01

    A key policy breakthrough occurred nearly twenty years ago with the discovery that children are far more sensitive than adults to toxic chemicals in the environment. This finding led to the recognition that chemical exposures early in life are significant and preventable causes of disease in children and adults. We review this knowledge and recommend a new policy to regulate industrial and consumer chemicals that will protect the health of children and all Americans, prevent disease, and reduce health care costs. The linchpins of a new US chemical policy will be: first, a legally mandated requirement to test the toxicity of chemicals already in commerce, prioritizing chemicals in the widest use, and incorporating new assessment technologies; second, a tiered approach to premarket evaluation of new chemicals; and third, epidemiologic monitoring and focused health studies of exposed populations.

  20. Children at Risk: Vulnerability/Resiliency to Psychopathology after Parental Separation/Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Jeffrey Thomas

    This study explored factors within a child's social, familial, and intrapsychic system that mediate the effects on the child of parental separation/divorce. Using a sample of 52 children and 28 parents involved in contested divorce cases, structured interviews lasting 1.5 to 3 hours were conducted. Information about the separation, parental…

  1. Anxiety in Non‐Clinical Children: Developmental Course and Vulnerability Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSome children are afraid of the dark, spiders, ghosts, or imaginary creatures, others are apprehensive of something bad happening to their parents or themselves, or worry about doing something stupid in front of others. Nevertheless, fear and anxiety are a normal part of childhood

  2. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  3. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  4. Focusing on Prevention: The Social and Economic Rights of Children Vulnerable to Sex Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duger, Angela

    2015-06-11

    The commercial sexual exploitation of children ("CSEC") is an egregious human rights and public health violation that occurs every day across the US. Although there has been positive change in the US to bring attention to CSEC and to reform laws and policies to assist CSEC victims, scant attention and resources have been dedicated to prevention efforts. This paper critiques current US strategies to address CSEC and highlights the limitations of an interventionist framework that narrows its focus to anti-trafficking efforts. As an alternative, the paper proposes a human rights-based approach focusing on the fulfillment of economic and social rights of children as a prevention strategy in the U.S.

  5. Anxiety in Non‐Clinical Children: Developmental Course and Vulnerability Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Broeren, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSome children are afraid of the dark, spiders, ghosts, or imaginary creatures, others are apprehensive of something bad happening to their parents or themselves, or worry about doing something stupid in front of others. Nevertheless, fear and anxiety are a normal part of childhood development and can be seen as an adaptive response to stimuli and situations that are potentially threatening or dangerous (Marks, 1987). Normal fear and anxiety in youths shows a clear developmental pa...

  6. Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored.

  7. Failing the vulnerable: Three new consent norms that will undermine health research with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Strode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Health Act (No. 61 of 2003 provides a legal framework for the regulation of the health system across the country. Within the Act, section 71 introduces a number of legal norms relating to research or experimentation with human subjects, including research on HIV prevention and treatment. These norms have been criticised for the negative impact they will have on research involving children. This article describes three of the new consent requirements in section 71 of the Act. It shows, using a range of case studies, how important HIV-related research will be halted or undermined if the current provisions are implemented. The article argues that the new consent requirements are out of step with other statutory provisions and ethical guidelines, and as a result they will exclude a large population group – children in diverse settings – from much-needed evidence-based healthcare interventions. The article concludes with a clarion call for support of advocacy on this issue with the Minister of Health and the Health Portfolio Committee.

  8. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mallarino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children’s eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  9. Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M; Tahan, S A; Bocher, P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada); Thibault, D, E-mail: martin.gagnon.8@ens.etsmtl.c [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

  10. Hvad danske politikere kan lære af Francis Fukuyama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduktion til Francis Fukuyamas teorier om social kapital og social tillid Udgivelsesdato: Forår 2009......Introduktion til Francis Fukuyamas teorier om social kapital og social tillid Udgivelsesdato: Forår 2009...

  11. Hvad danske politikere kan lære af Francis Fukuyama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduktion til Francis Fukuyamas teorier om social kapital og social tillid Udgivelsesdato: Forår 2009......Introduktion til Francis Fukuyamas teorier om social kapital og social tillid Udgivelsesdato: Forår 2009...

  12. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-09-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood.

  13. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BLADES' STRESS STATE ON FRANCIS TURBINE RUNNER'S INVALIDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation on Francis turbine runner's welding temperature field and welding stress field is carried out on the base of solving the problem of welding heat source's movement along any spatial routes and the problem of heat elimination between the complicated blade and air. The evolvement law of welding stress and the distribution of the stress field after welding are obtained.The results indicate that the peak value of the welding residual stress appears on the outlet edge of blade near the contact area between blade and band or blade and crown. Associated with the distribution of the runner's working stress, the invalidation reason of the Francis turbine runner is explained.

  15. The life of Francis of Assisi : is Franciscanism relevant today? / James Scott

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, James

    2002-01-01

    Francis of Assisi is a much-loved saint whose followers come from different backgrounds and who are inspired to live the Gospel life. Francis' story is obscure but this dissertation seeks to understand Francis' life and examines his influence through the lives of others amongst whom are: - Mother Theresa of Calcutta; - Anthony of Padua; - Padre Pio; - Maximilian Kolbe; - Charles de Foucauld; and - John Bradburne. Francis' vision was unambiguous and it challenges ...

  16. Assessment of the Cost–Benefit Literature on Early Childhood Education for Vulnerable Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Dalziel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given international interest in evidence-informed early education policy, we sought to interpret what is often a confusing literature on the performance of early childhood education programs. We explore whether they represent a good return on investment and the factors affecting their transferability. A systematic review was conducted to identify all cost–benefit (C-B studies of center-based programs enrolling disadvantaged children prior to age 5 compared with a matched group. From a search across all pertinent databases in 2013, 13 economic evaluations relating to six distinct programs were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Of the six programs, half were reported as producing a substantial net benefit (benefits considerably greater than cost representing a good investment, while for the other half, costs were greater than benefits. We explore possible reasons for the considerable divergence in economic outcomes. The primary driver was the divergent effectiveness of the programs reported in the original outcome studies, and to a lesser extent the scope of benefits included in the economic evaluation and period of follow-up. The context in which programs were delivered and program intensity differed markedly. The two oldest (1960s and 1970s small randomized control trials of high intensity produced far better outcomes and return on investment than more recent large-scale service delivery. This collection of C-B studies challenges the expectation of good returns on investment from the rollout of early childhood programs. A checklist is provided to assist policy makers with the interpretation of C-B studies.

  17. Exploring the role and capacity of school teachers in Zambia to support orphans and vulnerable children: considerations for educational resource allocation in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Margaret Jo; Chi, Chunhuei

    This study investigated teachers' perceptions of their role as HIV/AIDS educators and also their role in providing care for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) across the different school systems in Lusaka, Zambia. Researchers used a combined quantitative and qualitative narrative approach. Original cross-sectional data were collected through face-to-face survey and in-depth interviews with school teachers in the Lusaka. A sample of 720 teachers from 123 schools completed surveys in 2008, with a 91% response rate for teachers, and 100% for schools sampled. Teachers for all school types reported that schools and teachers are the appropriate community resource for HIV-prevention education for youth and support for OVC. This study suggests that schools could serve as a source and alternative mechanism of support for vulnerable children.

  18. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs sex as a minor (sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women.

  19. Who Are the Children Most Vulnerable to Social Exclusion? The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem, Popularity, and Nonverbal Intelligence on Cognitive Performance Following Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Riva, Paolo; Caprin, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Social exclusion has a profound emotional impact on children. However, there is still limited and partly conflicting experimental evidence for the possible effect of social exclusion on children's cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the possibility that some children are more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of social exclusion on cognitive performance. We selected 4 potential candidates that could moderate the effects of social exclusion: relational self-esteem, peer ratings of popularity, rejection sensitivity and nonverbal intelligence. Individual differences in these 4 potential moderating factors were first assessed in a sample of 318 children (45.6 % females; mean age = 9.92 years). Then, in a subsequent experimental session, the participants were either socially included or excluded using a typical manipulation (i.e., the Cyberball paradigm). Following the manipulation, the children's cognitive performance was assessed using a logical reasoning test. The results showed that the children with lower scores for relational self-esteem (the bottom 37.46 % of the sample), lower popularity (43.49 %) or weaker nonverbal intelligence (37.80 %) performed worse on the logical reasoning test following social exclusion. Moreover, children with combined low self-esteem, popularity and nonverbal intelligence were the most affected by social exclusion. This study identified factors that make some children more vulnerable to the negative effects of social exclusion. Overall, the present work underscores the value of considering basic cognitive and relational individual differences when developing interventions aimed at preventing the negative effects of social exclusion among children.

  20. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  1. 60 years ago, Francis Crick changed the logic of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    In September 1957, Francis Crick gave a lecture in which he outlined key ideas about gene function, in particular what he called the central dogma. These ideas still frame how we understand life. This essay explores the concepts he developed in this influential lecture, including his prediction that we would study evolution by comparing sequences.

  2. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  3. Scientific Cousins: The Relationship between Charles Darwin and Francis Galton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Raymond E.

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the personal as well as the intellectual and scientific relationship between Charles Darwin and his younger half-cousin Francis Galton. Although they had been on friendly terms as young men, and Darwin had in some ways been a role model for Galton, the two did not share major scientific interests until after the publication of…

  4. Scientific Cousins: The Relationship between Charles Darwin and Francis Galton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Raymond E.

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the personal as well as the intellectual and scientific relationship between Charles Darwin and his younger half-cousin Francis Galton. Although they had been on friendly terms as young men, and Darwin had in some ways been a role model for Galton, the two did not share major scientific interests until after the publication of…

  5. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members' acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics' view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not.

  6. FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, L N

    2000-09-01

    FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE) is a framework and methodology for the systematic analysis, characterization, and prediction of human error. It was developed in a NASA Advanced Concepts Project by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, Boeing, and America West Airlines, with input from United Airlines and Idaho State University. It was hypothesized that development of a comprehensive taxonomy of error-type and contributing-influences, in a framework and methodology addressing issues important for error analysis, would result in a useful tool for human error analysis. The development method included capturing expertise of human factors and domain experts in the framework, and ensuring that the approach addressed issues important for future human error analysis. This development resulted in creation of a FRANCIE taxonomy for airline maintenance, and a FRANCIE framework and approach that addresses important issues: proactive and reactive, comprehensive error-type and contributing-influences taxonomy, meaningful error reduction strategies, multilevel analyses, multiple user types, compatible with existing methods, applied in design phase or throughout system life cycle, capture of lessons learned, and ease of application. FRANCIE was designed to apply to any domain, given taxonomy refinement. This is demonstrated by its application for an aviation operations scenario for a new precision landing aid. Representative error-types and contributing-influences, two example analyses, and a case study are presented. In conclusion, FRANCIE is useful for analysis of human error, and the taxonomy is a starting point for development of taxonomies allowing application to other domains, such as spacecraft maintenance, operations, medicine, process control, and other transportation industries.

  7. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of “Humanitarian Parole”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  8. Experimental and Numerical Studies of a High-Head Francis Turbine: A Review of the Francis-99 Test Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbines are widely used to meet real-time electricity demands. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD techniques have played an important role in the design and development of such turbines. The simulation of a complete turbine requires substantial computational resources. A specific approach that is applied to investigate the flow field of one turbine may not work for another turbine. A series of Francis-99 workshops have been planned to discuss and explore the CFD techniques applied within the field of hydropower with application to high-head Francis turbines. The first workshop was held in December 2014 at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. The steady-state measurements were conducted on a model Francis turbine. Three operating points, part load, best efficiency point, and high load, were investigated. The complete geometry, meshing, and experimental data concerning the hydraulic efficiency, pressure, and velocity were provided to the academic and industrial research groups. Various researchers have conducted extensive numerical studies on the high-head Francis turbine, and the obtained results were presented during the workshop. This paper discusses the presented numerical results and the important outcome of the extensive numerical studies on the Francis turbine. The use of a wall function assuming equilibrium between the production and dissipation of turbulence is widely used in the simulation of hydraulic turbines. The boundary layer of hydraulic turbines is not fully developed because of the continuously-changing geometry and large pressure gradients. There is a need to develop wall functions that enable the estimation of viscous losses under boundary development for accurate simulations. Improved simulations and results enable reliable estimation of the blade loading. Numerical investigations on leakage flow through the labyrinth seals were conducted. The volumetric efficiency and losses in the seals were

  9. ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC STABILITY OF FRANCIS HYDRO TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xi-de

    2004-01-01

    With the development of large-capacity hydro turbines, the hydraulic instability of bydro turbines has become one of the most important problems that affect the stable operation of the hydro-electric units. The hydraulic vibration and unstable operation of Francis hydro turbines are primarily caused by the unsteady pressure pulsations inside draft tubes.The forced rotating vortex core at the runner exit and the channel vortices inside Francis turbine runners are origins of the unsteady pressure pulsations when operating at partial load. This paper briefly analyzes the hydraulic instability of operation caused by the vortex core and channel vortices at partial load, then, presents a way to estimate the hydraulic stability by calculation of the flow behavior at the runner exit.The validity of estimation is examined by comparison with experimental data. This will be helpful to evaluate the alternative design and predict the hydraulic stability for both the prototype and model hydro turbines.

  10. Self-excitation in Francis runner during load rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, É.; Giacobbi, D.-B.; Gagnon, M.; Léonard, F.

    2014-03-01

    Typically, transients such as load rejection generate only a few high vibration cycles in Francis runners. However, in the cases presented in this study, a sustained vibration around a natural frequency was observed on three (3) homologous Francis runners of different sizes during such events. The first two (2) runners were equipped with strain gauges on the blades and displacement sensors positioned circumferentially in the bottom ring and head cover around the runner labyrinth seals. The third runner was monitored only with displacement sensors on non-rotating components. The data from the first two (2) runners provided a better understanding of the parameters influencing the appearance of the high amplitude vibrations and allowed the implementation of a test plan to circumvent the phenomenon during commissioning of the third runner. Based on the measured data, the distributor's closing parameters were optimized to eliminate the vibration observed during load rejection on most of the operating range and reduce it significantly at full load.

  11. Francis Bacon’s Qualification As A Principal Empiricist Philosopher

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding FrancisBacon as a principal empiricist philosopher. This involves effort to determine whatconstitutes, in essence, the qualities of a principal empiricist philosopher. Are thereany criteria that qualify one as a principal empiricist philosopher? Proceeding with thisinquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defenceof Bacon’s qualification as a principal empiricist philosopher. Here...

  12. Francis Bacons Qualification As A Principal Empiricist Philosopher

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding Francis Bacon as a principal empiricist philosopher. This involves effort to determine what constitutes, in essence, the qualities of a principal empiricist philosopher. Are there any criteria that qualify one as a principal empiricist philosopher? Proceeding with this inquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defence of Bacon’s qualification as a principal empiricist philosopher....

  13. Molecular Biologists:James Watson and Francis Crick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2006-01-01

    On Feb. 28, 1953, Francis Crick walked into the Eagle pub in Cambridge, England, and, as James Watson later recalled, announced that "we had found the secret of life. " Actually, they had. That morning, Watson and Crick had figured out the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. And that structure-a "double helix" that can "unzip" to make copies of itself-confirmed suspicions that DNA carries life ’ s hereditary information.

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Bullying Victimization among AIDS-Affected and Vulnerable Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…

  15. High load vortex oscillations developed in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.; Rivetti, A.; Lucino, C.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines operating at high load conditions produce a typical flow pattern in the draft tube cone characterized by the presence of an axisymmetric central vortex. This central cavity could become unstable, generating synchronic pressure pulsations, usually called self-excited oscillations, which propagate into the whole machine. The on-set and size of the central vortex cavity depend on the geometry of the runner and draft tube and on the operating point as well. Numerical flow simulations and model tests allow for the characterization of the different flow patterns induced by each particular Francis turbine design and, when studied in combination with the hydraulic system, including the intake and penstock, could predict the prototype hydraulic behavior for the complete operation zone. The present work focuses the CFD simulation on the development and dynamic behavior of the central axisymmetric vortex for a medium-head Francis turbine operating at high load conditions. The CFD simulations are based in two-phase transient calculations. Oscillation frequencies against its cavity volume development were obtained and good correlation was found with experimental results.

  16. Francis Bacon: The Real's Brutality. The Figure and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mannucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Getting in front of painting by Francis Bacon touches you deeply. I’m talking about aesthetics, sensations: resounding flow that strikes abruptly, making futile any search for meaning. Francis Bacon circumvents the figurative, the meaning, he aims to the figural: to feelings, not words. Beauty, in his paintings, shows itself in the peaceful union of the positive and of its contrary; if the negative wasn’t there, though, his paintings wouldn’t exude such a brutal sense of reality. This essay investigates the figure of Francis Bacon and the spectator – the Other – as he tries to confront the painting. Bacon will be analysed using a purely phenomenological approach, with references that range from Merleau-Ponty to Martin Heidegger; the meeting-collision between the spectator and the painting, instead, will be examined taking inspiration from the Winnicott’s thesis on the relationship between Bacon and mirrors in the painter’s childhood. In order to take distance from Winnicott’s psychoanalytical approach, this essay will focus on the relationship between spectator and painting from a more anthropological point of view. 

  17. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  18. The Effects of a School-Based Psychosocial Intervention on Resilience and Health Outcomes among Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowokere, A. E.; Okanlawon, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the psychosocial health needs of the vulnerable population has been considered as a significant public health issue that must be addressed through access to public health professionals. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of a training program on nurses and teachers' knowledge of psychosocial health…

  19. Vulnerability to Bullying of Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions in Mainstream Education: A Multi-Informant Qualitative Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Young people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are widely reported by parents and teachers to be bullied by peers during their school years. Research in this area is still in its relative infancy with the majority of studies quantitative in nature. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate vulnerability to bullying of young…

  20. Francis E. Walter Dam and Reservoir Project, Water Quality Data Report (RCS-DAEN-CWE-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    noceeeary and identify by block number) Francis E. Walter and and Reservoir, Pa. Bear Creek, Pa Lehigh River, Pa. Water quality Water pollution Land use... pollution to the impoundment. The Francis Walter Lake is an oligotrophic lake having few nutrients and little plant life. Furthermore, due to the...counts at the Francis E. Walter Reservoir remained within the limits established by the Pennsylvania Department of Enviromental Resources of no more than

  1. Promoting uptake of child HIV testing: an evaluation of the role of a home visiting program for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya R; Luckett, Brian; Taylor, Tory; Carnay, Melissa

    2016-03-01

    HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is critical for children in generalized epidemic settings, but significant shortfalls in coverage persist, notably among orphans and others at disproportionate risk of infection. This study investigates the impact of a home visiting program in South Africa on orphaned and vulnerable children's uptake of HCT. Using propensity score matching, survey data for children receiving home visits from trained community-based care workers were compared to data from children living in similar households that had not yet received home visits (n = 1324). Home visits by community-based care workers increased the odds of a child being tested by 97% (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.34-2.92). The home visitation program had an especially pronounced effect on orphans, more than doubling their odds of being tested (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.00-4.47) compared to orphans living in similar households that did not receive home visits. Orphan status alone had no effect on HCT independent of program exposure, suggesting that the program was uniquely able to increase testing in this subgroup. Results highlight the potential for increasing HCT access among children at high risk through targeted community-based initiatives.

  2. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  3. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw a...

  4. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the peo

  5. Assessing attitude towards religion : the Astley–Francis Scale of attitude towards theistic faith

    OpenAIRE

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith. The scale properties of this new instrument, established among a sample of 284 (200 female and 84 male) 16–18-year-old students, commend it for use...

  6. Poor infant inhibitory control predicts food fussiness in childhood - A possible protective role of n-3 PUFAs for vulnerable children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Roberta Sena; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Levitan, Robert D; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) children are more impulsive towards a sweet reward and have altered feeding behavior in adulthood. We hypothesized that early life inhibitory control predicts feeding behaviors later on in childhood, and the consumption of n-3 PUFAs during infancy may protect IUGR children from developing problematic feeding behaviors. 156 children had information on the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) at 18 months, Food Frequency Questionnaire at 48 months and Children׳s Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 72 months. There was a significant negative correlation between inhibitory control at 18 months and food fussiness at 72 months. A GLM model predicting food fussiness at 72 months showed significant interaction between n-3 PUFAs, inhibitory control and IUGR, with higher intakes associated with decreased risk for fussiness in IUGR children with poor inhibitory control. Deficits in early inhibitory control predict later food fussiness, and higher intakes of n-3 PUFAs in infancy may protect IUGR children from developing such behavior later.

  7. Cognitive vulnerability to depressive symptoms in children: the protective role of self-efficacy beliefs in a multi-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; Abela, J R Z; Monzani, D; Greco, A; Hazel, N A; Hankin, B L

    2014-01-01

    The current multi-wave longitudinal study on childhood examined the role that social and academic self-efficacy beliefs and cognitive vulnerabilities play in predicting depressive symptoms in response to elevations in idiographic stressors. Children (N = 554; males: 51.4 %) attending second and third grade completed measures of depressive symptoms, negative cognitive styles, negative life events, and academic and social self-efficacy beliefs at four time-points over 6 months. Results showed that high levels of academic and social self-efficacy beliefs predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms, whereas negative cognitive styles about consequences predicted higher depression. Furthermore, children reporting higher social self-efficacy beliefs showed a smaller elevation in levels of depressive symptoms when reporting an increases in stress than children with lower social self-efficacy beliefs. Findings point to the role of multiple factors in predicting children's depression in the long term and commend the promotion of self-efficacy beliefs and the modification of cognitive dysfunctional styles as relevant protective factors.

  8. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E.; Bornard, L.; Tomas, L.; Liu, J.; Couston, M.

    2012-11-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China -32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  9. Cost of enlarged operating zone for an existing Francis runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Christine; Marmont, Hugues; Chamberland-Lauzon, Joël; Skagerstrand, Anders; Coutu, André; Carlevi, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, hydro power plants have been operated close to best efficiency point, the more stable operating condition for which they have been designed. However, because of changes in the electricity market, many hydro power plants operators wish to operate their machines differently to fulfil those new market needs. New operating conditions can include whole range operation, many start/stops, extensive low load operation, synchronous condenser mode and power/frequency regulation. Many of these new operating conditions may impose more severe fatigue damage than the traditional base load operation close to best efficiency point. Under these conditions, the fatigue life of the runner may be significantly reduced and reparation or replacement cost might occur sooner than expected. In order to design reliable Francis runners for those new challenging operating scenarios, Andritz Hydro has developed various proprietary tools and design rules. These are used within Andritz Hydro to design mechanically robust Francis runners for the operating scenarios fulfilling customer's specifications. To estimate residual life under different operating scenarios of an existing runner designed years ago for best efficiency base load operation, Andritz Hydro's design rules and tools would necessarily lead to conservative results. While the geometry of a new runner can be modified to fulfil all conservative mechanical design rules, the predicted fatigue life of an existing runner under off-design operating conditions may appear rather short because of the conservative safety factor included in the calculations. The most precise and reliable way to calculate residual life of an existing runner under different operating scenarios is to perform a strain gauge measurement campaign on the runner. This paper presents the runner strain gage measurement campaign of a mid-head Francis turbine over all the operating conditions available during the test, the analysis of the measurement signals

  10. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, a...

  11. The Poetry at the Age of Capital: Francis Ponge

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Mattia Gallerani

    2015-01-01

    Two prose poems of Le Parti pris des choses (1942), entitled R.C. Seine and Le restaurant Lemeunier, are different from others texts of the book because the subject, which is not a bear inactive thing, but a social body. They describe a group of people and are set in an office and in a restaurant. This article claims that the subject of both poems by Francis Ponge is the working time rather than the description of a social place. The condemnation of the capitalistic production appears clearly...

  12. Lines of Work: Teacher Francis Gilbert on Rousseau

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Prominent people in a particular line of work read and reflect on the writings of an illustrious forebear of the same trade. The essays are partly about ideas and how they change, but also about the practice and the human experience of being a certain kind of thing; be it a teacher, a soldier a critic or a journalist. Francis Gilbert was a secondary school teacher for a number of years and is now Lecturer in Education at the University of London. He reads Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Emile and...

  13. Transient CFD simulation of a Francis turbine startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, J.; Morissette, J. F.; Giroux, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    To assess the life expectancy of hydraulic turbines, it is essential to obtain the loading on the blades, especially during transient operations known to be the most damaging. This paper presents a simplified CFD setup to model the startup phase of a Francis turbine while it goes from rest to speed no-load condition. The fluid domain included one distributor sector coupled with one runner passage. The guide vane motion and change in the angular velocity were included in a commercial code with user functions. Comparisons between numerical results and measurements acquired on a full-size turbine showed that most of the flow physics occurring during startup were captured.

  14. Increased vulnerability of rural children on antiretroviral therapy attending public health facilities in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Bock, Peter; Grimwood, Ashraf; Eley, Brian

    2010-01-01

    ...) programme outcomes with urban facilities. We compared clinical, immunological and virological outcomes between children at seven rural and 37 urban facilities across four provinces in South Africa...

  15. Vulnerable Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Asha Begum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps contain more risk. But user may not know the effects that are caused by the app which is installed until the performance of mobile is reduced. With the prosperity of the Android app economy, many apps have been published and sold in various markets. However, short development applications and insufficient security development apps have led to many vulnerable apps. So to reduce these type of problems Vulnerable Hunter is proposed. Through the proposed application user can see which application is risky and then the user may uninstall that application. The main advantage of designing this app is without internet also the users will use this application. Users also feel more convenient to work with mobile apps.

  16. A Proposed Framework for Preventing Perfectionism and Promoting Resilience and Mental Health among Vulnerable Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that perfectionism is highly prevalent among children and adolescents, and perfectionism can be quite destructive in terms of its links with anxiety, depression, and suicide. In this article, we provide an overview of recent research illustrating the costs and consequences of perfectionism among children and adolescents. We…

  17. Practitioner Review: Children in Foster Care--Vulnerabilities and Evidence-Based Interventions that Promote Resilience Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of children are placed in foster care (i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral,…

  18. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased executive function has been linked to unhealthy eating behaviors and obesity in older children and adults, however little is known about this relationship in young children. A pilot project in a research-based preschool was conducted to examine the relationships between executive function...

  19. Differential Vulnerability of Global Motion, Global Form, and Biological Motion Processing in Full-Term and Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. M.; Jakobson, L. S.; Maurer, D.; Lewis, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). "Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely." "Progress in Brain Research, 164." 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005).…

  20. Practitioner Review: Children in Foster Care--Vulnerabilities and Evidence-Based Interventions that Promote Resilience Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Landsverk, John A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of children are placed in foster care (i.e., a kin or nonkin family home other than the biological parent) due to experiences of physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse, and/or neglect. Children in foster care are at increased risk for a host of negative outcomes encompassing emotional, behavioral,…

  1. 77 FR 47361 - Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Forest Service Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Francis Marion Sumter Resource Advisory Committee will... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The...

  2. 75 FR 38975 - Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Columbia, South Carolina. The committee is meeting as...

  3. 76 FR 1594 - Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Forest Service Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Francis Marion Sumter National Forests Resource Advisory... meeting will be held at the Forest Service office, Large Conference Room, 4931 Broad River Road, Columbia...

  4. Teaching and Leading through Dialogue: Pope Francis and Catholic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The early pontificate of Francis has been marked by substantial changes in the style of papal governance and teaching. Francis's engagement in dialogue with members of the media corresponds to a willingness to foster meaningful dialogue among the bishops and to use teaching documents to raise questions rather than answer them. At the Extraordinary…

  5. Teaching and Leading through Dialogue: Pope Francis and Catholic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The early pontificate of Francis has been marked by substantial changes in the style of papal governance and teaching. Francis's engagement in dialogue with members of the media corresponds to a willingness to foster meaningful dialogue among the bishops and to use teaching documents to raise questions rather than answer them. At the Extraordinary…

  6. The Second Christ, Saint Francis of Assisi and ecological consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Viviers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the life stories of Jesus and the so-called second Christ, Francis of Assisi, incline to the fantastical, their value for a modern ecological consciousness is defendable. Behind Francis� personification of nature and his mystical experiences of nature lie an intuitive sense of interconnectedness and interdependence, of being fully part of the natural web of life (confirmed by empirical science. The same is true of the immanence of Jesus. Religious figures like Francis and Jesus can provide a sound moral attitude towards caring for the natural world, but attitudes need to be informed by scientific knowledge to act ecologically correct. A partnership between attitudes and knowledge hopefully contains good news for a sustainable �green� planet.Intradisciplinary and/or�interdisciplinary�implications: Ecological hermeneutics (part of liberation theology or hermeneutics challenges traditional theologies� often anthropocentric bias in the intra-disciplinary arena. It respects the interconnectedness or interdependence of human and non-human life, including the non-organic, empirically substantiated by natural science. This shared realisation allows for a fruitful inter-disciplinary discourse with science to address the global ecological crisis.

  7. The green roof dilemma - discussion of Francis and Lorimer (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alexandre; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

    2012-08-15

    Urban ecosystems are the most complex mosaics of vegetative land cover that can be found. In a recent paper, Francis and Lorimer (2011) evaluated the reconciliation potential of living roofs and walls. For these authors, these two techniques for habitat improvement have strong potential for urban reconciliation ecology. However they have some ecological and societal limitations such as the physical extreme environmental characteristics, the monetary investment and the cultural perceptions of urban nature. We are interested in their results and support their conclusions. However, for a considerable time, green roofs have been designed to provide urban greenery for buildings and the green roof market has only focused on extensive roof at a restricted scale within cities. Thus, we have strong doubts about the relevance of their use as possible integrated elements of the network. Furthermore, without dynamic progress in research and the implementation of well-thought-out policies, what will be the real capital gain from green roofs with respect to land-use complementation in cities? If we agree with Francis and Lorimer (2011) considering that urban reconciliation ecology between nature and citizens is a current major challenge, then "adaptive collaborative management" is a fundamental requirement.

  8. Efficiency limit factor analysis for the Francis-99 hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, L. X.; Guo, J. P.; Guo, Y. K.; Pan, Q. L.; Qian, J.

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss in hydraulic turbine is the most direct factor that affects the efficiency of the hydraulic turbine. Based on the analysis theory of inner energy loss of hydraulic turbine, combining the measurement data of the Francis-99, this paper calculates characteristic parameters of inner energy loss of the hydraulic turbine, and establishes the calculation model of the hydraulic turbine power. Taken the start-up test conditions given by Francis-99 as case, characteristics of the inner energy of the hydraulic turbine in transient and transformation law are researched. Further, analyzing mechanical friction in hydraulic turbine, we think that main ingredients of mechanical friction loss is the rotation friction loss between rotating runner and water body, and defined as the inner mechanical friction loss. The calculation method of the inner mechanical friction loss is given roughly. Our purpose is that explore and research the method and way increasing transformation efficiency of water flow by means of analysis energy losses in hydraulic turbine.

  9. LDA measurements in the Francis-99 draft tube cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, L. R. J.; Amiri, K.; Bergan, C.; Cervantes, M. J.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2014-03-01

    Velocity measurements were performed in the draft tube cone of a 1:5.1 scaled model of the Tokke hydropower plant, Norway; also known as the Francis-99 model. Results from the laser Doppler anemometry measurements undertaken at three operating points will be used as validation data for an upcoming workshop on the state of the art of Francis turbine numerical simulation. With the turbine operating at the best efficiency point, a sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters head, flow rate and runner rotational speed shows that the effects on the dimensionless velocity profiles are small as long as nED and QED are held constant. The results indicate a well-functioning turbine at the best efficiency point and high load. At the part load operating point, a vortex breakdown occurs which distorts the velocity profiles and significantly lowers the turbine's hydraulic efficiency. Frequency spectrums of each LDA signal at part load reveals a peak which is asynchronous to that of the runner angular speed. The peaks might be related to the precession of a rotating vortex rope but the characteristics of the LDA signals are different compared to previous studies involving rotating vortex ropes.

  10. Problem-solving skills training for vulnerable families of children with persistent asthma: report of a randomized trial on health-related quality of life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Michael; Varni, James W; Gidwani, Pradeep; Gelhard, Leticia Reyes; Slymen, Donald J

    2010-11-01

    To test the efficacy of problem-solving skill training (PST) in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with persistent asthma from predominantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) Spanish-speaking Hispanic families. Randomized controlled trial comparing standard care waitlist (SC) control, home-visiting asthma education/care coordination (CC), and combined intervention (CC + PST) at baseline, after intervention, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was parent proxy-report child HRQOL (PedsQL). Participants (n = 252) were 83.3% Hispanic and 56.3% monolingual Spanish speakers, and 72.6% of mothers had not graduated high school. We found a significant (P = 0.05) intervention effect for parent proxy-reported child generic (but not asthma-specific) HRQOL, with CC + PST superior to SC [83.8 vs 79.8; adjusted mean difference of 4.05 points (95% confidence interval 0.63-7.4], but no difference between the CC and SC groups. In this sample of vulnerable families of children with persistent asthma, a CC + PST intervention was efficacious in improving children's generic HRQOL.

  11. Gogo care and protection of vulnerable children in rural Malawi: changing responsibilities, capacity to provide, and implications for well-being in the era of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littrell, Megan; Murphy, Laura; Kumwenda, Moses; Macintyre, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The role of older women in the care and protection of vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa may be changing given increasing rates of orphanhood due to AIDS. Concern regarding their capacity to provide for children and implications for their health and well-being dominate the literature. However, studies have not yet examined the situation of older caregivers in comparison to their younger counterparts over time. In this study, panel data on 1,219 caregivers in rural Malawi between 2007 and 2009 is complemented by in-depth interview (N=62) and group discussion (N=4) data. Caregiver responsibilities, capacity to care for children, and implications for well-being are examined. Chi-square tests examine differences in these measures between older foster caregivers and younger foster caregivers, parents of orphans, and parents of non-orphans. Older women, in comparison with younger counterparts, are more stable as primary caregivers for orphans. Care by older women is particularly valued when younger family stability is threatened by burdens of orphan care. Qualitative data reveal many challenges that older caregivers face, most notably provision of food. However, survey data suggest that the capacity to provide food, schooling and other basic needs is similar among older and younger caregivers. Self-reported health status is generally poorer among older caregivers, however levels of emotional distress and social capital are similar among older and younger caregivers. Providing care for children in old age appears to entail a number of benefits. Older women committed to providing care and protection for children are important assets, particularly in the context of threats to child well-being due to HIV and AIDS. Bolstering older caregivers with material and social support to help sustain their key roles in fostering is a promising avenue for maintaining extended family responses to HIV and AIDS.

  12. An Innovative Project Breaks Down Barriers to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable Young Children in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J; Illum, Jackie; Martinez, Ana; Pourat, Nadereh

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high rate of untreated tooth decay, many young children in California under six years of age have never been to a dentist. Numerous and complex barriers to access to oral health care for young children exist, and a multifaceted approach is required to improve receipt of preventive and treatment services that could improve the oral health of this population. This policy brief describes the UCLA-First 5 LA 21st Century Dental Homes Project, which was designed to improve oral health care for young children in 12 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinic sites with co-located dental and primary care services and its accessibility in their service areas throughout Los Angeles County. The project funded infrastructure and staffing, provided technical assistance to improve operations, trained clinical personnel to provide oral health care to young children, implemented a quality improvement learning collaborative, trained parents and child care providers in oral hygiene and healthy habits, and disseminated information to promote effective policies. Early data on the project indicated twofold increases in delivery of both diagnostics and treatment visits for young children, and a threefold increase in preventive services for young children during the program.

  13. How to calculate the annual costs of NGO-implemented programmes to support orphans and vulnerable children: a six-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Wambua, Nancy

    2011-12-19

    Information on the costs of implementing programmes designed to provide support of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere is increasingly being requested by donors for programme evaluation purposes. To date, little information exists to document the costs and structure of costs of OVC programmes as actually implemented "on the ground" by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This analysis provides a practical, six-step approach that NGOs can incorporate into routine operations to evaluate their costs of implementing their OVC programmes annually. This approach is applied to the Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO) Program implemented by BIDII (a Kenyan NGO) in Eastern Province of Kenya. The costing methodology involves the following six steps: accessing and organizing the NGO's annual financial report into logical sub-categories; reorganizing the sub-categories into input cost categories to create a financial cost profile; estimating the annual equivalent payment for programme equipment; documenting donations to the NGO for programme implementation; including a portion of NGO organizational costs not attributed to specific programmes; and including the results of Steps 3-5 into an expanded cost profile. Detailed results are provided for the CBCO programme. This paper shows through a concrete example how NGOs implementing OVC programmes (and other public health programmes) can organize themselves for data collection and documentation prospectively during the implementation of their OVC programmes so that costing analyses become routine practice to inform programme implementation rather than a painful and flawed retrospective activity. Such information is required if the costs and outcomes achieved by OVC programmes will ever be clearly documented and compared across OVC programmes and other types of programmes (prevention, treatment, etc.).

  14. Exploring impacts of multi-year, community-based care programs for orphans and vulnerable children: a case study from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Wambua, Nancy; Masila, Juliana; Wangai, Susan; Rohr, Julia; Brooks, Mohamad; Bryant, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO) program operated in Kenya during 2006-2010. In Eastern Province, the program provided support to approximately 3000 orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) living in 1500 households. A primary focus of the program was to support savings and loan associations composed of OVC caregivers (typically elderly women) to improve household and OVC welfare. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2011 from 1500 randomly selected households from 3 populations: program participants (CBCO group, n=500), households in the same villages as program participants but not in the program (the local-community-group = Group L, n=300), and households living in nearby villages where the program did not operate (the adjacent-community-group, Group A, n=700). Primary welfare outcomes evaluated are household food security, as measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access instrument, and OVC educational attainment. We compared outcomes between the CBCO and the subset of Group L not meeting program eligibility criteria (L-N) to investigate disparities within local communities. We compared outcomes between the CBCO group and the subset of Group A meeting eligibility criteria (A-E) to consider program impact. We compared outcomes between households not eligible for the program in the local and adjacent community groups (L-N and A-N) to consider if the adjacent communities are similar to the local communities. In May-June 2011, at the end of the OVC program, the majority of CBCO households continued to be severely food insecure, with rates similar to other households living in nearby communities. Participation rates in primary school are high, reflecting free primary education. Among the 18-22 year olds who were "children" during the program years, relatively few children completed secondary school across all study groups. Although the CBCO program likely provided useful services and benefits to program participants, disparities

  15. The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Anne E; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-07-25

    It has been more than 80 years since researchers in child psychiatry first documented developmental delays among children separated from family environments and placed in orphanages or other institutions. Informed by such findings, global conventions, including the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, assert a child's right to care within a family-like environment that offers individualised support. Nevertheless, an estimated 8 million children are presently growing up in congregate care institutions. Common reasons for institutionalisation include orphaning, abandonment due to poverty, abuse in families of origin, disability, and mental illness. Although the practice remains widespread, a robust body of scientific work suggests that institutionalisation in early childhood can incur developmental damage across diverse domains. Specific deficits have been documented in areas including physical growth, cognitive function, neurodevelopment, and social-psychological health. Effects seem most pronounced when children have least access to individualised caregiving, and when deprivation coincides with early developmental sensitive periods. Offering hope, early interventions that place institutionalised children into families have afforded substantial recovery. The strength of scientific evidence imparts urgency to efforts to achieve deinstitutionalisation in global child protection sectors, and to intervene early for individual children experiencing deprivation.

  16. A qualitative study examining psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms among orphan and vulnerable children living in institutional care in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saraswat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is home to the largest population of orphaned children in the South Asia, who are at increased risk of poor psychosocial well-being. In the Indian context, literature on the psychosocial well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC is scarce. Our research was aimed at fulfilling this gap by understanding self-reported psychosocial distress among OVC and subsequent coping strategies adopted during their stay at orphanages. Methods: The present study was conducted in three randomly selected orphanages of Delhi, India, during August-December 2016. Fifteen children (M = 9, F = 6 aged 10-17, were selected for in-depth interviews through a non-probability purposive sampling. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the characteristics of the study participants. Data analysis required the examination and comparison of interview transcripts for content analysis and themes identification. Results and Discussion: Our findings revealed psychological turmoil and poor social cognition among OVC. Even though children were happy to enjoy their basic necessities of life, the majority of them faced parental bereavement yearning for love, and desiring advocacy and guidance in life. OVC showed low self-concept and lack of purpose in life. Isolation from outside world resulted in feelings of mistrust among OVC. They also felt stigmatized, socially excluded and remained distressed. Coping strategies adopted by OVC included praying to God, forgetting parents, shifting focus, avoiding crowded places, and treating inmates as their family. They also reported indulgence in self-discrimination, substance abuse, and delinquency to avoid psychosocial distress. Conclusions: Ongoing programs aimed exclusively at fulfilling materialistic needs of OVC could lose focus on their psychosocial issues. New robust interventions are required not only for sufficing the quality services, but also for identifying psychological issues, enhancing social skills

  17. Closing the health gap in a generation: exploring the association between household characteristics and schooling status among orphans and vulnerable children in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Bongiwe N; Chiao, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Swaziland has one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalences in the world, which has contributed to many Swazi children being left as "orphans and vulnerable children" (OVC). In 2010, there were 78,000 AIDS orphans in the country and the number is expected to increase given the current HIV prevalence. The WHO aims to close the gap in a generation and eliminate health inequality; as a result the Swazi Government began in 2005 to provide financial support to the education of OVC. Prior research has indicated that household characteristics are some of the major determinants with respect to schooling status among children. We have examined the association between household characteristics and schooling status of OVC. Schooling status may vary by gender and by age, as well as by other sociodemographic factors, in sub-Saharan African societies, and therefore we have also included a comprehensive set of appropriate variables in all of our multivariate analyses. Using existing data from the Swaziland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010, a total of 5890 children aged 7-18 years old were analyzed. The results from the multivariate logistic regressions showed that non-OVC were more likely than OVC to be in school (OR = 2.18, p < 0.001), even after taking other variables into considerations. The OVC in socioeconomically disadvantaged households, such as those with lower levels of household wealt, and those who resided in an urban area, were less likely to be in school. These findings suggest that education programs for OVC need to be household-appropriate.

  18. The "Visual Shock" of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a "visual shock."We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his "visual shock" because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts.

  19. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.

  20. Experimental vibration level analysis of a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cǎlinoiu, C.

    2012-11-01

    In this study the vibration level of a Francis turbine is investigated by experimental work in site. Measurements are carried out for different power output values, in order to highlight the influence of the operation regimes on the turbine behavior. The study focuses on the turbine shaft to identify the mechanical vibration sources and on the draft tube in order to identify the hydraulic vibration sources. Analyzing the vibration results, recommendations regarding the operation of the turbine, at partial load close to minimum values, in the middle of the operating domain or close to maximum values of electric power, can be made in order to keep relatively low levels of vibration. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the real sources of the vibrations.

  1. Mechanical risks prediction on Francis runner by Spatial Harmonic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloc, F.; Guillozet, J.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Duparchy, A.

    2016-11-01

    Extending the operating zone of Francis turbines toward low load is a major stake to allow the optimization of the electrical grid. The dynamic phenomena encountered at low load are potential sources of pressure fluctuations, power instability and runner fatigue. Traditionally, the peak to peak value of pressure fluctuations is used to assess these risks. However, this estimator is not sufficient to analyse separately the various dynamic phenomena and their impact on the stability of the turbine. In this paper the recent Spatial Harmonic Decomposition (SHD) method is used to analyse the pressure fluctuations through more relevant indicators. The evolution of these indicators along a load variation is compared with the associated runner strain measured with on-board gauges. It is shown that the use of the Spatial Harmonic Decomposition is a powerful tool to evaluate the risks for the industrial turbine and thus improve its behaviour and its reliability.

  2. Simulations of Steady Cavitating Flow in a Small Francis Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laouari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow through a small horizontal Francis turbine is solved by means of Ansys-CFX at different operating points, with the determination of the hydrodynamic performance and the best efficiency point. The flow structures at different regimes reveal a large flow eddy in the runner and a swirl in the draft tube. The use of the mixture model for the cavity/liquid two-phase flow allowed studying the influence of cavitation on the hydrodynamic performance and revealed cavitation pockets near the trailing edge of the runner and a cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube. By maintaining a constant dimensionless head and a distributor vane opening while gradually increasing the cavitation number, the output power and efficiency reached a critical point and then had begun to stabilize. The cavitation number corresponding to the safety margin of cavitation is also predicted for this hydraulic turbine.

  3. A look at Francis runner blades response during transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M.; Nicolle, J.; Morissette, J.-F.; Lawrence, M.

    2016-11-01

    Data shows that the mechanical response of Francis runner blades is sensitive to power plant control systems. To demonstrate this, we have explored two such systems: wicket gates opening and air admission. The proper control of these systems does more than warrant safe operation; they can also be used to minimize the strain cycle amplitudes during transients such as: startups, shutdowns and load rejections. Proper control parameters settings should minimize the equipment risk of fatigue failure without negative side effects on other components and objectives. With the help of measured examples from Hydro-Québec power plants, this paper demonstrates that a better understanding of these systems is needed in order to move beyond costly trial and error fine-tuning methodology.

  4. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences

  5. Complejidad, conflicto armado y vulnerabilidad de niños y niñas desplazados en colombia (complexity, armed conflict, and vulnerability of displaced children in colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una reflexión acerca de la vulnerabilidad de los niños y niñas víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia. Para ello se recurriro al principio de auto-eco-organización y de Bucle inter-retroactivo. La violencia es un fenómeno complejo de múltiples interacciones, de características no-lineales y tendencia auto-eo-organizativa que afecta la noción de sujeto y altera el modo como los niños y niñas interpretan el mundo y sus interacciones. ABSTRACT: This paper aims to carry out a reflection on the vulnerability of children, who are victims of the armed conflict in Colombia. This was used at the beginning of the self-eco-organization and the inter-retroactive loop. Violence is a complex phenomenon of multiple interactions, non-linear features, and a self-ecoorganizational tendency, which affects the notion of subject and alters the way that children interpret the world and their interactions.

  6. Variations in the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability of children to weight gain induced by short sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Puig, A; Grau-Cabrera, P; Riera-Pérez, E; Cortés-Marina, R; Fortea, E; Soriano-Rodríguez, P; de Zegher, F; Ibánez, L; Bassols, J; López-Bermejo, A

    2013-02-01

    Shorter sleep duration predisposes to obesity, but the mechanisms whereby sleep deprivation affects body weight are poorly understood. We tested whether this association is modulated by the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral fat (abdominal ultrasound), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and sleep time per 24 h were assessed in 297 asymptomatic children (151 boys, 146 girls; age range 5-9 years; BMI s.d. score range -2.0-4.0). Associations between sleep duration and the abovementioned outcomes were tested for three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely FTO (rs9939609), TMEM 18 (rs4854344) and NRXN3 (rs10146997), as well as for their combination. TT homozygotes (but not A(*) carriers) for the FTO SNP, exhibited nominal associations between decreasing sleep duration and increasing BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat and HOMA-IR (all Psleep and, respectively, BMI (Psleep less per night was associated with an increase in BMI of 1.0 s.d. (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.6 s.d.) and with 8.0 cm (95% confidence interval 3.6-12.2 cm) more waist circumference in genetically susceptible children. By age 7, common variations in FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability to metabolic complications of sleep deprivation. Further genetic studies are warranted to replicate these findings in other populations.

  7. Protection of Vulnerable Children in Western Area Under the Social Work Perspective%试论社会工作视角下的西部地区弱势儿童保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常雅慧

    2012-01-01

    在儿童的地位、命运与福祉发生根本性转变的今天,西部地区相对落后的经济文化环境,使部分相对弱势的儿童生活依然面临诸多困境。为切实提高西部地区弱势儿童的福祉,应建立健全儿童保护法律体系,建立儿童事务管理的党和政府双重管理体制,构建未成年人法律援助全程化机制,构建学校、家庭、社会三位一体的儿童社会支持系统,培养社会工作专业人才,提升弱势儿童保护的专业性水平。%Recently the status and lives of children have thoroughly changed , but the limitations of economy and en- vironment in Western Area lead to many difficulties in the Vulnerable Children's lives. Undoubtedly the Western Area has made progresses in construction of concerning protection of vulnerable children. Western Area should take practical ways to remove the social protection for vulnerable children, such as perfect of law and policy, improve the management organization, set up a perfect children protection system, Construction of support system in the school, family, society in order to trinity of children's status, the professionalization of social workers , Enhance profession- als of vulnerable children protection.

  8. Facilitating HIV testing, care and treatment for orphans and vulnerable children aged five years and younger through community-based early childhood development playcentres in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Diana; Matyanga, Priscilla; Nyamundaya, Tichaona; Chimedza, Delia; Webb, Karen; Engelsmann, Barbara

    2012-07-11

    Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. Early childhood development (ECD) playcentres can act as an entry point providing multiple health and social services for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) under 5 years, including facilitating access to HIV treatment and care. Sixteen rural community-based, community-run ECD playcentres were established to provide health, nutritional and psychosocial support for OVC aged 5 years and younger exposed to or living with HIV, coupled with family support groups (FSGs) for their families/caregivers. These centres were located in close proximity to health centres giving access to nurse-led monitoring of 697 OVC and their caregivers. Community mobilisers identified OVC within the community, supported their registration process and followed up defaulters. Records profiling each child's attendance, development and health status (including illness episodes), vaccinations and HIV status were compiled at the playcentres and regularly reviewed, updated and acted upon by nurse supervisors. Through FSGs, community cadres and a range of officers from local services established linkages and built the capacity of parents/caregivers and communities to provide protection, aid psychosocial development and facilitate referral for treatment and support. Available data as of September 2011 for 16 rural centres indicate that 58.8% (n=410) of the 697 children attending the centres were tested for HIV; 18% (n=74) tested positive and were initiated on antibiotic prophylaxis. All those deemed eligible for antiretroviral therapy were commenced on treatment and adherence was monitored. This community

  9. Parental involvement with the criminal justice system and the effects on their children: a collaborative model for researching vulnerable families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Bree; Smyth, J McGregor; Mandell, Donald J; Doan, Thao; Donina, Katerina; Hoven, Christina W

    2012-01-01

    Despite the existing body of research examining the effects of imprisonment on incarcerated adults, as of yet, there is no solid empirical evidence for understanding the effects of parental involvement with the criminal justice system involvement (CJSI) on children and families. Accordingly, Columbia University-New York State's Child Psychiatric Epidemiology Group (CPEG), supported by a strong collaboration with The Bronx Defenders, a holistic public defender providing free legal representation, is conducting a longitudinal study examining the effects of parental involvement with the criminal justice system on this population. The study aims to understand, over time, the impact of parental CJSI on their children's mental health, including the effects of the collateral legal damage of CJSI (such as eviction and deportation), substance use, the development of risky behaviors leading to the child's potential involvement with the criminal justice system, as well as protective factors and identification of potential intervention points, which has the ability to inform public policy.

  10. Improving access to dental care for vulnerable children; further development of the Back2School programme in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, D; Pearson, N; Evans, P; Wallace, T; Eke, M; Wright, D

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a service evaluation of a dental treatment programme providing care to children not normally taken to the dentist. It explains the extension of the Back2School programme from the pilot phase and assesses if a mobile dental unit (MDU) can provide a high quality service. The public health competencies it illustrates include oral health improvement, developing and monitoring quality dental services, and collaborative working.

  11. Dimensions of nutritional vulnerability: Assessment of women and children in Sahariya tribal community of Madhya Pradesh in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Ghosh-Jerath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tribal communities are "at risk" of undernutrition due to geographical isolation and suboptimal utilization of health services. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of Sahariya tribes of Madhya Pradesh (MP, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages inhabited by Sahariya tribal community (specifically women in reproductive age group and children under 5 years in three districts of MP. Dietary surveys, anthropometric and biochemical assessments were carried out and descriptive statistics on the socio-economic and nutritional profile were reported. Association between household (HH food security and nutritional status of children was carried out using the logistic regression. Strength of effects were summarized by odd′s ratio. Results: Chronic energy deficiency and anemia was observed in 42.4% and 90.1% of women respectively. Underweight, stunting and wasting among under five children were 59.1%, 57.3% and 27.7% respectively. Low food security was found in 90% of HHs and the odds of children being underweight and stunted when belonging to HHs with low and very low food security was found to be significant (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively. Calorie, fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and folic acid intake among women was lower than recommended dietary allowance. Infant and young child feeding practices were suboptimal. Awareness on nutritional disorders and utilization of nutrition and health services was poor. Conclusion: A high prevalence of undernutrition and dietary deficiency exists among Sahariyas. System strengthening, community empowerment and nutrition education may play a pivotal role in addressing this.

  12. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research That Benefits Everyone's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's a marathon. Our goal is to advance biomedical research in new, innovative ways that will benefit everyone's health." — NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins Healthcare Reform— We can put science to work to better understand how to rein ...

  13. From Innocence to Suffering to Awareness:Nada Confrontation in Francis Macomber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晶

    2013-01-01

    The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber is a quintessential Hemingway tale of one man’s attempt to overcome an in⁃ternal struggle by mastering the external world. Francis Macomber discovers his own bravery and strength when he ignores his self-consciousness and relies on instinct. This essay will examine Hemingway's code and how it confronts nada thus analyze Macomb⁃er’s change from innocent to suffering to aware.

  14. Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, Ayobami D; Jeffery, Caroline; Crossland, Nadine; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the proportion of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) attending school in 89 districts of Uganda from 2011 - 2013 and investigates the factors influencing OVC access to education among this population. This study used secondary survey data from OVCs aged 5 - 17 years, collected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in 87 Ugandan districts over a 3-year period (2011 - 2013). Estimates of OVC school attendance were determined for the yearly time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors influencing OVC access to education. 19,354 children aged 5-17 were included in the analysis. We estimated that 79.1% (95% CI: 78.5% - 79.7%) of OVCs attended school during the 3-year period. Logistic regression revealed the odds of attending school were lower among OVCs from Western (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79 - 0.99) and Northern (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.56 - 0.73) regions compared to the Central region. Female OVCs had a significantly higher odds of attending school (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.17) compared to their male counterparts. When adjusting for all variables simultaneously, we found the odds of school attendance reduced by 12% between 2011 and 2012 among all OVCs (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.97). Our findings reinforce the need to provide continuing support to OVC in Uganda, ensuring they have the opportunity to attain an education. The data indicate important regional and gender variation that needs to be considered for support strategies and in social policy. The results suggest the need for greater local empowerment to address the needs of OVCs. We recommend further research to understand why OVC access to education and attendance varies between regions and improvement of district level mapping of OVC access to education, and further study to understand the particular factors impacting the lower school attendance of male OVCs.

  15. The Visual Shock of Francis Bacon: An essay in neuroesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir eZeki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a visual shock. We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain’s visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs and cars. We show that viewing face and house stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his visual shock because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts.

  16. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism.

  17. Computation of Cavitating Flow in a Francis Hydroturbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel; Lindau, Jay

    2013-11-01

    In an effort to improve cavitation characteristics at off-design conditions, a steady, periodic, multiphase, RANS CFD study of an actual Francis hydroturbine was conducted and compared to experimental results. It is well-known that operating hydroturbines at off-design conditions usually results in the formation of large-scale vaporous cavities. These cavities, and their subsequent collapse, reduce efficiency and cause damage and wear to surfaces. The conventional hydro community has expressed interest in increasing their turbine's operating ranges, improving their efficiencies, and reducing damage and wear to critical turbine components. In this work, mixing planes were used to couple rotating and stationary stages of the turbine which have non-multiple periodicity, and provide a coupled solution for the stay vanes, wicket gates, runner blades, and draft tube. The mixture approach is used to simulate the multiphase flow dynamics, and cavitation models were employed to govern the mass transfer between liquid and gas phases. The solution is compared with experimental results across a range of cavitation numbers which display all the major cavitation features in the machine. Unsteady computations are necessary to capture inherently unsteady cavitation phenomena, such as the precessing vortex rope, and the shedding of bubbles from the wicket gates and their subsequent impingement upon the leading edge of the runner blades. To display these features, preliminary unsteady simulations of the full machine are also presented.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Cavitation Improvement for a Francis Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhifeng; Xiao, Ruofu; Wang, Fujun; Yang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic machine is undesired due to its negative effects on performances. To improve cavitation performance of a Francis turbine without the change of the best efficiency point, a model runner geometry optimization was carried out. Firstly, the runner outlet diameter was appropriately increased to reduce the flow velocity at runner outlet region. Then, to avoid the change of the flow rate at the best efficiency point, the blade shapes were carefully adjusted by decreasing the blade outlet angles and increasing the blade wrap angles. A large number of the modified runners were tested by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. Finally the most appropriate one was selected, which has the runner outlet diameter 10% larger, the blade outlet angles 3 degrees smaller and the blade wrap angles 5 degrees larger. The results showed that the critical cavitation coefficient of the model runner decreased at every unit rotational speed after the optimization, and the effect was much remarkable at relative high flow rate. Besides, by analysing the internal flow field, it was found that the zone of the low pressure on pressure surface of the optimized turbine blades was reduced, the backflow and vortex rope in draft tube were reduced, and the cavitation zone was reduced obviously.

  19. Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami D Olanrewaju

    Full Text Available This study estimates the proportion of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC attending school in 89 districts of Uganda from 2011 - 2013 and investigates the factors influencing OVC access to education among this population.This study used secondary survey data from OVCs aged 5 - 17 years, collected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in 87 Ugandan districts over a 3-year period (2011 - 2013. Estimates of OVC school attendance were determined for the yearly time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors influencing OVC access to education.19,354 children aged 5-17 were included in the analysis. We estimated that 79.1% (95% CI: 78.5% - 79.7% of OVCs attended school during the 3-year period. Logistic regression revealed the odds of attending school were lower among OVCs from Western (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79 - 0.99 and Northern (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.56 - 0.73 regions compared to the Central region. Female OVCs had a significantly higher odds of attending school (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.17 compared to their male counterparts. When adjusting for all variables simultaneously, we found the odds of school attendance reduced by 12% between 2011 and 2012 among all OVCs (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.97.Our findings reinforce the need to provide continuing support to OVC in Uganda, ensuring they have the opportunity to attain an education. The data indicate important regional and gender variation that needs to be considered for support strategies and in social policy. The results suggest the need for greater local empowerment to address the needs of OVCs. We recommend further research to understand why OVC access to education and attendance varies between regions and improvement of district level mapping of OVC access to education, and further study to understand the particular factors impacting the lower school attendance of male OVCs.

  20. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, Sriram S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2004-12-07

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data

  1. Influence of the boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, David; Ramos, David; Bossio, Matías; Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme

    2016-11-01

    Natural frequencies estimation of Francis turbines is of paramount importance in the stage of design in order to avoid vibration and resonance problems especially during transient events. Francis turbine runners are submerged in water and confined with small axial and radial gaps which considerably decrease their natural frequencies in comparison to the same structure in the air. Acoustic-structural FSI simulations have been used to evaluate the influence of these gaps. This model considers an entire prototype of a Francis turbine, including generator, shaft, runner and surrounding water. The radial gap between the runner and the static parts has been changed from the real configuration (about 0.04% the runner diameter) to 1% of the runner diameter to evaluate its influence on the machine natural frequencies. Mode-shapes and natural frequencies of the whole machine are discussed for all the boundary conditions tested.

  2. Numerical investigation of draft tube pressure pulsations in a Francis turbine with splitter blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassanos, I.; Anagnostopoulos, J.; Papantonis, D.

    2017-04-01

    Operation of Francis turbines at part load conditions is related to the appearance of the draft tube helical vortex rope. Splitter blades have been employed in high head Francis turbines in order to improve performance as well as their unsteady characteristics. In this work the draft tube unsteady characteristics of a Francis runner with splitter blades are investigated numerically. Two different splitter designs were analysed, and the performance results were compared to the baseline runner with no splitter blades used. The amplitude of pressure pulsation caused by the precessing vortex rope as well as the related frequency was compared for all cases, for two different operating conditions. From the results a relationship between the pulsation frequency and splitter blade geometry was observed.

  3. Modelisation numerique et algebrique des joints labyrinthe des turbines francis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderlique, Remi

    There are various types of hydraulic turbines. Regarding the operating conditions, geometries and technologies differ. Hydraulic seals are only used in Francis turbines, which are widely used. The role of hydraulic seals is not to be waterproof. Their main aim is to prevent contact between the rotating and static parts of the turbine. Although necessary, hydraulic seals create energetic losses : some fluid does not flow through the runner (leakage loss) and exerts a torque on the rotor (friction loss). In a context of constant progression towards still more efficient turbines, the optimization of each part of the turbine is necessary. Our study is a part of this research seeking to decrease the losses in turbines as much as possible. In order to understand fully the problem, and to ensure an optimal seal exists, an analytical study has been lead in the first place. It establishes the analytical expressions of the speeds, pressure, losses and optimal seal length for laminar flows in straight seals. Various tests were then lead with the ANSYS CFX solver in order to highlight aspects which necessitate a particular attention. For example, the issues of boundary conditions and dimensionless simulations were adressed. A CFD model has then been validated. The results of the experiences lead in the sixties by Dominion Engineering Works, which later became Andritz Hydro Limited, were used in this process. Even if all the tests were not useable, some of them were reproduced numerically. The CFD model which was used features SST turbulence modeling, 2D axisymmetric geometries, parabolic mesh distributions, smooth walls, and a outlet headloss based on the normal speed. For the various tests which were considered, the average discrepancy between numerical and experimental results is 6.5%. More than 60% of the discrepancies of those simulations are below the empirical uncertainty. That is why this model can be used for numerical experiences : as long as these experiences are in

  4. Five-Item Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity: Construct and Nomological Validity and Internal Consistency among Colombian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Guillermo A.; Suescun, Jesus D.; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish version of the five-item Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity is a refinement of the short version of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity. The scale is a good measurement for intrinsic religiosity. It has been applied previously among Colombian adolescent students. The internal consistency and construct and…

  5. An Analysis of the Means of Cohesion in“of Studies”by Francis Bacon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文洋

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyze the means of cohesion in“of Studies”by Francis Bacon. According to the systemic-func-tional linguistics, the paper is intended to explore cohesion means applied in Of Studies by Francis Bacon. It gives an account of the functions in grammatical cohesion in the several fields, they are reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction respectively. Finally, it is expected that these analyses can help readers gain a better and deeper comprehension of the structure and content of the text.

  6. Characteristics analysis for different water heads on the efficiency hill chart of Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. N.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Sun, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Based on the test results of Francis turbine, the causes and inevitability of various hydraulic phenomena in the model combined characteristic curve for typical water heads were analyzed in this paper. the difference of the model combined characteristic curve from the low water head to the high water head is compared, and the characteristics and commonness of the model combined characteristic curve about different water head are summarized. Further, hydraulic performance and geometric features of Francis turbine are revealed by particularly analyzing model combined characteristic curves, and to provide powerful theoretical basis and definite modification direction for the hydraulic design of hydraulic turbine.

  7. Vulnerable Families Young Children to Read Picture Books Level Characteristics of Eye Movements%弱势家庭幼儿图画书阅读眼动水平特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江仔媛

    2015-01-01

    With the prevalence of early reading, the importance of reading to young children's development is increasingly being known. Since the books provide vulnerable families and young children, reading environment creation, quality of read-ing, reading instruction strategies, and many have a lot of problems, so that their situation is not optimistic reading. In this study, vulnerable families and young children for the study, from the perspective of visual cognition, evaluation methods using eye movements to read picture books about their character of eye movements.%随着早期阅读的盛行,阅读对幼儿发展的重要性越来越被人所知。弱势家庭幼儿由于书籍提供、阅读环境创设、阅读质量、阅读指导策略等多方面都存在很多问题,使得他们的阅读情况不容乐观。本研究以弱势家庭幼儿为研究对象,从视觉认知的角度,运用眼动测评的方法了解他们阅读图画书的眼动特点。

  8. Protection of Vulnerable Children in Western Area under the Social Work Perspective%社会工作视角下西部地区弱势儿童保护工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常雅慧

    2012-01-01

    儿童保护政策法规的不健全、儿童保护机制的不稳定、儿童保护主管部门较为单一以及专业社会工作人才较为缺乏等制度性因素,严重妨碍着西部地区弱势儿童保护事业的发展,造成弱势儿童权益侵犯事件屡屡发生。为切实提高西部地区弱势儿童的福祉,应建立健全儿童保护法律体系,建立儿童事务管理的党和政府双重管理体制,构建未成年人法律援助全程化机制,构建学校、家庭、社会三位一体的儿童社会支持系统,培养社会工作专业人才,以提升弱势儿童保护的专业性,注重对留守儿童、孤残儿童、受虐儿童等弱势儿童的保护与救助。%Undoubtedly the Western Area has made progresses in construction of concerning protection of vulnerable chil- dren. But there have been remaind efeets in the social system for vulnerable children, such as imperfection of policy sys- tem, unstabitily of Protection mechanism, singularity of administratition and absence of social worker. Western Area should take practical ways to remove the defectsabove inconstruction of social protection for vulnerable children, such as perfect the law and policy,improve the management organization, set up a perfect children protection system, inpel the professionalization of social work and emphasize the salvation of Vulnerable Children.

  9. The Culture of Science and the Rhetoric of Scientism: From Francis Bacon to the Darwin Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The culture of modern science continues to establish its public identity by appealing to values and historical conceptions that reflect its appropriation of various religious ideals during its formative period, most especially in the rhetoric of Francis Bacon. These elements have persisted because they continue to achieve similar goals, but the…

  10. Francis Bacon's New Science: Rhetoric and the Transformative Power of Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, David

    The process of projecting textual models onto the phenomenal world began with the invention of writing and accelerated through the manuscript culture of classical antiquity and the Middle Ages into the age of print. In Francis Bacon's work, the book (a metaphor for the phenomenal world) adapted to the demands of the printed text and reflects the…

  11. Francis Farley presenting his novel "Catalysed Fusion" in the CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Farley, Irina

    2013-01-01

    "Catalysed Fusion" is described by its author Francis Farley, 92, as a "true-to-life fantasy woven around particle physics" set in 1980s Geneva – "the city where nations meet and particles collide". Farley presented the book in the program "Literature in Focus" on Tuesday 16th April 2013.

  12. "Ajaloo lõpp" on lähedal / Francis Fukuyama ; interv. Adam Piore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2003-01-01

    Ajakirjas Newsweek ilmunud intervjuus vastab filosoof Francis Fukuyama küsimustele 2004. aasta kõige olulisemate probleemide, EL-i, Cancunis toimunud Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsiooni kõneluste, ajaloo lõppu jõudmise, Pakistani presidendile tehtud atentaadi kohta

  13. "Ajaloo lõpp" on lähedal / Francis Fukuyama ; interv. Adam Piore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2003-01-01

    Ajakirjas Newsweek ilmunud intervjuus vastab filosoof Francis Fukuyama küsimustele 2004. aasta kõige olulisemate probleemide, EL-i, Cancunis toimunud Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsiooni kõneluste, ajaloo lõppu jõudmise, Pakistani presidendile tehtud atentaadi kohta

  14. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring on Turkey Creek watershed, Francis Marion National Forest, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; T.J. Callahan; A. Radecki-Pawlik; P. Drewes; C. Trettin; W.F. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    The re-initiation of a 7,260 ha forested watershed study on Turkey Creek, a 3rd order stream, within the Francis Marion National forest in South Carolina, completes the development of a multi-scale hydrology and ecosystem monitoring framework in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Hydrology and water quality monitoring began on the Santee Experimental...

  15. The consistency test does not - and cannot - deliver what is advertised : A comment on Francis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The statistical consistency test of Ioannidis and Trikalinos (2007) has been used recently by Francis (2012a,c,d,e,2013,in press), to argue that specific sets of experiments show evidence of publication bias. I argue that the test is unnecessary because publication bias exists almost everywhere as p

  16. Francis Bacon's New Science: Rhetoric and the Transformative Power of Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, David

    The process of projecting textual models onto the phenomenal world began with the invention of writing and accelerated through the manuscript culture of classical antiquity and the Middle Ages into the age of print. In Francis Bacon's work, the book (a metaphor for the phenomenal world) adapted to the demands of the printed text and reflects the…

  17. The Culture of Science and the Rhetoric of Scientism: From Francis Bacon to the Darwin Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The culture of modern science continues to establish its public identity by appealing to values and historical conceptions that reflect its appropriation of various religious ideals during its formative period, most especially in the rhetoric of Francis Bacon. These elements have persisted because they continue to achieve similar goals, but the…

  18. Hydraulic Turbines: The Francis Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Francis turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. An explanatory illustration is appended. (JB)

  19. Teaching Psychology and Literature: Melancholia as Motivation in the Novels of Dick Francis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching literature from a psychological perspective provides a basis for the study and analysis of human motivation and behavior, as psychology and literature make mutual contributions to the study of both disciplines. Melancholia is a recurring theme in the novels of Dick Francis, and the first-person accounts of despair and depression are…

  20. Assessing Hydraulic Conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tao; Deng, Zhiqun; Duncan, Joanne P.; Zhou, Daqing; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Hou, Hongfei

    2016-08-18

    Downstream migratory fish, including some endangered species, can be injured or killed during turbine passage. In this study an autonomous Sensor Fish device was deployed at Arrowrock Dam, Cougar Dam, and Detroit Dam to evaluate the hydraulic conditions and physical stresses that fish experienced when passing through these Francis turbines. Pressure data was used to identify the location of the Sensor Fish and to calculate the nadir pressure and the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure during turbine passage. Acceleration data was used to identify events (collisions or shear) Sensor Fish experienced and to categorize the severity level (severe, medium, and slight) of each event. The results showed that Sensor Fish experienced severe events mostly in the stay vane/wicket gate region and the runner region. In the stay vane/wicket gate region, almost all severe events were collisions. In the runner region, Sensor fish experienced both severe collisions and severe shear events. Sensor Fish data at three wicket gate opening treatments at Cougar Dam indicated that the wicket gate opening of the Francis turbine can affect the hydraulic conditions in the turbine runner region. Fewer Sensor Fish experienced severe collisions in the turbine runner region at the peak efficiency than at the minimum opening and the maximum opening treatments. Comparisons between the Francis turbines at the three dams and the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam showed that higher percentage of Sensor Fish experienced severe events in the runner region when passing through Francis turbines than the AHT Kaplan turbine. The nadir pressures of the Francis turbines were lower than those of the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam. Both the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure were higher in Francis turbines than in the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam in the runner region. This study can be used to guide future laboratory studies of fish passing through Francis turbine and help the design

  1. Francis Bacon: Of Building, Essay 45, aus: Francis Bacon: The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscount St. Alban (London: Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret, 1625) (FONTES 16)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Together with 'The Elements of Achitecture' by Henry Wotton (1624), Francis Bacon’s essay 'Of Building' (1625, no. 45) constitutes the earliest significant statement of architectural thought both in printed form and in English. With his opening sentence, “A house is to live in, and not to look on”, Bacon gives expression to a new functionalist and empiricist position that anticipates architectural theories of modern times. Bacon discusses the site of the house (“seat”), and he proposes a verb...

  2. Fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on site measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.; Oram, C.; Klopfer, A.; Ruchonnet, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the increasing development of solar power and wind power which give an unstable output to the electrical grid, hydropower is required to give a rapid and flexible compensation, and the hydraulic turbines have to operate at off-design conditions frequently. Prototype Francis runners suffer from strong vibrations induced by high pressure pulsations at part load, low part load, speed-no-load and during start-stops and load rejections. Fatigue and damage may be caused by the alternating stress on the runner blades. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to carry out fatigue analysis and life time assessment of the prototype Francis runners, especially at off-design conditions. This paper presents the fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on the strain gauge site measurements and numerical simulations. In the case of low part load, speed-no-load and transient events, since the Francis runners are subjected to complex hydraulic loading, which shows a stochastic characteristic, the rainflow counting method is used to obtain the number of cycles for various dynamic amplitude ranges. From middle load to full load, pressure pulsations caused by Rotor-stator- Interaction become the dominant hydraulic excitation of the runners. Forced response analysis is performed to calculate the maximum dynamic stress. The agreement between numerical and experimental stresses is evaluated using linear regression method. Taking into account the effect of the static stress on the S-N curve, the Miner's rule, a linear cumulative fatigue damage theory, is employed to calculate the damage factors of the prototype Francis runners at various operating conditions. The relative damage factors of the runners at different operating points are compared and discussed in detail.

  3. Insight into Sam Francis' painting techniques through the analytical study of twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyt, Catherine; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta; Burchett-Lere, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the painting materials experimented with over the years by Sam Francis, leading figure of the post-World War II American painting, through the analytical study of an extended number of paint samples supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation. In total, 279 samples taken from twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992, were analyzed by Raman, FTIR and Py-GC/MS techniques. The obtained results revealed the Francis' preference in terms of pigments, i.e., phthalocyanine blues and greens, and outlined unconventional combination of binder media.

  4. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  5. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  6. Internal consistency of a five-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2009-04-01

    The short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (L. J. Francis, 1992) is a 7-item Likert-type scale that shows high homogeneity among adolescents. The psychometric performance of a shorter version of this scale has not been explored. The authors aimed to determine the internal consistency of a 5-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among 405 students from a school in Cartagena, Colombia. The authors computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 5 items with a greater corrected item-total punctuation correlation. The version without Items 2 and 7 showed internal consistency of .87. The 5-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity exhibited higher internal consistency than did the 7-item version. Future researchers should corroborate this finding.

  7. Mobile Technology and Health Care, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile Technology and Health Care, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. ... Contents Mobile health, or mHealth for short, uses mobile technologies for health research and healthcare delivery. At last ...

  8. Cost estimation 2012 for the electrical and mechanical equipment of the power house in hydropower projects and pumped storage projects. Equipment with Pelton turbines, Francis turbines, Kaplan Turbines, Kaplan tube turbines, bulb turbines and Francis pump-turbines; Kostenschaetzung 2012 fuer die elektrische und mechanische Ausruestung des Krafthauses in Wasserkraft- und Pumpspeicher-Projekten. Ausruestung mit Pelton-, Francis-, Kaplan-, Kaplan-Rohr-, Bulb-Turbinen oder Francis-Pumpturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Ancieta, Cesar Adolfo

    2012-07-01

    The compilation of statistical data on costs for the electrical and mechanical equipment of approximately 140 selected hydropower projects and pumped storage projects in 46 countries in America, Europe, Asia and Africa provides helpful diagrams with which the cost of the electrical and mechanical equipment of Pelton turbines, Francis turbines, Kaplan Turbines, Kaplan tube turbines, bulb turbines and Francis pump-turbines can be determined.

  9. Experimental investigations of the unsteady flow in a Francis turbine draft tube cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baya, A [Department of Hydraulic Machinery, ' Politehnica' University of Timisoara Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Muntean, S [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences, Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Bv. Mihai Viteazu 24, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Campian, V C; Cuzmos, A [Research Center in Hydraulics, Automation and Heat Transfer, ' Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita P-ta. Traian Vuia 1-4, RO-320085, Resita (Romania); Diaconescu, M; Balan, G, E-mail: abaya@mh.mec.upt.r [Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary, S.C. Hidroelectrica S.A. Str. Decebal 11, RO-240255, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Operating Francis turbines at partial discharge is often hindered by the development of the helical vortex (so-called vortex rope) downstream the runner, in the draft tube cone. The unsteady pressure field induced by precessing vortex rope leads to pressure fluctuations. The paper presents the experimental investigations of the unsteady pressure field generated by precessing vortex rope and its associated pressure fluctuations into a draft tube of the Francis turbine operating at partial discharge. In situ measurements are performed in order to evaluate the pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency at partial load operation. Three pressure taps are installed on the cone wall of the draft tube in order to record the unsteady pressure. As a result, the Fourier spectra are obtained in order to evaluate the amplitude of pressure fluctuations and vortex rope frequency. Moreover, the wall pressure recovery along to the draft tube cone is acquired. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the vortex rope effects.

  10. Flow characteristics on the blade channel vortex in the Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P. C.; Wang, Z. N.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Zuo, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the long-term hydraulic development of Francis turbine, the blade channel vortex phenomenon was investigated systematically from hydraulic design, experimental and numerical computation in this paper. The blade channel vortex difference between the high water head and low water head turbine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the relationship between the blade channel vortex and the operating stability of hydraulic turbine was also investigated. The results show that the phenomenon of blade channel vortex is an intrinsic property for Francis turbine under small flow rate condition, the turning-point of the blade channel vortex inception curve appears at low unit speed region, and the variation trend of the blade channel vortex inception curve is closely related to the blade inlet edge profile. In addition to, the vortex of the high water head turbine can generally be excluded from the stable operation region, while which is more different for the one of the low water head turbine.

  11. Numerical and experimental study of low-frequency pressure pulsations in hydraulic units with Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, D.; Minakov, A.; Dekterev, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Dekterev, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation method of three-dimensional turbulent flows in the hydraulic turbine. This technique was verified by means of experimental data obtained on a water model of the Francis turbines. An aerodynamic stand, which is a miniature copy of the real hydraulic turbine, was designed. A series of experiments have been carried out on this stand and the corresponding calculations were performed. The dependence of the velocity and pressure pulsations profiles for different operation regimes are presented.

  12. Modelling and Internal Fuzzy Model Power Control of a Francis Water Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Nagode; Igor Škrjanc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents dynamic modelling of a Francis turbine with a surge tank and the control of a hydro power plant (HPP). Non-linear and linear models include technical parameters and show high similarity to measurement data. Turbine power control with an internal model control (IMC) is proposed, based on a turbine fuzzy model. Considering appropriate control responses in the entire area of turbine power, the model parameters of the process are determined from a fuzzy model, which are furthe...

  13. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way.

  14. Numerical Study of Cavitation in Francis Turbine of a Small Hydro Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Gohil; Rajeshwer Saini

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation is undesirable phenomena and more prone in reaction turbines. It is one of the challenges in any hydro power plant which cause vibration, degradation of performance and the damage to the hydraulic turbine components. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out a numerical analysis to investigate the cavitation effect in a Francis turbine. Three dimensional numerical study approach of unsteady and SST turbulence model are considered for the numerical a...

  15. The Role of Dr. Francis Willis in the Madness of George III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M S

    2017-01-01

    In the well-known story of the illness of King George III, what is often overlooked is the part played by Dr. Francis Willis, an inconspicuous doctor who with great success ran an asylum in Lincolnshire. In November 1788, he was called to attend the King whose mania was becoming uncontrollable. Because of his interventions there was a slow but marked improvement. The King's recovery in 1789 increased Willis' reputation and expanded his practice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Simulación numérica de turbinas Francis

    OpenAIRE

    Laín, Santiago; García, Manuel; Avellan, François; Quintero, Brian; Orrego, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Este libro aborda el panorama de la simulación numérica de turbinas Francis desde un punto de vista tanto estacionario como transitorio. Por primera vez se describe la metodología de simulación de escenarios de funcionamiento desfavorables de la máquina, lo cual es una novedad en el campo de la simulación de turbo-máquinas hidráulicas.

  17. Prevention strategies, vulnerable positions and risking the ‘identity trap’ : Digitalized risk assessments and their legal and socio-technical implications on children and migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fors, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, the prevention of abuse of children, anti-social behaviour of children or migrants’ identity fraud or illegal entry are quite different objectives which require different professional skills and legislative background. Even the digital technologies introduced to boost the prevention

  18. Hydroacoustic simulation of rotor-stator interaction in resonance conditions in Francis pump-turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, C [Power Vision Engineering sarl, Ch. des Champs-Courbes 1, CH-1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Ruchonnet, N; Alligne, S; Avellan, F [EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines, Av. de Cour 33bis, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Koutnik, J, E-mail: christophe.nicolet@powervision-eng.c [Voith Hydro Holding GmbH and Co. KG, Alexanderstr. 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Combined effect of rotating pressure field related to runner blade and wakes of wicket gates leads to rotor stator interactions, RSI, in Francis pump-turbines. These interactions induce pressures waves propagating in the entire hydraulic machine. Superposition of those pressure waves may result in standing wave in the spiral casing and rotating diametrical mode in the guide vanes and can cause strong pressure fluctuations and vibrations. This paper presents the modeling, simulation and analysis of Rotor-Stator Interaction of a scale model of a Francis pump-turbine and related test rig using a one-dimensional approach. The hydroacoustic modeling of the Francis pump-turbine takes into account the spiral casing, the 20 guide vanes, the 9 rotating runner vanes. The connection between stationary and rotating parts is ensured by a valve network driven according to the unsteady flow distribution between guide vanes and runner vanes. Time domain simulations are performed for 2 different runner rotational speeds in turbine mode. The simulation results are analyzed in frequency domain and highlights hydroacoustic resonance between RSI excitations and the spiral case. Rotating diametrical mode in the vaneless gap and standing wave in the spiral case are identified. The influence of the resonance on phase and amplitude of pressure fluctuations obtained for both the spiral case and the vaneless gap is analyzed. The mode shape and frequencies are confirmed using eigenvalues analysis.

  19. The calculation of fluid-structure interaction and fatigue analysis for Francis turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Li, H. L.; Zhu, F. W.

    2012-11-01

    Francis turbine, as a widely used hydro turbine, is especially suited for the hydropower station with high hydraulic head and higher hydraulic head. For such turbine generator units all around the world, the crack streaks usually come out after a long time use and the resulted accidents may cause huge losses. Hence, it is meaningful to refine the design assuring the stability and safety of the Francis turbine. In this paper, the stiffness and strength as well as the fatigue life of the Francis turbine are studied. Concerning on the turbine of one certain hydropower station, the flow field inside the turbine are first simulated and the pressure distribution around the blades are derived. Meanwhile, the stress distributions of the blades are also obtained. Based on these, the fatigue analyses are applied on the turbine. According to the results of fatigue analyses, some optimal designs on the turbine are verified. The results show that with the optimal designs, the hydraulic performances of the turbine do not change too much while the maximum stress on the turbine decrease and the fatigue life increase as well.

  20. Numerical study on unidirectional fluid–solid coupling of Francis turbine runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Kan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the fluid–solid coupling stress characteristics of the Francis turbine runner comprehensively, based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model, this article performs numerical simulation of three-dimensional steady incompressible turbulent flow through the whole passage of a certain large Francis turbine under multiple operating conditions with Computational Fluid Dynamic software CFX and contrasts the result with that model test conversion. With the help of ANSYS workbench platform, equivalent stress, deformation distribution, and variation of the runner under multiple operating conditions are obtained through loading the water pressure on the runner blade as structural plane load to blades by the method of unidirectional fluid–solid coupling. The results show that under small flow operating conditions, flow patterns in the runner are disordered, the stress on the blade distributes unevenly, and the maximum stress lies on the influent side of the blades connected to the band; as the flow increases, the stress appears intensively around the effluent side of the blades connected to the runner crown. The maximum deformation first decreases and then increases as the flow increases. The deformation area expands from the middle effluent side of blades to the band. The results can be found in the researches on the structure design and the safety and stability of the Francis turbine runner.

  1. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  2. New directions in orphan and vulnerable children policy and research: A focus on supporting "suitable" institutions when placement is "necessary" for a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hy V

    2014-07-01

    As the number of children without parental care continues to increase in resource-poor countries, it is important not to discount institutional care as an option before conclusively assessing whether these structures have systematic negative impacts on the millions of children for which they provide care. An almost universal emphasis and focus on deinstitutionalizing children in the face of the urgent necessity for large-scale measures to care for the global orphaned population puts millions of children at risk of deprivation, degradation, and early death. Deinstitutionalizing children in underresourced countries without alternate systems in place could leave many children behind. This article proposes an equal assessment of suitability and necessity of all alternative care options, without relegating institutions as a last resort. Institutional care should be considered as no less suitable in certain cases and for certain children than other options, especially when there is a serious need for such an option in some parts of the world. In addition, recent research challenges early conclusions, shows variability in international institutions, and also documents positive effects of interventions seeking to improve institutions. The Convention of the Rights of the Child and its implicit "last resort" language, as well as subsequent global policies that also use this language, do not create a constructive way of approaching alternative care solutions for any children without parental care. Instead, policymakers and practitioners should establish individualized care plans for all children without parental care, regulate their admission to institutions with periodic reviews of the necessity and appropriateness of their placement, and develop standards for "suitability" of institutions to improve conditions.

  3. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  4. Arizona - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  5. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  6. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System (SMDSS) to identify factors that make forest and game reserves vulnerable .... involve the creation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope Settlement and ... Feature). Spatial. Analyst Tool. (Slope). Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool.

  7. Human Rights and Vulnerability. Examples of Sexism and Ageism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª DEL CARMEN BARRANCO AVILÉS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A human rights based approach applied to the idea of ‘vulnerable group’ connects vulnerability and structural discrimination. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability provides some elements that allow to state that we are facing a new paradigm in the International Human Rights Law. One of the keys for the understanding of this new framework is the assumption of the disadvantage related to vulnerability as, at least in a part, socially built and ideologically justified. Sexism and ageism are examples of how ideologies reinforce vulnerability of women, children and aged persons transforming them in groups which members are in risk of discrimination.

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanaik Pratiti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been asserted that psychological responses to disasters in children and adolescents vary widely across cultures, but this has rarely been investigated. The objectives of the study were to clinically evaluate the construct of traumatic stress symptoms and disorder in children and adolescents after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India; to find out the prevalence at one year; compare the effect in high and low exposure areas and study the factors associated with it. Methods Clinical examination of children and adolescents (n = 447 was done, supplemented by a symptoms checklist based on International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research and a semi-structured questionnaire for disaster related experiences. Results A majority of children had post-traumatic symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was present in 30.6% (95% confidence interval: 26.4 to 34.9, and an additional 13.6% had sub-syndromal PTSD. Parents or teachers reported mental health concerns in 7.2% subjects, who were a minor proportion (12.8% of subjects with any syndromal diagnosis (n = 196. Significantly more (43.7% children in high exposure areas had PTSD than that (11.2% in low exposure areas (p Conclusion Following natural disaster PTSD is a valid clinical construct in children and adolescents in Indian set up; and though highly prevalent it may be missed without clinical screening. Its manifestation and associated factors resembled those in other cultures.

  9. A Minority Report for Social Work? The Predictive Risk Model (PRM) and the Tuituia Assessment Framework in addressing the needs of New Zealand's Vulnerable Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the viability of the Risk Predictor Model (RPM) and its counterpart the actuarial risk assessment (ARA) tool in the form of the Tuituia Assessment Framework to address child vulnerability in New Zealand. In doing so, it suggests that these types of risk-assessment tools fail to address issues of contingency and complexity at the heart of the relationship-based nature of social work practice. Such developments have considerable implications for the capacity to enhance critical reflexive practice skills, whilst the introduction of these risk tools is occurring at a time when the reflexive space is being eroded as a result of the increased regulation of practice and supervision. It is further asserted that the primary aim of such instruments is not so much to detect risk, but rather to foster professional conformity with these managerialist risk-management systems so prevalent in contemporary Western societies.

  10. Dos obras del escultor neoclásico inglés John Francis (1780- 1861 en una colección particular española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintanilla Martínez, Emilio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two previously unknown works by the British neoclassical sculptor John Francis dating from the second quarter of the 19th century, representing the 1st Duke of Sutherland and, most likely, the sculptor Sir John Francis, have been located in a Spanish private collection.

    Dos obras, hasta ahora inéditas, del escultor neoclásico inglés John Francis del segundo cuarto del siglo XIX, y que representan al primer duque de Sutherland y seguramente al escultor Sir John Francis, en colección privada española.

  11. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  12. VALIDEZ Y CONFIABILIDAD DE LA ESCALA BREVE DE FRANCIS PARA ACTITUD ANTE EL CRISTIANISMO Validity and reliability of the five-item version of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La escala breve de Francis para actitud ante el cristianismo (Francis-5 muestra alta consistencia interna y confiabilidad de tipo prueba-reprueba en adolescentes colombianos. Sin embargo, las investigaciones sólo están disponibles en inglés y no se conoce la validez nomológica de escala en esta población. Objetivo. Corroborar la validez y confiabilidad de la escala Francis-5 en adolescentes estudiantes de Cartagena, Colombia. Material y métodos. Participaron 1.730 estudiantes de sexto a undécimo grado, con una media para la edad de 14,7 años (DE=1,2, y 52,7% mujeres. Se estimó la validez de constructo (análisis de factores y la validez nomológica (comparación de las puntuaciones entre mujeres y varones. Para conocer la confiabilidad se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y omega de McDonald. Resultados. La escala Francis-5 mostró una estructura unidimensional, con un valor propio de 3,681 que dio cuenta del 73,6% de la varianza. Las mujeres puntuaron significativamente mayor que los varones, 18,5 (DE=2,7 vs. 17,9 (DE=3,3 (t = 4,3; pBackground. The short version of Francis Scale attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5 presents high internal consistency and test-retest reliability among Colombian adolescents. However, the papers are only available in English, and nomological validity is not known in this population. Objective. To corroborate the validity and reliability of the Francis-5 scale among adolescent students at Cartagena, Colombia. Materials and method. A total of 1,730 sixth to eleventh grade students, mean age of 14,7 years old (SD=1.2, and 52.7% were girls. Construct validity (factor analysis and nomological validity (score comparison between boys and girls were explored. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were computed as measures of reliability. Results. Francis-5 Scale showed one dimensional structure, with Eigen value of 3.681 that accounted for 73.6% of the total variance. Girls scored

  13. Crianças órfãs e vulneráveis pelo HIV no Brasil: onde estamos e para onde vamos? Orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS in Brazil: where do we stand and where are we heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan França-Junior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi identificar a magnitude e a situação de alguns direitos humanos, conforme expressos na United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, de crianças e adolescentes portadores de HIV/Aids, afetados não-órfãos e órfãos por Aids, com base em pesquisa sobre o tema na literatura científica nacional e internacional. Os principais achados não permitiram indicar com segurança quantos seriam as crianças e os adolescentes portadores do HIV e afetados não-órfãos. Há informações sobre o número de portadores de Aids e de órfãos. Estas estimativas, sejam elas oriundas do sistema de vigilância, modelos matemáticos ou inquéritos, são discutidas em suas limitações e possibilidades. Apesar da literatura ainda ser relativamente pequena, há indícios de comprometimento de vários direitos como saúde, educação, moradia, alimentação, não discriminação, integridade física e mental. Verificou-se que o Brasil ainda precisa avançar para responder às necessidades adicionais dos órfãos e outras crianças vulneráveis. A resposta brasileira, até o momento, é limitada à assistência médica para crianças e adolescentes portadores do HIV/Aids, ao combate à transmissão vertical do HIV e ao financiamento da instalação e manutenção de casas de apoio (abrigos pelo Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente para infectados afetados, órfãos ou não. Essas medidas são insuficientes para garantir um ambiente de apoio para órfãos, crianças e adolescentes infectados ou afetados pelo HIV/Aids. Propõem-se formas do Brasil criar e aprimorar bases de dados para responder a esses desafios.This study aimed at identifying human rights' status and situation, as expressed in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, non-orphans and orphans affected by AIDS, based on local and international literature review. The main study findings did

  14. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Boyce, W Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2016-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system responses and contextual factors has shed light on the development of children's negative outcomes, but the majority of these studies have not focused on minority populations living under adversity. To address these gaps, the current longitudinal study included a sample of poor, immigrant Latino families to examine whether associations between children's autonomic nervous system reactivity at 6 months and their externalizing behavior problems at 7 years of age were moderated by two risk factors associated with poverty: the interpersonal factor of chronic maternal depression and the environmental factor of chronic overcrowded housing. Multiple linear regression (N = 99) revealed that children who exhibited less parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal in response to challenge during infancy had more externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced chronic depression. Children who exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system reactivity during infancy had the lowest levels of externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who chronic depression. Chronic overcrowded housing did not moderate associations between physiological reactivity and level of externalizing problems. These findings extend our understanding of the interaction of physiology and context on child outcomes to the understudied population of impoverished Latino families.

  15. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  16. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  17. Static and dynamic stress analyses of the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Oram, C.; Sick, M.

    2014-03-01

    More efforts are put on hydro-power to balance voltage and frequency within seconds for primary control in modern smart grids. This requires hydraulic turbines to run at off-design conditions. especially at low load or speed-no load. Besides. the tendency of increasing power output and decreasing weight of the turbine runners has also led to the high level vibration problem of the runners. especially high head Francis runners. Therefore. it is important to carry out the static and dynamic stress analyses of prototype high head Francis runners. This paper investigates the static and dynamic stresses on the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurements and numerical simulations. The site measurements are performed with pressure transducers and strain gauges. Based on the measured results. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the flow channel from stay vane to draft tube cone are performed. Static pressure distributions and dynamic pressure pulsations caused by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) are obtained under various operating conditions. With the CFD results. static and dynamic stresses on the runner at different operating points are calculated by means of the finite element method (FEM). The agreement between simulation and measurement is analysed with linear regression method. which indicates that the numerical result agrees well with that of measurement. Furthermore. the maximum static and dynamic stresses on the runner blade are obtained at various operating points. The relations of the maximum stresses and the power output are discussed in detail. The influences of the boundary conditions on the structural behaviour of the runner are also discussed.

  18. Patchy Solution of a Francis-Byrnes-Isidori Partial Differential Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, Cesar O

    2011-01-01

    The solution to the nonlinear output regulation problem requires one to solve a first order PDE, known as the Francis-Byrnes-Isidori (FBI) equations. In this paper we propose a method to compute approximate solutions to the FBI equations when the zero dynamics of the plant are hyperbolic and the exosystem is two-dimensional. With our method we are able to produce approximations that converge uniformly to the true solution. Our method relies on the periodic nature of two-dimensional analytic center manifolds.

  19. Stability of the Spanish version of the five-item Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Tapia, Giskar Alonso; Cogollo, Zuleima; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish test-retest reliability of a Spanish version of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (Campo-Arias, Oviedo, & Cogollo, 2009) among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. A group of ninth grade students from two public schools in Colombia (N = 157) completed the five-item scale. Cronbach's alphas were .74 and .76 in the first and second administrations, respectively. Both Pearson's rho and intra-class correlation coefficient were .69. A Spanish translation of the 5-item scale had consistent stability over four weeks.

  20. The Construction of the Lyrical Subject in Francis Ponge’s Objectual Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Begoña Capllonch

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how, in the case of the works of Francis Ponge, the lyrical subject of a deliberately non-subjectivist body of work can be constructed, despite – and even because of - the absence of said subject and in opposition to the object which itrecreates. Although the disappearance of the subject is a rhetorical strategy to draw attention to the object, both the linguistic features and the communicative intentionality of the texts, serveonly to define the subject in qu...

  1. Étude critique du doublage des films de Francis Véber en espagnol

    OpenAIRE

    Scarampi, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Francis Véber, conocido hoy en día como director de cine, empezó en el mundo del cine siendo guionista. En sus películas, es fácil darse cuenta de que todo el peso de la comedia recae en la particularidad de los diálogos con sus juegos de palabras, sus marcas culturales y su humor imposible de traducir algunas veces. ¿Qué ocurre entonces cuando algunos de estos aspectos se pierden en la traducción? Para que el espectador pueda recibir de la versión doblada el mensaje que ...

  2. El placer de la virtud en el universo moral de Francis Hutcheson

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Hutcheson define la virtud por su relación con la inclinación benevolente de la naturaleza humana y su proyección a través de los actos del agente moral que buscan la felicidad ajena. Los actos virtuosos son objeto del sentido moral, cuya capacidad de valorarlos va unida al sentimiento que despiertan en el observador, atento a sus consecuencias. El artículo trata de articular los conceptos fundamentales de la filosofía moral de Francis Hutcheson en torno a la definición que ofrece de virtud m...

  3. Francis Bacon's Valerius Terminus and the Voyage to the "Great Instauration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Francis Bacon's earliest surviving natural philosophical treatise (composed circa 1603) bears the title Valerius Terminus of the Interpretation of Nature. This study, resting on fresh attention to the surviving authorial manuscript, has three goals. It begins by identifying a lost precursor work apparently entitled "Of Active Knowledge." It then examines the significance of the pseudonyms Bacon chose to introduce his ideas, considering especially his invocation of Erasmus's emblem, the Roman deity Terminus. Finally, it shows how the Valerius Terminus's global vision of contemporary knowledge ultimately helped shape the iconography of Bacon's published Instauratio magna.

  4. On the centenary of the birth of Francis H. C. Crick – from physics to genetics and neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The year 2016 marks the centenary of the birth of Francis Crick (1916–2004, who made outstanding contributions to genetics and neuroscience. In 1953, in a collaborative study, Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the DNA double helix, and in 1962 they and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Noble Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Crick subsequently became very interested in neuroscience, particularly consciousness and its relationship to the claustrum, a small gray matter structure between the insula and putamen.

  5. (A) la mémoire de Francis Deveaux%纪念法朗西斯·德沃先生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜青钢

    2002-01-01

    @@ Pour nous, le choc est trop brutal. Le 18 octobre, je vais au Metro, j′achete une dizaine de bouteilles de yin chinois. Comme convenu, Francis Devaux, notre ami, devrait arriver dans une semaine a Wuhan, en tournee de conferences. Il habitera chez moi. J′en suis tres content. Grand buveur, il aura de quoi boire, me dis-je fiererment en sortant du supermarche. La veille, j′ai recu de Francis une lettre par E-mail:. Nos etudiants et professeurs attendent avec impatience aussi ses conferences sur l′Union europeenne.

  6. Design and development of guide vane cascade for a low speed number Francis turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biraj Singh THAPA; Chirag TRIVEDI; Ole Gunnar DAHLHAUG

    2016-01-01

    Guide vane cascade of a low speed number Francis turbine is developed for the experimental investigations. The test setup is able to produce similar velocity distributions at the runner inlet as that of a reference prototype turbine. Standard analytical methods are used to design the reference turbine. Periodic walls of flow channel between guide vanes are identified as the starting profile for the boundary of the cascade. Two alternative designs with three guide vanes and two guide vanes, without runner, are studied. A new approach, for the hydraulic design and optimization of the cascade test setup layout, is proposed and investigated in details. CFD based optimization methods are used to define the final layout of the test setup. The optimum design is developed as a test setup and experimental validation is done with PIV methods. The optimized design of cascade with one guide vane between two flow channels is found to produce similar flow conditions to that in the runner inlet of a low speed number Francis turbine.

  7. On the performance of a high head Francis turbine at design and off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakti, B.; Amstutz, O.; Casartelli, E.; Romanelli, G.; Mangani, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, fully 360 degrees transient and steady-state simulations of a Francis turbine were performed at three operating conditions, namely at part load (PL), best efficiency point (BEP), and high load (HL), using different numerical approaches for the pressure-velocity coupling. The simulation domain includes the spiral casing with stay and guide vanes, the runner and the draft tube. The main target of the investigations is the numerical prediction of the overall performance of the high head Francis turbine model as well as local and integral quantities of the complete machine in different operating conditions. All results were compared with experimental data published by the workshop organization. All CFD simulations were performed at model scale with a new in-house, 3D, unstructured, object-oriented finite volume code within the framework of the open source OpenFOAM library. The novel fully coupled pressure-based solver is designed to solve the incompressible RANS- Equations and is capable of handling multiple references of frame (MRF). The obtained results show that the overall performance is well captured by the simulations. Regarding the local flow distributions within the inlet section of the draft-tube, the axial velocity is better estimated than the circumferential component.

  8. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  9. Hydrodynamic damping and stiffness prediction in Francis turbine runners using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nennemann, Bernd; Monette, Christine; Chamberland-Lauzon, Joël

    2016-11-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid- to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues on the prototype machine. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes of the runner are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. All three of the above factors are significantly influenced by both mechanical and hydraulic parameters. The prediction of the first two factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of hydro-dynamic damping has only recently and only partially been treated. Two mode-based approaches (modal work and coupled single degree of freedom) for the prediction of flow-added dynamic parameters using separate finite element analyses (FEA) in still water and unsteady computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses are presented. The modal motion is connected to the time resolved CFD calculation by means of dynamic mesh deformation. This approach has partially been presented in a previous paper applied to a simplified hydrofoil. The present work extends the approach to Francis runners under RSI loading. In particular the travelling wave mode shapes of turbine runners are considered. Reasonable agreement with experimental results is obtained in parts of the operating range.

  10. CFD simulations of transient load change on a high head Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ken-Robert G.; Aasved Holst, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the importance of better understanding the structural integrity of high-head hydraulic turbines operating at intermittent conditions, complete 360º steady-state and transient simulations of a Francis turbine are presented in this paper. The main target of the work has been to investigate different numerical approaches such as mesh deformation for different operating conditions. Steady-state simulations were performed at the best efficiency point (BEP) and used as initial conditions for the transient simulations considering load rejection from BEP to part load (BEP2PL) and during load acceptance from BEP to high load (BEP2HL). Simulation results were compared with experimental data available for the Francis-99 project where close agreement was found for the mesh independent solution. The transient load analyses showed general trends in accordance with the measurement reports, especially for the pressure in vaneless space that is of high importance regarding RSI effects. Some deviations were identified for the net head at load rejection for which further investigations will be conducted. All CFD simulations were performed at model scale with ANSYS CFX v. 17 at either 96 or 120 cores (2.60 GHz). The immersed boundary technique was tested during the initial stages of the project, but had to be abandoned due to severe memory requirements. Pressure amplitudes and other instantaneous results were not considered.

  11. Numerical predictions of pressure pulses in a Francis pump turbine with misali-gned guide vanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖业祥; 王正伟; 张瑾; 罗永要

    2014-01-01

    Previous experimental and numerical analyses of the pressure pulse characteristics in a Francis turbine are extended here by using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model to model the unsteady flow within the entire flow passage of a large Francis pump turbine with misaligned guide vanes at the rated rotational speed. The S-curve characteristics are analyzed by a combined use of the model test and the steady state simulation with the aligned guide vane firstly. Four misaligned guide vanes with two different openings are chosen to analyze the influence of pressure pulses in the turbine. The characteristics of the dominant unsteady flow frequencies in different parts of the pump turbine for various misaligned guide vane openings are investigated in detail. The predicted hydraulic performance and the pressure fluctuations show that the misaligned guide vanes reduce the relative pressure fluctuation amplitudes in the stationary part of the flow passage, but not the runner blades. The misaligned guide vanes have changed the low frequencies in the entire flow passage with the change of the pulse amplitudes mainly due to changes in the rotor-stator interaction and the low frequency vortex rope flow behavior.

  12. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of a high head model Francis turbine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAHUL GOYAL; CHIRAG TRIVEDI; B K GANDHI; MICHEL J CERVANTES; OLE G DAHLHAUG

    2016-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operating at part load conditions depending on availability of hydraulic energy or to meet the grid requirements. The turbine experiences more fatigue during the part load operating conditions due to flow phenomena such as vortex breakdown in the draft tube and flow instability in the runner.The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load.Pressure measurements have been carried out experimentally on a model Francis turbine. Total six pressure sensors were mounted inside the turbine and other two pressure sensors were mounted at the turbine inlet pipe. It is observed that the turbine experiences significant pressure fluctuations at the vaneless space and the runner.Moreover, a standing wave is observed between the pressure tank outlet and the turbine inlet. Analysis of the data acquired by the pressure sensors mounted in the draft tube showed the presence of vortex breakdown corotating with the runner. The detailed analysis showed the rotating and plunging components of the vortex breakdown. The influence of the rotating component was observed in the entire hydraulic circuit includingdistributor and turbine inlet but not the plunging one.

  13. Progress in load prediction for speed-no-load operation in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, C.; Weber, W.; Seidel, U.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines are increasingly required to operate from 0-100% of power output. For the design of these turbines, a sound understanding of formerly “off-design” operating points, e.g. speed-no-load, is necessary. One way to assess loads at these operating points is to apply scale resolving CFD methods in order to account for the broad-band turbulence spectrum. This results in stochastic load patterns, which are characteristic for these off-design points. In this paper, two CFD approaches for scale resolving simulations are applied to a Francis model turbine to resolve the larger anisotropic scales in turbine flow at speed-no-load operation. The first uses a hybrid RANS-LES model presented by Menter & Egorov [2]. Here the resolved scales are adapted continuously by RANS-LES blending based on the actual flow condition. The second approach is a LES with a dynamic model based on Germano et al. [3]. For both approaches, spectra of resulting pressure fluctuations at the draft tube cone wall are presented. Additionally, pressure loads from LES are applied to calculate mean and dynamic stresses. The dynamic stresses are finally compared with measurements in the corresponding prototype turbine.

  14. Development and validation of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale – Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Letícia Santos Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This article aims to describe the adaptation and translation process of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS and its reduced version, the Bush-Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument (BFCSI for Brazilian Portuguese, as well as its validation. Methods: Semantic equivalence processes included four steps: translation, back translation, evaluation of semantic equivalence and a pilot-study. Validation consisted of simultaneous applications of the instrument in Portuguese by two examiners in 30 catatonic and 30 non-catatonic patients. Results: Total scores averaged 20.07 for the complete scale and 7.80 for its reduced version among catatonic patients, compared with 0.47 and 0.20 among non-catatonic patients, respectively. Overall values of inter-rater reliability of the instruments were 0.97 for the BFCSI and 0.96 for the BFCRS. Conclusion: The scale's version in Portuguese proved to be valid and was able to distinguish between catatonic and non-catatonic patients. It was also reliable, with inter-evaluator reliability indexes as high as those of the original instrument.

  15. Ecos literarios y memoria cartográfica del Famous Voyage de Francis Drake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Redondo, José María

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the English policy of secrecy, the news on Francis Drake’s circumnavigation travel was disseminated and fostered by foreign nations. In this article, we analyse the images of the corsair and his voyage across the Pacific in the Golden Age of Spanish Literature, as well as their representations in cartography, both for propaganda purposes and as an instrument of geographical knowledge production.Pese a quedar en secreto por la diplomacia inglesa, las noticias del viaje de circunnavegación de Francis Drake fueron difundidas y alimentadas por las naciones extranjeras. En este artículo analizamos las imágenes del corsario y de su paso por el océano Pacífico en la literatura española del Siglo de Oro, así como sus representaciones en la cartografía, como elemento de propaganda y de elaboración del conocimiento geográfico.

  16. Stress predictions in a Francis turbine at no-load operating regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, JF; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.; Nennemann, B.; Monette, C.; Giroux, AM; Coutu, A.; Nicolle, J.

    2016-11-01

    In the operation of hydraulic turbines, no-load and very low load conditions are among the most damaging. Even though there is no power generation, there is still a significant amount of energy which has to be entirely dissipated, mainly in the runner, where the flow is quite complex, with large scale unsteady and chaotic vortices resulting from partial pumping. This paper presents different approaches to perform stress analyses at low load conditions on a Francis turbine, taking into account the pressure fluctuations on the runner blades due to the large stochastic flow structures inherent in no-load operating regimes. With appropriate mesh density and time step, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using the SAS-SST turbulence model can be used on a Francis runner to predict the pressure fluctuations with reasonable accuracy when compared to measurements. These calculated pressure loads can then be used to predict the dynamic stresses with finite-element analyses (FEA). Different approaches are discussed ranging from quasi-static single-blade models to full runner time- dependent one-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Pros and cons of the different modelling strategies will be discussed in a detailed analysis of the structural results with comparisons to experimental data. Once the time signal of the stochastic stress at no-load conditions is obtained, the runner fatigue damage related to this operating condition can be estimated using different tools such as time signal extrapolation and rainflow counting.

  17. Velocity and pressure measurements in guide vane clearance gap of a low specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, B. S.; Dahlhaug, O. G.; Thapa, B.

    2016-11-01

    In Francis turbine, a small clearance gap between the guide vanes and the cover plates is usually required to pivot guide vanes as a part of governing system. Deflection of cover plates and erosion of mating surfaces causes this gap to increase from its design value. The clearance gap induces the secondary flow in the distributor system. This effects the main flow at the runner inlet, which causes losses in efficiency and instability. A guide vane cascade of a low specific speed Francis turbine has been developed for experimental investigations. The test setup is able to produce similar velocity distributions at the runner inlet as that of a reference prototype turbine. The setup is designed for particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements from the position of stay vane outlet to the position of runner inlet. In this study, velocity and pressure measurements are conducted with 2 mm clearance gap on one side of guide vane. Leakage flow is observed and measured together with pressure measurements. It is concluded that the leakage flow behaves as a jet and mixes with the main flow in cross-wise direction and forms a vortex filament. This causes non-uniform inlet flow conditions at runner blades.

  18. Hydraulic design of a low-specific speed Francis runner for a hydraulic cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Liao, W. L.; Zhao, Y. P.

    2012-11-01

    The air blower in a cooling tower is normally driven by an electromotor, and the electric energy consumed by the electromotor is tremendous. The remaining energy at the outlet of the cooling cycle is considerable. This energy can be utilized to drive a hydraulic turbine and consequently to rotate the air blower. The purpose of this project is to recycle energy, lower energy consumption and reduce pollutant discharge. Firstly, a two-order polynomial is proposed to describe the blade setting angle distribution law along the meridional streamline in the streamline equation. The runner is designed by the point-to-point integration method with a specific blade setting angle distribution. Three different ultra-low-specificspeed Francis runners with different wrap angles are obtained in this method. Secondly, based on CFD numerical simulations, the effects of blade setting angle distribution on pressure coefficient distribution and relative efficiency have been analyzed. Finally, blade angles of inlet and outlet and control coefficients of blade setting angle distribution law are optimal variables, efficiency and minimum pressure are objective functions, adopting NSGA-II algorithm, a multi-objective optimization for ultra-low-specific speed Francis runner is carried out. The obtained results show that the optimal runner has higher efficiency and better cavitation performance.

  19. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of

  20. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnera

  1. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnera

  2. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  3. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.

  4. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), pa...

  5. 76 FR 41810 - Francis Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Los Osos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Shoulderband Snail, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... the potential for ``take'' of the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta... includes the Francis Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail (HCP) that...

  6. Measuring Attitude toward Theistic Faith: Assessing the Astley-Francis Scale among Christian, Muslim and Secular Youth in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…

  7. Aesthetic of the subversion and the violence in Francis Bacon and Frida Kahlo’s WorKs of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon ́s work as a starting point, the authors discuss the dimensions of violence and trauma present in their creative forms and on the impact produced on the spectator. They also reflect on its connections with the clinic on the impact/countertransference phenomenon and its transformational possibilities.

  8. Factorial Complexity and Validity of the Sahin-Francis Attitude toward Islam Scale among Pakistani University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziasma Haneef; Watson, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    English-speaking Pakistani university students responded to the Sahin-Francis Attitude toward Islam Scale, along with other religious measures and a social desirability scale. This scale was multidimensional. Correlations with religious measures confirmed its validity and were not explained by a social desirability response set. These data…

  9. Measuring Attitude toward Theistic Faith: Assessing the Astley-Francis Scale among Christian, Muslim and Secular Youth in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…

  10. Improving the Life Chances of Vulnerable Children and Families with Prenatal and Infancy Support of Parents: The Nurse-Family Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Olds

    2012-07-01

    adverse maternal and child outcomes that are important in their own right, but that also have significant implications for the development of criminal behavior. This paper summarizes a three-decade program of research that has attempted to improve the health and development of mothers and infants and their future life prospects with prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. The program, known as the Nurse-Family Partnership, is designed for low-income mothers who have had no previous live births. The home visiting nurses have three major goals: to improve the outcomes of pregnancy by helping women improve their prenatal health; to improve the child’s health and development by helping parents provide more sensitive and competent care of the child; and to improve parental life-course by helping parents plan future pregnancies, complete their educations, and find work. Given consistent effects on prenatal health behaviors, parental care of the child, child abuse and neglect, child health and development, maternal life-course, and criminal involvement of the mothers and children, the program is now being offered for public investment throughout the United States, where careful attention is being given to ensuring that the program is being conducted in accordance with the program model tested in the randomized trials. The program also is being adapted, developed, and tested in countries outside of the US: the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Australia, and Canada, as well as Native American and Alaskan Native populations in the US, where programmatic adjustments are being made to accommodate different populations served and health and human service contexts. We believe it is important to test this program in randomized controlled trials in these new settings before it is offered for public investment.

  11. Special article: Francis Hoeffer McMechan, MD: creator of modern anesthesiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Douglas R

    2012-12-01

    If one person can be credited with the creation of the infrastructure of modern anesthesiology, that individual would be Francis Hoeffer McMechan. He has been largely forgotten since his death in 1939 despite his remarkable and enduring accomplishments. McMechan edited the first national journal devoted to anesthesiology, created and managed almost all of the national and regional societies devoted to the specialty between 1912 and his death, and created the first international physician certification as a specialist in anesthesiology. His accomplishments are even more amazing given the severe arthritis that left him wheelchair-bound for almost his entire professional life and denied him the ability to practice anesthesia. Our specialty owes an incredible debt to this largely unknown and unsung hero.

  12. Francis Bacon's concept of objectivity and the idols of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorin, P

    2001-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of objectivity traceable in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. After some historical background on this concept, it considers the question of whether it is not an anachronism to attribute such a concept to Bacon, since the word 'objectivity' is a later coinage and does not appear anywhere in his writings. The essay gives reasons for answering this question in the negative, and then criticizes the accounts given of Bacon's understanding of objectivity by Lorraine Daston and Julie Robin Solomon. It argues that this understanding is most directly and fully expressed in his discussion of the idols of the mind. In this connection, the paper notes Bacon's critical attitude to sixteenth-century scepticism and its relevance to the idea of objectivity implicit in his comments on the idols. In conclusion, the paper argues that Bacon was not a pure empiricist and describes the place assigned to theories and hypotheses in his natural philosophy.

  13. A world in one dimension: Linus Pauling, Francis Crick and the central dogma of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Bruno J

    2006-01-01

    In 1957, Francis Crick outlined a startling vision of life in which the great diversity of forms and shapes of macromolecules was encoded in the one-dimensional sequence of nucleic acids. This paper situates Crick's new vision in the debates of the 1950s about protein synthesis and gene action. After exploring the reception of Crick's ideas, it shows how they differed radically from a different model of protein synthesis which enjoyed wide currency in that decade. In this alternative model, advocated by Linus Pauling and other luminaries, three-dimensional templates directed the folding of proteins. Even though it was always considered somewhat speculative, this theory was supported by a number of empirical results originating in different experimental systems. It was eventually replaced by a model in which the forms and shapes of macromolecules resulted solely from their amino acid sequence, dramatically simplifying the problem of protein synthesis which Crick was attempting to solve in 1957.

  14. Sir Francis Galton, epigenetic rules, genetic similarity theory, and human life-history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J P

    1990-03-01

    In this article, an evolutionary perspective is applied to individual differences. Among the issues discussed are (a) the seminal contributions of Francis Galton and the subsequent ideological reaction, (b) the distal proximal continuum for understanding levels of explanation in social behavior, (c) consistent patterns of group differences in behavior (age, sex, social class,and race), (d) the heritability of personality and the role epigenetic rules play in guiding development in one direction over alternatives, (e) the genetic similarity theory perspective on friendship and mate choice, and (f) the view that personality is part of an r-K reproductive strategy involving a compensatory exchange between the production of gametes and parental care. It is suggested in conclusion that personality traits be considered aspects of a coordinated life cycle deeply embedded m evolutionary history.

  15. Numerical investigation of flow structure and pressure pulsation in the Francis-99 turbine during startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, A.; Sentyabov, A.; Platonov, D.

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at startup regimes. Numerical technique for calculating of low frequency pressure pulsations in a water turbine is based on the use of DES (k-ω Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model and the approach of “frozen rotor”. The structure of the flow behind the runner of turbine was analysed. Shows the effect of flow structure on the frequency and intensity of non-stationary processes in the flow path. Two version of the inlet boundary conditions were considered. The first one corresponded measured time dependence of the discharge. Comparison of the calculation results with the experimental data shows the considerable delay of the discharge in this calculation. Second version corresponded linear approximation of time dependence of the discharge. This calculation shows good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Adam Smith e Francis Ysidro Edgeworth: uma crítica do utilitarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Regina Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugerimos, nesse trabalho, a investigação das concepções de Adam Smith e a de Francis Ysidro Edgeworth do utilitarismo. Ambas as concepções foram utilizadas para desenvolver a Ciência Econômica. Porém, também apresentaram as limitações da teoria econômica, cujas fronteiras vislumbradas pelos autores remetem para a necessidade de avaliar as ações e condutas humanas com teoria moral diferente do utilitarismo. Entendemos que a teoria moral de Adam Smith, esquecida pela história do pensamento econômico, se apresenta como alternativa e, em decorrência, uma ideia promissora para aperfeiçoar o estudo das ações e condutas ditas econômicas.

  17. The scientific life of Victor Franz (Francis) Hess (June 24, 1883-December 17, 1964)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter Maria

    2014-01-01

    On the seventh of August 1912, from the measurements upon his seventh balloon ride that had taken him up to an altitude of 5.350 m, Victor Franz (Francis) Hess (1883-1864) discovered the cosmic radiation. His colleagues having continued casting doubts on the existence of such extra-terrestrial impingement for many years, the Austrian scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936 only. Victor F. Hess' discovery opened novel fields of research with topics challenging until today. Hess was teaching physics at the Universities of Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck and, from 1938 onwards, of Fordham, New York, and all his life long continued being true to 'his' topic. Suffering himself of radium burns, Hess pioneered to install the first routine measurements of radium poisoning in the USA.

  18. Modelling and Internal Fuzzy Model Power Control of a Francis Water Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Nagode

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamic modelling of a Francis turbine with a surge tank and the control of a hydro power plant (HPP. Non-linear and linear models include technical parameters and show high similarity to measurement data. Turbine power control with an internal model control (IMC is proposed, based on a turbine fuzzy model. Considering appropriate control responses in the entire area of turbine power, the model parameters of the process are determined from a fuzzy model, which are further included in the internal model controller. The results are compared to a proportional-integral (PI controller tuned with an integral absolute error (IAE objective function, and show an improved response of internal model control.

  19. The Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology and Francis Cecil Sumner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger K

    2011-01-01

    In 1939, a psychologist could become a member of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology (SSPP) automatically with the endorsement of two members, payment of dues, and membership in the American Psychological Association (APA). Non-APA members with endorsements and payment of dues had to be voted in by the membership. In 1940, the rules for admission were changed to eliminate the automatic membership for APA members. Francis Cecil Sumner, the first African American PhD in psychology, qualified for SSPP membership as a member of the APA in 1939, but the SSPP's council delayed his membership and introduced the amendment to its constitution that eliminated Sumner's route to membership. This article examines the circumstances surrounding council's actions and the role that Sumner's application for membership played in it as an example of the role that race and discrimination played in the decision to change the route to SSPP membership for members of the APA.

  20. Images of trauma: pain, recognition, and disavowal in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The role of art in the encounter with trauma and destructiveness is comparatively studied in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon as examples of a direct and a more indirect way of dealing with such experiences. A creative product may function intrapsychically as a kind of messenger between dissociated self-states and consciousness, and it may also serve as a witnessing presence in a self-supporting and self-constituting way. Artistic work may thus be used by the artist for an expressive as well as for a protective purpose, as a means of sympathetic participation in painful experience, or as a medium for a view from the outside. The act itself of finding and of making expressive forms at the time of traumatic experience is a remarkable assertion of the human capability to synthesize and to counteract fragmenting dissociative processes.

  1. INTRINSIC FEATURES OF TURBULENT FLOW IN STRONGLY 3-D SKEW BLADE PASSAGE OF A FRANCIS TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-xiang; WANG Wen-quan; GUO Yakun

    2007-01-01

    The turbulent flow, with the Reynolds number of 5.9 105, in the strongly 3-D skew blade passage of a true Francis hydro turbine was simulated by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of the fully developed turbulence in the passage with strongly 3-D complex geometry. The simulations show that the strong three-dimensionality of the passage has a great amplification effect on the turbulence in the passage, and the distributions of the turbulence are diversely nonuniform, for instance, the rise of turbulent kinetic energy in the lower 1/3 region of the passage is more than 45%, whereas its rise in the upper 1/3 region is less than 1%. With the LES approach, the details of the flow structures at the near-wall surfaces of the blades could be obtained. Several turbulent spots were captured.

  2. Mechanical impact of dynamic phenomena in Francis turbines at off design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duparchy, F.; Brammer, J.; Thibaud, M.; Favrel, A.; Lowys, P. Y.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    At partial load and overload conditions, Francis turbines are subjected to hydraulic instabilities that can potentially result in high dynamic solicitations of the turbine components and significantly reduce their lifetime. This study presents both experimental data and numerical simulations that were used as complementary approaches to study these dynamic solicitations. Measurements performed on a reduced scale physical model, including a special runner instrumented with on-board strain gauges and pressure sensors, were used to investigate the dynamic phenomena experienced by the runner. They were also taken as reference to validate the numerical simulation results. After validation, advantage was taken from the numerical simulations to highlight the mechanical response of the structure to the unsteady hydraulic phenomena, as well as their impact on the fatigue damage of the runner.

  3. Unsteady hydraulic simulation of the cavitating part load vortex rope in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, J.; Segoufin, C.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    For Francis turbines at part load operation a helical vortex rope is formed due to the swirling nature of the flow exiting the runner. This vortex creates pressure fluctuations which can lead to power swings, and the unsteady loading can lead to fatigue damage of the runner. In the case that the vortex rope cavitates there is the additional risk that hydro-acoustic resonance can occur. It is therefore important to be able to accurately simulate this phenomenon to address these issues. In this paper an unsteady, multi-phase CFD model was used to simulate two part-load operating points, for two different cavitation conditions. The simulation results were validated with test-rig data, and showed very good agreement. These results also served as an input for FEA calculations and fatigue analysis, which are presented in a separate study.

  4. Dynamic Stresses in a Francis Turbine Runner Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ruofu; WANG Zhengwei; LUO Yongyao

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue and cracks have occurred in many large hydraulic turbines after they were put into production.The cracks are thought to be due to dynamic stresses in the runner caused by hydraulic forces.Computational fluid dynamics(CFD)simulations that included the spiral case,stay vane,guide vane,runner vane.and draft tube were run at various operating points to analyze the pressure distribution on the runner surface and the stress characteristics in the runner due to the fluid-structure interactions(FSl).The dynamic stresses in the Francis turbine runner at the most dangerous operating point were then analyzed.The results show that the dynamic stresses caused by the hydraulic forces during off-design operating points are one of the main reasons for the fatigue and cracks in the runner blade.The results can be used to optimize the runner and to analyze other critical components in the hydraulic turbine.

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE PULSATION IN FRANCIS HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH AIR ADMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the three-dimensional unsteady multiphase flow is simulated in the whole passage of Francis hydraulic turbine. The pressure pulsation is predicted and compared with experimental data at positions in the draft tube, in front of runner, guide vanes and at the inlet of the spiral case. The relationship between pressure pulsation in the whole passage and air admission is analyzed. The computational results show: air admission from spindle hole decreases the pressure difference in the horizontal section of draft tube, which in turn decreases the amplitude of low-frequency pressure pulsation in the draft tube; the rotor-stator interaction between the air inlet and the runner increases the blade-frequency pressure pulsation in front of the runner.

  6. President Wilson's brain trust: Woodrow Wilson, Francis X. Dercum, and American neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ryan D

    2009-01-01

    On October 2, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke that paralyzed the left half of his body. Wilson's stroke forced the American public to confront stroke, and laypeople came to identify stroke as a nervous disorder, rather than a condition rooted solely in psychological phenomena. His medical care was overseen by Cary Grayson, his personal internist, and Francis X. Dercum, a remarkably accomplished neurologist from Philadelphia. Dercum was very involved in the treatment of the President, from the day of the stroke until years later. While the medical records have been destroyed, some basic facts of Wilson's treatment and rehabilitation can be inferred from the literature. Although Woodrow Wilson was an exceptional patient, his care, albeit administered by some of the most famous physicians of the era, was typical of the time. Therefore, this paper's approach to Wilson's 1919 stroke contextualizes the President's case into the larger scheme of early twentieth-century neurology.

  7. From political economy to sociology: Francis Galton and the social-scientific origins of eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.

  8. Francis Turbine Blade Design on the Basis of Port Area and Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Francis turbine with specific speed of 130 m-kW was designed on the basis of the port area and loss analysis. The meridional shape of the runner was designed focusing mainly on the combination of the guide vane loss analysis and experience. The runner blade inlet and outlet angles were designed by calculation of Euler’s head, while the port area of blade was modified by keeping constant angles of the blade at inlet and outlet. The results show that the effect of the port area of runner blade on the flow exit angle from runner passage is significant. A correct flow exit angle reduces the energy loss at the draft tube, thereby improving the efficiency of the turbine. The best efficiency of 92.6% is achieved by this method, which is also similar to the design conditions by the one dimension loss analysis.

  9. Turbulence Resolving Flow Simulations of a Francis Turbine in Part Load using Highly Parallel CFD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappel, Timo; Riedelbauch, Stefan; Jester-Zuerker, Roland; Jung, Alexander; Flurl, Benedikt; Unger, Friedeman; Galpin, Paul

    2016-11-01

    The operation of Francis turbines in part load conditions causes high fluctuations and dynamic loads in the turbine and especially in the draft tube. At the hub of the runner outlet a rotating vortex rope within a low pressure zone arises and propagates into the draft tube cone. The investigated part load operating point is at about 72% discharge of best efficiency. To reduce the possible influence of boundary conditions on the solution, a flow simulation of a complete Francis turbine is conducted consisting of spiral case, stay and guide vanes, runner and draft tube. As the flow has a strong swirling component for the chosen operating point, it is very challenging to accurately predict the flow and in particular the flow losses in the diffusor. The goal of this study is to reach significantly better numerical prediction of this flow type. This is achieved by an improved resolution of small turbulent structures. Therefore, the Scale Adaptive Simulation SAS-SST turbulence model - a scale resolving turbulence model - is applied and compared to the widely used RANS-SST turbulence model. The largest mesh contains 300 million elements, which achieves LES-like resolution throughout much of the computational domain. The simulations are evaluated in terms of the hydraulic losses in the machine, evaluation of the velocity field, pressure oscillations in the draft tube and visual comparisons of turbulent flow structures. A pre-release version of ANSYS CFX 17.0 is used in this paper, as this CFD solver has a parallel performance up to several thousands of cores for this application which includes a transient rotor-stator interface to support the relative motion between the runner and the stationary portions of the water turbine.

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of pressure pulses characteristics in a Francis turbine with partial load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yexiang, X; Zhengwei, W; Zongguo, Y; Jin, Z, E-mail: xiaoyex@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering and Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This study experimentally and numerically investigates the pressure pulses characteristics and unsteady flow behavior in a Francis turbine with partial load. Unsteady wall pressure measurements with partial load condition are performs to investigate thoroughly pressure fields in the spiral case, runner head cover and straight draft tube dynamically. The unsteady Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-{omega}based SST turbulence model were used to model the unsteady flow within the entire flow passage of the Francis turbine. The dominate frequency of the predicted pressure pulses at runner inlet agree with the experimental results in the head cover. The influence of the blade passing frequency causes the simulated peak-to-peak amplitudes in the runner inlet to be larger than in the head cover. The measured and predicted pressure pulses at different positions along the runner are comparable. The predicted pressure fluctuations in the draft tube agree well with the experimental results. However the peak-to-peak amplitudes in the spiral case are not as well predicted so the calculation domain and the inlet boundary conditions need to be improved. At the most unstable operating condition, the pulse in the flow passage are due to the rotor-stator interference (RSI) between the runner and the guide vanes, the blade channel vortex in the runner blade passage and the vortex rope in the draft tube. The unsteady flow patterns in the turbine, including the blade channel vortex in the runner and the helical vortex rope in the draft tube, are classified numerically.

  11. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm.

  12. [Homicides and social vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo; Catalan, Valeria Dutra Batista; Romano, Pedro Machado de Melo; Melo, Elza Machado

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of homicide rates (H) according to the social vulnerability index (SVI) and the quality of urban life index (QUL) in Betim, State of Minas Gerais, from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive analysis was performed using Moran's spatial correlation analysis, and the H, SVI and QUL spatial analyses. During this period there were 1,383 deaths, mostly of males (91.9%), aged 15-24 years (46.9%), brown/black (76.9%), with secondary education (51.1%), and single (83.9%). No spatial autocorrelation was revealed, indicating that the distribution of homicide rates is random; the same occurred with the SVI and the QUL index. Taken together, however, the H, SVI and QUL index overlapped, which was analyzed using different theories of crime, such as those addressing socioeconomic issues, arms of drugs dealing and Durkheim's and Habermas' theories, namely anomie and colonization of the lifeworld. social vulnerability and homicide are associated from both empirical and theoretical perspectives.

  13. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  14. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  15. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  16. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  17. Vulnerability and Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, David

    2016-04-01

    Although recent literature on professionalism in healthcare abounds in recommended character traits, attitudes, or behaviors, with a few exceptions, the recommendations are untethered to any serious consideration of the contours and ethical demands of the healing relationship. This article offers an approach based on the professional's commitment to trustworthiness in response to the vulnerability of those seeking professional help. Because our willingness and ability to trust health professionals or healthcare institutions are affected by our personality, culture, race, age, prior experiences with illness and healthcare, and socioeconomic and political circumstances-"the social determinants of trust"-the attitudes and behaviors that actually do gain trust are patient and context specific. Therefore, in addition to the commitment to cultivating attitudes and behaviors that embody trustworthiness, professionalism also includes the commitment to actually gaining a patient's or family's trust by learning, through individualized dialogue, which conditions would win their justified trust, given their particular history and social situation.

  18. Eventos estressores em crianças e adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social de Porto Alegre Stressing events in socially vulnerable children and adolescents in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Poletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo investigou a ocorrência e o impacto de eventos estressores para 297 crianças/adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social de Porto Alegre (ambos os sexos; 7-16 anos, M = 11,22; SD = 2,13. O grupo 1 (G1 consistiu em 142 participantes, que viviam com suas famílias e o grupo 2 (G2, em 155 institucionalizados. Todos foram entrevistados e responderam individualmente ao Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Infância/Adolescência. Os eventos estressores mais freqüentes para amostra total foram: cumprir ordens dos pais (85,2%; discussão com amigos (72,9%; morte de familiares (71,8%; reprovação escolar (69,2%; e brigas com irmãos (68%. Um teste t de Student revelou diferença significativa entre G1 e G2 (p0,05. A alta ocorrência e impacto de eventos estressores expõem a situação de vulnerabilidade social e familiar, presença de violência e privação de recursos em ambos os grupos.This paper investigated the occurrence and impact of stressing events for 297 low- income children/adolescents (both sexes; 7-16 years, M =11.22; SD = 2.13 in the city of Porto Alegre. Group 1 (G1 consisted of 142 participants (living with their families and Group 2 (G2 of 155 institutionalized individuals. All were individually interviewed and answered the Stressing Events Inventory for Children/Adolescents. The most frequent stressing events for the sample were: follow orders given by the parents (85.2%; quarrels with friends (72.9%; death of relatives (71.8%; failure at school (69.2%; and rivalry of siblings (68%. Student's t-test revealed significant difference between groups (p 0.05. The high frequency and strong impact of stressing events reveal the situation of social and familiar vulnerability, presence of violence and lack of resources in the whole group.

  19. Sir Francis Joseph Campbell and His Family: The First Family in Professional Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the pivotal roles of Sir Francis Campbell (1832-1914) and members of his family, especially his son Charles Campbell, in the evolution of the blindness field to a professional and reason-based service.

  20. Sir Francis Joseph Campbell and His Family: The First Family in Professional Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the pivotal roles of Sir Francis Campbell (1832-1914) and members of his family, especially his son Charles Campbell, in the evolution of the blindness field to a professional and reason-based service.

  1. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...

  2. On the physical mechanisms governing self-excited pressure surge in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    The required operating range for hydraulic machines is continually extended in an effort to integrate renewable energy sources with unsteady power outputs into the existing electrical grid. The off-design operation however brings forth unfavorable flow patterns in the machine, causing dynamic problems involving cavitation, which may represent a limiting factor to the energy production. In Francis turbines it is observed that the self-excited oscillation of a vortex rope in the draft tube cone prevents the delivery of maximum power when required. This phenomenon is referred to as full load pressure surge and has been the object of extensive research during the past decades. Several contributions deepened its understanding through measurement and simulation of the local flow properties and the global stability parameters. The draft tube pressure level and the runner outlet swirl are identified as key variables in the modelling of the vortex rope dynamics. Recently, a cyclic appearance of blade cavitation has been observed at overload conditions in a multiphase numerical simulation coupling the runner and the draft tube. From the analysis of the simulation it becomes obvious that the cyclic appearance of blade cavitation has a direct effect on the runner outlet swirl, thus introducing an additional interaction mechanism that is not accounted for in formerly published models. For the presented work, the results of this numerical study are confirmed experimentally on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. Several wall pressure measurements in the draft tube cone are performed, together with high speed visualizations of the vortex rope and the blade cavitation. The flow swirl is calculated based on Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements. A possible mechanism explaining the coupling between the self-excited pressure and vortex rope oscillation and the cyclic appearance of the blade cavitation is proposed. Furthermore, the streamwise propagation speed of the flow

  3. Fukuyama : kõigepealt hea valitsus, siis demokraatia ja ajaloo lõpp / Francis Fukuyama ; interv. Nathan Gardels

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Francis Fukuyama sõnul vajab riik oma arenguks esmajoones head valitsemist. Kõige olulisem on, et oleks toimiv riik, mis suudab tagada julgeoleku ja majandusarengu elementaarsed tingimused. Iraagi praeguste probleemide põhjus on selles, et USA ei suutnud ette näha, kuidas riik Saddami kukkudes kokku variseb, kuid tuleb mõista, et aeg-ajalt on USA ja kogu maailma huvides kusagil maailma nurgas riigi ehitamine tõsiselt ette võtta, ütleb autor

  4. Fukuyama : kõigepealt hea valitsus, siis demokraatia ja ajaloo lõpp / Francis Fukuyama ; interv. Nathan Gardels

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Francis Fukuyama sõnul vajab riik oma arenguks esmajoones head valitsemist. Kõige olulisem on, et oleks toimiv riik, mis suudab tagada julgeoleku ja majandusarengu elementaarsed tingimused. Iraagi praeguste probleemide põhjus on selles, et USA ei suutnud ette näha, kuidas riik Saddami kukkudes kokku variseb, kuid tuleb mõista, et aeg-ajalt on USA ja kogu maailma huvides kusagil maailma nurgas riigi ehitamine tõsiselt ette võtta, ütleb autor

  5. Numerical analysis of solid–liquidtwo-phase turbulent flow in Francis turbine runner with splitter bladesin sandy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the key component of a hydroelectric power generation system, hydraulic turbine plays a decisive role in the overall performance of the system. There are many sandy rivers in the world, and turbines working in these rivers are seriously damaged. Therefore, the research of flow in sandy water has great theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the specific hydrological conditions of a hydropower station, the solid–liquid two-phase flow in the whole flow passage of a Francis turbine with splitter blades in sandy water was numerically studied. A geometric model of the whole flow passage of the Francis turbine was established on the basis of given design parameters. The solid–liquid two-phase turbulent flows in Francis turbine runner under three different loads were numerically analyzed by using this model. The three different loads are as follows: Condition 1: single unit with 1/4 load, Condition 2: single unit with 1/2 load, and Condition 3: single unit with full load. The distributions of pressure and sand concentration on the leading side and the suction side of the runner blades, as well as the velocity vector distribution of water and sand on the horizontal section of the runner, were obtained under different load conditions. Therefore, the damages to various flow passage components by sand can be qualitatively predicated under various conditions. To guarantee the safety and stability of the unit, the adverse conditions shall be avoided, which can provide certain reference for plant operation.

  6. Expected load spectra of prototype Francis turbines in low-load operation using numerical simulations and site measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, M.; Taruffi, A.; Bauer, C.

    2017-04-01

    The operators of hydropower plants are forced to extend the existing operating ranges of their hydraulic machines to remain competitive on the energy market due to the rising amount of wind and solar power. Faster response times and a higher flexibility towards part- and low-load conditions enable a better electric grid control and assure therefore an economic operation of the power plant. The occurring disadvantage is a higher dynamic excitation of affected machine components, especially Francis turbine runners, due to pressure pulsations induced by unsteady flow phenomena (e.g. draft tube vortex ropes). Therefore, fatigue analysis becomes more important even in the design phase of the hydraulic machines to evaluate the static and dynamic load in different operating conditions and to reduce maintenance costs. An approach including a one-way coupled fluid-structure interaction has been already developed using unsteady CFD simulations and transient FEM computations. This is now applied on two Francis turbines with different specific speeds and power ranges, to obtain the load spectra of both machines. The results are compared to strain gauge measurements on the according Francis turbines to validate the overall procedure.

  7. Parametric design of a Francis turbine runner by means of a three-dimensional inverse design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshkah, K [Advanced Design Technology, London WC1E 7JN (United Kingdom); Zangeneh, M, E-mail: k.daneshkhah@adtechnology.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The present paper describes the parametric design of a Francis turbine runner. The runner geometry is parameterized by means of a 3D inverse design method, while CFD analyses were performed to assess the hydrodymanic and suction performance of different design configurations that were investigated. An initial runner design was first generated and used as baseline for parametric study. The effects of several design parameter, namely stacking condition and blade loading was then investigated in order to determine their effect on the suction performance. The use of blade parameterization using the inverse method lead to a major advantage for design of Francis turbine runners, as the three-dimensional blade shape is describe by parameters that closely related to the flow field namely blade loading and stacking condition that have a direct impact on the hydrodynamics of the flow field. On the basis of this study, an optimum configuration was designed which results in a cavitation free flow in the runner, while maintaining a high level of hydraulic efficiency. The paper highlights design guidelines for application of inverse design method to Francis turbine runners. The design guidelines have a general validity and can be used for similar design applications since they are based on flow field analyses and on hydrodynamic design parameters.

  8. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key.

  9. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits.

  10. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally.

  11. LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FLOW CONSIDERING INFLOW WAKES IN A FRANCIS TURBINE BLADE PASSAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-quan; ZHANG Li-xiang; YAN Yan; GUO Yakun

    2007-01-01

    Turbulent flow in a 3-D blade passage of a Francis hydro turbine was simulated with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of the turbulence when strongly distorted wakes in the inflow sweep over the passage. In a suitable consideration of the energy exchanging mechanism between the large and small scales in the complicated passage with a strong 3-D curvature, one-coefficient dynamic Sub-Grid-Scale (SGS) stress model was used in this article. The simulations show that the strong wakes in the inflow lead to a flow separation at the leading zone of the passage, and to form a primary vortex in the span-wise direction. The primary span-wise vortex evolves and splits into smaller vortex pairs due to the constraint of no-slip wall condition, which triggers losing stability of the flow in the passage. The computed pressures on the pressure and suction sides agree with the measured data for a working test turbine model.

  12. Water hammer effect in the spiral case and penstock of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepa, D.; Ursoniu, C.; Gillich, R. N.; Campian, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden pressure increases in the penstock or spiral case of a hydraulic turbine are the effect of sudden flow variation that occur during transient processes of type opening / closing or load rejection of the hydro unit. The consequence of the pressure rise in the spiral case and penstock is the water hammer phenomenon, whose effects can be devastating in some cases, up to breaking pipes and calamities produced in the area. This paper aims to analyze the method of calculation of the maximum pressure values that might occur in load rejection situations to a hydraulic turbine, in spiral case and in penstock, conditioned by the limiting of the values of the over speed and measures of limiting the increase in pressure in conjunction with limiting the increase in speed in these specific processes. As an example, we studied and analyzed the situation of a hydroelectric power plant equipped with a 7.8 MW Francis turbine without pressure regulator and the inflow surge. The results of analytical calculation overlaid on the experimental measurements performed during the performance tests of the hydro unit lead to the conclusion that the calculation algorithm proposed has been chosen correctly and the 2-stage closing law of the wicket gate promoted in this case is effective in such situations.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  14. Numerical Study of Cavitation in Francis Turbine of a Small Hydro Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gohil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is undesirable phenomena and more prone in reaction turbines. It is one of the challenges in any hydro power plant which cause vibration, degradation of performance and the damage to the hydraulic turbine components. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out a numerical analysis to investigate the cavitation effect in a Francis turbine. Three dimensional numerical study approach of unsteady and SST turbulence model are considered for the numerical analysis under multiphase flow such as cavitating flow. The performance parameters and cavitating flow under different operating conditions have been predicted using commercial CFX code. Three different operating conditions under cavitation and without cavitation with part load and overload conditions of the turbine for a plant sigma factor are investigated. The results are presented in the form of efficiency, pressure fluctuation, vortex rope and vapor volume fraction. It has been observed that variation in efficiency and vapor volume fraction is found to be nominal between cavitation and without cavitation conditionsat rated discharge and rated head. Turbine efficiency loss and vapor bubbles formation towards suction side of the runner blade are found to be maximum under overload condition. However, the pressure pulsation has been found maximum under part load condition in the draft tube. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with model test results for efficiency. The locations of cavitating zone observed wellwith the result of previous studies.

  15. From medicine to natural philosophy: Francis Hauksbee's way to the air-pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, Terje

    2008-06-01

    Francis Hauksbee (1660-1713) is well known for his double-barrelled air-pump. However, the origin of this pump, and Hauksbee's background, are often described as a mystery. This text seeks to dispel the riddle. It is argued that Hauksbee's competence as an exceptional maker of air-pumps was developed between 1699 and 1703 as a result of his experiences with the construction, manufacturing and sale of cupping-glasses. His cupping utensils embodied a new design, where syringes were used to evacuate the glasses, instead of the traditional way by fire or mouth suction. These syringes, which in fact were small air-pumps, were perfected between 1699 and 1701. A larger syringe, introduced in 1701, served as a transition from the cupping-syringe to his first air-pump for use in natural philosophy. This syringe was described as a 'combined engine', which could serve as an air-pump, a condensing engine and a syringe for injecting air, wax or mercury into pathological specimens. Hauksbee's first air-pump was a single-barrelled model introduced in 1702, based on the combined engine. Its various features, such as easy and convenient leak-tightening, exact pressure measurements by an in-built barometer and an air-inlet function for readmission of air into the receiver, are discussed. Finally, it is shown that these activities gave Hauksbee the reputation of being an outstanding instrument-maker, years before the double-barrelled air-pump was in sight.

  16. Experimental Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of Full Load Pressure Surge in Francis Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    Full load pressure surge limits the operating range of hydro-electric generating units by causing significant power output swings and by compromising the safety of the plant. It appears during the off-design operation of hydraulic machines, which is increasingly required to regulate the broad integration of volatile renewable energy sources into the existing power network. The underlying causes and governing physical mechanisms of this instability were investigated in the frame of a large European research project and this paper documents the main findings from two experimental campaigns on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. The multi-phase flow in the draft tube is characterized by Particle Image Velocimetry, Laser Doppler Velocimetry and high-speed visualizations, along with synchronized measurements of the relevant hydro-mechanical quantities. The final result is a comprehensive overview of how the unsteady draft tube flow and the mechanical torque on the runner shaft behave during one mean period of the pressure oscillation, thus defining the unstable fluid-structure interaction responsible for the power swings. A discussion of the root cause is initiated, based on the state of the art. Finally, the latest results will enable a validation of recent RANS flow simulations used for determining the key parameters of hydro-acoustic stability models.

  17. Simulation of the Francis-99 Hydro Turbine During Steady and Transient Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Yuvraj; Custer, Chad; Ivashchenko, Artem

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the Francis-99 hydroturbine with correlation to experimental measurements are presented. Steady operation of the hydroturbine is analyzed at three operating conditions: the best efficiency point (BEP), high load (HL), and part load (PL). It is shown that global quantities such as net head, discharge and efficiency are well predicted. Additionally, time-averaged velocity predictions compare well with PIV measurements obtained in the draft tube immediately downstream of the runner. Differences in vortex rope structure between operating points are discussed. Unsteady operation of the hydroturbine from BEP to HL and from BEP to PL are modeled. It is shown that simulation methods used to model the steady operation produce predictions that correlate well with experiment for transient operation. Time-domain unsteady simulation is used for both steady and unsteady operation. The full-fidelity geometry including all components is meshed using an unstructured polyhedral mesh with body-fitted prism layers. Guide vane rotation for transient operation is imposed using fully-conservative, computationally efficient mesh morphing. The commercial solver STAR-CCM+ is used for all portions of the analysis including meshing, solving and post-processing.

  18. The “Visual Shock” of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a “visual shock.”We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his “visual shock” because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts. PMID:24339812

  19. Numerical investigation of the flow phenomena around a low specific speed Francis turbine's guide vane cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Sailesh; Singh Thapa, Biraj; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar; Prasad Neopane, Hari

    2016-11-01

    Guide vanes of Francis turbines convey a significant influence on the flow field at the inlet of the runner. This influence is in the form of pressure pulsation, caused due to rotor-stator-interaction. A guide vane cascade containing a single blade passage was developed to predict the flow field experimentally. Firstly, this paper investigates flow phenomena around the guide vane cascade through computational techniques. A numerical model is prepared with three different turbulence models. The velocity distribution obtained from these models are compared with experimental results at two circumferential midspan locations. Secondly, the influence of increasing the clearance gap on the flow is studied. Such gaps are expected to increase when the flow containing eroding particles passes through the turbine. This paper also shows that the pressure difference between the pressure and the suction side of guide vane influences the leakage flow through the gap. Hence, reduction of the pressure gradient will reduce leakages through clearance gaps, hereby condensing the subsequent effect of pressure pulsations and erosion. This study also shows that the effect of the gap is prominent in the near wall regions which are close to the gap, whereas it dissipates gradually towards the midspan.

  20. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrovsky, J.; Zouhar, J.

    2014-03-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between ns=425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Inter-Blade Vortices in a Model Francis Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Demin; LIU, Xiaobing; ZHAO, Yongzhi

    2017-07-01

    The inter-blade vortex in a Francis turbine becomes one of the main hydraulic factors that are likely to cause blade erosion at deep part load operating conditions. However, the causes and the mechanism of inter-blade vortex are still under investigation according to present researches. Thus the causes of inter-blade vortex and the effect of different hydraulic parameters on the inter-blade vortex are investigated experimentally. The whole life cycle of the inter-blade vortex is observed by a high speed camera. The test results illustrate the whole life cycle of the inter-blade vortex from generation to separation and even to fading. It is observed that the inter-blade vortex becomes stronger with the decreasing of flow and head, which leads to pressure fluctuation. Meanwhile, the pressure fluctuations in the vane-less area and the draft tube section become stronger when inter-blade vortices exist in the blade channel. The turbine will be damaged if operating in the inter-blade vortex zone, so its operating range must be far away from that zone. This paper reveals the main cause of the inter-blade vortex which is the larger incidence angle between the inflow angle and the blade angle on the leading edge of the runner at deep part load operating conditions.

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Stabilities in Francis Hydroturbine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow phenomena related to the characteristic frequencies of pressure fluctuation in Francis hydroturbine models. The experiments were carried out on two test rigs with two model runners having hydraulic similarities. Flow field around the guide vanes was measured with a particle image velocimetry (PIV on the first PIV test rig. Flow structures at the inlet region of runner and in draft tube at different operating conditions were visualized on another hydrodynamic test rig. Analyses of dominant frequency of unsteady hydraulic behaviors in the tested hydroturbines were performed. It was observed that the main frequency of flow over the guide vanes and the dominant frequency of channel vortex equal the blade passing frequency; the dominant frequency of flow separation at the suction side of blade inlet equals the vane passing frequency; the vortex rope in the draft tube displays a low-frequency nature. The flow instabilities and fluctuations directly influence the running of hydroturbine, thus these experimental results could provide important evidence for the stability study of a real hydroturbine.

  3. Investigation of a High Head Francis Turbine at Runaway Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Trivedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbines exhibit total load rejection during operation because of high fluctuations in the grid parameters. The generator reaches no-load instantly. Consequently, the turbine runner accelerates to high speed, runaway speed, in seconds. Under common conditions, stable runaway is only reached if after a load rejection, the control and protection mechanisms both fail and the guide vanes cannot be closed. The runner life is affected by the high amplitude pressure loading at the runaway speed. A model Francis turbine was used to investigate the consequences at the runaway condition. Measurements and simulations were performed at three operating points. The numerical simulations were performed using standard k-ε, k-ω shear stress transport (SST and scale-adaptive simulation (SAS models. A total of 12.8 million hexahedral mesh elements were created in the complete turbine, from the spiral casing inlet to the draft tube outlet. The experimental and numerical analysis showed that the runner was subjected to an unsteady pressure loading up to three-times the pressure loading observed at the best efficiency point. Investigates of unsteady pressure pulsations at the vaneless space, runner and draft tube are discussed in the paper. Further, unsteady swirling flow in the blade passages was observed that was rotating at a frequency of 4.8-times the runaway runner angular speed. Apart from the unsteady pressure loading, the development pattern of the swirling flow in the runner is discussed in the paper.

  4. The 'root-brain' hypothesis of Charles and Francis Darwin: Revival after more than 125 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano; Volkmann, Dieter; Barlow, Peter W

    2009-12-01

    This year celebrates the 200(th) aniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin, best known for his theory of evolution summarized in On the Origin of Species. Less well known is that, in the second half of his life, Darwin's major scientific focus turned towards plants. He wrote several books on plants, the next-to-last of which, The Power of Movement of Plants, published together with his son Francis, opened plants to a new view. Here we amplify the final sentence of this book in which the Darwins proposed that: "It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the tip of the radicle thus endowed [with sensitivity] and having the power of directing the movements of the adjoining parts, acts like the brain of one of the lower animals; the brain being seated within the anterior end of the body, receiving impressions from the sense-organs, and directing the several movements." This sentence conveys two important messages: first, that the root apex may be considered to be a 'brain-like' organ endowed with a sensitivity which controls its navigation through soil; second, that the root apex represents the anterior end of the plant body. In this article, we discuss both these statements.

  5. When sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) met Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Liborio; Pavesi, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is characterized by short-lasting seizures patterned by repetitive and stereotyped motor events in the same person. In autosomal dominant SHE, genetic factors play a well-known key role. In The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin quotes a plausible example of SHE illustrated by his cousin Sir Francis Galton: "the gentleman…lay fast asleep on his back in bed, raising his right arm slowly in front of his face, up to his forehead, and then dropping it with a jerk, so that the wrist fell heavily on the bridge of his nose. The trick did not occur every night, but occasionally, and was independent of any ascertained cause. Sometimes it was repeated incessantly for an hour or more." Similar manifestations during sleep occurred also in the patient's son and granddaughter, suggesting an autosomal inheritance without sex relationship. Differential diagnosis with REM behavior disorder and other parasomnias is discussed. To our knowledge, this could be the first description of a stereotyped SHE pattern with genetic transmission. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Reference measurements on a Francis model turbine with 2D Laser-Doppler-Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, A.; Kirschner, O.; Riedelbauch, S.; Jester-Zuerker, R.; Jung, A.

    2016-11-01

    To validate the investigations of a high-resolution CFD simulation of a Francis turbine, measurements with 2D Laser-Doppler-Anemometry are carried out. The turbine is operated in part load, where a rotating vortex rope occurs. To validate both, mean velocities and velocity fluctuations, the measurements are classified relative to the vortex rope position. Several acrylic glass windows are installed in the turbine walls such as upstream of the spiral case inlet, in the vaneless space and in the draft tube. The current investigation is focused on a measurement plane below the runner. 2D velocity components are measured on this whole plane by measuring several narrow spaced radial lines. To avoid optical refraction of the laser beam a plan parallel window is inserted in the cone wall. The laser probe is positioned with a 2D traverse system consisting of a circumferential rail and a radial aligned linear traverse. The velocity data are synchronized with the rotational frequency of the rotating vortex rope. The results of one measurement line show the dependency of the axial and circumferential velocities on the vortex rope position.

  7. Investigation on internal flow of draft tube at overload condition in low specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yuta; Tani, Kiyohito

    2016-11-01

    The cavitating vortices causes the unsteady phenomena like the pressure fluctuation, the noise and the vibration in the draft tube at the overload condition which is the far operating point from the design point. Because the full load was normally near the design point, there were few troubles due to cavitating vortices at the full load. Today, however, the design point is sometimes set to lower load to achieve the high efficiency from the partial load to the full load in low specific speed Francis turbines, which have good performance to a change in a discharge. Then, the full load is relatively further from the design point. As the result, the potential for the cavitating vortices at the full load is increased. To control of the unsteady phenomena at the full load, the study focused on the cavitating vortices at the overload condition is important. This paper presents the unsteady behavior of the cavitating vortices at the overload condition with the scaled model of specific speed NQE=0.083. On the experimental approach, the pressure pulsation in the upper draft tube was measured and the unsteady behavior of cavitating vortices was taken movies with a high speed camera. On the numerical approach, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) adopting a two-phase unsteady analysis was carried out. The pressure fluctuation and the velocity distribution of two runners, an original and a newly designed, were compared.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Inter-Blade Vortices in a Model Francis Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Demin; LIU, Xiaobing; ZHAO, Yongzhi

    2017-03-01

    The inter-blade vortex in a Francis turbine becomes one of the main hydraulic factors that are likely to cause blade erosion at deep part load operating conditions. However, the causes and the mechanism of inter-blade vortex are still under investigation according to present researches. Thus the causes of inter-blade vortex and the effect of different hydraulic parameters on the inter-blade vortex are investigated experimentally. The whole life cycle of the inter-blade vortex is observed by a high speed camera. The test results illustrate the whole life cycle of the inter-blade vortex from generation to separation and even to fading. It is observed that the inter-blade vortex becomes stronger with the decreasing of flow and head, which leads to pressure fluctuation. Meanwhile, the pressure fluctuations in the vane-less area and the draft tube section become stronger when inter-blade vortices exist in the blade channel. The turbine will be damaged if operating in the inter-blade vortex zone, so its operating range must be far away from that zone. This paper reveals the main cause of the inter-blade vortex which is the larger incidence angle between the inflow angle and the blade angle on the leading edge of the runner at deep part load operating conditions.

  9. Resiliency and Vulnerability in Psychosocial Functioning during the Adaptation to Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Marjorie S.; Anderson, Edward R.

    One goal of a longitudinal study of stepfamilies, divorced maternal custody families, and nondivorced families was to assess the response of children to the experiences associated with stepfamily formation and to identify factors that may buffer children against adverse life experiences or make them more vulnerable to negative outcomes. Children's…

  10. Narrative self-constitution and vulnerability to co-authoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Doug

    2016-02-01

    All people are vulnerable to having their self-concepts shaped by others. This article investigates that vulnerability using a theory of narrative self-constitution. According to narrative self-constitution, people depend on others to develop and maintain skills of self-narration and they are vulnerable to having the content of their self-narratives co-authored by others. This theoretical framework highlights how vulnerability to co-authoring is essential to developing a self-narrative and, thus, the possibility of autonomy. However, this vulnerability equally entails that co-authors can undermine autonomy by contributing disvalued content to the agent's self-narrative and undermining her authorial skills. I illustrate these processes with the first-hand reports of several women who survived sexual abuse as children. Their narratives of survival and healing reveal the challenges involved in (re)developing the skills required to manage vulnerability to co-authoring and how others can help in this process. Finally, I discuss some of the implications of co-authoring for the healthcare professional and the therapeutic relationship.

  11. Can an integrated approach reduce child vulnerability to anaemia? Evidence from three African countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siekmans, Kendra; Receveur, Olivier; Haddad, Slim

    2014-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a "buffering" of risk associated with known causes of anaemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community...

  12. Region 9 - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  13. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  14. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  15. Vulnerability of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Although pipelines may be damaged due to natural sources such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), most pipeline damages are a result of third-party interference, such as unauthorized construction in a right of way. Pipelines are also among the prime targets for sabotage because interruptions in energy distribution can render large segments of a population debilitated. The importance of protecting critical infrastructure was emphasized in this theme issue which disseminated information on vulnerability of pipelines due to third-party intrusions, both intentional and unintentional. It summarized the 10 presentations that were delivered at a pipelines security forum in Calgary, Alberta, addressing Canadian and U.S. government and industry approaches to oil and natural gas pipeline security. The opening keynote address remarked on the evolution of international terror networks, the targeting of the energy sector, and the terrorist threat and presence in Canada. Policies towards critical energy infrastructure protection (CIP) were then examined in light of these threats. A policy shift away from traditional defensive protective security towards an offensive intelligence-led strategy to forestall terrorist threats was advocated. Energy sector representatives agreed that Canada needs an effective national lead agency to provide threat assessments, alert notification, and coordination of information pertaining to CIP. It was agreed that early warning information must come from Canadian as well as U.S. sources in order to be pertinent. The conference session on information collection concentrated on defining what sort of threat information is needed by the energy sector, who should collect it and how should it be shared. It was emphasized that government leadership should coordinate threat reporting and disseminate information, set standards, and address the issues of terrorism risk insurance. Concern was raised about the lack of

  16. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Rahman; Md. SarwarAlam Rasel; Asaduzzaman Noman; Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-01-01

    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  17. Computation and analysis of cavitating flow in Francis-class hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel J.

    Hydropower is the most proven renewable energy technology, supplying the world with 16% of its electricity. Conventional hydropower generates a vast majority of that percentage. Although a mature technology, hydroelectric generation shows great promise for expansion through new dams and plants in developing hydro countries. Moreover, in developed hydro countries, such as the United States, installing generating units in existing dams and the modern refurbishment of existing plants can greatly expand generating capabilities with little to no further impact on the environment. In addition, modern computational technology and fluid dynamics expertise has led to substantial improvements in modern turbine design and performance. Cavitation has always presented a problem in hydroturbines, causing performance breakdown, erosion, damage, vibration, and noise. While modern turbines are usually designed to be cavitation-free at their best efficiency point, due to the variable demand of the energy market it is fairly common to operate at off-design conditions. Here, cavitation and its deleterious effects are unavoidable, and hence, cavitation is a limiting factor on the design and operation of these turbines. Multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used in recent years to model cavitating flow for a large range of problems, including turbomachinery. However, CFD of cavitating flow in hydroturbines is still in its infancy. This dissertation presents steady-periodic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a cavitating Francis-class hydroturbine at model and prototype scales. Computational results of the reduced-scale model and full-scale prototype, undergoing performance breakdown, are compared with empirical model data and prototype performance estimations based on standard industry scalings from the model data. Mesh convergence of the simulations is also displayed. Comparisons are made between the scales to display that cavitation performance breakdown

  18. Francis Bacon y el atomismo: una nueva evaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Manzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad no hay una interpretación unánime acerca de la teoría de la materia de Francis Bacon. Los desacuerdos giran particularmente en torno al atomismo de Bacon y a sus ideas animistas. En este artículo sostengo que a pesar de que Bacon cambió su visión del atomismo repetidas veces, nunca lo rechazó por completo. Reconstruiré las diversas opiniones de Bacon en orden cronológico para establecer su evaluación final del atomismo y las razones sobre las que la justifica. Debido a que Bacon nunca sostuvo una teoría atomista ortodoxa de la materia identificable con el atomismo griego, en este trabajo definiré el atomismo en sentido amplio como una teoría corpuscular de la materia que establece la existencia de partículas últimas e indivisibles. Siguiendo esta delimitación semántica, es posible distinguir dos posiciones baconianas sucesivas: la primera considera que el atomismo constituye un principio ontológico y causal-operativo; la segunda priva al átomo de su capacidad causal-operativa pero deja intacta su prioridad ontológica. Además, investigaré la cuestión de la coexistencia del atomismo y el pneumatismo en la teoría baconiana, un punto que ha sido abordado por las influyentes interpretaciones de Kargon y Rees. Sin embargo, argumentaré que Bacon no consideró que esas dos doctrinas fuesen incompatibles.There is no unanimity among recent historians about Francis Bacon's theory of matter. Disagreement exists in particular about Bacon's atomist and animistic ideas. My claim is that although Bacon changed his views on atomism repeatedly, he never rejected it completely. I shall reconstruct Bacon's various opinions in chronological order to establish his final evaluation of atomism and his reasons for it. Because Bacon never held an orthodox atomist matter theory identical with Greek atomism, for this paper I will define atomism in the broadest sense, as a corpuscular matter theory that posits final and indivisible

  19. Sobre as afinidades entre a filosofia de Francis Bacon e o ceticismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. A. Eva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se ocupa de um exame, em caráter introdutório, das relações entre a reflexão de Bacon acerca das limitações de nossas faculdades e o ceticismo filosófico - um tema pouco considerado pela literatura mais recente, a despeito das muitas referências a tal filosofia. Ainda que, à primeira vista, tais referências possam parecer vagas e imprecisas, pensamos que um exame adequado de algumas delas pode revelar, não apenas a importância do tema para a compreensão de aspectos do seu próprio empreendimento, mas o interesse de Bacon pela literatura cética contemporânea. As peculiaridades de sua própria interpretação, por sua vez, parecem antecipar traços do modo como essa filosofia foi compreendida por filósofos posteriores, como Hume.This text focuses, in a preliminary way, on the relations between Francis Bacon's reflections on the limits of our cognitive faculties and philosophical skepticism, a theme not much considered by most of recent commentaries, in spite of Bacon's own explicit and numerous allusions to this philosophy. Even if these allusions seem at first sight somewhat loose and not very sharp, some of them reveal, we think, not only its relevance for understanding of some aspects of his own enterprise, but also Bacon's attention to the skeptical literature produced on the period. Moreover, the particularities of his own interpretation of skepticism seem to anticipate important features of the way this philosophy was understood by later philosophers as Hume.

  20. Engineering diagnostics for vortex-induced stay vanes cracks in a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini Neto, Alexandre; Gissoni, Humberto, Dr.; Gonçalves, Manuel, Dr.; Cardoso, Rogério; Jung, Alexander, Dr.; Meneghini, Julio, Prof.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the fact that vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in hydraulic turbines components (especially in stay vanes) is a well-known phenomenon, it still remains challenging for operation and maintenance teams in several power plants around the world. Since the first publication of a similar problem in 1967, literature shows that at least 27 other turbines witnessed strong stay vane vibrations associated with vortex shedding. Recurrent stay vane cracks in a 250 MW Francis turbine in Brazil motivated an engineering study involving prototype measurements, structural and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in order to determine a proper geometry modification that could eliminate the periodic vortex wake generated at the stay vanes trailing edge. First cracks appeared in 1978 just after the machine was put into operation. A study published in 1982 associated these cracks with dynamic excitations caused by the water flow at high flow conditions. New stay vane profiles were proposed and executed as well as improved welding recommendations. Cracks however, continued to appear requiring welding repairs roughly every two years. Although Voith Hydro was not the original equipment manufacturer for these units, the necessary information was available to study the issue and propose and execute new stay vane profiles. This paper details the approach taken for the study. First, indirect vibration measurements were used to determine vibration frequencies to help to characterize the affected mode shapes. These results were compared to finite element (FE) calculations. Strain gage measurements performed afterwards confirmed the conclusions of this analysis. Next, transient CFD calculations were run to reproduce the measured phenomenon and to serve as a basis for a new stay vane geometry. This modification was then implemented in the actual turbine stay vanes. A new set of indirect vibration measurements indicated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Final confirmation

  1. Performance prediction of the high head Francis-99 turbine for steady operation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli, E.; Mangani, L.; Ryan, O.; Del Rio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state numerical investigations are still the reference computational method for the prediction of the global machine performance during the design phase. Accordingly, steady state CFD simulations of the complete high head Francis-99 turbine, from spiral casing to draft tube have been performed at three operating conditions, namely at part load (PL), best efficiency point (BEP), and high load (HL). In addition, simulations with a moving runner for the three operating points are conducted and compared to the steady state results. The prediction accuracy of the numerical results is assessed comparing global and local data to the available experimental results. A full 360°-model is applied for the unsteady simulations and for the steady state simulations a reduced domain was used for the periodic components, with respectively only one guide vane and one runner passage. The steady state rotor-stator interactions were modeled with a mixing-plane. All CFD simulations were performed at model scale with an in-house 3D, unstructured, object-oriented finite volume code designed to solve incompressible RANS-Equations. Steady and unsteady solver simulations are both able to predict similar values for torque and head in design and off-design. Flow features in off-design operation such as a vortex rope in PL operation can be predicted by both simulation types, though all simulations tend to overestimate head and torque. Differences among steady and unsteady simulations can mainly be attributed to the averaging process used in the mixing plane interface in steady state simulations. Measured efficiency agrees best with the unsteady simulations for BEP and PL operation, though the steady state simulations also provide a cost-effective alternative with comparable accuracy.

  2. Francis Crick, cross-worlds influencer: A narrative model to historicize big bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicardi, Christine

    2016-02-01

    The essay is an empirical case study of famed British scientist Francis Crick. Viewing him as a 'cross-worlds influencer' who was moreover dedicated to a cause, I have tried to understand how these two characteristics influenced the trajectory of his long career and how they shaped his contributions to the diverse research fields in which he was active, and concluded that these characteristics reconfigure Crick's career into a coherent whole. First, I identify a major thread running through Crick's career: helping organise 'un-disciplined' new research fields, and show that his successive choices were not serendipitous but motivated by what he construed as a crusade against 'vitalism': anti-vitalism was a defining driver of his career. I then examine how Crick put his skills as a crossworlds influencer to the service of his cause, by helping organise his chosen fields of intervention. I argue that his activities as a cross-worlds influencer were an integral part of his way of 'doing science' and that his contributions to science, neuroscience in particular, should be re-evaluated in this light. This leads me to advance a possible strategy for historians to investigate big bioscience fields. Following Abir-Am, I propose to trace their genealogies back to the fluctuating semi-institutional gatherings and the institutional structures that sustained them. My research on Crick supports the view that such studies can bring insights into the question of why the contours of contemporary big bioscience endeavours have come to be shaped the way they are. Further, the essay provides a heuristic device for approaching these enquiries: 'follow the cross-worlds influencers' who worked to build and organise these semi-institutional gatherings and institutional structures.

  3. Numerical model validation using experimental data: Application of the area metric on a Francis runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatenet, Q.; Tahan, A.; Gagnon, M.; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, engineers are able to solve complex equations thanks to the increase of computing capacity. Thus, finite elements software is widely used, especially in the field of mechanics to predict part behavior such as strain, stress and natural frequency. However, it can be difficult to determine how a model might be right or wrong, or whether a model is better than another one. Nevertheless, during the design phase, it is very important to estimate how the hydroelectric turbine blades will behave according to the stress to which it is subjected. Indeed, the static and dynamic stress levels will influence the blade's fatigue resistance and thus its lifetime, which is a significant feature. In the industry, engineers generally use either graphic representation, hypothesis tests such as the Student test, or linear regressions in order to compare experimental to estimated data from the numerical model. Due to the variability in personal interpretation (reproducibility), graphical validation is not considered objective. For an objective assessment, it is essential to use a robust validation metric to measure the conformity of predictions against data. We propose to use the area metric in the case of a turbine blade that meets the key points of the ASME Standards and produces a quantitative measure of agreement between simulations and empirical data. This validation metric excludes any belief and criterion of accepting a model which increases robustness. The present work is aimed at applying a validation method, according to ASME V&V 10 recommendations. Firstly, the area metric is applied on the case of a real Francis runner whose geometry and boundaries conditions are complex. Secondly, the area metric will be compared to classical regression methods to evaluate the performance of the method. Finally, we will discuss the use of the area metric as a tool to correct simulations.

  4. A case study of the fluid structure interaction of a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Staubli, T.; Baumann, R.; Casartelli, E.

    2014-03-01

    The Francis turbine runners of the Grimsel 2 pump storage power plant showed repeatedly cracks during the last decade. It is assumed that these cracks were caused by flow induced forces acting on blades and eventual resonant runner vibrations lead to high stresses in the blade root areas. The eigenfrequencies of the runner were simulated in water using acoustic elements and compared to experimental data. Unsteady blades pressure distribution determined by a transient CFD simulation of the turbine were coupled to a FEM simulation. The FEM simulation enabled analyzing the stresses in the runner and the eigenmodes of the runner vibrations. For a part-load operating point, transient CFD simulations of the entire turbine, including the spiral case, the runner and the draft tube were carried out. The most significant loads on the turbine runner resulted from the centrifugal forces and the fluid forces. Such forces effect temporally invariant runner blades loads, in contrast rotor stator interaction or draft tube instabilities induce pressure fluctuations which cause the temporally variable forces. The blades pressure distribution resulting from the flow simulation was coupled by unidirectional-harmonic FEM simulation. The dominant transient blade pressure distribution of the CFD simulation were Fourier transformed, and the static and harmonic portion assigned to the blade surfaces in the FEM model. The evaluation of the FEM simulation showed that the simulated part load operating point do not cause critical stress peaks in the crack zones. The pressure amplitudes and frequencies are very small and interact only locally with the runner blades. As the frequencies are far below the modal frequencies of the turbine runner, resonant vibrations obviously are not excited.

  5. Two-phase simulations of the full load surge in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, J.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2016-11-01

    At off-design conditions, Francis turbines experience cavitation which may reduce the power output and can cause severe damage in the machine. Certain conditions can cause self-excited oscillations of the vortex rope in the draft tube at full load operating point. For the presented work, two-phase simulations are carried out at model scale on a domain ranging from the inlet of the spiral case to the outlet of the draft tube. At different locations, wall pressure measurements are available and compared to the simulation results. Furthermore, the dynamics of the cavity volume in the draft tube cone and at the trailing edge of the runner blades are investigated by comparing with high speed visualization. To account for the selfexcited behaviour, proper boundary conditions need to be set. In this work, the focus lies on the treatment of the boundary condition at the inlet. In the first step, the dynamic behaviour of the cavity regions is investigated using a constant mass flow. Thereafter, oscillations of the total pressure and mass flow rate are prescribed using various frequencies and amplitudes. This methodology enables to examine the response of the cavity dynamics due to different excitations. It can be observed that setting a constant mass flow boundary condition is not suitable to account for the self-excited behaviour. Prescribing the total pressure has the result that the frequency of the vapour volume oscillation is the same as the frequency of the excitation signal. Contrary to that, for an excitation with a mass flow boundary condition, the response of the system is not equal to the excitation.

  6. Francis Crick, cross-worlds influencer: A narrative model to historicize big bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicardi, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The essay is an empirical case study of famed British scientist Francis Crick. Viewing him as a ‘cross-worlds influencer’ who was moreover dedicated to a cause, I have tried to understand how these two characteristics influenced the trajectory of his long career and how they shaped his contributions to the diverse research fields in which he was active, and concluded that these characteristics reconfigure Crick's career into a coherent whole. First, I identify a major thread running through Crick's career: helping organise ‘un-disciplined’ new research fields, and show that his successive choices were not serendipitous but motivated by what he construed as a crusade against ‘vitalism’: anti-vitalism was a defining driver of his career. I then examine how Crick put his skills as a crossworlds influencer to the service of his cause, by helping organise his chosen fields of intervention. I argue that his activities as a cross-worlds influencer were an integral part of his way of ‘doing science’ and that his contributions to science, neuroscience in particular, should be re-evaluated in this light. This leads me to advance a possible strategy for historians to investigate big bioscience fields. Following Abir-Am, I propose to trace their genealogies back to the fluctuating semi-institutional gatherings and the institutional structures that sustained them. My research on Crick supports the view that such studies can bring insights into the question of why the contours of contemporary big bioscience endeavours have come to be shaped the way they are. Further, the essay provides a heuristic device for approaching these enquiries: ‘follow the cross-worlds influencers’ who worked to build and organise these semi-institutional gatherings and institutional structures. PMID:26383132

  7. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  8. The Revels of a Young Republic: Revolutionary Possibilities of the Fandango in Timothy Flint’s 1826 Francis Berrian

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D. Naish

    2015-01-01

    Francis Berrian, de Timothy Flint (1826), la primera novela de temática latinoamericana escrita en Estados Unidos presenta a un joven de Massachusetts que rescata a la hija de un Conde de una banda de Comanches, y llega a participar en la Guerra de la Independencia de México. Un fandango en la hacienda de la mujer forma la escena central, donde ancianos y jóvenes, padres e hijos, amos y sirvientes se entremezclan en un baile lleno de posibilidades que anticipa una futura unión provechosa entr...

  9. Mathematical modeling and optimization of flow structure in stage of francis turbine of micro gas turbine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashev, A. L.; Vaulin, S. D.; Kartasheva, M. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Safonov, E. V.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents information about the main distinguishing features of microturbine power plants. The justification of the use of Francis turbine in microturbine power plants with rated power of 100 kW is given. Initial analytical engineering calculations of the turbine (without using computational fluid dynamics) with appropriate calculation methods are considered. The parametric study of nozzle blade and whole turbine stage using ANSYS CFX is descripted. The calculations determined the optimal geometry on the criterion of maximizing efficiency at total pressure ratio. The calculation results are presented in graphical form, as well as the velocity and pressure fields at the interscapular channels of nozzle unit and the impeller.

  10. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  11. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research.

  12. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent.

  13. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: the glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, a limbic structure important in learning and memory, is particularly sensitive to chronic stress and to glucocorticoids. While glucocorticoids are essential for an effective stress response, their oversecretion was originally hypothesized to contribute to age-related hippocampal degeneration. However, conflicting findings were reported on whether prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids endangered the hippocampus and whether the primate hippocampus even responded to glucocorticoids as the rodent hippocampus did. This review discusses the seemingly inconsistent findings about the effects of elevated and prolonged glucocorticoids on hippocampal health and proposes that a chronic stress history, which includes repeated elevation of glucocorticoids, may make the hippocampus vulnerable to potential injury. Studies are described to show that chronic stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids can compromise the hippocampus by producing dendritic retraction, a reversible form of plasticity that includes dendritic restructuring without irreversible cell death. Conditions that produce dendritic retraction are hypothesized to make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic or metabolic challenges. Of particular interest is the finding that the hippocampus can recover from dendritic retraction without any noticeable cell loss. When conditions surrounding dendritic retraction are present, the potential for harm is increased because dendritic retraction may persist for weeks, months or even years, thereby broadening the window of time during which the hippocampus is vulnerable to harm, called the 'glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis'. The relevance of these findings is discussed with regard to conditions exhibiting parallels in hippocampal plasticity, including Cushing's disease, major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  14. Higher-order risk vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Huang,Xiaoping; Stapleton, Richard Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We add an independent unfair background risk to higher-order risk-taking models in the current literature and examine its interaction with the main risk under consideration. Parallel to the well-known concept of risk vulnerability, which is defined by Gollier and Pratt (Econometrica 64:1109–1123, 1996), an agent is said to have a type of higher-order risk vulnerability if adding an independent unfair background risk to wealth raises his level of this type of higher-order risk aversion. We der...

  15. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  16. Vulnerability assessment of distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Utgés, Guifré

    2013-01-01

    In this project I have carried out a vulnerability assessment of a component of the Condor Middleware. In this assessment I have sought and found the more dangerous software vulnerabilities of this system, I have reported them to the development team such that they may be fixed, and thus improve the security of this distributed system, and the networks that use it. En este proyecto he desarrollado una evaluación de vulnerabilidades de un componente del Middleware Condor. En esta evaluación...

  17. Francis Bacon sob o olhar de Gilles Deleuze: a imagem como intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Fontes Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio de Gilles Deleuze La logique de la sensation é texto que se detém principalmente na prática e na eficácia da imagem. A pintura de Francis Bacon é ali tomada como paradigma de modernidade ao investir contra os clichês expressivos e ao produzir imagem junto à brutalidade dos fatos, como um contra-efeito do narrativo. Em uma obra que conjura todo modelo a representar, toda história a contar, “alguma coisa se passa”, explica Deleuze, “que define o funcionamento da pintura”. Algo se passa, tem lugar: o acontecimento de uma catástrofe e de uma histeria no ato de pintura que acomete a Figura de modo a transmitir uma potencial violência de reação e de expressão. O “Bacon” de Deleuze apresenta a realidade vivida em uma nova e não-convencional ordem de sensação. Neste artigo, são comentados os modos como o filósofo interpreta os atos físicos da pintura de Bacon — marcas aleatórias, varredura da massa pictural, escansão das superfícies —, procedimentos que introduzem no mundo visual da figuração a variedade caótica dos fatos e sentidos. Mostra-se como as faces e as figuras contorcidas, distorcidas, escorchadas de Bacon recebem uma voz conceitual complementar no texto de Deleuze. Consequentemente, focaliza-se a disposição de alguns conceitos do filósofo: diagrama, Figura, diferença, espaço háptico. Locados no espaço afetivo ou na “lógica da sensação” da pintura baconiana, esses conceitos atribuem legitimidade ao entrelaçamento e à co-implicação entre arte e filosofia. Uma última observação dá conta do fato de a prática da imagem em Bacon, apresentada por Deleuze no palco de uma modernidade particularmente solapada por um “dilúvio anestésico de imagens reprimindo a possibilidade de pensar”, evidenciar para o filósofo os rumos necessariamente sinuosos, “reptilíneos”, do pensamento moderno. Tanto o conceito como a forma criam por catástrofe, por conflagração, por varia

  18. THE DESIRE FOR RECOGNITION IN THE CONTEXT OF FRANCIS FUKUYAMA’S UNIVERSAL HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Danylova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Francis Fukuyama in his famous book “The End of History and the Last Man” assumes that human history should be considered as the battle of ideologies that reaches its goal in the universalization of Western liberal democracy. Author’s ideas have gained many supporters. At the same time, they were subjected to severe criticism that reflected the important trends of political life and ideological preferences. Leaving aside the criticism based on geopolitical and civilizational confrontation and confusion which confronts Fukuyama’s theory, it should be stated that anthropological aspect of Fukuyama’s theory has vastly evaded philosophical comprehension. Purpose. This article attempts to test Fukuyama’s theory through the lens of philosophical anthropology and analyze human desire for recognition in the context of Fukuyama’s World History. Methodology. The analysis is focused on human desire for recognition as a significant dimension of human nature. The author has used hermeneutical methodology and anthropological integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Fukuyama is not satisfied by merely economic interpretation of history emphasizing that human is not simply an economic animal. Economic development fails to explain why people advocate the principles of liberal democracy. The author goes back to Hegel’s non-materialistic view of history based on the struggle for recognition. According to Fukuyama, this deeply rooted human desire for recognition is the great motor of history and cause of tyranny, conflicts, and wars. But at the same time, it also acts as a psychological foundation of many virtues – the spirit of citizenship, courage, and justice. Throughout history, this desire for recognition was not satisfied. Only modern liberal democracy provides universal recognition of all humans ensuring and protecting their rights. Originality. Fukuyama’s concept is important and interesting because it draws

  19. Safeguarding vulnerable families: work with refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, John

    2011-02-01

    This paper will highlight one of the key findings of a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. Despite changes in government legislation to improve children's services in order to prevent harm to children, this recent study demonstrated that health visitors were working with the complexities of needs among refugees and asylum seekers related to safeguarding both children and vulnerable women. The health visitors often worked with families and individuals with no support from other professional services, they worked with failed asylum seekers who were unable to access other forms of support and they worked with women and children who were caught in a cycle of domestic abuse due to their immigration status. They were also working with families who would disappear from the systems in place to safeguard children.

  20. Archaeological Investigations at the Lewis Site (3LE266): A Twentieth- Century Black Owned Farmstead on the St. Francis Floodway, Lee County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    1984 USGS Soudan , Arkansas 7.5 minute series provisional topographic map, in the SE 1/4 of section 24, T3N, R4E, on the west bank of the St. Francis...a relic channel of the St. Francis River . West of the project area, across a rectangalar soybean field, the terrain slopes gently away from the...the Soudan quadrangle (USGS 1984). This unnamed drainage is the scour to be repaired. The unnamed drainage to the north is today a gully, impassable

  1. Evaluación de la conciencia fonológica en párvulos de nivel transición 2 y escolares de primer año básico, pertenecientes a escuelas de sectores vulnerables de la provincia de Concepción, Chile (Phonological awareness evaluation in pre-school children and first year elementary school students, who attend socially vulnerable schools in Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bizama M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre la conciencia fonológica realizado en preescolares de nivel transición 2 y escolares de primer año básico de dos escuelas municipales de sectores vulnerables. El trabajo forma parte de una investigación mayor, cuyo objetivo fue el diseño y validación de un programa de intervención destinado al desarrollo de la conciencia fonológica como habilidad metalingüística subyacente al aprendizaje de la lectura. La muestra consideró 85 sujetos: 43 preescolares y 42 escolares de primer año básico. Se evaluó el desarrollo de la conciencia fonológica a través de la Prueba de Segmentación Lingüística de Orellana y Ramaciotti (2007, estandarizada para la población chilena. Se establecieron relaciones con las variables edad, sexo, memoria de trabajo verbal y discriminación auditiva. Los resultados muestran rendimientos bajo el promedio esperado para la edad en segmentación lingüística y memoria verbal en ambos grupos etarios. A su vez, el análisis intragrupo del desempeño en conciencia fonológica muestra diferencias asociadas a la complejidad de las tareas. Existe correlación positiva entre memoria verbal y segmentación silábica en los niños de nivel transición 2 y entre memoria verbal, discriminación auditiva y las distintas tareas de segmentación lingüística evaluadas, en los escolares de primer año básico. (This article presents the results of a diagnostic evaluation of phonological awareness in pre-school children and first year elementary school students, who attend socially vulnerable schools. This study is part of a major research with the objective of designing and validating a program to develop phonological awareness as metalinguistic skill underlying the learning of reading. A sample of 85 children, 43 pre-school and 42 year-1 elementary school students participated in the study. The phonological awareness was assessed using the Linguistic Segmentation

  2. The Revels of a Young Republic: Revolutionary Possibilities of the Fandango in Timothy Flint’s 1826 Francis Berrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Naish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Francis Berrian, de Timothy Flint (1826, la primera novela de temática latinoamericana escrita en Estados Unidos presenta a un joven de Massachusetts que rescata a la hija de un Conde de una banda de Comanches, y llega a participar en la Guerra de la Independencia de México. Un fandango en la hacienda de la mujer forma la escena central, donde ancianos y jóvenes, padres e hijos, amos y sirvientes se entremezclan en un baile lleno de posibilidades que anticipa una futura unión provechosa entre México y los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, al tedioso norteamericano esta exhibición de familiaridad entre clases le incomoda, y la mexicana aristocrática le reprocha su esnobismo. Quizás, sin querer, Francis Berrian nos sugiere que las ideas de igualdad y fraternidad son mejor recibidas en una pista del México aristocrático que en la Republica de los Estados Unidos.

  3. Processing the papal encyclical through perceptual filters: Pope Francis, identity-protective cognition, and climate change concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Asheley R; Lull, Robert B; Akin, Heather; Hasell, Ariel; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that when individuals encounter new information, they interpret it through perceptual 'filters' of prior beliefs, relevant social identities, and messenger credibility. In short, evaluations are not based solely on message accuracy, but also on the extent to which the message and messenger are amenable to the values of one's social groups. Here, we use the release of Pope Francis's 2015 encyclical as the context for a natural experiment to examine the role of prior values in climate change cognition. Based on our analysis of panel data collected before and after the encyclical's release, we find that political ideology moderated views of papal credibility on climate change for those participants who were aware of the encyclical. We also find that, in some contexts, non-Catholics who were aware of the encyclical granted Pope Francis additional credibility compared to the non-Catholics who were unaware of it, yet Catholics granted the Pope high credibility regardless of encyclical awareness. Importantly, papal credibility mediated the conditional relationships between encyclical awareness and acceptance of the Pope's messages on climate change. We conclude by discussing how our results provide insight into cognitive processing of new information about controversial issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical Predictions of the Incipient and Developed Interblade Vortex Lines of a Model Francis Turbine by Cavitation Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of runner interblade vortices can cause instability problems in Francis turbines, for example, pressure fluctuations, vibrations of runners, noise, and so forth. It is favorable in engineering practice to have the knowledge of the appearance of the incipient and developed inter blade vortex lines on the Hill diagram in unit parameters. Most numerical research on the inter blade vortices has been focused on the study of the characteristics of pressure fluctuations by single-phase flow calculations. However, since the two vortex lines are distinguished by observations of visible vortices, which contain cavitating flows, it is clear that cavitation calculations are needed for their predictions. A method by solving RANS equations with RNG k – ∊ turbulence model and ZGB cavitation model was proposed for the predictions in a Francis model turbine. Modifications of the turbulence viscosity were made for better simulation results. Vorticity criterion was chosen to identify the vortices. The fact that the results of cavitation calculations have a better agreement with experimental observations than single-phase calculations proves the validity of this prediction method.

  5. Investigation of Francis Turbine Part Load Instabilities using Flow Simulations with a Hybrid RANS-LES Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappel, Timo; Ruprecht, Albert; Riedelbauch, Stefan; Jester-Zuerker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The operation of Francis turbines in part load condition causes high pressure fluctuations and dynamic loads in the turbine as well as high flow losses in the draft tube. Owing to the co-rotating velocity distribution at the runner blade trailing edge a low pressure zone arises in the hub region finally leading to a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube. A better understanding and a more accurate prediction of this phenomenon can help in the design process of a Francis turbine. The goal of this study is to reach a quantitatively better numerical prediction of the flow at part load and to evaluate the necessary numerical depth with respect to effort and benefit. As standard practice, simulation results are obtained for the steady state approach with SST turbulence modelling. Those results are contrasted with transient simulations applying a SST as well as a SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) turbulence model. The structure of the SAS model is such, that it is able to resolve the turbulent flow behaviour in more detail. The investigations contain a comparison of the flow losses in different turbine components. A detailed flow evaluation is done in the cone and the diffuser of the draft tube. The different numerical approaches show a different representation of the vortex rope phenomenon indicating differences in pressure pulsations at different geometric positions in the entire turbine. Finally, the turbulent flow structures in the draft tube are illustrated with several evaluation methods, such as turbulent eddy viscosity, velocity invariant and turbulent kinetic energy spectra.

  6. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  7. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  8. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  9. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  10. Capturing agroecosystem vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Cortez-Arriola, José; Rossing, Walter A.H.; Massiotti, Ricardo D.A.; Tittonell, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible

  11. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  12. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-30

    Full Text Available the customised predictive model by means of what-if scenarios • Spider graphs - Household level: comparing odds ratios of different vulnerability factors - Municipal level: comparing prevalences of different vulnerability factors Vulnerability vs Resilience...

  13. The ethics and regulatory landscape of including vulnerable populations in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary Jane; Lally, Rachel; Miller, Jennifer E; Pittman, Stephanie; Brodsky, Lynda; Caplan, Arthur L; Uhlenbrauck, Gina; Louzao, Darcy M; Fischer, James H; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    Policies have been developed to protect vulnerable populations in clinical research, including the US federal research regulations (45 Code of Federal Regulations 46 Subparts B, C, and D). These policies generally recognize vulnerable populations to include pregnant women, fetuses, neonates, children, prisoners, persons with physical handicaps or mental disabilities, and disadvantaged persons. The aim has been to protect these populations from harm, often by creating regulatory and ethical checks that may limit their participation in many clinical trials. The recent increase in pragmatic clinical trials raises at least two questions about this approach. First, is exclusion itself a harm to vulnerable populations, as these groups may be denied access to understanding how health interventions work for them in clinical settings? Second, are groups considered vulnerable in traditional clinical trials also vulnerable in pragmatic clinical trials? We argue first that excluding vulnerable subjects from participation in pragmatic clinical trials can be harmful by preventing acquisition of data to meaningfully inform clinical decision-making in the future. Second, we argue that protections for vulnerable subjects in traditional clinical trial settings may not be translatable, feasible, or even ethical to apply in pragmatic clinical trials. We conclude by offering specific recommendations for appropriately protecting vulnerable research subjects in pragmatic clinical trials, focusing on pregnant women, fetuses, neonates, children, prisoners, persons with physical handicaps or mental disabilities, and disadvantaged persons.

  14. Reducing ABA Litigation through Autism-Centric Charter Schools: Legally Viable or Vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Janet R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study discovered that charter schools designed for children with autism or "autism-centric charter schools" comprise half of the total number of charter schools designed for children with disabilities. However, these unique charter schools may be vulnerable to legal challenges because they may be violating the Individuals with…

  15. The vulnerabilities in childhood and adolescence and the Brazilian public policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Franciele Fagundes; Sena, Ramony Kris R; dos Santos, Rocky Lane A; Dias, Orlene Veloso; Costa, Simone de Melo

    2013-06-01

    To review and discuss childhood and adolescence vulnerabilities, as well as Brazilian public policies of intervention. A narrative review was performed, considering studies published between 1990 and 2012, found in the Virtual Health Library databases (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS). A combination of the following descriptors was used in the search strategy: "Adolescent Health", "Child Health", "Health Public Politics" and "Vulnerability". In addition, Brazilian official documents, the Statute of the Child and the Adolescent, Guardianship Council, Bolsa Família and Saúde na Escola Programs were evaluated. The results were divided into five categories of analysis: Vulnerability of Children and Adolescents in Brazil, Public Politics of Intervention to Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence, the Statute of the Child and the Adolescent and Guardianship Council, Bolsa Família Program and Saúde na Escola Program. The studies show that children and adolescents are vulnerable to environmental and social situations. Vulnerabilities are exhibited in daily violence within families and schools, which results in the premature entrance of children and adolescents in the work environment and/or in the drug traffic. To deal with these problems, the Brazilian Government established the Statute of the Child and the Adolescent as well as social programs. Literature exposes the risks experienced by children and adolescents in Brazil. In the other hand, a Government endeavor was identified to eliminate or minimize the suffering of those in vulnerable situations through public policies targeted to this population group.

  16. The Enlightenment of Vulnerable Groups Demands of the Landscape to Landscape Design In China--Taking Children Landscape Demand for Example%弱势群体的景观需求研究对我国景观设计的启示--以儿童景观需求为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江萍; 黄洪

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of public resources, city landscape environment should be paid more attention by our society. It has a wide use crowd. How to meet the physiological vulnerable groups use demand is a significant problem that society should attach more importance to the development status of landscape demand for vulnerable groups at home and abroad. Choose children’s landscape demand which is one of the landscape needs of vulnerable groups as an example for analyzing and optimizing children’s landscape demand of modern landscape design. The experiment data shows that the atention and research to this problem in China is much lower than which in foreign countries. Future research should proceed from the factors influencing children’s landscape demand perspective. Study children’s perspective and experience to explore children’s perception of children. Explore the most real demand of children in landscape environment. Furthermore, put forward the design suggestions for children in the modern landscape design.%城市景观环境作为一种公共的资源越来越被这个社会所重视,其有足够广泛且全面的使用人群。因此,如何满足生理性弱视群体的需求,是一个社会应当正视的、极具意义的问题。论文通过选定弱势群体中儿童景观需求为例,研究国内外对于儿童的景观需求的发展现状,对现今的景观设计在满足儿童需求的领域进行剖析和优化。结果表明,国内对这一问题的关注与研究的强度比国外低很多,未来的研究应该从研究影响儿童景观需求因素的角度出发,研究儿童视角和儿童体验感知,探求儿童对于景观环境最真实的需求,进而提出对当今景观设计中针对儿童的设计需求的建议。

  17. An awareness-culture for openhearted connectedness: resilience and vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    Teachers in Danish schools are reported to suffer from increasing stress and children in school to have increasing concentration and thriving problems. Politicians blame the parents and claim more discipline in school even though research in children at risk of marginalization in education point...... and a total of 9 interviews. The experienced competences to be aware of and manage states of mind seem to produce resilience as well as vulnerability as they intersect with other contexts and awareness-cultures such as the schools where the participating teachers work. The method combines sensory experiences...

  18. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  19. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  20. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  1. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS).

  2. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    Coastal vulnerability is the degree to which a coastal system is susceptible to, ... methods, indicator-based approaches, GIS-based decision support systems and ..... E 2005, 'Coastal Vulnerability and Risk Parameters', European Water, vol.

  3. Francis Bacon czyli Diego Velázquez na fotelu dentystycznym - malarskie i inne cytaty jako "dodatek" do rozpraszającego się życia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieukerken, A.

    2014-01-01

    "Francis Bacon or Diego Velázquez in a dentist’s chair" - pictorial and other kinds of quotations as an addition to a disintegrating life The mature poetry of Tadeusz Różewicz seems to be at odds with both modernist and postmodern literary tenets. It undeniably makes abundant use of intertextuality

  4. Francis Bacon czyli Diego Velázquez na fotelu dentystycznym - malarskie i inne cytaty jako "dodatek" do rozpraszającego się życia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieukerken, A.

    2014-01-01

    "Francis Bacon or Diego Velázquez in a dentist’s chair" - pictorial and other kinds of quotations as an addition to a disintegrating life The mature poetry of Tadeusz Różewicz seems to be at odds with both modernist and postmodern literary tenets. It undeniably makes abundant use of intertextuality

  5. The Red-Attractiveness Effect, Applying the Ioannidis and Trikalinos (2007b) Test, and the Broader Scientific Context: A Reply to Francis (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    Francis (2013) tested for and found evidence of publication bias in 1 of the 3 focal relations examined in Elliot et al. (2010), that between red and attractiveness. He then called into question the research as a whole and the field of experimental psychology more generally. Our reply has 3 foci. First, we attend to the bottom line regarding the…

  6. The Battle between the Biometricians and the Mendelians: How Sir Francis Galton's Work Caused His Disciples to Reach Conflicting Conclusions about the Hereditary Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Francis Galton, Charles Darwin's cousin, had wide and varied interests. They ranged from exploration and travel writing to fingerprinting and the weather. After reading Darwin's "On the Origin of Species," Galton reached the conclusion that it should be possible to improve the human stock through selective breeding, as was the…

  7. St. Francis Rain Garden Water Quality Sampling Interim Data Report; Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, Sediments or Solids, and E. Coli for the period April to June, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This interim data reported is being provided per request to the Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) to provide summary statistics on a limited set of water quality parameters as measured at the St. Francis Rain Garden site in the Lick Run Valley as it pertains to MSD's Project Grou...

  8. St. Francis Rain Garden Water Quality Sampling Interim Data Report; Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, Sediments or Solids, and E. Coli for the period April to June, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This interim data reported is being provided per request to the Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) to provide summary statistics on a limited set of water quality parameters as measured at the St. Francis Rain Garden site in the Lick Run Valley as it pertains to MSD's Project Grou...

  9. If Auditors Are Like Belgian Beers, Which Style Would You Prefer? : Discussion of “Auditor Style and Financial Statement Comparability” by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynseels, L.M.L.; Brenk, van H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe (2014) has shown that financial reporting outcomes are influenced by the audit firm’s unique audit style. They argue that audit firm styles are driven by their “unique set of internal working rules that guide the auditor’s application of accounting a

  10. If Auditors Are Like Belgian Beers, Which Style Would You Prefer? : Discussion of “Auditor Style and Financial Statement Comparability” by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynseels, L.M.L.; Brenk, van H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe (2014) has shown that financial reporting outcomes are influenced by the audit firm’s unique audit style. They argue that audit firm styles are driven by their “unique set of internal working rules that guide the auditor’s application of accounting

  11. Rotor optimization of a Francis type hydraulic turbine through the computer flow analysis (CFD); Optimizacion del rodete de una turbina hidraulica tipo Francis a traves del analisis computacional del flujo (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado Tamariz, Erick

    2007-06-15

    In the analysis of fluid behavior through hydraulic turbines, two basic methodologies for flow analysis and optimization processes in turbines are used, which are: a) modeled of flow through the entire turbine (joint), or modeled one of each component separately, obtaining satisfactory results by both methodologies. The analysis of computational fluids dynamics (CFD) to geometries improved by means of finite volume method (FVM) with their corresponding initials and boundary conditions is made, to solve a system differential equations of second order that correspond to the flow around the dominion of runner blades; considering nonviscous flow and the implementation of the two equations models for the solution of the equations that govern the turbulent flow. Also, used parameterization techniques based in a parametric geometry an objective function and the diminution of cavitation. This work presents the optimization of a runner from a Francis hydro turbine for a 75 MW considering three different load conditions (75%, 85% and 100%) through CFD as a part of the hydraulic analysis for modernization of the actual condition of a power generation unit. Francis runner optimization is made, through a previous analysis of CFD by means of the FVM, considering the viscous effects of the fluid and the model of turbulence developed by Sparlart and Allmaras; modeling the wicket and runner separately. Later the generation of a parametric model of the runner is made and the simulation for the generation of data base is formed. Finally an objective function is considered to develop the optimal geometry of the runner blades. The results are presented in a graphic form in such a way, that it shows the distributions of pressure and speed around the blades runner, the geometrical and performance (efficiency and power) comparison between original and optimized model. [Spanish] En el analisis del comportamiento del fluido a traves de turbinas hidraulicas, se emplean dos metodologias

  12. Tod in den Anden. Ein Brief Francis Halls an Humboldt 1831 und seine historischen und politischen Hintergründe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmuck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der Forschungsreisende Francis Hall kam als Soldat nach Südamerika und betätigte sich hier auch als Pflanzensammler, Reiseschriftsteller und Bergsteiger. Er war Freund und Briefpartner Jeremy Benthams und versuchte gemeinsam mit Jean-Baptiste Boussingault den Chimborazo zu besteigen. Der liberale Journalist wurde 1833 in bürgerkriegsähnlichen Unruhen in Ecuador ermordet. Der einzige Brief Halls an Humboldt, in dem er diesen für die Naturerschließung des Landes zu gewinnen versucht, eine Sammlung andiner Pflanzen übersendet und seine Einschätzung zur politischen Lage und Zukunft Südamerikas kundtut, wird hier veröffentlicht und kommentiert. Abstract The British explorer Francis Hall was active in South-America as a soldier, a collector of plants, a writer of travelogues and a mountaineer. Together with Jean-Baptiste Boussingault he failed in ascending the Chimborazo. Friend and correspondent of Jeremy Bentham and also liberal journalist, Hall was killed during riots in Ecuador in 1833. In one single letter addressed to Humboldt, which is presented here, Hall tries to awaken interest for Ecuador, develops his views on the political future of South America and sends a collection of plants from the Andes. Resumen El explorador británico Francis Hall llegó a América del Sur como soldado y allí también se dedicó a la colección de plantas, a escribir sobre viajes y a hacer alpinismo. Intentó subir al Chimborazo con Jean-Baptiste Boussingault. El periodista liberal, amigo de Jeremy Bentham con el que también mantenía correspondencia, fue asesinado en los disturbios de 1833 en Ecuador. En la única carta de Hall a Humboldt, que está publicada y comentada aquí, Hall intenta despertar el interés de Humboldt por la naturaleza del país enviando una colección de plantas andinas y dando su opinión sobre la situación política y el futuro de América del Sur. (Traducción: Christine Lebas

  13. Measuring Vulnerability in the Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari; Puupponen, Antti; Kortetmäki, Teea; Silvasti, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Food system vulnerability is an emerging concept for food security policies and food supply chain management. Hence, measuring food system vulnerability is necessary for developing appropriate food security policies and managing food supply chain vulnerabilities. In this paper, we aim to clarify the development process of food system vulnerability indicators. We conducted an abducted qualitative content analysis based on public documents of various Finnish organizations, including mi...

  14. Climate vulnerability, communities' resilience and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This article clarifies and quantifies the causal impact of climate change vulnerability on child labour incidence and intensity. For this purpose, we create an index of vulnerability to climate change, composed of biophysical vulnerability and communities' resilience. Both, participation to economic activities and to household chores have been taken into account. We find that climate vulnerability negatively affects child labour incidence and intensity, while has no significant impact on hous...

  15. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rupali D. Kombade; Meshram, B B

    2012-01-01

    Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF). CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is diffic...

  16. Interactive Vulnerability Analysis Enhancement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    vulnerability detection. This investigation focused on making performance improvements to this technology to allow deployments of the technology in...numerous challenges with existing automated tools for this purpose. About Aspect Security Aspect’s team has focused exclusively on application...be navigated. The problem is that the crawlers just aren’t smart enough to fill out forms and navigate wizards to exercise all of the functionality

  17. Soil vulnerability for cesium transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils and the possible impacts on agriculture surrounding nuclear power plants. This article summarizes the knowledge gained after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, on how soil parameters influence soil vulnerability for radiocesium bioavailability, discusses some potential agrochemical countermeasures, and presents some predictions of radiocesium crop concentrations for areas affected by the Fukushima accident.

  18. Musical development and socio-cultural context: A glance upon social, emotional and musical development of children from vulnerable communities, from the perspective of music education and music psychology. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Zapata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo presenta algunos avances del proyecto de investigación ";Los efectos de la música en el desarrollo socio afectivo y cognitivo musical en niños de 6 a 8 años de comunidades vulnerables";, el cual se encuentra en su etapa final. A través de dicho proyecto se promueve una reflexión sobre los desarrollos de la psicología de la música y su aplicación  a la educación musical en Colombia especialmente en el trabajo con niños de poblaciones vulnerables. Por lo tanto, este escrito inicia con la descripción del contexto colombiano en relación con la situación de los niños desplazados y sus familias, luego presenta el diseño metodológico del proyecto y los enfoques teóricos que lo sustentan y finalmente realiza una reflexión sobre sus implicaciones en la educación musical colombiana.

  19. Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    May 1, 2006)”, http://www.mod.go.jp/e/d_policy/dp13.html (accessed 1 April 2009). 6 ibid 7 Hongo , Jun. “Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces,” The...Jacobs, G. Keith. "Guam Becoming US Pacific Linchpin." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29 (2003): 38-39. Jun, Hongo . "Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces

  20. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  1. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally.

  2. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman ,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to determine whether unauthorized access or other malicious activities are possible. Vulnerabilities tend to be found in poor or improper system configuration, known and unknown hardware or software flaws, and operational weaknesses in process or technical countermeasures. One of the first examples of ethical hacking occurred in the 1970s, when the United States government used groups of experts called "red teams" to hack its own computer systems. It has become a sizable sub-industry within the information security market and has expanded to also cover the physical and human elements of an organization's defenses. A successful test doesn't necessarily mean a network or system is 100% secure, but it should be able to withstand automated attacks and unskilled hackers.

  3. Francis-99 turbine numerical flow simulation of steady state operation using RANS and RANS/LES turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, A.; Platonov, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Gavrilov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at three regimes, using two eddy-viscosity- (EVM) and a Reynolds stress (RSM) RANS models (realizable k-ɛ, k-ω SST, LRR) and detached-eddy-simulations (DES), as well as large-eddy simulations (LES). Comparison of calculation results with the experimental data was carried out. Unlike the linear EVMs, the RSM, DES, and LES reproduced well the mean velocity components, and pressure pulsations in the diffusor draft tube. Despite relatively coarse meshes and insufficient resolution of the near-wall region, LES, DES also reproduced well the intrinsic flow unsteadiness and the dominant flow structures and the associated pressure pulsations in the draft tube.

  4. Il De uno alla luce dell’Exemplum tractatus de iustitia universali, sive de fontibus iuris di Francis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Bassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available [Reading “De uno” in light of Francis Bacon’s “Exemplum tractatus de iustitia universali, sive de fontibus iuris”]. Although Vico was admittedly disappointed by Bacon’s Exemplum tractatus, a parallel reading of this text and De uno can provide insights as to how Vico ended up having to confront a series of issues: how does the universal law project itself into history? Where does the law stem from? Is there a link between law, occasion, and utility? What are the sources and the scope of authority? How does violence affect the law? What role for religion and piety? How to devise a philology for the laws and ancient fables? Bacon’s scattered aphorisms offer glimpses into problems which find a solution in the all-encompassing order of De uno.

  5. On the relation between friction losses and pressure pulsations caused by Rotor Stator interaction on the Francis-99 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, Petter T. K.; Tore Billdal, Jan; Haugen, Bjørn; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    High head Francis runners are subject to pressure pulsations caused by rotor stator interaction. To ensure safe operation of such turbines, it is important to be able to predict these pulsations. For turbine manufacturers it is often a dilemma whether to perform very advanced and time consuming CFD calculations or to rely on simpler calculations to save development time. This paper tries to evaluate simplifications of the CFD model while still capturing the RSI phenomena and ensuring that the calculation does not underpredict the pressure amplitudes. The effects which turbulence modeling, wall friction, viscosity and mesh have on the pressure amplitudes will be investigated along with time savings with each simplification. The hypothesis is that rotor stator interaction is manly driven by inviscid flow and can therefore be modeled by the Euler equations.

  6. The numerical research of runner cavitation effects on spiral vortex rope in draft tube of Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-12-01

    The spiral cavitating vortex rope developed in the draft tube of Francis turbine under part load condition maybe causes serious pressure fluctuations and power swings, which threatens the safety and stability of the power plant operations. Many works have been performed to explore the mechanisms of it. In this paper, the runner cavitation and spiral vortex rope under part load conditions were studied to investigate the relations of runner cavitation and the spiral vortex rope. The results proved the existence of obvious interaction between them. The swirl flow at the runner outlet plays an important role in the formation of vortex rope. And the periodic procession of vortex rope in turn intensifies the uneven pressure distribution near the runner outlet and causes the asymmetric cavitation on the runner blades, which then give rise to the modification of swirl flow at the runner blades and thereby affects the characteristics of vortex rope.

  7. Vulnerability Is Dynamic! Conceptualising a Dynamic Approach to Coastal Tourism Destinations’ Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J.R.; Amelung, B.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions and islands are among the most popular tourist destinations.
    They are also highly vulnerable to climate change. Much of the literature on
    vulnerability, including IPCC reports, states that vulnerability is dynamic. However,
    vulnerability conceptualisations in the tourism

  8. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  9. Space and time reconstruction of the precessing vortex core in Francis turbine draft tube by 2D-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load conditions experience the development of a high swirling flow at the runner outlet, giving rise to the development of a cavitation precessing vortex rope in the draft tube. The latter acts as an excitation source for the hydro-mechanical system and may jeopardize the system stability if resonance conditions are met. Although many aspects of the part load issue have been widely studied in the past, the accurate stability analysis of hydro-power plants remains challenging. A better understanding of the vortex rope dynamics in a wide range of operating conditions is an important step towards the prediction and the transposition of the pressure fluctuations from reduced to prototype scale. For this purpose, an investigation of the flow velocity fields at the outlet of a Francis turbine reduced scale physical model operating at part load conditions is performed by means of 2D-PIV in three different horizontal cross-sections of the draft tube cone. The measurements are performed in cavitation-free conditions for three values of discharge factor, comprised between 60% and 81% of the value at the Best Efficiency Point. The present article describes a detailed methodology to properly recover the evolution of the velocity fields during one precession cycle by means of phase averaging. The vortex circulation is computed and the vortex trajectory over one typical precession period is finally recovered for each operating point. It is notably shown that below a given value of the discharge factor, the vortex dynamics abruptly change and loose its periodicity and coherence.

  10. FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE): Perspective on Taxonomy Development to Support Error Reporting and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lon N. Haney; David I. Gertman

    2003-04-01

    Beginning in the 1980s a primary focus of human reliability analysis was estimation of human error probabilities. However, detailed qualitative modeling with comprehensive representation of contextual variables often was lacking. This was likely due to the lack of comprehensive error and performance shaping factor taxonomies, and the limited data available on observed error rates and their relationship to specific contextual variables. In the mid 90s Boeing, America West Airlines, NASA Ames Research Center and INEEL partnered in a NASA sponsored Advanced Concepts grant to: assess the state of the art in human error analysis, identify future needs for human error analysis, and develop an approach addressing these needs. Identified needs included the need for a method to identify and prioritize task and contextual characteristics affecting human reliability. Other needs identified included developing comprehensive taxonomies to support detailed qualitative modeling and to structure meaningful data collection efforts across domains. A result was the development of the FRamework Assessing Notorious Contributing Influences for Error (FRANCIE) with a taxonomy for airline maintenance tasks. The assignment of performance shaping factors to generic errors by experts proved to be valuable to qualitative modeling. Performance shaping factors and error types from such detailed approaches can be used to structure error reporting schemes. In a recent NASA Advanced Human Support Technology grant FRANCIE was refined, and two new taxonomies for use on space missions were developed. The development, sharing, and use of error taxonomies, and the refinement of approaches for increased fidelity of qualitative modeling is offered as a means to help direct useful data collection strategies.

  11. Using clinical supervision to improve the quality and safety of patient care: a response to Berwick and Francis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Jonathon

    2015-06-11

    After widely publicised investigations into excess patient deaths at Mid Staffordshire hospital the UK government commissioned reports from Robert Francis QC and Professor Don Berwick. Among their recommendations to improve the quality and safety of patient care were lifelong learning, professional support and 'just culture'. Clinical supervision is in an excellent position to support these activities but opportunities are in danger of being squeezed out by regulatory and managerial demands. Doctors who have completed their training are responsible for complex professional judgements for which narrative supervision is particularly helpful. With reference to the literature and my own practice I propose that all practicing clinicians should have regular clinical supervision. Clinical supervision has patient-safety and the quality of patient care as its primary purposes. After training is completed, doctors may practice for the rest of their career without any clinical supervision, the implication being that the difficulties dealt with in clinical supervision are no longer difficulties, or are better dealt with some other way. Clinical supervision is sufficiently flexible to be adapted to the needs of experienced clinicians as its forms can be varied, though its functions remain focused on patient safety, good quality clinical care and professional wellbeing. The evidence linking clinical supervision to the quality and safety of patient care reveals that supervision is most effective when its educational and supportive functions are separated from its managerial and evaluative functions. Among supervision's different forms, narrative-based-supervision is particularly useful as it has been developed for clinicians who have completed their training. It provides ways to explore the complexity of clinical judgements and encourages doctors to question one another's authority in a supportive culture. To be successful, supervision should also be professionally led and

  12. LDV survey of cavitation and resonance effect on the precessing vortex rope dynamics in the draft tube of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    The large-scale penetration of the electrical grid by intermittent renewable energy sources requires a continuous operating range extension of hydropower plants. This causes the formation of unfavourable flow patterns in the draft tube of turbines and pump-turbines. At partial load operation, a precessing cavitation vortex rope is formed at the Francis turbine runner outlet, acting as an excitation source for the hydraulic system. In case of resonance, the resulting high-amplitude pressure pulsations can put at risk the stability of the machine and of the electrical grid to which it is connected. It is therefore crucial to understand and accurately simulate the underlying physical mechanisms in such conditions. However, the exact impact of cavitation and hydro-acoustic resonance on the flow velocity fluctuations in the draft tube remains to be established. The flow discharge pulsations expected to occur in the draft tube in resonance conditions have for instance never been verified experimentally. In this study, two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry is used to investigate the axial and tangential velocity fluctuations at the runner outlet of a reduced scale physical model of a Francis turbine. The investigation is performed for a discharge equal to 64 % of the nominal value and three different pressure levels in the draft tube, including resonance and cavitation-free conditions. Based on the convective pressure fluctuations induced by the vortex precession, the periodical velocity fluctuations over one typical precession period are recovered by phase averaging. The impact of cavitation and hydro-acoustic resonance on both axial and tangential velocity fluctuations in terms of amplitude and phase shift is highlighted for the first time. It is shown that the occurrence of resonance does not have significant effects on the draft tube velocity fields, suggesting that the synchronous axial velocity fluctuations are surprisingly negligible compared to the velocity

  13. Vulnerability Analysis in Web Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ivan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyze vulnerabilities found on web based distributed applications from different perspectives. Classes of vulnerabilities types are identified in order to cope with their different characteristics that each one develops. Methods for analyzing vulnerabilities of an authentication process are developed and solutions are proposed. A model for vulnerability minimization is discussed based on an indicator built on the amount of sensitive data revealed to the end users. Risks are analyzed together with the vulnerabilities that they exploit and measures are identified to combat these pairs.

  14. Communicating effectively with vulnerable populations during water contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A

    2008-01-01

    Water contamination events are a public health concern worldwide with significant potential to impact the global community. When communicating with the public during these crisis situations, it is vital to consider the multiple audiences who receive the messages. Before developing or delivering messages to a particular community, it is essential to be familiar with the community's characteristics, needs, concerns, and who is considered credible to that community. Vulnerable populations are those with difficulties in comprehension or accessibility that may limit their full understanding of risks and may mitigate the effectiveness of public health strategies. Vulnerable populations include, but are not limited to, the urban/rural poor, those who are mentally ill, intellectually disabled, medically vulnerable, at the extremes of age (children and the elderly), racial/ethnic minorities, and those with low literacy or limited English proficiency.A water contamination event poses a unique opportunity to work with diverse populations to effectively convey important health messages. Each population needs to receive appropriate public health messages. Becoming familiar with vulnerable populations and their needs prior to a water contamination event will help in identifying barriers and developing and refining effective messages in such a crisis. In water contamination crises, our publics' health depends on effective, targeted crisis communication.

  15. Pump used as a turbine (PAT) with flow control - Part 1: General; Petites centrales hydrauliques. Pompe fonctionnant en turbine avec reglage du debit (Pat-Francis). 1ere partie: presentation generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M.

    2007-02-15

    This first part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the use of a pump equipped with variable guide vanes, similar to a Francis turbine. This first part of a four-part article describes the PAT-Francis project in general. The turbine was realised by removing the existing spiral casing from a standard pump and replacing it with a guide vane system with a new spiral. General topics on the use of pumps as turbines are discussed and the characteristic curves and operational limits of a PAT are examined. The proposed concept for a PAT with variable flow, or PAT-Francis, is presented.

  16. Research on security vulnerability of chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Li, Qingbao; Li, Zhou

    2013-03-01

    The 21st century is the information era. IC (Integrated Circuit) is the basis of the modern information industry. The security vulnerability or back door of IC is directly related to the entire information system security. From the perspective of information security, security vulnerability of chip is led out through the practical examples and then the importance of security vulnerability of chip is emphasized. By comparing the security vulnerability of chip with the software virus, the characteristics of the chip vulnerabilities are summed up. Moreover, this paper describes the security vulnerability models of different control logic chips, combinational and sequential logic chips models. Finally it puts forward two kinds of detecting methods of security vulnerability of chip against the two models.

  17. Wireless LAN Security Threats & Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Waliullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless LANs are everywhere these days from home to large enterprise corporate networks due to the ease of installation, employee convenience, avoiding wiring cost and constant mobility support. However, the greater availability of wireless LANs means increased danger from attacks and increased challenges to an organisation, IT staff and IT security professionals. This paper discusses the various security issues and vulnerabilities related to the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN encryption standard and common threats/attacks pertaining to the home and enterprise Wireless LAN system and provide overall guidelines and recommendation to the home users and organizations.

  18. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  19. Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Edris; Collins, Andrew E

    2010-10-01

    For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims).

  20. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  1. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  2. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  3. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  4. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  5. Road Bridges and Culverts, MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Bay bridge, Nice Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Road Bridges and Culverts dataset current as of 2010. MDTA Culverts, Culverts on John F. Kennedy Highway (I95), Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Throughway, Francis Scott Key...

  6. Hunger mapping: food insecurity and vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed the "household food economy analysis" to assess the needs of an area or population facing acute food insecurity. This method considers all of the ways people secure access to food and illustrates the distribution of various food supplies in pie charts that allow comparison of the percentage contribution of each option during a normal year and a "bad" year. Data are gathered through the use of key informants, and the analysis permits identification of ways to support local initiatives and to target assistance. As a result of this work, SCF and another NGO, Helen Keller International, attended a March 1997 expert consultation organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to create a workplan for the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) called for in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The consultation adopted use of the FAO's food and balance sheet approach, despite its limitations, and determined that indicators should be location- and time-specific as well as 1) simple and reliable, 2) readily available, 3) social and anthropometric, and 4) found at all levels. The consultation also recommended combination of the key informant and the indicator approach to data collection. Finally, the consultation identified appropriate actions that should be accomplished before the 1998 meeting of the FAO's Committee on World Food Security.

  7. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  8. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  9. Optimal redundancy against disjoint vulnerabilities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy is commonly used to guarantee continued functionality in networked systems. However, often many nodes are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. A "backup" path is not sufficient if both paths depend on nodes which share a vulnerability.For example, if two nodes of the Internet cannot be connected without using routers belonging to a given untrusted entity, then all of their communication-regardless of the specific paths utilized-will be intercepted by the controlling entity.In this and many other cases, the vulnerabilities affecting the network are disjoint: each node has exactly one vulnerability but the same vulnerability can affect many nodes. To discover optimal redundancy in this scenario, we describe each vulnerability as a color and develop a "color-avoiding percolation" which uncovers a hidden color-avoiding connectivity. We present algorithms for color-avoiding percolation of general networks and an analytic theory for random graphs with uniformly distributed colors including critic...

  10. Secure Web Development Based on Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Daljit Kaur Dr. Parminder Kaur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an effort to develop secure web applications based on known vulnerabilities. It has been seen that in the rapid race of developing web applications in minimum time and budget, security is given least importance as consequence of which web applications are developed and hosted with number of vulnerabilities in them. And in this race, one thing is constant that attackers take advantage of weaknesses existing in technology for financial gain and theft of intellectual property. In this proposed method of secure web development, most common vulnerabilities and their occurrence in development process is discussed. Mapping vulnerabilities to the actions needed to take during development process may help developers to understand vulnerability and avoid vulnerabilities in application.

  11. Vertical distribution, feeding and vulnerability to tactile predation in Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the vertical distribution and feeding of the calanoid copepod Metridia longa in the Oslofjord, Norway during winter and spring 2006. Adult females of Metridia longa inhabited the whole 200 m deep-water column. Their distribution was shallower at night than during the day. Enumeration of egested faecal pellets suggested that feeding activity was greater at night than during the day and that more pellets were produced by individuals collected at shallow depths vs. by individuals found deeper. There was no pronounced difference between months in feeding activity. Although the hypothesis is that they prey on Calanus eggs and nauplii, scanning of Metridia faecal pellets by PCR using Calanus-specific primers did not confirm the presence of any Calanus prey DNA. Most pellets had a greenish colour, implying herbivorous feeding. Feeding is related to swimming, and the actively swimming Metridia would presumably be vulnerable to tactile invertebrate predators. However, predation experiments where the carnivorous copepod Pareuchaeta norvegica was offered similar-sized Metridia and Calanus proved that Pareuchaeta consumed the less-active Calanus, but not the Metridia. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Vulnerability analysis of three remote voting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Enguehard, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses three methods of remote voting in an uncontrolled environment: postal voting, internet voting and hybrid voting. It breaks down the voting process into different stages and compares their vulnerabilities considering criteria that must be respected in any democratic vote: confidentiality, anonymity, transparency, vote unicity and authenticity. Whether for safety or reliability, each vulnerability is quantified by three parameters: size, visibility and difficulty to achieve. The study concludes that the automatisation of treatments combined with the dematerialisation of the objects used during an election tends to substitute visible vulnerabilities of a lesser magnitude by invisible and widespread vulnerabilities.

  13. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  14. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  15. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  16. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  17. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    and leave both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In the article we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD-research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often ´messy´ realities surrounding the research process which is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  18. Developing public health provision for vulnerable young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Engaging vulnerable children and young people can be a challenge. This article reports on the development of a specialist school nurse service, known as Support Services Health Team, aimed at the most vulnerable children and young people in Hull. The aim was to provide public health support and coordinate healthcare to children and young people in the looked after system, those in pupil referrals units, home educated and those outside of the educational system (missing from education). This innovative approach to addressing the health needs of this population helped to establish firm networks across the city of Hull, reduce duplication of support being offered and avoid young people slipping through the systems. The team has a sound knowledge around health trends for young people, social groups and hotspots where they are at risk across the city. They have created a presence in the city where professionals and young people are aware of them and the service offered. Clear pathways have been established on intervention starting with the completion of a comprehensive health needs assessment and care plan. A creative approach to supervision has been established to ensure staff do not feel overwhelmed and that they are evidence-based in their approach to intervention and advice offered.

  19. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Xin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability.

  20. Climate Vulnerability Assessments : An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania's Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are increasingly vulnerable to destructive weather events, floods, droughts, windstorms, or other parameters. The vulnerability is driven in part by recent extremes in climate variability but also by countries' sensitivity to events exacerbated by past practices, socioeconomic conditions, or legacy issues. The degree to which vulnerability to weather affects the countries' e...